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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



707
Septuagint, Wisdom Of Solomon, 8-9


nanDistress and the sound of war hath my ear heard; The sound of a trumpet announcing slaughter and calamity,, The sound of much people as of an exceeding high wind, As a tempest with mighty fire sweeping through the Negeb., And I said in my heart; Surely (?) God judgeth us;, A sound I hear (moving) towards Jerusalem, the holy city., My loins were broken at what I heard, my knees tottered:, My heart was afraid, my bones were dismayed like flax., I said: They establish their ways in righteousness. I thought upon the judgements of God since the creation of heaven and earth; I held God righteous in His judgements which have been from of old., God laid bare their sins in the full light of day; All the earth came to know the righteous judgements of God., In secret places underground their iniquities (were committed) to provoke (Him) to anger;, They wrought confusion, son with mother and father with daughter;, They committed adultery, every man with his neighbour’s wife. They concluded covenants with one another with an oath touching these things;, They plundered the sanctuary of God, as though there was no avenger., They trode the altar of the Lord, (coming straight) from all manner of uncleanness; And with menstrual blood they defiled the sacrifices, as (though these were) common flesh., They left no sin undone, wherein they surpassed not the heathen., Therefore God mingled for them a spirit of wandering; And gave them to drink a cup of undiluted wine, that they might become drunken., He brought him that is from the end of the earth, that smiteth mightily;, He decreed (?) war against Jerusalem, and against her land., The princes of the land went to meet him with joy: they said unto him: Blessed be thy way! Come ye, enter ye in with peace., They made the rough ways even, before his entering in; They opened the gates to Jerusalem, they crowned its walls., As a father (entereth) the house of his sons, (so) he entered (JerusaIem) in peace; He established his feet (there) in great safety., He captured her fortresses and the wall of Jerusalem;, For God Himself led him in safety, while they wandered., He destroyed their princes and every one wise in counsel; He poured out the blood of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, like the water of uncleanness., He led away their sons and daughters, whom they had begotten in defilement., They did according to their uncleanness, even as their fathers (had done):, They defiled Jerusalem and the things that had been hallowed to the name of God., (But) God hath shown Himself righteous in His judgements upon the nations of the earth;, And the pious (servants) of God are like innocent lambs in their midst., Worthy to be praised is the Lord that judgeth the whole earth in His righteousness., Behold, now, O God, Thou hast shown us Thy judgement in Thy righteousness;, Our eyes have seen Thy judgements, O God. We have justified Thy name that is honoured for ever;, For Thou art the God of righteousness, judging Israel with chastening., Turn, O God, Thy mercy upon us, and have pity upon us;, Gather together the dispersed of Israel, with mercy and goodness;, For Thy faithfulness is with us. And (though) we have stiffened our neck, yet Thou art our chastener;, Overlook us not, O our God, lest the nations swallow us up, as though there were none to deliver., But Thou art our God from the beginning, And upon Thee is our hope (set), O Lord;, And we will not depart from Thee, For good are Thy judgements upon us., Ours and our children’s be Thy good pleasure for ever O Lord our Saviour, we shall never more be moved., The Lord is worthy to be praised for His judgements with the mouth of His pious ones; And blessed be Israel of the Lord for ever


nanShe reaches mightily from one end of the earth to the other,and she orders all things well., I loved her and sought her from my youth,and I desired to take her for my bride,and I became enamored of her beauty., She glorifies her noble birth by living with God,and the Lord of all loves her., For she is an initiate in the knowledge of God,and an associate in his works., If riches are a desirable possession in life,what is richer than wisdom who effects all things?, And if understanding is effective,who more than she is fashioner of what exists?, And if any one loves righteousness,her labors are virtues;for she teaches self-control and prudence,justice and courage;nothing in life is more profitable for men than these., And if any one longs for wide experience,she knows the things of old, and infers the things to come;she understands turns of speech and the solutions of riddles;she has foreknowledge of signs and wonders and of the outcome of seasons and times., Therefore I determined to take her to live with me,knowing that she would give me good counsel and encouragement in cares and grief., Because of her I shall have glory among the multitudesand honor in the presence of the elders, though I am young., I shall be found keen in judgment,and in the sight of rulers I shall be admired., When I am silent they will wait for me,and when I speak they will give heed;and when I speak at greater length they will put their hands on their mouths., Because of her I shall have immortality,and leave an everlasting remembrance to those who come after me., I shall govern peoples,and nations will be subject to me;, dread monarchs will be afraid of me when they hear of me;among the people I shall show myself capable,and courageous in war., When I enter my house, I shall find rest with her,for companionship with her has no bitterness,and life with her has no pain, but gladness and joy., When I considered these things inwardly,and thought upon them in my mind,that in kinship with wisdom there is immortality,, and in friendship with her, pure delight,and in the labors of her hands, unfailing wealth,and in the experience of her company, understanding,and renown in sharing her words,I went about seeking how to get her for myself., As a child I was by nature well endowed,and a good soul fell to my lot;, or rather, being good, I entered an undefiled body., But I perceived that I would not possess wisdom unless God gave her to me -- and it was a mark of insight to know whose gift she was -- so I appealed to the Lord and besought him,and with my whole heart I said:


nanWhen Israel was led away captive into a strange land, When they fell away from the Lord who redeemed them,, They were cast away from the inheritance, which Lord had given them. A mong every nation (were) the dispersed of Israel according to the word of God,, That Thou mightest be justified, O God, in Thy righteousness by reason of our transgressions:, For Thou art a just judge over all the peoples of the earth., For from Thy knowledge none that doeth unjustly is hidden,, And the righteous deeds of Thy pious ones (are) before Thee, O Lord, Where, then, can a man hide himself from Thy knowledge, O God?, Our works are subject to our own choice and power To do right or wrong in the works of our hands, And in Thy righteousness Thou visitest the sons of men., He that doeth righteousness layeth up life for himself with the Lord; And he that doeth wrongly forfeits his life to destruction;, For the judgements of the Lord are (given) in righteousness to (every) man and (his) house. Unto whom art Thou good, O God, except to them that call upon the Lord?, He cleanseth from sins a soul when it maketh confession, when it maketh acknowledgement;, For shame is upon us and upon our faces on account of all these things., And to whom doth He forgive sins, except to them that have sinned?, Thou blessest the righteous, and dost not reprove them for the sins that they have committed; And Thy goodness is upon them that sin, when they repent., And, now, Thou art our God, and we the people whom Thou hast loved: Behold and show pity, O God of Israel, for we are Thine; And remove not Thy mercy from us, lest they assail us., For Thou didst choose the seed of Abraham before all the nations, And didst set Thy name upon us, O Lord,, And Thou wilt not reject (us) for ever. Thou madest a covenant with our fathers concerning us;, And we hope in Thee, when our soul turneth (unto Thee). The mercy of the Lord be upon the house of Israel for ever and ever.


nanO God of my fathers and Lord of mercy,who hast made all things by thy word,, and by thy wisdom hast formed man,to have dominion over the creatures thou hast made,, and rule the world in holiness and righteousness,and pronounce judgment in uprightness of soul,, give me the wisdom that sits by thy throne,and do not reject me from among thy servants., For I am thy slave and the son of thy maidservant,a man who is weak and short-lived,with little understanding of judgment and laws;, for even if one is perfect among the sons of men,yet without the wisdom that comes from thee he will be regarded as nothing., Thou hast chosen me to be king of thy people and to be judge over thy sons and daughters.", Thou hast given command to build a temple on thy holy mountain,and an altar in the city of thy habitation,a copy of the holy tent which thou didst prepare from the beginning., With thee is wisdom, who knows thy works and was present when thou didst make the world,and who understand what is pleasing in thy sight and what is right according to thy commandments., Send her forth from the holy heavens,and from the throne of thy glory send her,that she may be with me and toil,and that I may learn what is pleasing to thee., For she knows and understands all things,and she will guide me wisely in my actions and guard me with her glory., Then my works will be acceptable,and I shall judge thy people justly,and shall be worthy of the throne of my father., For what man can learn the counsel of God?Or who can discern what the Lord wills?", For the reasoning of mortals is worthless,and our designs are likely to fail,, for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind., We can hardly guess at what is on earth,and what is at hand we find with labor;but who has traced out what is in the heavens?, Who has learned thy counsel, unless thou hast given wisdom and sent thy holy Spirit from on high?, And thus the paths of those on earth were set right,and men were taught what pleases thee,and were saved by wisdom.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 3-5, 8-9, 1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Septuagint, 2 Esdras, 11-16, 1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 5.6, 7.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. פָּתַחְתִּי אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְדוֹדִי חָמַק עָבָר נַפְשִׁי יָצְאָה בְדַבְּרוֹ בִּקַּשְׁתִּיהוּ וְלֹא מְצָאתִיהוּ קְרָאתִיו וְלֹא עָנָנִי׃ 7.2. מַה־יָּפוּ פְעָמַיִךְ בַּנְּעָלִים בַּת־נָדִיב חַמּוּקֵי יְרֵכַיִךְ כְּמוֹ חֲלָאִים מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָמָּן׃ 5.6. I opened to my beloved; But my beloved had turned away, and was gone. My soul failed me when he spoke. I sought him, but I could not find him; I called him, but he gave me no answer. 7.2. How beautiful are thy steps in sandals, O prince’s daughter! The roundings of thy thighs are like the links of a chain, The work of the hands of a skilled workman.
