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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



707
Septuagint, Wisdom Of Solomon, 49.10
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6 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.22-3.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.22. זִכְרוּ תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה עַבְדִּי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אוֹתוֹ בְחֹרֵב עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים׃ 3.23. הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ לָכֶם אֵת אֵלִיָּה הַנָּבִיא לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃ 3.24. וְהֵשִׁיב לֵב־אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְלֵב בָּנִים עַל־אֲבוֹתָם פֶּן־אָבוֹא וְהִכֵּיתִי אֶת־הָאָרֶץ חֵרֶם׃ br small[הנה אנכי שלח לכם את אליה הנביא לפני בוא יום יהוה הגדול והנורא] /small 3.22. Remember ye the law of Moses My servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, even statutes and ordices." 3.23. Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet Before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD." 3.24. And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers; lest I come and smite the land with utter destruction. br small[Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and terrible day of the LORD.] /small"
2. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 48.23-48.25, 49.6-49.8, 49.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

48.23. In his days the sun went backward,and he lengthened the life of the king. 48.24. By the spirit of might he saw the last things,and comforted those who mourned in Zion. 48.25. He revealed what was to occur to the end of time,and the hidden things before they came to pass. 49.6. who set fire to the chosen city of the sanctuary,and made her streets desolate,according to the word of Jeremiah. 49.7. For they had afflicted him;yet he had been consecrated in the womb as prophet,to pluck up and afflict and destroy,and likewise to build and to plant. 49.8. It was Ezekiel who saw the vision of glory which God showed him above the chariot of the cherubim.
3. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 48.24-48.25, 49.6-49.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. However, they acknowledge themselves so far, that they were the Egyptians, the Chaldeans, and the Phoenicians (for I will not now reckon ourselves among them) that have preserved the memorials of the most ancient and most lasting traditions of mankind; 1.8. When this man had reigned thirteen years, after him reigned another, whose name was Beon, for forty-four years; after him reigned another, called Apachnas, thirty-six years and seven months; after him Apophis reigned sixty-one years, and then Jonias fifty years and one month;
5. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. ללדת עולה לראש ההר כדי שיפול ממנה וימות ואני מזמין לה נשר שמקבלו בכנפיו ומניחו לפניה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מתאחר רגע אחד מיד מת בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לט, א) חולל אילות תשמור אילה זו רחמה צר בשעה שכורעת ללדת אני מזמין לה דרקון שמכישה בבית הרחם ומתרפה ממולדה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מאחר רגע אחד מיד מתה בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לד, לה) [איוב] לא בדעת ידבר ודבריו לא בהשכל (וכתיב (איוב מב, ז) כי לא דברתם אלי נכונה כעבדי איוב) אמר רבא מכאן שאין אדם נתפס בשעת צערו,(איוב ב, יא) וישמעו שלשת רעי איוב את כל הרעה הזאת הבאה עליו ויבאו איש ממקומו אליפז התימני ובלדד השוחי וצופר הנעמתי ויועדו יחדו לבוא לנוד לו ולנחמו מאי ויועדו יחדו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מלמד שנכנסו כולן בשער אחד ותנא בין כל אחד ואחד שלש מאות פרסי,מנא הוו ידעי איכא דאמרי כלילא הוה להו ואיכא דאמרי אילני הוה להו וכיון דכמשי הוו ידעי אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברא כחברי דאיוב או מיתותא,(בראשית ו, א) ויהי כי החל האדם לרוב על פני האדמה ובנות יולדו להם רבי יוחנן אמר רביה באה לעולם ריש לקיש אמר מריבה באה לעולם אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן לדידך דאמרת רבייה באה לעולם מפני מה לא נכפלו בנותיו של איוב,אמר לו נהי דלא נכפלו בשמות אבל נכפלו ביופי דכתיב (איוב מב, יג) ויהי לו שבענה בנים ושלוש בנות ויקרא שם האחת ימימה ושם השנית קציעה ושם השלישית קרן הפוך,ימימה שהיתה דומה ליום קציעה שהיה ריחה נודף כקציעה קרן הפוך אמרי דבי רבי שילא שדומה לקרנא דקרש מחייכו עלה במערבא קרנא דקרש לקותא היא אלא אמר רב חסדא ככורכמא דרישקא במיניה שנאמר (ירמיהו ד, ל) כי תקרעי בפוך,רבי שמעון ברבי איתילידא