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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10313
Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 9.76
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Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

6 results
1. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

184c. SOC. The easy use of words and phrases and the avoidance of strict precision is in general a sign of good breeding; indeed, the opposite is hardly worthy of a gentleman, but sometimes it is necessary, as now it is necessary to object to your answer, in so far as it is incorrect. Just consider; which answer is more correct, that our eyes are that by which we see or that through which we see, and our ears that by which or that through which we hear? THEAET. I think, Socrates, we perceive through, rather than by them, in each case.
2. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.20-2.22, 2.30-2.32 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.20. When one expounds these doctrines in a fuller and more flowing style, as I propose to do, it is easier for them to evade the captious objections of the Academy; but when they are reduced to brief syllogistic form, as was the practice of Zeno, they lie more open to criticism. A running river can almost or quite entirely escape pollution, whereas an enclosed pool is easily sullied; similarly a flowing stream of eloquence sweeps aside the censures of the critic, but a closely reasoned argument defends itself with difficult. The thoughts that we expound at length Zeno used to compress into this form: 2.21. 'That which has the faculty of reason is superior to that which has not the faculty of reason; but nothing is superior to the world; therefore the world has the faculty of reason.' A similar argument can be used to prove that the world is wise, and happy, and eternal; for things possessed of each of these attributes are superior to things devoid of them, and nothing is superior to the world. From this it will follow that the world is god. Zeno also argued thus: 2.22. 'Nothing devoid of sensation can have a part of itself that is sentient; but the world has parts that are sentient; therefore the world has parts that are sentient; therefore the world is not devoid of sensation.' He also proceeds to press the argument more closely: 'Nothing,' he says, 'that is iimate and irrational can give birth to an animate and rational being; but the world gives birth to animate and rational beings; therefore the world is animate and rational.' Furthermore he proved his argument by means of one of his favourite comparisons, as follows: 'If flutes playing musical tunes grew on an olive-tree, surely you would not question that the olive-tree possessed some knowledge of the art of flute-playing; or if plane-trees bore well-tuned lutes, doubtless you would likewise infer that the plane-trees possessed the art of music; why then should we not judge the world to be animate and endowed with wisdom, when it produces animate and wise offspring? 2.30. Now we observe that the parts of the world (and nothing exists in all the world which is not a part of the whole world) possess sensation and reason. Therefore it follows that that part which contains the ruling principle of the world must necessarily possess sensation and reason, and these in a more intense and higher form. Hence it follows that the world possesses wisdom, and that the element which holds all things in its embrace is pre‑eminently and perfectly rational, and therefore that the world is god, and all the forces of the world are held together by the divine nature. "Moreover that glowing heat of the world is far purer and more brilliant and far more mobile, and therefore more stimulating to the senses, than this warmth of ours by which the things that we know are preserved and vitalized. 2.31. As therefore man and the animals are possessed by this warmth and owe to this their motion and sensation, it is absurd to say that the world is devoid of sensation, considering that it is possessed by an intense heat that is stainless, free and purpose, and also penetrating and mobile in the extreme; especially as this intense world-heat does not derive its motion from the operation of some other force from outside, but is self-moved and spontaneous in its activity: for how can there be anything more powerful than the world, to impart motion and activity in the warmth by which the world is held together? 2.32. For let us hear Plato, that divine philosopher, for so almost he is to be deemed. He holds that motion is of two sorts, one spontaneous, the other derived from without; and that that which moves of itself spontaneously is more divine than that which has motion imparted to it by some force not its own. The former kind of motion he deems to reside only in the soul, which he considers to be the only source and origin of motion. Hence, since all motion springs from the world-heat, and since that heat moves spontaneously and not by any impulse from something else, it follows that that heat is soul; which proves that the world is an animate being. "Another proof that the world possesses intelligence is supplied by the fact that the world is unquestionably better than any of its elements; for even as there is no part of our body that is not of less value than we are ourselves, so the whole universe must needs be of higher worth than any portion of the universe; and if this be so, it follows that the world must be endowed with wisdom, for, if it were not, man, although a part of the world, being possessed of reason would necessarily be of higher worth than the world as a whole.
3. Galen, On The Doctrines of Hippocrates And Plato, 3.1.10-3.1.13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 5.4-5.5, 9.75, 9.77-9.81 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5. Calcidius (Chalcidius), Platonis Timaeus Commentaria, 220 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

6. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.110, 7.138, 7.142-7.143, 7.147 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.110. And in things intermediate also there are duties; as that boys should obey the attendants who have charge of them.According to the Stoics there is an eight-fold division of the soul: the five senses, the faculty of speech, the intellectual faculty, which is the mind itself, and the generative faculty, being all parts of the soul. Now from falsehood there results perversion, which extends to the mind; and from this perversion arise many passions or emotions, which are causes of instability. Passion, or emotion, is defined by Zeno as an irrational and unnatural movement in the soul, or again as impulse in excess.The main, or most universal, emotions, according to Hecato in his treatise On the Passions, book ii., and Zeno in his treatise with the same title, constitute four great classes, grief, fear, desire or craving, pleasure. 7.138. Again, they give the name of cosmos to the orderly arrangement of the heavenly bodies in itself as such; and (3) in the third place to that whole of which these two are parts. Again, the cosmos is defined as the individual being qualifying the whole of substance, or, in the words of Posidonius in his elementary treatise on Celestial Phenomena, a system made up of heaven and earth and the natures in them, or, again, as a system constituted by gods and men and all things created for their sake. By heaven is meant the extreme circumference or ring in which the deity has his seat.The world, in their view, is ordered by reason and providence: so says Chrysippus in the fifth book of his treatise On Providence and Posidonius in his work On the Gods, book iii. – inasmuch as reason pervades every part of it, just as does the soul in us. Only there is a difference of degree; in some parts there is more of it, in others less. 7.142. The world, they hold, comes into being when its substance has first been converted from fire through air into moisture and then the coarser part of the moisture has condensed as earth, while that whose particles are fine has been turned into air, and this process of rarefaction goes on increasing till it generates fire. Thereupon out of these elements animals and plants and all other natural kinds are formed by their mixture. The generation and the destruction of the world are discussed by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus in the first book of his Physics, by Posidonius in the first book of his work On the Cosmos, by Cleanthes, and by Antipater in his tenth book On the Cosmos. Panaetius, however, maintained that the world is indestructible.The doctrine that the world is a living being, rational, animate and intelligent, is laid down by Chrysippus in the first book of his treatise On Providence, by Apollodorus in his Physics, and by Posidonius. 7.143. It is a living thing in the sense of an animate substance endowed with sensation; for animal is better than non-animal, and nothing is better than the world, ergo the world is a living being. And it is endowed with soul, as is clear from our several souls being each a fragment of it. Boethus, however, denies that the world is a living thing. The unity of the world is maintained by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus, by Apollodorus in his Physics, and by Posidonius in the first book of his Physical Discourse. By the totality of things, the All, is meant, according to Apollodorus, (1) the world, and in another sense (2) the system composed of the world and the void outside it. The world then is finite, the void infinite. 7.147. The deity, say they, is a living being, immortal, rational, perfect or intelligent in happiness, admitting nothing evil, taking providential care of the world and all that therein is, but he is not of human shape. He is, however, the artificer of the universe and, as it were, the father of all, both in general and in that particular part of him which is all-pervading, and which is called many names according to its various powers. They give the name Dia (Δία) because all things are due to (διά) him; Zeus (Ζῆνα) in so far as he is the cause of life (ζῆν) or pervades all life; the name Athena is given, because the ruling part of the divinity extends to the aether; the name Hera marks its extension to the air; he is called Hephaestus since it spreads to the creative fire; Poseidon, since it stretches to the sea; Demeter, since it reaches to the earth. Similarly men have given the deity his other titles, fastening, as best they can, on some one or other of his peculiar attributes.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
analogy Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115, 119
animal Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
antiochus Vazques and Ross, Time and Cosmology in Plato and the Platonic Tradition (2022) 10
arcesilaus Vazques and Ross, Time and Cosmology in Plato and the Platonic Tradition (2022) 10
astrology Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
astronomy Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
carneades Vazques and Ross, Time and Cosmology in Plato and the Platonic Tradition (2022) 10
chrysippus Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115; Vazques and Ross, Time and Cosmology in Plato and the Platonic Tradition (2022) 10
cicero Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44; Vazques and Ross, Time and Cosmology in Plato and the Platonic Tradition (2022) 10
cosmic soul/world soul, proofs of cosmic soul Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 135
design, rational Celykte, The Stoic Theory of Beauty (2020) 107
divination Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
epicycle-eccentric model Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
fire Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 130
forms, platonic Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
genethlialogy Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
god, stoic Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
heart Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
hēgemonikon/central organ of soul, etc. Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115, 119
intellect, cosmic and human Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 130
intellect, intelligence Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
matter, stoic Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
models, astronomical Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
motion, voluntary, self-motion Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 119
nature Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 119
part of a whole (soul as, etc.) Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 119, 130, 135
parts of soul, stoic Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
philebus, timaeus Celykte, The Stoic Theory of Beauty (2020) 107
philo of larissa Vazques and Ross, Time and Cosmology in Plato and the Platonic Tradition (2022) 10
pneuma (spiritus) Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115, 119
posidonius Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
prediction Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
proclus Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
prognosis Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
ptolemy Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
rationality, of the creation of the world) Celykte, The Stoic Theory of Beauty (2020) 107
reason, rationality Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 135
reproduction Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 135
sensation motion' Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 115
socrates Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 130
soranus Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
stoics Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
sympatheia Lloyd, The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science (1989) 44
tenor (hexis) Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 119
true belief, unity, kinds of Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 135
zeno of citium Inwood and Warren, Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy (2020) 135; Vazques and Ross, Time and Cosmology in Plato and the Platonic Tradition (2022) 10