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 40.34-40.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

40.34. וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 40.35. וְלֹא־יָכֹל מֹשֶׁה לָבוֹא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד כִּי־שָׁכַן עָלָיו הֶעָנָן וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 40.34. Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle." 40.35. And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of meeting, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.—"
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.1. וַיֹּאמֶר מֶה עָשִׂיתָ קוֹל דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים אֵלַי מִן־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 4.1. וְהָאָדָם יָדַע אֶת־חַוָּה אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת־קַיִן וַתֹּאמֶר קָנִיתִי אִישׁ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 4.1. And the man knew Eve his wife; and she conceived and bore Cain, and said: ‘I have agotten a man with the help of the LORD.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.6-2.7, 2.9, 2.11-2.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.6. וְאֶת־בָּנֶיהָ לֹא אֲרַחֵם כִּי־בְנֵי זְנוּנִים הֵמָּה׃ 2.7. כִּי זָנְתָה אִמָּם הֹבִישָׁה הוֹרָתָם כִּי אָמְרָה אֵלְכָה אַחֲרֵי מְאַהֲבַי נֹתְנֵי לַחְמִי וּמֵימַי צַמְרִי וּפִשְׁתִּי שַׁמְנִי וְשִׁקּוּיָי׃ 2.9. וְרִדְּפָה אֶת־מְאַהֲבֶיהָ וְלֹא־תַשִּׂיג אֹתָם וּבִקְשָׁתַם וְלֹא תִמְצָא וְאָמְרָה אֵלְכָה וְאָשׁוּבָה אֶל־אִישִׁי הָרִאשׁוֹן כִּי טוֹב לִי אָז מֵעָתָּה׃ 2.11. לָכֵן אָשׁוּב וְלָקַחְתִּי דְגָנִי בְּעִתּוֹ וְתִירוֹשִׁי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ וְהִצַּלְתִּי צַמְרִי וּפִשְׁתִּי לְכַסּוֹת אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 2.12. וְעַתָּה אֲגַלֶּה אֶת־נַבְלֻתָהּ לְעֵינֵי מְאַהֲבֶיהָ וְאִישׁ לֹא־יַצִּילֶנָּה מִיָּדִי׃ 2.13. וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי כָּל־מְשׂוֹשָׂהּ חַגָּהּ חָדְשָׁהּ וְשַׁבַּתָּהּ וְכֹל מוֹעֲדָהּ׃ 2.14. וַהֲשִׁמֹּתִי גַּפְנָהּ וּתְאֵנָתָהּ אֲשֶׁר אָמְרָה אֶתְנָה הֵמָּה לִי אֲשֶׁר נָתְנוּ־לִי מְאַהֲבָי וְשַׂמְתִּים לְיַעַר וַאֲכָלָתַם חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 2.15. וּפָקַדְתִּי עָלֶיהָ אֶת־יְמֵי הַבְּעָלִים אֲשֶׁר תַּקְטִיר לָהֶם וַתַּעַד נִזְמָהּ וְחֶלְיָתָהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֵי מְאַהֲבֶיהָ וְאֹתִי שָׁכְחָה נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.16. לָכֵן הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מְפַתֶּיהָ וְהֹלַכְתִּיהָ הַמִּדְבָּר וְדִבַּרְתִּי עַל לִבָּהּ׃ 2.17. וְנָתַתִּי לָהּ אֶת־כְּרָמֶיהָ מִשָּׁם וְאֶת־עֵמֶק עָכוֹר לְפֶתַח תִּקְוָה וְעָנְתָה שָּׁמָּה כִּימֵי נְעוּרֶיהָ וִּכְיוֹם עֲלֹתָהּ מֵאֶרֶץ־מִצְרָיִם׃ 2.18. וְהָיָה בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא נְאֻם־יְהוָה תִּקְרְאִי אִישִׁי וְלֹא־תִקְרְאִי־לִי עוֹד בַּעְלִי׃ 2.19. וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־שְׁמוֹת הַבְּעָלִים מִפִּיהָ וְלֹא־יִזָּכְרוּ עוֹד בִּשְׁמָם׃ 2.21. וְאֵרַשְׂתִּיךְ לִי לְעוֹלָם וְאֵרַשְׂתִּיךְ לִי בְּצֶדֶק וּבְמִשְׁפָּט וּבְחֶסֶד וּבְרַחֲמִים׃ 2.22. וְאֵרַשְׂתִּיךְ לִי בֶּאֱמוּנָה וְיָדַעַתְּ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 2.23. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶעֱנֶה נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֶעֱנֶה אֶת־הַשָּׁמָיִם וְהֵם יַעֲנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 2.24. וְהָאָרֶץ תַּעֲנֶה אֶת־הַדָּגָן וְאֶת־הַתִּירוֹשׁ וְאֶת־הַיִּצְהָר וְהֵם יַעֲנוּ אֶת־יִזְרְעֶאל׃ 2.25. וּזְרַעְתִּיהָ לִּי בָּאָרֶץ וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת־לֹא רֻחָמָה וְאָמַרְתִּי לְלֹא־עַמִּי עַמִּי־אַתָּה וְהוּא יֹאמַר אֱלֹהָי׃ 2.6. And I will not have compassion upon her children; For they are children of harlotry." 2.7. For their mother hath played the harlot, She that conceived them hath done shamefully; For she said: ‘I will go after my lovers, That give me my bread and my water, My wool and my flax, mine oil and my drink.’" 2.9. And she shall run after her lovers, but she shall not overtake them, And she shall seek them, but shall not find them; Then shall she say: ‘I will go and return to my first husband; For then was it better with me than now.’" 2.11. Therefore will I take back My corn in the time thereof, And My wine in the season thereof, And will snatch away My wool and My flax Given to cover her nakedness." 2.12. And now will I uncover her shame in the sight of her lovers, And none shall deliver her out of My hand." 2.13. I will also cause all her mirth to cease, Her feasts, her new moons, and her sabbaths, And all her appointed seasons." 2.14. And I will lay waste her vines and her fig-trees, Whereof she hath said: ‘These are my hire That my lovers have given me’; And I will make them a forest, And the beasts of the field shall eat them." 2.15. And I will visit upon her the days of the Baalim, Wherein she offered unto them, And decked herself with her ear-rings and her jewels, And went after her lovers, And forgot Me, saith the LORD." 2.16. Therefore, behold, I will allure her, And bring her into the wilderness, And speak tenderly unto her." 2.17. And I will give her her vineyards from thence, And the valley of Achor for a door of hope; And she shall respond there, as in the days of her youth, And as in the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt." 2.18. And it shall be at that day, saith the LORD, That thou shalt call Me Ishi, And shalt call Me no more Baali." 2.19. For I will take away the names of the Baalim out of her mouth, And they shall no more be mentioned by their name." 2.20. And in that day will I make a covet for them With the beasts of the field, and with the fowls of heaven, And with the creeping things of the ground; And I will break the bow and the sword and the battle out of the land, And will make them to lie down safely." 2.21. And I will betroth thee unto Me for ever; Yea, I will betroth thee unto Me in righteousness, and in justice, And in lovingkindness, and in compassion." 2.22. And I will betroth thee unto Me in faithfulness; And thou shalt know the LORD." 2.23. And it shall come to pass in that day, I will respond, saith the LORD, I will respond to the heavens, And they shall respond to the earth;" 2.24. And the earth shall respond to the corn, and the wine, and the oil; And they shall respond to Jezreel." 2.25. And I will sow her unto Me in the land; And I will have compassion upon her that had not obtained compassion; And I will say to them that were not My people: ‘Thou art My people’; And they shall say: ‘Thou art my God.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.22-1.23, 1.28, 2.4, 3.13, 3.19-3.20, 7.4, 8.3, 8.17, 8.22-8.31, 9.1-9.6, 28.4, 31.10-31.