ליה ברתא הוה קא חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אבוה רביה באה לעולם אמר ליה בר קפרא תנחומין של הבל ניחמך אבוך [דתניא] אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אלא אשרי למי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות אי אפשר לעולם בלא בסם ובלא בורסי אשרי מי שאומנותו בוסמי אוי למי שאומנותו בורסי,כתנאי (בראשית כד, א) וה' ברך את אברהם בכל מאי בכל רבי מאיר אומר שלא היתה לו בת רבי יהודה אומר שהיתה לו בת אחרים אומרים בת היתה לו לאברהם ובכל שמה רבי אלעזר המודעי אומר איצטגנינות היתה בלבו של אברהם אבינו שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב משכימין לפתחו רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר אבן טובה היתה תלויה בצוארו של אברהם אבינו שכל חולה הרואה אותו מיד מתרפא ובשעה שנפטר אברהם אבינו מן העולם תלאה הקדוש ברוך הוא בגלגל חמה אמר אביי היינו דאמרי אינשי אידלי יומא אידלי קצירא,דבר אחר שלא מרד עשו בימיו דבר אחר שעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו שלא מרד עשו בימיו מנלן דכתיב (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה והוא עיף ותנא אותו היום נפטר אברהם אבינו ועשה יעקב אבינו תבשיל של עדשים לנחם את יצחק אביו,[ומ"ש של עדשים] אמרי במערבא משמיה דרבה בר מרי מה עדשה זו אין לה פה אף אבל אין לו פה דבר אחר מה עדשה זו מגולגלת אף אבילות מגלגלת ומחזרת על באי העולם מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו לנחומי בביעי,אמר רבי יוחנן חמש עבירות עבר אותו רשע באותו היום בא על נערה מאורסה והרג את הנפש וכפר בעיקר וכפר בתחיית המתים ושט את הבכורה,בא על נערה מאורסה כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה וכתיב התם (דברים כב, כז) כי בשדה מצאה הרג את הנפש כתיב הכא עיף וכתיב התם (ירמיהו ד, לא) אוי נא לי כי עיפה נפשי להורגים וכפר בעיקר כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, לב) למה זה לי וכתיב התם (שמות טו, ב) זה אלי ואנוהו וכפר בתחיית המתים דכתיב (בראשית כה, לב) הנה אנכי הולך למות ושט את הבכורה דכתיב (בראשית כה, לד) ויבז עשו את הבכורה,ושעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו מנלן כי הא דרבינא ורב חמא בר בוזי הוו יתבי קמיה דרבא וקא מנמנם רבא א"ל רבינא לרב חמא בר בוזי ודאי דאמריתו כל מיתה שיש בה גויעה זו היא מיתתן של צדיקים אמר ליה אין והא דור המבול אמר ליה אנן גויעה ואסיפה קאמרינן,והא ישמעאל דכתיב ביה גויעה ואסיפה אדהכי איתער בהו רבא אמר להו דרדקי הכי א"ר יוחנן ישמעאל עשה תשובה בחיי אביו שנאמר (בראשית כה, ט) ויקברו אותו יצחק וישמעאל בניו,ודילמא דרך חכמתן קא חשיב להו אלא מעתה (בראשית לה, כט) ויקברו אותו עשו ויעקב בניו מאי טעמא לא חשיב להו דרך חכמתן אלא מדאקדמיה אדבורי אדבריה ומדאדבריה שמע מינה תשובה עבד בימיו,תנו רבנן שלשה הטעימן הקב"ה בעולם הזה 16b. bto give birth she ascends to the top of a mountain so thatthe kid bshould fall down from her and die. And I summon her an eagle that receives it with his wings and places it before her; and ifthe eagle breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late,the kid bwould immediately die.Now, if bI do not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,Similarly: b“Can you mark when the hinds do calve?”(Job 39:1). bThe womb of this hind is narrow,which makes for a difficult delivery. bWhen she squats to give birth, I summon her a snake [ iderakon /i] that bites her at the opening of the womb, whichthen bbecomes loose, and she gives birth, and ifthe snake breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late, she would immediately die.Now, if I bdo not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,The Gemara comments: On the one hand, the text states: b“Job has spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom”(Job 34:35). bButon the other hand, bit is writtenwith regard to Job’s friends: b“You have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, like my servant Job”(Job 42:8). bRava said: From hereit may be inferred bthat a person is not held responsiblefor what he says bwhen he is in distress.Although Job uttered certain words that were wrong and inappropriate, he was not punished for them because he said them at a time of pain and hardship.,The verse states: b“And Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite; for they had made an appointment together to come to mourn with him and to comfort him”(Job 2:11). bWhatdoes b“they had made an appointment together”mean? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Thisphrase bteaches that they all enteredthrough bone gateat the same time. bAnda Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: There were bthree hundred parasangs between each and every oneof them, i.e., each one lived three hundred parasangs away from the other.,The Gemara asks: bHow did theyall bknowat the same time what had happened to Job so that the three of them came together? bThere arethose bwho saythat btheyeach bhad a crownwhich displayed certain signs when something happened to one of the others. bAnd there arethose bwho say theyeach bhad trees and whenthe trees bwithered they knewthat sorrow had visited one of them. bRava saidthat bthiscloseness between Job and his friends explains the adage bthat people say: Either a friend like the friends of Job or death.If a person lacks close friends, he is better off dead.,The Gemara cites another place where Job is mentioned. b“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply [ ilarov /i] on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them”(Genesis 6:1). bRabbi Yoḥa says: iLarovmeans that bpropagation [ ireviyya /i] came to the worldthrough these daughters. bReish Lakish says: Strife [ imeriva /i] came to the world.Once daughters were born, the men began to fight among themselves over them. bReish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥa: According to you who saythat due to the daughters bpropagation came to the world, for whatreason bwerethe number of bJob’s daughters not doubled,when at the end of the story God doubled everything that Job had lost (see Job 1:3, 42:12)?,Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Granted,the numbers of Job’s daughters bwere not doubled in name,meaning they did not become twice as many, bbut they were doubled in beauty, as it is written: “He had also seven sons and three daughters. And he called the name of the first Jemimah, and the name of the second was Keziah, and the name of the third one was Keren-happuch”(Job 42:13–14). All three names relate to the daughters’ beauty., bJemimah [ iYemima /i];in her beauty bshe was similar to the day [ iyom /i]. Keziah; her scent wafted likethe bcassia [ iketzia /i]tree. bKeren-happuch; in the school of Rav Sheila they say: She was similar to the horn [ ikeren /i] of a ikeresh /i,an animal whose horns are particularly beautiful. bThey laughed at this in the West,Eretz Yisrael, since it is considered ba blemishwhen a person resembles bthe horn of a ikeresh /i. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said:She was blike garden saffron [ ikekurkema derishka /i],which is the best bof its kind. iKerenrefers to a garden, and ipukhmeans ornament, bas it is stated: “Though you enlargeyour eyes bwith paint [ ipukh /i],you beautify yourself in vain” (Jeremiah 4:30).,It is reported that ba daughter was born to Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, and bhe was upsetthat he did not have a son. bHis father said to him: Propagation has come to the worldthrough the birth of a daughter. bBar Kappara said toRabbi Shimon: bYour father has consoled you with meaningless consolation, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe world cannot endure without males and females,as both are needed for the perpetuation of humanity. bBut fortunate is he whose children are males and woe to him whose children are females.Similarly, bthe world cannot endure without either a spice dealerwhose wares are sweet-smelling, bor a tanner [ ibursi /i],who is engaged in a foul-smelling occupation. bFortunate is he whose occupation is a spice seller,and bwoe to him whose occupation is a tanner. /b,The Gemara comments that this disagreement is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i:The Torah states: b“And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything [ ibakkol /i]”(Genesis 24:1), and the Sages disagree about bwhat ibakkol /imeans. bRabbi Meir says:The blessing is bthat he did not have a daughter. Rabbi Yehuda says:On the contrary, the blessing was bthat he had a daughter. Others say: Abraham had a daughter and her name was Bakkol. Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: Abraham our forefather was so knowledgeable in astrology [ iitztagninut /i] that all the kings of the East and the West would come early to his doordue to his wisdom. This is the blessing of ibakkol /i, that he possessed knowledge that everybody needed. bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: A precious stone hung around the neck of Abraham our forefather; any sick person who looked at it would immediately be healed. When Abraham our forefather died, the Holy One, Blessed be He, hungthis stone bfrom the sphere of the sun,which from that point on brought healing to the sick. bAbaye said: Thisexplains the adage bthat people say: As the day