Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



707
Septuagint, Wisdom Of Solomon, 2.23-2.24


nanIn dishonour was her beauty cast upon the ground.


nanfor God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity


nanAnd I saw and entreated the Lord and said, Long enough, O Lord, has Thine hand been heavy on Israel, in bringing the nations upon (them).


nanbut through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

54 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.7, 4.16 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.16. Give of your bread to the hungry, and of your clothing to the naked. Give all your surplus to charity, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you made it.
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27, 2.7, 2.10, 3.9, 3.22, 5.1, 6.1-6.8, 9.6, 15.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 3.9. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָאָדָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אַיֶּכָּה׃ 3.22. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃ 5.1. זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֹתוֹ׃ 5.1. וַיְחִי אֱנוֹשׁ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־קֵינָן חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 6.1. וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃ 6.1. וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃ 6.2. וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃ 6.2. מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃ 6.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.4. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃ 6.5. וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃ 6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃ 6.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָאתִי מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה עַד־רֶמֶשׂ וְעַד־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם כִּי נִחַמְתִּי כִּי עֲשִׂיתִם׃ 6.8. וְנֹחַ מָצָא חֵן בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 9.6. שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם׃ 15.2. וְאֶת־הַחִתִּי וְאֶת־הַפְּרִזִּי וְאֶת־הָרְפָאִים׃ 15.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֲדֹנָי יֱהוִה מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִי וְאָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי וּבֶן־מֶשֶׁק בֵּיתִי הוּא דַּמֶּשֶׂק אֱלִיעֶזֶר׃ 1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 2.10. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became four heads." 3.9. And the LORD God called unto the man, and said unto him: ‘Where art thou?’" 3.22. And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’" 5.1. This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;" 6.1. And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them," 6.2. that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose." 6.3. And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’" 6.4. The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown." 6.5. And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually." 6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart." 6.7. And the LORD said: ‘I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air; for it repenteth Me that I have made them.’" 6.8. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD." 9.6. Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man." 15.2. And Abram said: ‘O Lord GOD, what wilt Thou give me, seeing I go hence childless, and he that shall be possessor of my house is Eliezer of Damascus?’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 1.2-1.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. אֵל קַנּוֹא וְנֹקֵם יְהוָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה וּבַעַל חֵמָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה לְצָרָיו וְנוֹטֵר הוּא לְאֹיְבָיו׃ 1.3. יְהֹוָה אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וגדול־[וּגְדָל־] כֹּחַ וְנַקֵּה לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה בְּסוּפָה וּבִשְׂעָרָה דַּרְכּוֹ וְעָנָן אֲבַק רַגְלָיו׃ 1.2. The LORD is a jealous and avenging God, The LORD avengeth and is full of wrath; The LORD taketh vengeance on His adversaries, And He reserveth wrath for His enemies." 1.3. The LORD is long-suffering, and great in power, And will by no means clear the guilty; The LORD, in the whirlwind and in the storm is His way, And the clouds are the dust of His feet."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 14.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.14. וְאָמְרוּ אֶל־יוֹשֵׁב הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת שָׁמְעוּ כִּי־אַתָּה יְהוָה בְּקֶרֶב הָעָם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר־עַיִן בְּעַיִן נִרְאָה אַתָּה יְהוָה וַעֲנָנְךָ עֹמֵד עֲלֵהֶם וּבְעַמֻּד עָנָן אַתָּה הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם יוֹמָם וּבְעַמּוּד אֵשׁ לָיְלָה׃ 14.14. they will say to the inhabitants of this land, who have heard that Thou LORD art in the midst of this people; inasmuch as Thou LORD art seen face to face, and Thy cloud standeth over them, and Thou goest before them, in a pillar of cloud by day, and in a pillar of fire by night;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22-8.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;"
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 53.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