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.22. עַד־מָתַי פְּתָיִם תְּאֵהֲבוּ פֶתִי וְלֵצִים לָצוֹן חָמְדוּ לָהֶם וּכְסִילִים יִשְׂנְאוּ־דָעַת׃ 1.23. תָּשׁוּבוּ לְתוֹכַחְתִּי הִנֵּה אַבִּיעָה לָכֶם רוּחִי אוֹדִיעָה דְבָרַי אֶתְכֶם׃ 1.28. אָז יִקְרָאֻנְנִי וְלֹא אֶעֱנֶה יְשַׁחֲרֻנְנִי וְלֹא יִמְצָאֻנְנִי׃ 2.4. אִם־תְּבַקְשֶׁנָּה כַכָּסֶף וְכַמַּטְמוֹנִים תַּחְפְּשֶׂנָּה׃ 3.13. אַשְׁרֵי אָדָם מָצָא חָכְמָה וְאָדָם יָפִיק תְּבוּנָה׃ 3.19. יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃ 7.4. אֱמֹר לַחָכְמָה אֲחֹתִי אָתְּ וּמֹדָע לַבִּינָה תִקְרָא׃ 8.3. לְיַד־שְׁעָרִים לְפִי־קָרֶת מְבוֹא פְתָחִים תָּרֹנָּה׃ 8.3. וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשֻׁעִים יוֹם יוֹם מְשַׂחֶקֶת לְפָנָיו בְּכָל־עֵת׃ 8.17. אֲנִי אהביה [אֹהֲבַי] אֵהָב וּמְשַׁחֲרַי יִמְצָאֻנְנִי׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 8.31. מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 9.1. חָכְמוֹת בָּנְתָה בֵיתָהּ חָצְבָה עַמּוּדֶיהָ שִׁבְעָה׃ 9.1. תְּחִלַּת חָכְמָה יִרְאַת יְהוָה וְדַעַת קְדֹשִׁים בִּינָה׃ 9.2. טָבְחָה טִבְחָהּ מָסְכָה יֵינָהּ אַף עָרְכָה שֻׁלְחָנָהּ׃ 9.3. שָׁלְחָה נַעֲרֹתֶיהָ תִקְרָא עַל־גַּפֵּי מְרֹמֵי קָרֶת׃ 9.4. מִי־פֶתִי יָסֻר הֵנָּה חֲסַר־לֵב אָמְרָה לּוֹ׃ 9.5. לְכוּ לַחֲמוּ בְלַחֲמִי וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי׃ 9.6. עִזְבוּ פְתָאיִם וִחְיוּ וְאִשְׁרוּ בְּדֶרֶךְ בִּינָה׃ 28.4. עֹזְבֵי תוֹרָה יְהַלְלוּ רָשָׁע וְשֹׁמְרֵי תוֹרָה יִתְגָּרוּ בָם׃ 31.11. בָּטַח בָּהּ לֵב בַּעְלָהּ וְשָׁלָל לֹא יֶחְסָר׃ 31.12. גְּמָלַתְהוּ טוֹב וְלֹא־רָע כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיה׃ 31.13. דָּרְשָׁה צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים וַתַּעַשׂ בְּחֵפֶץ כַּפֶּיהָ׃ 31.14. הָיְתָה כָּאֳנִיּוֹת סוֹחֵר מִמֶּרְחָק תָּבִיא לַחְמָהּ׃ 31.15. וַתָּקָם בְּעוֹד לַיְלָה וַתִּתֵּן טֶרֶף לְבֵיתָהּ וְחֹק לְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ׃ 31.16. זָמְמָה שָׂדֶה וַתִּקָּחֵהוּ מִפְּרִי כַפֶּיהָ נטע [נָטְעָה] כָּרֶם׃ 31.17. חָגְרָה בְעוֹז מָתְנֶיהָ וַתְּאַמֵּץ זְרֹעוֹתֶיהָ׃ 31.18. טָעֲמָה כִּי־טוֹב סַחְרָהּ לֹא־יִכְבֶּה בליל [בַלַּיְלָה] נֵרָהּ׃ 31.19. יָדֶיהָ שִׁלְּחָה בַכִּישׁוֹר וְכַפֶּיהָ תָּמְכוּ פָלֶךְ׃ 31.21. לֹא־תִירָא לְבֵיתָהּ מִשָּׁלֶג כִּי כָל־בֵּיתָהּ לָבֻשׁ שָׁנִים׃ 31.22. מַרְבַדִּים עָשְׂתָה־לָּהּ שֵׁשׁ וְאַרְגָּמָן לְבוּשָׁהּ׃ 31.23. נוֹדָע בַּשְּׁעָרִים בַּעְלָהּ בְּשִׁבְתּוֹ עִם־זִקְנֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 31.24. סָדִין עָשְׂתָה וַתִּמְכֹּר וַחֲגוֹר נָתְנָה לַכְּנַעֲנִי׃ 31.25. עֹז־וְהָדָר לְבוּשָׁהּ וַתִּשְׂחַק לְיוֹם אַחֲרוֹן׃ 31.26. פִּיהָ פָּתְחָה בְחָכְמָה וְתוֹרַת־חֶסֶד עַל־לְשׁוֹנָהּ׃ 31.27. צוֹפִיָּה הֲלִיכוֹת בֵּיתָהּ וְלֶחֶם עַצְלוּת לֹא תֹאכֵל׃ 31.28. קָמוּ בָנֶיהָ וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ בַּעְלָהּ וַיְהַלְלָהּ׃ 31.29. רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל־כֻּלָּנָה׃ 31.31. תְּנוּ־לָהּ מִפְּרִי יָדֶיהָ וִיהַלְלוּהָ בַשְּׁעָרִים מַעֲשֶׂיהָ׃ 1.22. ’How long, ye thoughtless, will ye love thoughtlessness? And how long will scorners delight them in scorning, And fools hate knowledge?" 1.23. Turn you at my reproof; behold, I will pour out my spirit unto you, I will make known my words unto you." 1.28. Then will they call me, but I will not answer, they will seek me earnestly, but they shall not find me." 2.4. If thou seek her as silver, And search for her as for hid treasures;" 3.13. Happy is the man that findeth wisdom, And the man that obtaineth understanding." 3.19. The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens." 3.20. By His knowledge the depths were broken up, And the skies drop down the dew." 7.4. Say unto wisdom: ‘Thou art my sister’, And call understanding thy kinswoman;" 8.3. Beside the gates, at the entry of the city, At the coming in at the doors, she crieth aloud:" 8.17. I love them that love me, And those that seek me earnestly shall find me." 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 8.31. Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men." 9.1. Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath hewn out her seven pillars;" 9.2. She hath prepared her meat, she hath mingled her wine; she hath also furnished her table." 9.3. She hath sent forth her maidens, she calleth, upon the highest places of the city:" 9.4. ’Whoso is thoughtless, let him turn in hither’; as for him that lacketh understanding, she saith to him:" 9.5. 'Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled." 9.6. Forsake all thoughtlessness, and live; and walk in the way of understanding." 28.4. They that forsake the law praise the wicked; But such as keep the law contend with them." 31.10. A woman of valour who can find? For her price is far above rubies." 31.11. The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, and he hath no lack of gain." 31.12. She doeth him good and not evil all the days of her life." 31.13. She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands." 31.14. She is like the merchant-ships; she bringeth her food from afar." 31.15. She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth food to her household, and a portion to her maidens." 31.16. She considereth a field, and buyeth it; with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard." 31.17. She girdeth her loins with strength, And maketh strong her arms." 31.18. She perceiveth that her merchandise is good; Her lamp goeth not out by night." 31.19. She layeth her hands to the distaff, And her hands hold the spindle." 31.20. She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; Yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy." 31.21. She is not afraid of the snow for her household; For all her household are clothed with scarlet." 31.22. She maketh for herself coverlets; Her clothing is fine linen and purple." 31.23. Her husband is known in the gates, When he sitteth among the elders of the land." 31.24. She maketh linen garments and selleth them; And delivereth girdles unto the merchant." 31.25. Strength and dignity are her clothing; And she laugheth at the time to come." 31.26. She openeth her mouth with wisdom; And the law of kindness is on her tongue." 31.27. She looketh well to the ways of her household, And eateth not the bread of idleness." 31.28. Her children rise up, and call her blessed; Her husband also, and he praiseth her:" 31.29. ’Many daughters have done valiantly, But thou excellest them all.’" 31.30. Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain; But a woman that feareth the LORD, she shall be praised." 31.31. Give her of the fruit of her hands; And let her works praise her in the gates."