progresses, sickness is lifted. /b, bAlternatively,what is the blessing of ibakkol /i? bThat Esau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime,that is to say, as long as Abraham lived Esau did not sin. bAlternatively,the blessing of ibakkolis bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime.The Gemara explains: bFrom where do wederive that bEsau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime? As it is written:“And Jacob was cooking a stew band Esau came in from the field and he was faint”(Genesis 25:29), banda ibaraita btaught: On that day Abraham our forefather passed away, and Jacob our forefather prepared a lentil stew to comfort Isaac, his father,as it was customary to serve mourners lentil stew.,The Gemara explains: bAnd what is different about lentilsthat they in particular are the fare customarily offered to mourners? bThey say in the West,Eretz Yisrael, bin the name of Rabba bar Mari: Just as this lentil has no mouth,i.e., it does not have a crack like other legumes, bso too a mourner has no mouth,that is, his anguish prevents him from speaking. bAlternatively, just as this lentil iscompletely bround, so too mourning comes around to the inhabitants of the world.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthe two explanations? The Gemara answers: bThere isa practical difference bbetween themwith regard to whether it is appropriate bto consolea mourner bwith eggs,which have no opening but are not completely round., bRabbi Yoḥa says: That wickedEsau bcommitted five transgressions on that daythat Abraham died: bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden, he killed a person, he denied the principleof God’s existence, bhe denied resurrection of the dead, and he despised the birthright. /b,The Gemara cites proofs to support these charges. bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden,as bit is written here: “And Esau came in from the field”; and it is written therewith regard to rape of a betrothed maiden: b“For he found her in a field”(Deuteronomy 22:27). bHe killed a person,as bit is written here:“And he was bfaint”; and it is written there: “Woe is me, for my soul faints before the slayers”(Jeremiah 4:31). bAnd he denied the principleof God’s existence, as bit is written here: “What profit is this to me”(Genesis 25:32); band it is written there: “This is my God and I will glorify Him”(Exodus 15:2). When he questioned the profit of “this,” he was challenging the assertion that “this is my God.” bAnd he denied resurrection of the dead, as it is written: “Behold, I am at the point of death”(Genesis 25:32), indicating that he did not believe in resurrection after death. bAnd he despised the birthright, as it is written: “And Esau despised the birthright”(Genesis 25:34)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime? Fromthe incident involving bRavina and Rav Ḥama bar Buzi,who bwere sitting before Rava, and Rava was dozingwhile they were talking. bRavina said to Rav Ḥama bar Buzi: Is it true that you saythat bany death with regard to whichthe word igevia /i,expire, is mentioned bis the death of the righteous?Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: Yes.For example: “And Isaac expired [ ivayyigva /i], and died” (Genesis 35:29). Ravina objected: bButwith regard to bthe generation of the floodit states: “And all flesh expired [ ivayyigva /i]” (Genesis 7:21), and there they died for their wickedness. Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: We saythis only when both igeviaand iasifa /i,gathering, are used; when these two terms are mentioned together they indicate the death of a righteous person.,Ravina asked: bBut isn’t there Ishmael, about whom igeviaand iasifaare written,as it is stated: “And these are the years of the life of Yishmael…and he expired and died [ ivayyigva vayyamot /i]; and was gathered to his people” (Genesis 25:17)? bMeanwhile Rava,who had heard the discussion in his dozed state, fully bawokeand bsaid to them: Children [ idardekei /i], this is what Rabbi Yoḥa says: Ishmael repented in the lifetime of his father, as it is stated: “And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 25:9). The fact that Ishmael allowed Isaac to precede him demonstrates that he had repented and accepted his authority.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthe verse blisted them in the order of their wisdom;that is to say, perhaps in fact Ishmael preceded Isaac but the Torah did not list them in that order. The Gemara answers: bBut if that is so,consider that the verse states: b“And Esau and Jacob, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 35:29). bWhat is the reasonthat the verse there bdid not list them in the order of their wisdom? Rather, sinceIshmael ballowedIsaac bto precede him,it is clear that he bmadeIsaac bhis leader, and since he made him his leader, learn from it that he repented inAbraham’s blifetime. /b,Incidental to the discussion of the verse “And God blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1), the Gemara states that bthe Sages taught:There were bthreepeople bto whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, gavealready bin this world /b
6. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52a. ריחני, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big תינוקת שהביאה שתי שערות או חולצת או מתיבמת וחייבת בכל מצות האמורות בתורה,וכן תינוק שהביא שתי שערות חייב בכל מצות האמורות בתורה וראוי להיות בן סורר ומורה משיביא שתי שערות עד שיקיף זקן,התחתון ולא העליון אלא שדברו חכמים בלשון נקיה,תינוקת שהביאה שתי שערות אינה יכולה למאן רבי יהודה אומר עד שירבה השחור, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big וכיון דתנן חייבת בכל מצות האמורות בתורה או חולצת או מתיבמת למה לי,לאפוקי מדרבי יוסי דאמר איש כתוב בפרשה אבל אשה בין גדולה ובין קטנה קמ"ל דאי אייתי שתי שערות אין אי לא לא מאי טעמא אשה כאיש,וכיון דתנא וכן התינוק שהביא ב' שערות חייב בכל המצות האמורות בתורה ל"ל,וכי תימא משום דקבעי למתני וראוי להיות בן סורר ומורה תנינא חדא זימנא אימתי הוא בן סורר ומורה משיביא שתי שערות ועד שיקיף זקן התחתון ולא העליון אלא שדברו חכמים בלשון נקיה,אין ה"נ אלא איידי דפריש מילי דתינוקת קמפרש נמי מילי דתינוק,תינוקת שהביאה כו' א"ר אבהו א"ר אלעזר הלכה כרבי יהודה,ומודה רבי יהודה שאם נבעלה לאחר שהביאה שתי שערות שוב אינה יכולה למאן,חברוהי דרב כהנא סבור למעבד עובדא כרבי יהודה ואע"ג דנבעלה,אמר להו רב כהנא לא כך היה מעשה בבתו של רבי ישמעאל שבאת לבית המדרש למאן ובנה מורכב לה על כתפה ואותו היום הוזכרו דבריו של רבי ישמעאל בבית המדרש ובכתה בכייה גדולה בבית המדרש,אמרו דבר שאמר אותו צדיק יכשל בו זרעו,דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל משום רבי ישמעאל (במדבר ה, יג) והיא לא נתפשה אסורה הא נתפשה מותרת ויש לך אחרת שאע"פ שלא נתפשה מותרת ואיזו זו שקדושיה קדושי טעות שאע"פ שבנה מורכב על כתפה ממאנת והולכת לה,ונמנו וגמרו עד מתי הבת ממאנת עד שתביא שתי שערות פרוש ולא עבוד עובדא,רבי יצחק ותלמידי דרבי חנינא עבוד עובדא כרבי יהודה ואע"ג דנבעלה אזל רב שמן בר אבא אמרה קמיה דר' יוחנן אזל רבי יוחנן אמרה קמיה דרבי יהודה נשיאה שדר בלשא ואפקוה,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא לא שירבה השחור ממש אלא כדי שיהיו שתי שערות שוכבות ונראות כמי שירבה השחור על הלבן רבא אמר שתי שערות המקיפות משפה לשפה,א"ר חלבו אמר רב הונא שתי שערות שאמרו צריך שיהא בעיקרן גומות רב מלכיו אמר רב אדא בר אהבה גומות אע"פ שאין שערות,אמר רב חנינא בריה דרב איקא שפוד שפחות וגומות רב מלכיו בלורית אפר מקלה וגבינה רב מלכיא,רב פפא אמר מתני' ומתניתא רב מלכיא שמעתתא רב מלכיו וסימנא מתניתא מלכתא,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו שפחות,אמר רב אשי אמר לי מר זוטרא קשה בה רבי חנינא מסורא לא לישתמיט תנא ואשמועי' גומות אי אשמועינן גומות ה"א עד שיהו שתי שערות בשתי גומות קמ"ל דאפילו שתי שערות בגומא אחת,ומי איכא כה"ג והכתיב (איוב ט, יז) אשר בשערה ישופני והרבה פצעי חנם ואמר רבא איוב בסערה חירף בסערה השיבוהו בסערה חירף אמר לפניו רבש"ע שמא רוח סערה עברה לפניך ונתחלפה לך בין איוב לאויב בסערה השיבוהו {איוב לח } ויען ה' את 52a. fragrant bspices. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bA young girl whoreached the age of puberty and bgrew twopubic bhairsis an adult. If her childless husband dies, bshe either performs iḥalitza /iand is thereby permitted to marry anyone, bor enters into levirate marriagewith her husband’s brother. bAndfurthermore, such a girl is bobligated tofulfill ball the mitzvot stated in the Torahin which women are obligated., bAnd likewise, a young boy whoreached the age of puberty and bgrew twopubic bhairsis an adult and is bobligated tofulfill ball the mitzvot stated in the Torah. And he is fit to bedeclared ba stubborn and rebellious sonif he performs the actions that warrant that designation, bfrom when he grows twopubic bhairs untilhis bbeard will form a circle.During that period, although he is an adult and punishable for his actions, he is incapable of fathering a child. Consequently, as he is a son and not a father, he can be designated a stubborn and rebellious son.,The mishna explains that the reference is to bthe lower,pubic, hair, band not to the upper,facial, hair. bButthe term beard is used, despite its being subject to