53.7. נִגַּשׂ וְהוּא נַעֲנֶה וְלֹא יִפְתַּח־פִּיו כַּשֶּׂה לַטֶּבַח יוּבָל וּכְרָחֵל לִפְנֵי גֹזְזֶיהָ נֶאֱלָמָה וְלֹא יִפְתַּח פִּיו׃ 53.7. He was oppressed, though he humbled himself And opened not his mouth; As a lamb that is led to the slaughter, And as a sheep that before her shearers is dumb; Yea, he opened not his mouth."
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 24.17-24.25 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.17. וְאַחֲרֵי מוֹת יְהוֹיָדָע בָּאוּ שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַמֶּלֶךְ אָז שָׁמַע הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 24.18. וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרִים וְאֶת־הָעֲצַבִּים וַיְהִי־קֶצֶף עַל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם בְּאַשְׁמָתָם זֹאת׃ 24.19. וַיִּשְׁלַח בָּהֶם נְבִאִים לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֶל־יְהוָה וַיָּעִידוּ בָם וְלֹא הֶאֱזִינוּ׃ 24.21. וַיִּקְשְׁרוּ עָלָיו וַיִּרְגְּמֻהוּ אֶבֶן בְּמִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֲצַר בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 24.22. וְלֹא־זָכַר יוֹאָשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוֹיָדָע אָבִיו עִמּוֹ וַיַּהֲרֹג אֶת־בְּנוֹ וּכְמוֹתוֹ אָמַר יֵרֶא יְהוָה וְיִדְרֹשׁ׃ 24.23. וַיְהִי לִתְקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה עָלָה עָלָיו חֵיל אֲרָם וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּשְׁחִיתוּ אֶת־כָּל־שָׂרֵי הָעָם מֵעָם וְכָל־שְׁלָלָם שִׁלְּחוּ לְמֶלֶךְ דַּרְמָשֶׂק׃ 24.24. כִּי בְמִצְעַר אֲנָשִׁים בָּאוּ חֵיל אֲרָם וַיהוָה נָתַן בְּיָדָם חַיִל לָרֹב מְאֹד כִּי עָזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וְאֶת־יוֹאָשׁ עָשׂוּ שְׁפָטִים׃ 24.25. וּבְלֶכְתָּם מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי־עָזְבוּ אֹתוֹ במחליים [בְּמַחֲלוּיִם] רַבִּים הִתְקַשְּׁרוּ עָלָיו עֲבָדָיו בִּדְמֵי בְּנֵי יְהוֹיָדָע הַכֹּהֵן וַיַּהַרְגֻהוּ עַל־מִטָּתוֹ וַיָּמֹת וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בְּעִיר דָּוִיד וְלֹא קְבָרֻהוּ בְּקִבְרוֹת הַמְּלָכִים׃ 24.17. Now after the death of Jehoiada came the princes of Judah, and prostrated themselves before the king. Then the king hearkened unto them." 24.18. And they forsook the house of the LORD, the God of their fathers, and served the Asherim and the idols; and wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for this their guiltiness." 24.19. Yet He sent prophets to them, to bring them back unto the LORD; and they admonished them, but they would not give ear." 24.20. And the spirit of God clothed Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest; and he stood above the people, and said unto them: ‘Thus saith God: Why transgress ye the commandments of the LORD, that ye cannot prosper? because ye have forsaken the LORD, He hath also forsaken you.’" 24.21. And they conspired against him, and stoned him with stones at the commandment of the king in the court of the house of the LORD." 24.22. Thus Joash the king remembered not the kindness which Jehoiada his father had done to him, but slew his son. And when he died, he said: ‘The LORD look upon it, and require it.’" 24.23. And it came to pass, when the year was come about, that the army of the Arameans came up against him; and they came to Judah and Jerusalem, and destroyed all the princes of the people from among the people, and sent all the spoil of them unto the king of Damascus." 24.24. For the army of the Arameans came with a small company of men; and the LORD delivered a very great host into their hand, because they had forsaken the LORD, the God of their fathers. So they executed judgment upon Joash." 24.25. And when they were departed from him—for they left him in great diseases—his own servants conspired against him for the blood of the sons of Jehoiada the priest, and slew him on his bed, and he died; and they buried him in the city of David, but they buried him not in the sepulchres of the kings."
9. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

11. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

34b. which was one day to be existent, whereby He made it smooth and even and equal on all sides from the center, a whole and perfect body compounded of perfect bodies, And in the midst thereof He set Soul, which He stretched throughout the whole of it, and therewith He enveloped also the exterior of its body; and as a Circle revolving in a circle He established one sole and solitary Heaven, able of itself because of its excellence to company with itself and needing none other beside, sufficing unto itself as acquaintance and friend. And because of all this He generated it to be a blessed God.
12. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.7, 4.16 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.16. Give of your bread to the hungry, and of your clothing to the naked. Give all your surplus to charity, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you made it.
13. Anon., 1 Enoch, 10-19, 2, 20-29, 3, 30-36, 4-8, 85-89, 9, 90, 1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, [And appear from His camp] And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him.
14. Anon., Jubilees, 4.31-4.32 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.31. and behold there he writeth down the condemnation and judgment of the world, and all the wickedness of the children of men. 4.32. And on account of it (God) brought the waters of the flood upon all the land of Eden; for there he was set as a sign and that he should testify against all the children of men, that he should recount all the deeds of the generations until the day of condemnation.
15. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 1.93 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.93. Pellantur ergo istae ineptiae paene aniles, ante tempus mori miserum esse. quod tandem tempus? naturaene? at ad X at V c ea ea V (eam Gr.) quidem dedit usuram vitae tamquam pecuniae nulla praestituta die. quid est igitur quod querare, si repetit, cum volt? ea enim condicione conditione GKV acceperas. Idem, si puer parvus occidit, aequo animo ferendum putant, si vero in cunis, ne querendum quaerendum GRV quidem. atqui ab ab extra v. add. K 1 hoc acerbius exegit natura quod dederat. nondum gustaverat, inquit, vitae suavitatem; hic autem iam sperabat magna, quibus frui coeuperat. at at ad GKR id id ipsum q. V rec s quidem in ceteris ceteris certis V (ert in r. V c ) rebus melius putatur, aliquam partem quam nullam attingere: cur in vita secus? (quamquam non male ait agit KV Callimachus Call. fr. 363 multo saepius lacrimasse Priamum quam Troilum). eorum autem, autem add. G 1 qui exacta ex acta V et acta GKR aetate challimachus multi moriuntur K ( add. c et... fort. 2 ) in mg. multo sepius... 24 etate K c moriuntur, fortuna laudatur.
16. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 14.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.13-4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, Genesis Apocryphon, 20.28-20.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.1-17.14, 33.1, 33.7-33.15, 40.1-40.7, 41.1-41.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works. 17.2. He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 17.2. Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 17.4. He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds. 17.6. He made for them tongue and eyes;he gave them ears and a mind for thinking. 17.7. He filled them with knowledge and understanding,and showed them good and evil. 17.8. He set his eye upon their hearts to show them the majesty of his works. 17.11. He bestowed knowledge upon them,and allotted to them the law of life. 17.12. He established with them an eternal covet,and showed them his judgments. 17.13. Their eyes saw his glorious majesty,and their ears heard the glory of his voice. 17.14. And he said to them, "Beware of all unrighteousness." And he gave commandment to each of them concerning his neighbor. 33.1. No evil will befall the man who fears the Lord,but in trial he will deliver him again and again. 33.1. All men are from the ground,and Adam was created of the dust. 33.7. Why is any day better than another,when all the daylight in the year is from the sun? 33.8. By the Lords decision they were distinguished,and he appointed the different seasons and feasts; 33.9. some of them he exalted and hallowed,and some of them he made ordinary days. 33.11. In the fulness of his knowledge the Lord distinguished them and appointed their different ways; 33.12. some of them he blessed and exalted,and some of them he made holy and brought near to himself;but some of them he cursed and brought low,and he turned them out of their place. 33.13. As clay in the hand of the potter -- for all his ways are as he pleases -- so men are in the hand of him who made them,to give them as he decides. 33.14. Good is the opposite of evil,and life the opposite of death;so the sinner is the opposite of the godly. 33.15. Look upon all the works of the Most High;they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other. 40.1. Much labor was created for every man,and a heavy yoke is upon the sons of Adam,from the day they come forth from their mothers womb till the day they return to the mother of all. 40.1. All these were created for the wicked,and on their account the flood came. 40.2. Their perplexities and fear of heart -- their anxious thought is the day of death 40.2. Wine and music gladden the heart,but the love of wisdom is better than both. 40.3. from the man who sits on a splendid throne to the one who is humbled in dust and ashes 40.3. In the mouth of the shameless begging is sweet,but in his stomach a fire is kindled. 40.4. from the man who wears purple and a crown to the one who is clothed in burlap; 40.5. there is anger and envy and trouble and unrest,and fear of death, and fury and strife. And when one rests upon his bed,his sleep at night confuses his mind. 40.6. He gets little or no rest,and afterward in his sleep, as though he were on watch,he is troubled by the visions of his mind like one who has escaped from the battle-front; 40.7. at the moment of his rescue he wakes up,and wonders that his fear came to nothing. 41.1. O death, how bitter is the reminder of you to one who lives at peace among his possessions,to a man without distractions, who is prosperous in everything,and who still has the vigor to enjoy his food! 41.1. Whatever is from the dust returns to dust;so the ungodly go from curse to destruction. 41.2. and of silence, before those who greet you;of looking at a woman who is a harlot 41.4. and how can you reject the good pleasure of the Most High?Whether life is for ten or a hundred or a thousand years,there is no inquiry about it in Hades.
20. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.7, 1.12-1.16, 2.1-2.22, 2.24-2.25, 2.33, 3.2-3.5, 3.10-3.19, 4.1, 5.15-5.23, 6.18-6.19, 6.23, 7.24, 7.26, 8.13, 8.17, 9.15, 10.3-10.4, 10.11, 10.21, 11.3, 12.12, 15.7-15.13, 17.1-17.3, 18.5, 18.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.7. Because the Spirit of the Lord has filled the world,and that which holds all things together knows what is said; 1.12. Do not invite death by the error of your life,nor bring on destruction by the works of your hands; 1.13. because God did not make death,and he does not delight in the death of the living. 1.14. For he created all things that they might exist,and the generative forces of the world are wholesome,and there is no destructive poison in them;and the dominion of Hades is not on earth. 1.15. For righteousness is immortal. 1.16. But ungodly men by their words and deeds summoned death;considering him a friend, they pined away,and they made a covet with him,because they are fit to belong to his party. 2.1. For they reasoned unsoundly, saying to themselves,"Short and sorrowful is our life,and there is no remedy when a man comes to his end,and no one has been known to return from Hades. 2.2. Because we were born by mere chance,and hereafter we shall be as though we had never been;because the breath in our nostrils is smoke,and reason is a spark kindled by the beating of our hearts. 