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3.9-3.12, 8.2, 8.10, 8.65 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.9. וְנָתַתָּ לְעַבְדְּךָ לֵב שֹׁמֵעַ לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־עַמְּךָ לְהָבִין בֵּין־טוֹב לְרָע כִּי מִי יוּכַל לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־עַמְּךָ הַכָּבֵד הַזֶּה׃ 3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֵלָיו יַעַן אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַלְתָּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ יָמִים רַבִּים וְלֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ עֹשֶׁר וְלֹא שָׁאַלְתָּ נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ הָבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ מִשְׁפָּט׃ 3.12. הִנֵּה עָשִׂיתִי כִּדְבָרֶיךָ הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ לֵב חָכָם וְנָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר כָּמוֹךָ לֹא־הָיָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְאַחֲרֶיךָ לֹא־יָקוּם כָּמוֹךָ׃ 8.2. וַיָּקֶם יְהוָה אֶת־דְּבָרוֹ אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר וָאָקֻם תַּחַת דָּוִד אָבִי וָאֵשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה וָאֶבְנֶה הַבַּיִת לְשֵׁם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.2. וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה כָּל־אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיֶרַח הָאֵתָנִים בֶּחָג הוּא הַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.65. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹה בָעֵת־הַהִיא אֶת־הֶחָג וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ קָהָל גָּדוֹל מִלְּבוֹא חֲמָת עַד־נַחַל מִצְרַיִם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְשִׁבְעַת יָמִים אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם׃ 3.9. Give Thy servant therefore an understanding heart to judge Thy people, that I may discern between good and evil; for who is able to judge this Thy great people?’" 3.10. And the speech pleased the LORD, that Solomon had asked this thing." 3.11. And God said unto him: ‘Because thou hast asked this thing, and hast not asked for thyself long life; neither hast asked riches for thyself, nor hast asked the life of thine enemies; but hast asked for thyself understanding to discern justice;" 3.12. behold, I have done according to thy word: lo, I have given thee a wise and an understanding heart; so that there hath been none like thee before thee, neither after thee shall any arise like unto thee." 8.2. And all the men of Israel assembled themselves unto king Solomon at the feast, in the month Ethanim, which is the seventh month." 8.10. And it came to pass, when the priests were come out of the holy place, that the cloud filled the house of the LORD," 8.65. So Solomon held the feast at that time, and all Israel with him, a great congregation, from the entrance Hamath unto the Brook of Egypt, before the LORD our God, seven days and seven days, even fourteen days."
9. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 62.1, 62.4-62.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

62.1. לְמַעַן צִיּוֹן לֹא אֶחֱשֶׁה וּלְמַעַן יְרוּשָׁלִַם לֹא אֶשְׁקוֹט עַד־יֵצֵא כַנֹּגַהּ צִדְקָהּ וִישׁוּעָתָהּ כְּלַפִּיד יִבְעָר׃ 62.1. עִבְרוּ עִבְרוּ בַּשְּׁעָרִים פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ הָעָם סֹלּוּ סֹלּוּ הַמְסִלָּה סַקְּלוּ מֵאֶבֶן הָרִימוּ נֵס עַל־הָעַמִּים׃ 62.4. לֹא־יֵאָמֵר לָךְ עוֹד עֲזוּבָה וּלְאַרְצֵךְ לֹא־יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שְׁמָמָה כִּי לָךְ יִקָּרֵא חֶפְצִי־בָהּ וּלְאַרְצֵךְ בְּעוּלָה כִּי־חָפֵץ יְהוָה בָּךְ וְאַרְצֵךְ תִּבָּעֵל׃ 62.5. כִּי־יִבְעַל בָּחוּר בְּתוּלָה יִבְעָלוּךְ בָּנָיִךְ וּמְשׂוֹשׂ חָתָן עַל־כַּלָּה יָשִׂישׂ עָלַיִךְ אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃ 62.1. For Zion’s sake will I not hold My peace, And for Jerusalem’s sake I will not rest, Until her triumph go forth as brightness, And her salvation as a torch that burneth." 62.4. Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken, Neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate; But thou shalt be called, My delight is in her, And thy land, Espoused; For the LORD delighteth in thee, And thy land shall be espoused." 62.5. For as a young man espouseth a virgin, So shall thy sons espouse thee; And as the bridegroom rejoiceth over the bride, So shall thy God rejoice over thee."
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.1. כִּי עִבְרוּ אִיֵּי כִתִּיִּים וּרְאוּ וְקֵדָר שִׁלְחוּ וְהִתְבּוֹנְנוּ מְאֹד וּרְאוּ הֵן הָיְתָה כָּזֹאת׃ 2.1. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 2.1. And the word of the LORD came to me, saying:"
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 5.3, 7.1, 7.8-7.10 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.3. וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ כָּל־אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּחָג הוּא הַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִי׃ 7.1. וּבְיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי שִׁלַּח אֶת־הָעָם לְאָהֳלֵיהֶם שְׂמֵחִים וְטוֹבֵי לֵב עַל־הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה לְדָוִיד וְלִשְׁלֹמֹה וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַמּוֹ׃ 7.1. וּכְכַלּוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל וְהָאֵשׁ יָרְדָה מֵהַשָּׁמַיִם וַתֹּאכַל הָעֹלָה וְהַזְּבָחִים וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַבָּיִת׃ 7.8. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־הֶחָג בָּעֵת הַהִיא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ קָהָל גָּדוֹל מְאֹד מִלְּבוֹא חֲמָת עַד־נַחַל מִצְרָיִם׃ 7.9. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי עֲצָרֶת כִּי חֲנֻכַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עָשׂוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְהֶחָג שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 5.3. And all the men of Israel assembled themselves unto the king at the feast, which was in the seventh month." 7.1. Now when Solomon had made an end of praying, the fire came down from heaven, and consumed the burnt-offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the LORD filled the house." 7.8. So Solomon held the feast at that time seven days, and all Israel with him, a very great congregation, from the entrance of Hamath unto the Brook of Egypt." 7.9. And on the eighth day they held a solemn assembly; for they kept the dedication of the altar seven days, and the feast seven days." 7.10. And on the three and twentieth day of the seventh month he sent the people away unto their tents, joyful and glad of heart for the goodness that the LORD had shown unto David, and to Solomon, and to Israel His people."
12. Anon., 1 Enoch, 42 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

42. Wisdom found no place where she might dwell; Then a dwelling-place was assigned her in the heavens.",Wisdom went forth to make her dwelling among the children of men, And found no dwelling-place:Wisdom returned to her place, And took her seat among the angels.,And unrighteousness went forth from her chambers: Whom she sought not she found, And dwelt with them,As rain in a desert And dew on a thirsty land.
13. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him."
14. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 4.26, 4.59 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.26. Those of the foreigners who escaped went and reported to Lysias all that had happened. 4.59. Then Judas and his brothers and all the assembly of Israel determined that every year at that season the days of dedication of the altar should be observed with gladness and joy for eight days, beginning with the twenty-fifth day of the month of Chislev.
15. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.8-1.9, 1.18, 2.1, 2.12, 2.19, 10.3, 10.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. and burned the gate and shed innocent blood. We besought the Lord and we were heard, and we offered sacrifice and cereal offering, and we lighted the lamps and we set out the loaves.' 1.9. And now see that you keep the feast of booths in the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and eighty-eighth year.' 1.18. Since on the twenty-fifth day of Chislev we shall celebrate the purification of the temple, we thought it necessary to notify you, in order that you also may celebrate the feast of booths and the feast of the fire given when Nehemiah, who built the temple and the altar, offered sacrifices.' 2.1. One finds in the records that Jeremiah the prophet ordered those who were being deported to take some of the fire, as has been told,' 2.12. Likewise Solomon also kept the eight days. 2.19. The story of Judas Maccabeus and his brothers, and the purification of the great temple, and the dedication of the altar,' 10.3. They purified the sanctuary, and made another altar of sacrifice; then, striking fire out of flint, they offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years, and they burned incense and lighted lamps and set out the bread of the Presence.' 10.5. It happened that on the same day on which the sanctuary had been profaned by the foreigners, the purification of the sanctuary took place, that is, on the twenty-fifth day of the same month, which was Chislev.'
16. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 4.11-4.19, 6.18-6.37, 15.2-15.3, 24.25-24.29, 47.12-47.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.11. Wisdom exalts her sons and gives help to those who seek her. 4.12. Whoever loves her loves life,and those who seek her early will be filled with joy. 4.13. Whoever holds her fast will obtain glory,and the Lord will bless the place she enters. 4.14. Those who serve her will minister to the Holy One;the Lord loves those who love her. 4.15. He who obeys her will judge the nations,and whoever gives heed to her will dwell secure. 4.16. If he has faith in her he will obtain her;and his descendants will remain in possession of her. 4.17. For at first she will walk with him on tortuous paths,she will bring fear and cowardice upon him,and will torment him by her discipline until she trusts him,and she will test him with her ordices. 4.18. Then she will come straight back to him and gladden him,and will reveal her secrets to him. 4.19. If he goes astray she will forsake him,and hand him over to his ruin. 15.2. She will come to meet him like a mother,and like the wife of his youth she will welcome him. 15.2. He has not commanded any one to be ungodly,and he has not given any one permission to sin. 15.3. She will feed him with the bread of understanding,and give him the water of wisdom to drink. 24.25. It fills men with wisdom, like the Pishon,and like the Tigris at the time of the first fruits. 24.26. It makes them full of understanding, like the Euphrates,and like the Jordan at harvest time. 24.27. It makes instruction shine forth like light,like the Gihon at the time of vintage. 24.28. Just as the first man did not know her perfectly,the last one has not fathomed her; 24.29. for her thought is more abundant than the sea,and her counsel deeper than the great abyss. 47.12. After him rose up a wise son who fared amply because of him; 47.13. Solomon reigned in days of peace,and God gave him rest on every side,that he might build a house for his name and prepare a sanctuary to stand for ever. 47.14. How wise you became in your youth!You overflowed like a river with understanding. 47.15. Your soul covered the earth,and you filled it with parables and riddles. 47.16. Your name reached to far-off islands,and you were loved for your peace. 47.17. For your songs and proverbs and parables,and for your interpretations, the countries marveled at you.
17. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 6.1-6.11, 6.17-6.19, 6.24, 7.1, 7.7, 7.12, 7.21-7.26, 7.29, 8.1, 8.3, 8.6, 8.17, 9.18, 12.3, 15.3, 19.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.1. Listen therefore, O kings, and understand;learn, O judges of the ends of the earth. 6.2. Give ear, you that rule over multitudes,and boast of many nations. 6.3. For your dominion was given you from the Lord,and your sovereignty from the Most High,who will search out your works and inquire into your plans. 6.4. Because as servants of his kingdom you did not rule rightly,nor keep the law,nor walk according to the purpose of God 6.5. he will come upon you terribly and swiftly,because severe judgment falls on those in high places. 6.6. For the lowliest man may be pardoned in mercy,but mighty men will be mightily tested. 6.7. For the Lord of all will not stand in awe of any one,nor show deference to greatness;because he himself made both small and great,and he takes thought for all alike. 6.8. But a strict inquiry is in store for the mighty. 6.9. To you then, O monarchs, my words are directed,that you may learn wisdom and not transgress. 6.10. For they will be made holy who observe holy things in holiness,and those who have been taught them will find a defense. 6.11. Therefore set your desire on my words;long for them, and you will be instructed. 6.17. The beginning of wisdom is the most sincere desire for instruction,and concern for instruction is love of her 6.18. and love of her is the keeping of her laws,and giving heed to her laws is assurance of immortality 6.19. and immortality brings one near to God; 6.24. A multitude of wise men is the salvation of the world,and a sensible king is the stability of his people. 7.1. I also am mortal, like all men,a descendant of the first-formed child of earth;and in the womb of a mother I was molded into flesh 7.7. Therefore I prayed, and understanding was given me;I called upon God, and the spirit of wisdom came to me. 7.12. I rejoiced in them all, because wisdom leads them;but I did not know that she was their mother. 7.21. I learned both what is secret and what is manifest 7.22. for wisdom, the fashioner of all things, taught me. For in her there is a spirit that is intelligent, holy,unique, manifold, subtle,mobile, clear, unpolluted,distinct, invulnerable, loving the good, keen,irresistible 7.23. beneficent, humane, steadfast, sure, free from anxiety,all-powerful, overseeing all,and penetrating through all spirits that are intelligent and pure and most subtle. 7.24. For wisdom is more mobile than any motion;because of her pureness she pervades and penetrates all things. 7.25. For she is a breath of the power of God,and a pure emanation of the glory of the Almighty;therefore nothing defiled gains entrance into her. 7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 7.29. For she is more beautiful than the sun,and excels every constellation of the stars. Compared with the light she is found to be superior 8.1. She reaches mightily from one end of the earth to the other,and she orders all things well. 8.3. She glorifies her noble birth by living with God,and the Lord of all loves her. 8.6. And if understanding is effective,who more than she is fashioner of what exists? 8.17. When I considered these things inwardly,and thought upon them in my mind,that in kinship with wisdom there is immortality 9.18. And thus the paths of those on earth were set right,and men were taught what pleases thee,and were saved by wisdom. 12.3. Those who dwelt of old in thy holy land 15.3. For to know thee is complete righteousness,and to know thy power is the root of immortality. 19.15. And not only so, but punishment of some sort will come upon the former for their hostile reception of the aliens;
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 41-42, 40 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

40. And Adam knew his wife, and she conceived and brought forth Cain; and she said I have gotten a man by means of the Lord; and he caused her also to bring forth Abel his Brother." These men, to whose virtue the Jewish legislation bears testimony, he does not represent as knowing their wives, such as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, and if there are any others of like zeal with them; 40. A third view of the question is, that no king or tyrant may ever despise an obscure private individual, from being full of insolence and haughty pride; but that such an one, coming as a pupil to the school of the sacred laws, may relax his eyebrows, unlearning his self-opinionativeness, and yielding rather to true reason.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 135 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

135. on which account Moses, in strict accordance with the principles of natural philosophy, represents Leah as Hated. For those whom the charms of pleasures, which are with Rachel, that is to say, with the outward sense, cannot be endured by Leah, who is situated out of the reach of the passions; on which account they repudiate and detest her. But as far as she herself is concerned, her alienation from the creature produces her a close connection with God, from whom she receives the seeds of wisdom, and conceives, and travails, and brings forth virtuous ideas, worthy of the father who begot them. If therefore, you, O my soul, imitating Leah, reject mortal things, you will of necessity turn to the incorruptible God, who will shed over you all the fountains of his good. XLI.
20. Philo of Alexandria, On Sobriety, 36 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 314 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

314. But what land does he mean but that which has been already mentioned, to which he is now making reference? The fruit of which is the safe and most certain comprehension of the wisdom of God, according to which it preserves for its dividers all the good things which exist without any admixture or taint of evil, as if they had been incorruptible from their very beginning.
22. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. A scroll on which the writing has become erased and eighty-five letters remain, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\" (Numbers 11:35-36) defiles the hands. A single sheet on which there are written eighty-five letters, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\", defiles the hands. All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands. The Song of Songs and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) defile the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the Song of Songs defiles the hands, but there is a dispute about Kohelet. Rabbi Yose says: Kohelet does not defile the hands, but there is a dispute about the Song of Songs. Rabbi Shimon says: [the ruling about] Kohelet is one of the leniencies of Bet Shammai and one of the stringencies of Bet Hillel. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I have received a tradition from the seventy-two elders on the day when they appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah head of the academy that the Song of Songs and Kohelet defile the hands. Rabbi Akiba said: Far be it! No man in Israel disputed that the Song of Songs [saying] that it does not defile the hands. For the whole world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the writings are holy but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies. If they had a dispute, they had a dispute only about Kohelet. Rabbi Yoha ben Joshua the son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva said in accordance with the words of Ben Azzai: so they disputed and so they reached a decision."
23. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15, 2-4, 8, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. New Testament, Acts, 1.9-1.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.9. When he had said these things, as they were looking, he was taken up, and a cloud received him out of their sight. 1.10. While they were looking steadfastly into the sky as he went, behold, two men stood by them in white clothing 1.11. who also said, "You men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus, who was received up from you into the sky will come back in the same way as you saw him going into the sky.
25. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 10.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 10.22. It was the Feast of the Dedication at Jerusalem.
26. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57a. הא דמסרג הא דלא מסרג הרואה הונא בחלום נס נעשה לו חנינא חנניא יוחנן נסי נסים נעשו לו הרואה הספד בחלום מן השמים חסו עליו ופדאוהו והני מילי בכתבא,העונה יהא שמיה רבא מברך מובטח לו שהוא בן העולם הבא הקורא ק"ש ראוי שתשרה עליו שכינה אלא שאין דורו זכאי לכך,המניח תפילין בחלום יצפה לגדולה שנאמר (דברים כח, י) וראו כל עמי הארץ כי שם י"י נקרא עליך וגו' ותניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר אלו תפילין שבראש המתפלל בחלום סימן יפה לו וה"מ דלא סיים,הבא על אמו בחלום יצפה לבינה שנאמר (משלי ב, ג) כי אם לבינה תקרא הבא על נערה מאורסה יצפה לתורה שנאמר (דברים לג, ד) תורה צוה לנו משה מורשה קהלת יעקב אל תקרי מורשה אלא מאורשה הבא על אחותו בחלום יצפה לחכמה שנאמר (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את הבא על אשת איש בחלום מובטח לו שהוא בן העולם הבא וה"מ דלא ידע לה ולא הרהר בה מאורתא,א"ר חייא בר אבא הרואה חטים בחלום ראה שלום שנאמר (תהלים קמז, יד) השם גבולך שלום חלב חטים ישביעך הרואה שעורים בחלום סרו עונותיו שנאמר (ישעיהו ו, ז) וסר עונך וחטאתך תכופר אמר רבי זירא אנא לא סלקי מבבל לא"י עד דחזאי שערי בחלמא,הרואה גפן טעונה בחלום אין אשתו מפלת נפלים שנאמר (תהלים קכח, ג) אשתך כגפן פוריה שורקה יצפה למשיח שנאמר (בראשית מט, יא) אוסרי לגפן עירה ולשורקה בני אתונו,הרואה תאנה בחלום תורתו משתמרת בקרבו שנאמר (משלי כז, יח) נוצר תאנה יאכל פריה הרואה רמונים בחלום זוטרי פרי עסקיה כרמונא רברבי רבי עסקיה כרמונא פלגי אם ת"ח הוא יצפה לתורה שנאמר (שיר השירים ח, ב) אשקך מיין הרקח מעסיס רמני ואם ע"ה הוא יצפה למצות שנאמר (שיר השירים ד, ג) כפלח הרמון רקתך מאי רקתך אפילו ריקנין שבך מלאים מצות כרמון,הרואה זיתים בחלום זוטרי פרי ורבי וקאי עסקיה כזיתים וה"מ פרי אבל אילני הויין ליה בנים מרובין שנאמר (תהלים קכח, ג) בניך כשתילי זיתים וגו' איכא דאמרי הרואה זית בחלום שם טוב יוצא לו שנאמר (ירמיהו יא, טז) זית רענן יפה פרי תואר קרא י"י שמך הרואה שמן זית בחלום יצפה למאור תורה שנאמר (שמות כז, כ) ויקחו אליך שמן זית זך הרואה תמרים בחלום תמו עונותיו שנאמר (איכה ד, כב) תם עונך בת ציון,אמר רב יוסף הרואה עז בחלום שנה מתברכת לו עזים שנים מתברכות לו שנאמר (משלי כז, כז) ודי חלב עזים ללחמך הרואה הדס בחלום נכסיו מצליחין לו ואם אין לו נכסים ירושה נופלת לו ממקום אחר אמר עולא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא והוא דחזא בכנייהו הרואה אתרוג בחלום הדור הוא לפני קונו שנאמר (ויקרא כג, מ) פרי עץ הדר כפות תמרים הרואה לולב בחלום אין לו אלא לב אחד לאביו שבשמים,הרואה אווז בחלום יצפה לחכמה שנאמר (משלי א, כ) חכמות בחוץ תרונה והבא עליה הוי ראש ישיבה אמר רב אשי אני ראיתיה ובאתי עליה וסלקית לגדולה,הרואה תרנגול בחלום יצפה לבן זכר תרנגולים יצפה לבנים זכרים תרנגולת יצפה לתרביצה נאה וגילה הרואה ביצים בחלום תלויה בקשתו נשתברו נעשית בקשתו וכן אגוזים וכן קשואים וכן כל כלי זכוכית וכן כל הנשברים כאלו,הנכנס לכרך נעשו לו חפציו שנאמר (תהלים קז, ל) וינחם אל מחוז חפצם המגלח ראשו בחלום סימן יפה לו ראשו וזקנו לו ולכל משפחתו,היושב בעריבה קטנה שם טוב יוצא לו בעריבה גדולה לו ולכל משפחתו וה"מ דמדליה דלויי,הנפנה בחלום סימן יפה לו שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, יד) מהר צועה להפתח וה"מ דלא קנח,העולה לגג בחלום עולה לגדולה ירד יורד מגדולתו אביי ורבא דאמרי תרווייהו כיון שעלה עלה הקורע בגדיו בחלום קורעים לו גזר דינו העומד ערום בחלום בבבל עומד בלא חטא בארץ ישראל ערום בלא מצות הנתפש לסרדיוט שמירה נעשית לו נתנוהו בקולר הוסיפו לו שמירה על שמירתו וה"מ בקולר אבל חבלא בעלמא לא,הנכנס לאגם בחלום נעשה ראש ישיבה ליער נעשה ראש לבני כלה,רב פפא ורב הונא בריה דרב יהושע חזו חלמא רב פפא דעייל לאגמא נעשה ראש ישיבה רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע דעייל ליער נעשה ראש לבני כלה איכא דאמרי תרווייהו לאגמא עיילי אלא רב פפא דתלי טבלא נעשה ראש ישיבה רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע דלא תלי טבלא נעשה ראש לבני כלה אמר רב אשי אנא עיילית לאגמא ותלאי טבלא ונבחי בה נבוחי,תני תנא קמיה דר"נ בר יצחק המקיז דם בחלום עונותיו מחולין לו,והתניא עונותיו סדורין לו מאי סדורין סדורין לימחל,תני תנא קמיה דרב ששת הרואה נחש בחלום פרנסתו מזומנת לו נשכו נכפלה לו הרגו אבדה פרנסתו אמר ליה רב ששת כל שכן שנכפלה פרנסתו ולא היא רב ששת הוא דחזא חויא בחלמיה וקטליה,תני תנא קמיה דרבי יוחנן כל מיני משקין יפין לחלום חוץ מן היין יש שותהו וטוב לו ויש שותהו ורע לו יש שותהו וטוב לו שנאמר (תהלים קד, טו) ויין ישמח לבב אנוש ויש שותהו ורע לו שנאמר (משלי לא, ו) תנו שכר לאובד ויין למרי נפש,אמר ליה רבי יוחנן לתנא תני תלמיד חכם לעולם טוב לו שנאמר (משלי ט, ה) לכו לחמו בלחמי ושתו ביין מסכתי 57a. bThisopinion, that seeing an elephant is a good omen, refers to a case where one saw bit saddled, while thisopinion, that it is a bad omen, refers to a case where the elephant bis not saddled. One who seesa man named bHuna in a dream,it is a sign that ba miracle will be performed for him,because the letter inunin the name Huna represents the word ines /i, miracle. One who sees a man named bḤanina, Ḥaya, or Yoḥa,it is a sign that bmany miracles will be performed for him,since the letter inunappears twice in those names. One who sees ba eulogy in a dream,it is a sign that bthe heavens had mercy upon him, and spared himfrom a divine death sentence and there will be no need to eulogize him in reality. The Gemara restricts this statement and says that bthis only appliesif he saw the eulogy bwrittenand not yet delivered., bOne who answersin a dream: bMay His great name be blessedfrom ikaddish bis assured that he is onewho has a place in bthe World-to-Come. Onewho sees himself breciting iShema /iin a dream bis worthy of having the Divine Presence rest upon him, but his generation is unworthy,and, therefore, the Divine Presence does not actually rest upon him., bOne whosees himself bdon phylacteries in a dream should anticipate greatness, as it is stated: “And all the peoples of the earth shall see that the name of the Lord is called upon you;and they shall be afraid of you” (Deuteronomy 28:10). bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer the Great says: That the Name of the Lord is called upon you, refers to phylacteries of the head,as they represent God’s name upon man. bOne whosees himself bpray in a dream,it is ban auspicious omen.However, the Gemara adds a caveat and says: bThis only appliesin a case where he saw in the dream that he bhad notyet bfinishedhis prayer and is therefore still close to God. If, in the dream, he had already finished his prayer, it is not an omen., bOne whosees that bhe had relations with his mother [ iem /i] in a dream, he should anticipateattaining bunderstanding, as it is stated: “Yea if [ iim /i] you call for understanding”(Proverbs 2:3), and in this homiletic interpretation iimis considered to be the equivalent of iem /i. bOne whosees that he bhad relations with a betrothed young womanin a dream, bhe should anticipate Torah, as it is stated: “Moses commanded us Torah, an inheritance [ imorasha /i] of the congregation of Jacob”(Deuteronomy 33:4). bDo not readit as imorasha /i; rather,read it as ime’orasa /i, betrothed. One whosees that he bhad relations with his sister in a dream, should anticipate wisdom, as it is stated: “Say unto wisdom: You are my