misinterpretation, due to the fact bthat the Sages spoke euphemistically. /b, bA young girl whoreached the age of puberty and bgrew twopubic bhairs can nolonger bperform refusalto end a marriage with a husband to whom she was married as a minor by her mother and brothers after her father’s death. bRabbi Yehuda says:She retains the right to perform refusal buntilthe pubic hair will grow to the extent bthat the blackhair bwill be preponderantin the pubic area., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara raises an objection: bBut since we learnedin the mishna that a young girl who reached the age of puberty and grew two pubic hairs is considered an adult and is bobligated tofulfill ball the mitzvot stated in the Torah, why do Ineed the mishna to also teach: bShe either performs iḥalitzaor enters into levirate marriage.These specific examples are included in the broader statement.,The Gemara explains: This emphasis serves bto excludethe opinion bof Rabbi Yosei, who said: Man,i.e., an adult man, bis written in the passageof iḥalitza /i: “And if the man does not wish to take his brother’s wife” (Deuteronomy 25:7). bButwith regard to the bwoman, whethershe is ban adult or whethershe is ba minor,she can be released by iḥalitza /i, as the Torah does not specify her age. The mishna bteaches us thatthe ihalakhais not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yosei. Rather, bifshe bgrew twopubic bhairs,then byes,she can perform iḥalitza /i, whereas bifshe did bnotgrow two hairs, she may bnotperform iḥalitzaor enter into levirate marriage. bWhat is the reasonfor this ruling? It is that the ihalakhaof the bwomanis blikethat of the bman,as a woman is juxtaposed to man in this passage.,The Gemara asks further: bAnd since we learnedin the continuation of the mishna: bAnd likewise, a young boy whoreached the age of puberty and bgrew twopubic bhairsis an adult, bwhy do Ineed the mishna to add explicitly: Is bobligated tofulfill ball the mitzvot stated in the Torah? /b, bAnd if you would saythat the mishna specified this bbecauseit bwanted to teachthe particular ihalakha /i: bAnd he is fit to bedeclared ba stubborn and rebellious son,that cannot be the reason, as bwealready blearnedthat ihalakha /ion banother occasionin a mishna ( iSanhedrin68b): bWhenis such a boy liable to receive the death penalty imposed upon ba stubborn and rebellious son? From when he grows twopubic bhairs untilhis bbeard will form a circle.The reference is to bthe lower,pubic, hair band not to the upper,facial hair, bbutthe term beard is used, due to the fact bthat the Sages spoke euphemistically. /b,The Gemara answers: bYes,it bis indeed so,i.e., it is not necessary for the mishna to specify with regard to a boy that he is obligated to fulfill all the mitzvot stated in the Torah. bBut sincethe mishna bspecifiedthis bmatterin the case bof a young girl,it balso specifiedthis bmatterin the case bof a young boy. /b,§ The mishna teaches: bA young girl whoreached the age of puberty and bgrewtwo pubic hairs can no longer perform refusal to end a marriage with a husband to whom she was married as a minor by her mother and brothers after her father’s death. Rabbi Yehuda maintains that she retains the right of refusal until the pubic hair grows to the extent that the black hair is preponderant in the pubic area. bRabbi Abbahu saysthat bRabbi Elazar says:The ihalakha /iis bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yehuda concedesto the Rabbis bthat if she engaged in intercoursewith her husband bafter she grew twopubic bhairs,she bcan no longer perform refusal.This is because the act of intercourse renders her betrothed to him by Torah law, and refusal is a rabbinic enactment that is effective only with regard to a betrothal that applies by rabbinic law., bRav Kahana’s colleagues thought to perform an action in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehudain the mishna, bandto permit a young girl who had grown two pubic hairs to perform refusal, beven though shehad bengaged in intercoursewith her husband after growing two hairs. They held that until the pubic hair grows to the extent that the black hair is preponderant in the pubic area, her betrothal does not apply by Torah law., bRav Kahana said tohis colleagues: bDidn’t the incident involving Rabbi Yishmael’s daughter,who was married as a minor by her mother and brothers after her father’s death, transpire bin that manner? As she came to the study hall to refuseher marriage, band her son was riding on