2.3. When it is extinguished, the body will turn to ashes,and the spirit will dissolve like empty air. 2.4. Our name will be forgotten in time and no one will remember our works;our life will pass away like the traces of a cloud,and be scattered like mist that is chased by the rays of the sun and overcome by its heat. 2.5. For our allotted time is the passing of a shadow,and there is no return from our death,because it is sealed up and no one turns back. 2.6. Come, therefore, let us enjoy the good things that exist,and make use of the creation to the full as in youth. 2.7. Let us take our fill of costly wine and perfumes,and let no flower of spring pass by us. 2.8. Let us crown ourselves with rosebuds before they wither. 2.9. Let none of us fail to share in our revelry,everywhere let us leave signs of enjoyment,because this is our portion, and this our lot. 2.10. Let us oppress the righteous poor man;let us not spare the widow nor regard the gray hairs of the aged. 2.11. But let our might be our law of right,for what is weak proves itself to be useless. 2.12. Let us lie in wait for the righteous man,because he is inconvenient to us and opposes our actions;he reproaches us for sins against the law,and accuses us of sins against our training. 2.13. He professes to have knowledge of God,and calls himself a child of the Lord. 2.14. He became to us a reproof of our thoughts; 2.15. the very sight of him is a burden to us,because his manner of life is unlike that of others,and his ways are strange. 2.16. We are considered by him as something base,and he avoids our ways as unclean;he calls the last end of the righteous happy,and boasts that God is his father. 2.17. Let us see if his words are true,and let us test what will happen at the end of his life; 2.18. for if the righteous man is Gods son, he will help him,and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries. 2.19. Let us test him with insult and torture,that we may find out how gentle he is,and make trial of his forbearance. 2.20. Let us condemn him to a shameful death,for, according to what he says, he will be protected. 2.21. Thus they reasoned, but they were led astray,for their wickedness blinded them 2.22. and they did not know the secret purposes of God,nor hope for the wages of holiness,nor discern the prize for blameless souls; 2.24. but through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it. 3.2. In the eyes of the foolish they seemed to have died,and their departure was thought to be an affliction 3.3. and their going from us to be their destruction;but they are at peace. 3.4. For though in the sight of men they were punished,their hope is full of immortality. 3.5. Having been disciplined a little, they will receive great good,because God tested them and found them worthy of himself; 3.10. But the ungodly will be punished as their reasoning deserves,who disregarded the righteous man and rebelled against the Lord; 3.11. for whoever despises wisdom and instruction is miserable. Their hope is vain, their labors are unprofitable,and their works are useless. 3.12. Their wives are foolish, and their children evil; 3.13. their offspring are accursed. For blessed is the barren woman who is undefiled,who has not entered into a sinful union;she will have fruit when God examines souls. 3.14. Blessed also is the eunuch whose hands have done no lawless deed,and who has not devised wicked things against the Lord;for special favor will be shown him for his faithfulness,and a place of great delight in the temple of the Lord. 3.15. For the fruit of good labors is renowned,and the root of understanding does not fail. 3.16. But children of adulterers will not come to maturity,and the offspring of an unlawful union will perish. 3.17. Even if they live long they will be held of no account,and finally their old age will be without honor. 3.18. If they die young, they will have no hope and no consolation in the day of decision. 3.19. For the end of an unrighteous generation is grievous. 4.1. Better than this is childlessness with virtue,for in the memory of virtue is immortality,because it is known both by God and by men. 5.15. But the righteous live for ever,and their reward is with the Lord;the Most High takes care of them. 5.16. Therefore they will receive a glorious crown and a beautiful diadem from the hand of the Lord,because with his right hand he will cover them,and with his arm he will shield them. 5.17. The Lord will take his zeal as his whole armor,and will arm all creation to repel his enemies; 5.18. he will put on righteousness as a breastplate,and wear impartial justice as a helmet; 5.19. he will take holiness as an invincible shield 5.20. and sharpen stern wrath for a sword,and creation will join with him to fight against the madmen. 5.21. Shafts of lightning will fly with true aim,and will leap to the target as from a well-drawn bow of clouds 5.22. and hailstones full of wrath will be hurled as from a catapult;the water of the sea will rage against them,and rivers will relentlessly overwhelm them; 5.23. a mighty wind will rise against them,and like a tempest it will winnow them away. Lawlessness will lay waste the whole earth,and evil-doing will overturn the thrones of rulers. 6.18. and love of her is the keeping of her laws,and giving heed to her laws is assurance of immortality 6.19. and immortality brings one near to God; 6.23. neither will I travel in the company of sickly envy,for envy does not associate with wisdom. 7.24. For wisdom is more mobile than any motion;because of her pureness she pervades and penetrates all things. 7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 8.13. Because of her I shall have immortality,and leave an everlasting remembrance to those who come after me. 8.17. When I considered these things inwardly,and thought upon them in my mind,that in kinship with wisdom there is immortality 9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind. 10.3. But when an unrighteous man departed from her in his anger,he perished because in rage he slew his brother. 10.4. When the earth was flooded because of him,wisdom again saved it,steering the righteous man by a paltry piece of wood. 10.11. When his oppressors were covetous,she stood by him and made him rich. 10.21. because wisdom opened the mouth of the dumb,and made the tongues of babes speak clearly. 11.3. They withstood their enemies and fought off their foes. 12.12. For who will say, "What hast thou done?" Or will resist thy judgment?Who will accuse thee for the destruction of nations which thou didst make?Or who will come before thee to plead as an advocate for unrighteous men? 15.7. For when a potter kneads the soft earth and laboriously molds each vessel for our service,he fashions out of the same clay both the vessels that serve clean uses and those for contrary uses, making all in like manner;but which shall be the use of each of these the worker in clay decides. 15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him. 15.9. But he is not concerned that he is destined to die or that his life is brief,but he competes with workers in gold and silver,and imitates workers in copper;and he counts it his glory that he molds counterfeit gods. 15.10. His heart is ashes, his hope is cheaper than dirt,and his life is of less worth than clay 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit. 15.12. But he considered our existence an idle game,and life a festival held for profit,for he says one must get money however one can, even by base means. 15.13. For this man, more than all others, knows that he sins when he makes from earthy matter fragile vessels and graven images. 17.1. Great are thy judgments and hard to describe;therefore unintructed souls have gone astray. 17.2. For when lawless men supposed that they held the holy nation in their power,they themselves lay as captives of darkness and prisoners of long night,shut in under their roofs, exiles from eternal providence. 17.3. For thinking that in their secret sins they were unobserved behind a dark curtain of forgetfulness,they were scattered, terribly alarmed,and appalled by specters. 18.5. When they had resolved to kill the babes of thy holy ones,and one child had been exposed and rescued,thou didst in punishment take away a multitude of their children;and thou didst destroy them all together by a mighty flood. 18.22. He conquered the wrath not by strength of body,and not by force of arms,but by his word he subdued the punisher,appealing to the oaths and covets given to our fathers.
21. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.102-1.126 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 149 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