sister”(Proverbs 7:4). bOne whosees that bhe had relations with a married woman in a dream is assured that he is onewho has a place in bthe World-to-Come.He receives his place as well as that of another person in the Garden of Eden, as the married woman represents a portion belonging to someone else. However, the Gemara adds a caveat and says: bThis only appliesin a case where bhe did not know her and was not thinking about her that evening;rather, he saw an unidentified woman in his dream by chance., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: One who sees wheat in a dream has seen peace, as it is stated: “He makes your borders peace; He gives you in plenty the fat of wheat”(Psalms 147:14). And bone who sees barley [ ise’orim /i] in a dreamhas received a sign that bhis iniquities are taken away, as it is stated: “And your iniquity is taken away [ ivesar avonekh /i], and your sin expiated”(Isaiah 6:7); ise’orimis an acronym for isar avon /i. bRabbi Zeira said: I did not ascend from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael until I saw barley in my dream. /b, bOne who sees a vine ladenwith grapes bin a dream,it is an omen that bhis wife will not miscarry, as it is stated: “Your wife shall be as a fruitful vine,in the innermost parts of your house” (Psalms 128:3). One who sees baplanted bvine branchin a dream bshould anticipate the Messiah, as it is stated: “Binding his foal unto the vine and his donkey’s colt unto the vine branch”(Genesis 49:11)., bOne who sees a fig tree in a dream,it is a sign that bhis Torah is preserved within him, as it is stated: “One who keeps the fig tree shall eat the fruit thereof”(Proverbs 27:18). bOne who sees pomegranates in a dream,if they were bsmall, his business will flourish like the seeds ofthe bpomegranate,which are numerous; and if they were blarge, his business will increase like a pomegranate.One who saw bslices of pomegranatesin his dream, bif he is a Torah scholar, he should anticipate Torah, as it is stated: “I would cause you to drink of spiced wine, of the juice of my pomegranate”(Song of Songs 8:2), which is traditionally understood as an allusion to Torah. bAnd ifthe dreamer bis an ignoramus, he should anticipate mitzvot,as it is stated: b“Your temples are like a split pomegranate”(Song of Songs 4:3). As the Gemara previously interpreted homiletically: bWhat isthe meaning of the word b“Your temples [ irakatekh /i]”? Even the most ignorant [ ireikanin /i] among you,Israel, bare full of mitzvot like a pomegranate. /b, bOne who sees olives in a dream,and they were bsmall,it is a sign that bhis business will flourish, increase and be durable like olives.However, the Gemara adds a caveat, saying that bthis applies onlywhen he sees the bfruitof an olive tree; bbut,one who sees olive btrees,it is a sign that bhe will have many children, as it is stated: “Your children like olive plants,round about your table” (Psalms 128:3). bSome say that one who sees an olive tree in a dream,it is a sign that ba good reputation will spread for him, as it is stated:“The Lord called your name ba leafy olive tree, fair with goodly fruit”(Jeremiah 11:16). bOne who sees olive oil in a dream should anticipate the light of Torah, as it is stated: “That they bring unto you pure olive oilbeaten for the light” (Exodus 27:20). bOne who sees palm trees [ itemarim /i] in a dreamhas seen a sign that bhis transgressions have ceased, as it is stated: “Your iniquity is finished, O daughter of Zion”(Lamentations 4:22), as the Gemara likens itemara /i, date, to itam ra /i, evil has ceased., bRav Yosef says: One who sees a goat in a dream,it is a sign that bhis year will be blessed;one who sees bgoats, his years will be blessed, as it is stated: “And there will be goats’ milk enough for your food,for the food of your household; and sustece for your maidens” (Proverbs 27:27). bOne who sees myrtle in a dream,it is a sign that bhis property will be successful. And if he does notown bproperty,it is a sign that bhe will receive an inheritance. Ulla said, and some say it was taught in a ibaraita /i: Thisapplies exclusively to a case bwhere he sawthem bon their stem. One who sees a citron [ ietrog /i] in a dreamhas seen a sign that bhe is honored [ ihadur /i] before his Creator, as it is statedwith regard to the citron: b“The fruit of goodly trees [ ihadar /i], branches of palm trees”(Leviticus 23:40). bOne who sees a palm branch [ ilulav /i] in a dream,it is a sign that bhe has but one heart for his Father in heaven. iLulavis interpreted homiletically as ilo lev /i, he has a heart., bOne who sees a goose in a dream should anticipate wisdom, as it is stated: “Wisdoms cry aloud in the streets,she utters her voice in the broad places” (Proverbs 1:20); geese tend to sound their voices. One who dreams that bhe has relations withthe goose bwill become head of the yeshiva. Rav Ashi said: I sawa goose and bhad relations with itin my dream band I ascended to greatnessand became head of the yeshiva., bOne who sees a rooster in a dreamshould anticipate ba male child.One who sees multiple broosters should expect male children.One who sees ba hen [ itarnegolet /i] should anticipate a beautiful garden andreason to brejoice [ itarbitza na’a vegila /i],as itarnegoletis interpreted as an acronym for itarbitza na’a vegila /i. bOne who sees eggs in a dream,it is a sign that bhis request is pending,as egg in Aramaic is ibeya /i, which is similar to the term for request. If one saw that the eggs bbroke,it is a sign that bhis requesthas already been bgranted,as that which was hidden inside the shell was revealed. bThe same is true of nuts, and the same is true of cucumbers, and the same is true of all glass vessels, and the same is true of anything similarly fragilethat broke in his dream, it is a sign that his request was granted., bOnewho dreams that bhe entered a city,it is a sign that bhis desires will be fulfilled, as it is stated: “And He led them unto their desired haven”(Psalms 107:30). bOne who shaves his head in a dream, it is a good omen for him,as the removal of undesired hairs is a sign of renewal and greatness. If he bshaved his head and his beardin a dream, it is a good omen bfor him and his entire family. /b, bOne who sits in a small boatin a dream, it is a sign that ba good reputation will spread for him.If he sees himself sitting bin a large boatin a dream, ba good reputation will spread for him and his entire family.The Gemara notes that bthis only applieswhere bthe boat was floating highon the waves., bOne who defecatesin a dream, bit is a good omen for him, as it is stated: “He that is bent down shall speedily be loosed;and he shall not go down dying into the pit, neither shall his bread fail” (Isaiah 51:14). The Gemara notes that bthis only applieswhere bhe does not wipeand get his hands dirty., bOne who climbs up to the roof in a dream,it is a sign that bhe will ascend to greatness.If, after he climbed up, bhe climbedback bdown,it is a sign that he bwill descend fromthe bgreatness heachieved. bAbaye and Rava both said: Once one ascendedto the roof in his dream, bhe ascended,and even if he dreams that he descended, it remains a good omen for him. bOne who rips his clothing in a dream,it is a sign that they brip up his sentence. One who stands naked in Babylonia in a dream,it is a sign that bhe stands free of transgression.Although living outside Israel is itself a transgression, his nakedness symbolizes that he has been absolved of that sin. If one dreamed that he stood naked bin Eretz Yisrael,it is a sign that he is bnaked without mitzvot. Onewho dreams that bhe was apprehendedand guarded bby a soldier [ isardeyot /i],it is a sign that bprotection was provided himby heaven. If he sees that bhe is wearing a neck chain [ ikolar /i],it is a sign that bthey have increased his level of protection.However, the Gemara notes that bthis only appliesto a case where his neck was placed bin a neck chain; ifhis neck was bsimplyplaced in ba noose, it does notindicate heavenly protection., bOne who enters a marsh in a dream,it is a sign that bhe will become head of a yeshiva,as he appears to be standing alone with all the bulrushes, large and small, surrounding him like the head of a yeshiva, around whom all the students gather. One who dreams that he entered ba forestand sees only large trees around him, it is a sign that he bwill be made head ofonly bthe advanced students [ ikalla /i],where he will explain the lessons only to the outstanding students in the yeshiva, each of whom is himself a great tree, set apart from the others.,The Gemara relates: bRav Pappa and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua,each bsaw a dream: Rav Pappa,who saw bthat he entered a marshin his dream, bwas appointed head of a yeshiva. Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua,who saw bthat he entered a forestin his dream, bwas appointed head of the advanced students. Some say that both of themdreamed that bthey entered a marsh,but bRav Pappa,who dreamed bthat a drum hungfrom his neck, bwas appointed head of the yeshiva,as banging a drum symbolizes the head of a yeshiva who sounds his voice in public. bRav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua,who bdid notdream bthat a drum hung aroundhis neck, bwasonly bappointed head of the advanced students. Rav Ashi said: Idreamed that bI entered a marsh and hung a drum and beat it,and Rav Ashi became head of the yeshiva.,The itanna /iwho recited imishnayot bbefore Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak taught: One who lets blood in a dream,it is a sign that bhis transgressions have been forgiven,because red, the color of blood, is a metaphor for sin: “Though your sins be as scarlet…though they be red like crimson” (Isaiah 1:18). Consequently, bloodletting can symbolize transgressions leaving him.,The Gemara asks: bWas it not taughtin a ibaraita /i: One who sees that he is letting-blood in a dream, it is a sign that bhis transgressions are enumerated before him?The Gemara answers: bWhatis meant by benumerated?This means that they are benumerated to be forgiven. /b,The itanna /iwho recited imishnayot bbefore Rav Sheshet taught: One who sees a snake in a dream,it is a sign that bhis livelihood is accessible to himjust as dust is readily accessible to a snake. If one saw that the snake bbit himin his dream, it is a sign that his livelihood bwill double.If bhe killedthe snake, it is a sign that bhe will lose his livelihood. Rav Sheshet said tothe itanna /i: On the contrary, if one dreamed that he killed the snake it is a sign that ball the more so his livelihood will double.The Gemara remarks: bBut that is not so. Rav Sheshet saw a snake in his dream and killed it,so he sought to interpret his dream positively.,The itanna /iwho recited imishnayot bbefore Rabbi Yoḥa taught: One who sees any kind of drink in a dream it isa bgoodomen, bexcept for wine,as bthere isone bwho drinks itin a dream band it isa bgoodomen bfor him, and there isone bwho drinks itin a dream band it isa bbadomen bfor him.The Gemara elaborates: bThere isone bwho drinkswine band it isa bgoodomen bfor him, as it is stated: “And wine that makes glad the heart of man”(Psalms 104:15), band there isone bwho drinks itin a dream band it isa bbadomen bfor him, as it is stated: “Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish and wine unto the bitter in soul”(Proverbs 31:6)., bRabbi Yoḥa said to the itanna: /iYou should bteachthat for ba Torah scholar,a dream of wine is balwaysa bgoodomen, bas it is stated: “Come, eat of my bread and drink of the wine which I have mingled”(Proverbs 9:5).
27. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 121-171, 120

120. abroad a false report that the working of the mines was useless and expensive, in order to prevent their country from being destroyed by the mining in these districts and possibly taken away from them owing to the Persian rule, since by the assistance of this false report they found an excuse for entering the district.I have now, my dear brother Philocrates, given you all the essential information upon this subject


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
aeschylus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
alexandria, jewish writings of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
alexandria, setting of lxx translation Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145
antigonus mattathias Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 96
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 244, 253, 256
apocalyptic Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
aquila (translator) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
aristeas, letter of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
aristobulus (= aristobulos) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144
aristotle Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
barbeloite, modern definitions Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
ben sira Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
bible, texts and exegesis relating to egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
canaanites, canticles, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
christians (byzantines, copts, nubians, syrian orthodox) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
cn. pompeius magnus Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 96
corinthians Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
cosmos Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 175
covenant Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
dammūh, theodotion Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
david Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
descent, of sophia/wisdom Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
ecbatana, ecclesiastes, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
egyptians, depictions in hebrew bible, lxx, and ancient jewish writings Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
eleazar (high priest in letter of aristeas) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
eroticism Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 244, 253
essenes, esther, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
euripides Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
eve Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
exodus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
ezekiel, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
ezekiel b. nethanel, ezra, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
ezekiel the tragedian Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
father, fatherhood Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 175
gnosis, gnostic(ism) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 256
gnosis, knowledge Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
god, representations of, creator Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 62
hanukkah, holiday of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 163
herod the great Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 96
hieros gamos Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 175
homer Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
horus, hosea, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
idumea, idumeans Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 96
intercourse, sexual Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 256
isis, cult of Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 175
israel, biblical, people Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
israelites Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
jeremiah Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 163
joazar, lxx Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
judaism (karaites, rabbanites) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
kingship Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 96
knowledge Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
life, eve Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
moses, as lawgiver Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
mother, motherhood' Albrecht, The Divine Father: Religious and Philosophical Concepts of Divine Parenthood in Antiquity (2014) 175
myth(ological), mythology Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253, 256
nehemiah, nehemiah, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
nehemiah Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 163
oniads Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
patriarchal, patriarchy Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 256
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145, 172
phinehas Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
plato Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
poetry Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
priesthood Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
prophecy, prophets, prophetic books Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 244
provence, proverbs, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145
rome, romans Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 96
salvation/soteriology Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
scribes Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
septuagint (lxx) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145, 172
sethians, sethianism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
solomon Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144, 145
sophia, see also prunicus, wisdom, zoe Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
sophia Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 244, 256
soul, world Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
spirit, divine Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
stoic(ism) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253, 256
syzygy, synzygos Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 256
temple (second), legitimacy of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 163
torah (pentateuch) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
translation of biblical books Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
virgin(al), virginity Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 256
wisdom, concept Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
wisdom, jewish Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
wisdom (female) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 244, 253, 256
wisdom of solomon Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145, 172
yhwh, yahweh Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253, 256