her shoulders. And on thatvery bday, Rabbi Yishmael’s statement,that a young girl may perform refusal even if she engaged in intercourse with her husband after growing two hairs, bwas mentioned in the study hall. And she criedwith ba great weeping in the study hall,as a result of the incident.,The Sages who were in the study hall bsaid:Could it be that with regard to ba matter that that righteousRabbi Yishmael bsaid,i.e., that she can perform refusal, bhis offspring would stumble upon it?The consequence of her refusal is that she is considered to have borne the child retroactively out of wedlock., bAs Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel says in the name of Rabbi Yishmael:The verse states with regard to a isota /i: b“And neither was she taken”(Numbers 5:13), i.e., raped. In this case bshe is prohibitedto her husband. It may be inferred that if she bwas takenforcefully bshe is permittedto her husband. bAnd there isa case of banotherwoman bwhere, even though she was not takenforcefully, but was willing, she nevertheless remains bpermitted. And whichcase bis this?This is referring to one bwhose betrothalwas ba mistaken betrothal, as, even if her sonfrom this marriage bis riding on her shoulders she may perform refusal and gooff as pleases bher.Although she engaged in intercourse with her husband after growing two pubic hairs, she was relying on the original betrothal, which was a mistaken betrothal, and did not intend to become betrothed to him by means of this intercourse, which would have rendered her betrothed by Torah law. She may therefore nullify the betrothal by means of refusal., bAndthe Gemara relates that as a result of the event involving Rabbi Yishmael’s daughter, the Sages assembled, bcountedthe votes, band concluded: Until when maya young bgirl perform refusal? Untilshe bgrows twopubic bhairs.Once Rav Kahana’s colleagues heard this, they bretractedand bdid not perform an actionin accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda in the mishna, to permit the girl to perform refusal as they had originally planned.,The Gemara further relates that bRabbi Yitzḥak and the disciples of Rabbi Ḥanina performed an action in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehudain the mishna, bandpermitted a young girl who had grown two pubic hairs to perform refusal, beven though shehad bengaged in intercoursewith her husband after growing two hairs. bRav Shemen bar Abbasubsequently bwentand bstatedthis story bbefore Rabbi Yoḥa,and bRabbi Yoḥa wentand bstated it before Rabbi Yehuda Nesia.Rabbi Yehuda Nesia bsent a constable [ iballasha /i] and removedthat girl from her second husband.,With regard to Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion, that the black hair must be preponderant in the pubic area, bRav Ḥisda saysthat bMar Ukva says:This does bnotmean bthatthe bblackhair must bliterally be preponderantin the pubic area. bRather, there must be two hairs lying down, so that it appears as though the blackhairs in the pubic area cover an area bgreater than the whitearea uncovered by hair. bRava says:Rabbi Yehuda means that there are btwo hairs that surroundthe pubic area bfrom end to end. /b,§ The mishna teaches that the growth of two hairs is a sign of becoming an adult. The Gemara clarifies the details of this ihalakha /i. bRabbi Ḥelbo saysthat bRav Huna says:These btwo hairs thatthe Sages bsaidare a sign of adulthood bmust have follicles at their roots. Rav Malkiyyu saysthat bRav Adda bar Ahavasays: If there are two bfolliclesnext to each other, they constitute a sign of adulthood beven if there are no hairsin them. The assumption is that follicles do not exist without hair, and therefore there must have been hairs there that fell out.,This ihalakhawas stated by a Sage by the name of Rav Malkiyyu. To prevent confusion between his rulings and those of the similarly named Rav Malkiyya, bRabbi Ḥanina, son of Rav Ika, says:The ihalakhainvolving ba skewer,the ihalakhawith regard to bmaidservants, andthe ihalakhainvolving hair bfollicleswere all stated by bRav Malkiyyu.By contrast, the ihalakhawith regard to the bforelock [ ibelorit /i],the ihalakhainvolving bburnt ashes, andthe ihalakhawith regard to bcheesewere all stated by a different Sage named bRav Malkiyya. /b, bRav Pappa says:The aforementioned ihalakhotthat relate to ba mishna or a ibaraita /iwere stated by bRav Malkiyya,whereas ihalakhot /ithat do not refer to a mishna or ibaraitabut are independent statements of iamora’imwere taught by bRav Malkiyyu. And a mnemonicto remember this is: bThe mishna is a queen [ imalketa /i],i.e., the comments that are referring to a mishna were issued by Rav Malkiyya, whose name is similar to the Aramaic term for queen.