149. And I also admire the things which are spoken under divine inspiration in the books of Kings, according to which those who flourished many generations afterwards and lived in a blameless manner, are spoken of as the sons of David who wrote hymns to God; though, during his lifetime, even their great grandfathers had not yet been born. The truth is, that the birth here spoken of is that of souls made immortal by their virtues, not of perishable bodies, and this birth is naturally referred to the leaders of virtue, as its parents and progenitors. XXIX.
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 181 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

181. but he differs from them widely in their opinion of God, not intimating that either the world itself, or the soul of the world, is the original God, nor that the stars or their motions are the primary causes of the events which happen among men; but he teaches that this universe is held together by invisible powers, which the Creator has spread from the extreme borders of the earth to heaven, making a beautiful provision to prevent what he has joined together from being dissolved; for the indissoluble chains which bind the universe are his powers.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 21, 24-25, 77-88, 154 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

154. And these statements appear to me to be dictated by a philosophy which is symbolical rather than strictly accurate. For no trees of life or of knowledge have ever at any previous time appeared upon the earth, nor is it likely that any will appear hereafter. But I rather conceive that Moses was speaking in an allegorical spirit, intending by his paradise to intimate the domit character of the soul, which is full of innumerable opinions as this figurative paradise was of trees. And by the tree of life he was shadowing out the greatest of the virtuesùnamely, piety towards the gods, by means of which the soul is made immortal; and by the tree which had the knowledge of good an evil, he was intimating that wisdom and moderation, by means of which things, contrary in their nature to one another, are distinguished. LV.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.112 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.112. for what can be more insignificant than a louse? And yet it was so powerful that all Egypt fainted under the host of them, and was compelled to cry out, that "this is the anger of God." For all the earth put together, from one end to the other, could not withstand the hand of God, no nor all the universe.
26. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.16, 1.45, 1.55 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

27. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 57 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

57. So that the race of mankind also is twofold, the one being the race of those who live by the divine Spirit and reason; the other of those who exist according to blood and the pleasure of the flesh. This species is formed of the earth, but that other is an accurate copy of the divine image;
28. Anon., 2 Baruch, 14.17-14.19, 23.4, 54.14, 54.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Epictetus, Discourses, 4.7.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.154 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement;
31. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.49, 15.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality.
32. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.4, 5.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

33. New Testament, Acts, 26.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

26.18. to open their eyes, that they may turn from darkness to light and from the power of Satan to God, that they may receive remission of sins and an inheritance among those who are sanctified by faith in me.'
34. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.3, 2.9-2.11, 3.3, 6.15, 13.15-13.17, 16.15, 18.6-18.7, 18.23, 19.9, 20.6, 20.14, 22.7, 22.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of the prophecy, and keep the things that are written in it, for the time is at hand. 2.9. I know your works, oppression, and your poverty (but you are rich), and the blasphemy of those who say they are Jews, and they are not, but are a synagogue of Satan. 2.10. Don't be afraid of the things which you are about to suffer. Behold, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested; and you will have oppression for ten days. Be faithful to death, and I will give you the crown of life. 2.11. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. He who overcomes won't be harmed by the second death. 3.3. Remember therefore how you have received and heard. Keep it, and repent. If therefore you won't watch, I will come as a thief, and you won't know what hour I will come upon you. 6.15. The kings of the earth, the princes, the commanding officers, the rich, the strong, and every slave and free person, hid themselves in the caves and in the rocks of the mountains. 13.15. It was given to him to give breath to it, to the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause as many as wouldn't worship the image of the beast to be killed. 13.16. He causes all, the small and the great, the rich and the poor, and the free and the slave, so that they should give them marks on their right hand, or on their forehead; 13.17. and that no one would be able to buy or to sell, unless he has that mark, the name of the beast or the number of his name. 16.15. Behold, I come like a thief. Blessed is he who watches, and keeps his clothes, so that he doesn't walk naked, and they see his shame. 18.6. Return to her just as she returned, and double back doubles as she did, and according to her works. In the cup which she mixed, mix to her double. 18.7. However much she glorified herself, and grew wanton, so much give her of torment and mourning. For she says in her heart, 'I sit a queen, and am no widow, and will in no way see mourning.' 18.23. The light of a lamp will shine no more at all in you. The voice of the bridegroom and of the bride will be heard no more at all in you; for your merchants were the princes of the earth; for with your sorcery all the nations were deceived. 19.9. He said to me, "Write, 'Blessed are those who are invited to the marriage supper of the Lamb.'" He said to me, "These are true words of God. 20.6. Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over these, the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and will reign with him one thousand years. 20.14. Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. 22.7. Behold, I come quickly. Blessed is he who keeps the words of the prophecy of this book. 22.14. Blessed are those who do his commandments, that they may have the right to the tree of life, and may enter in by the gates into the city.
35. New Testament, James, 1.12-1.15, 4.6-4.7, 5.7, 5.10-5.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. Blessed is the man who endures temptation, for when he has been approved, he will receive the crown of life, which the Lord promised to those who love him. 1.13. Let no man say when he is tempted, "I am tempted by God," for God can't be tempted by evil, and he himself tempts no one. 1.14. But each one is tempted, when he is drawn away by his own lust, and enticed. 1.15. Then the lust, when it has conceived, bears sin; and the sin, when it is full grown, brings forth death. 4.6. But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble. 4.7. Be subject therefore to God. But resist the devil, and he will flee from you. 5.7. Be patient therefore, brothers, until the coming of the Lord. Behold, the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient over it, until it receives the early and late rain. 5.10. Take, brothers, for an example of suffering and of patience, the prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord. 5.11. Behold, we call them blessed who endured. You have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the Lord in the outcome, and how the Lord is full of compassion and mercy.
36. New Testament, Jude, 7, 9, 6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

37. New Testament, Colossians, 1.13, 1.15-1.20, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. who delivered us out of the power of darkness, and translated us into the Kingdom of the Son of his love; 1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation. 1.16. For by him were all things created, in the heavens and on the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers; all things have been created through him, and for him. 1.17. He is before all things, and in him all things are held together. 1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence. 1.19. For all the fullness was pleased to dwell in him; 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens. 3.10. and have put on the new man, that is being renewed in knowledge after the image of his Creator
38. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.2, 6.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. in which you once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the powers of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience; 6.12. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world's rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.
39. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.15. and might deliver all of them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.
40. New Testament, Romans, 5.12-5.21, 7.24, 8.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 5.13. For until the law, sin was in the world; but sin is not charged when there is no law. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 5.15. But the free gift isn't like the trespass. For if by the trespass of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God, and the gift by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. 5.16. The gift is not as through one who sinned: for the judgment came by one to condemnation, but the free gift came of many trespasses to justification. 5.17. For if by the trespass of the one, death reigned through the one; so much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one, Jesus Christ. 5.18. So then as through one trespass, all men were condemned; even so through one act of righteousness, all men were justified to life. 5.19. For as through the one man's disobedience many were made sinners, even so through the obedience of the one will many be made righteous. 5.20. The law came in besides, that the trespass might abound; but where sin abounded, grace did abound more exceedingly; 5.21. that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord. 7.24. What a wretched man I am! Who will deliver me out of the body of this death? 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers.
41. New Testament, John, 12.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.31. Now is the judgment of this world. Now the prince of this world will be cast out.
42. New Testament, Mark, 4.11, 4.39, 8.11, 10.2, 12.15, 14.3-14.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables 4.39. He awoke, and rebuked the wind, and said to the sea, "Peace! Be still!" The wind ceased, and there was a great calm. 8.11. The Pharisees came out and began to question him, seeking from him a sign from heaven, and testing him. 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife? 12.15. Shall we give, or shall we not give?"But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said to them, "Why do you test me? Bring me a denarius, that I may see it. 14.3. While he was at Bethany, in the house of Simon the leper, as he sat at the table, a woman came having an alabaster jar of ointment of pure nard -- very costly. She broke the jar, and poured it over his head. 14.4. But there were some who were indigt among themselves, saying, "Why has this ointment been wasted? 14.5. For this might have been sold for more than three hundred denarii, and given to the poor." They grumbled against her. 14.6. But Jesus said, "Leave her alone. Why do you trouble her? She has done a good work for me. 14.7. For you always have the poor with you, and whenever you want to, you can do them good; but you will not always have me. 14.8. She has done what she could. She has anointed my body beforehand for the burying. 14.9. Most assuredly I tell you, wherever this gospel may be preached throughout the whole world, that which this woman has done will also be spoken of for a memorial of her.
43. New Testament, Matthew, 5.39, 6.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.39. But I tell you, don't resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. 6.21. for where your treasure is, there your heart will be also.
44. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 13.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

45. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 22.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

22.8. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֶבֶל הָיָה גִּבּוֹר מִקַּיִן, שֶׁאֵין תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וַיָּקָם, אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיָה נָתוּן תַּחְתָּיו, אָמַר לוֹ שְׁנֵינוּ בָּעוֹלָם מָה אַתְּ הוֹלֵךְ וְאוֹמֵר לְאַבָּא, נִתְמַלֵּא עָלָיו רַחֲמִים, מִיַּד עָמַד עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוֹ, מִן תַּמָּן אִינוּן אָמְרִין טַב לְבִישׁ לָא תַעֲבֵד וּבִישׁ לָא יִמְטֵי לָךְ. וַיַּהַרְגֵּהוּ, בַּמֶּה הֲרָגוֹ, רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אָמַר בְּקָנֶה הֲרָגוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ד, כג): וְיֶלֶד לְחַבֻּרָתִי, דָּבָר שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה חַבּוּרָה. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי בְּאֶבֶן הֲרָגוֹ, שֶׁנֶאֱמַר (בראשית ד, כג): כִּי אִישׁ הָרַגְתִּי לְפִצְעִי, דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה פְּצָעִים. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה וְרַבִּי יוֹנָתָן בַּר חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר נִתְבּוֹנֵן קַיִן מְהֵיכָן שָׁחַט אָבִיו אוֹתוֹ הַפָּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בּוֹ (תהלים סט, לב): וְתִיטַב לַה' מִשּׁוֹר פָּר, וּמִשָּׁם הֲרָגוֹ, מִמְּקוֹם הַצַּוָּאר מְקוֹם הַסִּימָנִין. וּמִי קְבָרוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן פְּדָת עוֹפוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְחַיּוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת קְבָרוּהוּ, וְנָתַן לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׂכָרָן שְׁתֵּי בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁמְבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶן, אַחַת לִשְׁחִיטָה וְאַחַת לְכִסּוּי הַדָּם.
46. Lucian, The Passing of Peregrinus, 23, 13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

47. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 11.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

48. Anon., Protevangelium of James, 24.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

49. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57b. אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה סח לי זקן אחד מאנשי ירושלים בבקעה זו הרג נבוזראדן רב טבחים מאתים ואחת עשרה רבוא ובירושלים הרג תשעים וארבע רבוא על אבן אחת עד שהלך דמן ונגע בדמו של זכריה לקיים מה שנאמר (הושע ד, ב) ודמים בדמים נגעו,אשכחיה לדמיה דזכריה דהוה קא מרתח וסליק אמר מאי האי אמרו ליה דם זבחים דאשתפוך אייתי דמי ולא אידמו,אמר להו אי אמריתו לי מוטב ואי לאו מסריקנא לבשרייכו במסרקי דפרזלי אמרי ליה מאי נימא לך נבייא הוה בן דהוה קא מוכח לן במילי דשמיא קמינן עילויה וקטלינן ליה והא כמה שנין דלא קא נייח דמיה,אמר להו אנא מפייסנא ליה אייתי סנהדרי גדולה וסנהדרי קטנה קטל עילויה ולא נח בחורים ובתולות קטל עילויה ולא נח אייתי תינוקות של בית רבן קטל עילויה ולא נח א"ל זכריה זכריה טובים שבהן איבדתים ניחא לך דאבדינהו לכולהו כדאמר ליה הכי נח,בההיא שעתא הרהר תשובה בדעתיה אמר ומה אם על נפש אחת כך ההוא גברא דקטל כל הני נשמתא על אחת כמה וכמה ערק אזל שדר שטר פרטתא בביתיה ואגייר,תנא נעמן גר תושב היה נבוזראדן גר צדק היה,מבני בניו של המן למדו תורה בבני ברק מבני בניו של סיסרא למדו תינוקות בירושלים מבני בניו של סנחריב למדו תורה ברבים מאן אינון שמעיה ואבטליון,היינו דכתיב (יחזקאל כד, ח) נתתי את דמה על צחיח סלע לבלתי הכסות,(בראשית כז, כב) הקול קול יעקב והידים ידי עשו הקול זה אדריינוס קיסר שהרג באלכסנדריא של מצרים ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא כפלים כיוצאי מצרים קול יעקב זה אספסיינוס קיסר שהרג בכרך ביתר ארבע מאות רבוא ואמרי לה ארבעת אלפים רבוא והידים ידי עשו זו מלכות הרשעה שהחריבה את בתינו ושרפה את היכלנו והגליתנו מארצנו,דבר אחר הקול קול יעקב אין לך תפלה שמועלת שאין בה מזרעו של יעקב והידים ידי עשו אין לך מלחמה שנוצחת שאין בה מזרעו של עשו,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר (איוב ה, כא) בשוט לשון תחבא בחירחורי לשון תחבא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלז, א) על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בזכרנו את ציון מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה לדוד חורבן בית ראשון וחורבן בית שני חורבן בית ראשון שנאמר על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בית שני דכתיב (תהלים קלז, ז) זכור ה' לבני אדום את יום ירושלים האומרים ערו ערו עד היסוד בה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ואיתימא רבי אמי ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מעשה בד' מאות ילדים וילדות שנשבו לקלון הרגישו בעצמן למה הן מתבקשים אמרו אם אנו טובעין בים אנו באין לחיי העולם הבא דרש להן הגדול שבהן (תהלים סח, כג) אמר ה' מבשן אשיב אשיב ממצולות ים מבשן אשיב מבין שיני אריה אשיב ממצולות ים אלו שטובעין בים,כיון ששמעו ילדות כך קפצו כולן ונפלו לתוך הים נשאו ילדים ק"ו בעצמן ואמרו מה הללו שדרכן לכך כך אנו שאין דרכנו לכך על אחת כמה וכמה אף הם קפצו לתוך הים ועליהם הכתוב אומר (תהלים מד, כג) כי עליך הורגנו כל היום נחשבנו כצאן טבחה,ורב יהודה אמר זו אשה ושבעה בניה אתיוהו קמא לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) אנכי ה' אלהיך אפקוהו וקטלוהו,ואתיוהו לאידך לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים על פני אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כב, יט) זובח לאלהים יחרם אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות לד, יד) לא תשתחוה לאל אחר אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ד, לט) וידעת היום והשבות אל לבבך כי ה' הוא האלהים בשמים ממעל ועל הארץ מתחת אין עוד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים כו, יז) את ה' האמרת וגו' וה' האמירך היום כבר נשבענו להקדוש ברוך הוא שאין אנו מעבירין אותו באל אחר ואף הוא נשבע לנו שאין מעביר אותנו באומה אחרת,א"ל קיסר אישדי לך גושפנקא וגחין ושקליה כי היכי דלימרו קביל עליה הרמנא דמלכא א"ל חבל עלך קיסר חבל עלך קיסר על כבוד עצמך כך על כבוד הקב"ה על אחת כמה וכמה,אפקוהו למיקטליה אמרה להו אימיה יהבוהו ניהלי ואינשקיה פורתא אמרה לו בניי לכו ואמרו לאברהם אביכם אתה עקדת מזבח אחד ואני עקדתי שבעה מזבחות אף היא עלתה לגג ונפלה ומתה יצתה בת קול ואמרה (תהלים קיג, ט) אם הבנים שמחה,ר' יהושע בן לוי אמר זו מילה שניתנה בשמיני ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר אלו ת"ח שמראין הלכות שחיטה בעצמן דאמר רבא כל מילי ליחזי איניש בנפשיה בר משחיטה ודבר אחר,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אלו תלמידי חכמים שממיתין עצמן על דברי תורה כדר' שמעון בן לקיש דאמר ר"ש בן לקיש אין דברי תורה מתקיימין אלא במי שממית עצמו עליהם שנאמר (במדבר יט, יד) זאת התורה אדם כי ימות באהל וגו' אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן ארבעים סאה 57b. § With regard to the Babylonian exile following the destruction of the First Temple, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saysthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: An old man fromamong bthe inhabitants of Jerusalem related to me: In this valleythat lies before you, bNebuzaradan, captain of the guardof the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, bkilled 2,110,000people. bAnd in Jerusalemitself bhe killed 940,000people bon one stone, until the bloodof