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthe opinion of Rabbi Ḥanina, son of Rav Ika, and Rav Pappa? The Gemara answers: The difference bbetween themis with regard to which Sage taught the ihalakhainvolving bmaidservants.Rav Pappa maintains that it was taught by Rav Malkiyya, as it is referring to a dispute in a mishna. By contrast, according to Rabbi Ḥanina, this ihalakhawas stated by Rav Malkiyyu.,With regard to the ihalakhaof Rav Malkiyyu itself, concerning follicles, bRav Ashi says: Mar Zutra told methat bRabbi Ḥanina of Suraposed the following bdifficulty:If it is correct that follicles suffice as a sign of adulthood, bletthe itanna /iof the mishna bnot evadethe issue, bbutrather let him bteach usexplicitly that bfolliclesare a sign of adulthood even if they do not contain hair. The Gemara answers: bIfthe mishna had btaught usthe case of bfollicles, I would saythat they are not considered a sign of adulthood buntil there are two hairs in two follicles.By omitting any mention of follicles in the mishna, the itanna bteaches us that even two hairs in one follicleare a sign of adulthood.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is thereactually ba case like this,of two hairs in one follicle? bBut isn’t it written: “He crushes me with a tempest, and multiplies my wounds without cause”(Job 9:17); band Rava saidwith regard to this verse: bJob blasphemed with a tempest,and bwith a tempest he was answered. He blasphemed with a tempest,as Job bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, perhaps a tempest passed before You and You confused Iyyov,Job, bwith ioyev /i,enemy. bWith a tempest he was answered,as the verse states: b“Then the Lord answered /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ben sira Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 75, 79
canon criticism, formation of DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 176
canon criticism, structure of DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 176
chozê (חזה ( Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 79
elijah, eschatological return of DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 156, 176
ezekiel DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 176
hebrew Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 75, 79
hellenism DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 176
isaiah DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 176
josephus Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 75
joshua, as prophet like moses DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 176
latter prophets Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 75
lxx/septuagint/septuaginta Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 79, 171
malachi Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 171
nazirite Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 79
prophetic succession DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 176
rabbinic literature Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 75
rôʾê (רואה ( Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 79
rôʿê (רועה ( Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 79
samuel Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 75, 79
scribe Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 75
scribes and scribalism DeJong, A Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15, 18): The Origin, History, and Influence of the Mosaic Prophetic Succession (2022) 176
seer Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 79
septuagint/septuaginta/lxx Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 79, 171
syriac Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 75
talmud Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 171
tradition Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 75
twelve prophets Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 75
vitae prophetarum Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 171
wisdom Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 75
חזה) chozê) Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 79
נביא Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 75, 79
רואה) rôʾê) Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 79
רועה) rôʿê)' Bezzel and Pfeiffer, Prophecy and Hellenism (2021) 79