his victims bflowed and touched the blood of Zechariah to fulfill what is stated: “And blood touches blood”(Hosea 4:2).,The Gemara clarifies the details of what happened: Nebuzaradan bfound the blood of Zechariah,the son of Jehoiada the priest, and saw bthat it was bubbling upfrom the ground, and bhe said: What is this?Those in the Temple bsaid to him:It is bsacrificial blood that had been pouredthere. bHe broughtanimal bblood,compared it to the blood bubbling up from the ground, bandsaw that bit was not similarto it.,Nebuzaradan bsaid tothem: bIf you tell mewhose blood this is, it will be bwellfor you. bBut if not, I will comb your flesh with iron combs. They said to him: What shall we say to you? He was a prophet among us, who used to rebuke us about heavenly matters,and bwe rose up against him, and killed him(II Chronicles 24:20–22), band for many yearsnow bhis blood has not settled. /b,Nebuzaradan bsaid to them: I will appeaseZechariah. bHe broughtthe members of bthe Great Sanhedrin andof ba lesser Sanhedrinand bkilled them alongsidethe bubbling blood, bbutit still bdid not settle.He then brought byoung men and virgins and killed them alongside it, butit still bdid not settle. Hethen bbrought schoolchildren and killed them alongside it, butit still bdid not settle.Finally Nebuzaradan bsaid to him: Zechariah, Zechariah, I have killed the best of them.Would it bplease you if I destroyed them all? When he said this,the blood at last bsettled. /b, bAt that momentNebuzaradan bcontemplatedthe idea of brepentanceand bsaidto himself: bIf, forthe death of bone soul,that of Zechariah, God punishes the Jewish people in bthismanner, then bthat man,that is to say, I, bwho has killed all of those souls, all the more sowill be I be subject to great punishment from God. bHe fled, sent to his house a document detailingwhat was to be done with his property, band convertedto Judaism.,A Sage btaughta ibaraitarelating to this matter: bNaaman,commander of the army of the king of Aram (see II Kings, chapter 5), was not a convert, as he did not accept all of the mitzvot, but rather he bwas a iger toshav /i, a gentile who resides in Eretz Israel and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot. Nebuzaradan,by contrast, bwas a convert,as explained previously.,The Gemara adds that some bof Haman’s descendants studied Torah in Bnei Brak,and some bof Sisera’s descendants taught childrenTorah bin Jerusalem,and some bof Sennacherib’s descendants taught Torah in public. Who are they?They are bShemaya and Avtalyon,the teachers of Hillel the Elder.,As for the incident involving the blood of Zechariah, bthis isalluded to by bthat which is written: “I have set her blood upon the bare rock that it should not be covered”(Ezekiel 24:8).,§ Apropos its discussion of the destruction of the Temple and the calamities that befell Israel, the Gemara cites the verse: b“The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau”(Genesis 27:22), which the Sages expounded as follows: b“The voice”; thisis the cry stirred up by bthe emperor Hadrian, whocaused the Jewish people to cry out when he bkilled six hundred thousand on six hundred thousand in Alexandria of Egypt, twicethe number of men bwho left Egypt. “The voice of Jacob”; this isthe cry aroused by bthe emperor Vespasian, who killed four millionpeople bin the city of Beitar. And some say:He killed bforty millionpeople. b“And the hands are the hands of Esau”; this is the wicked kingdomof Rome bthat destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land. /b, bAlternatively, “the voice is the voice of Jacob”means that bno prayer is effectivein the world bunlesssome member of bthe seed of Jacob hasa part bin it.The second clause in the verse, b“and the hands are the hands of Esau,”means that bno war grants victory unlesssome member of bthe seed of Esau hasa part bin it. /b, bAnd this iswhat bRabbi Elazar says:The verse that says: b“You shall be hid from the scourge of the tongue”(Job 5:21), means: bYou shallneed to bhide on account of quarrelsprovoked bby the tongue. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “By the rivers of Babylonia, there we sat down and wept, when we remembered Zion”(Psalms 137:1)? This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed David the destruction of the First Temple and the destruction of the Second Temple.He saw the destruction of bthe First Temple, as it is stated: “By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept.”He saw the destruction of the bSecond Temple, as it is writtenlater in that same psalm: b“Remember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, when they said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundation”(Psalms 137:7), as the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, “the children of Edom.”, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says, and some saythat it was bRabbi Amiwho says this, band some saythat bit was taught in a ibaraita /i:There was ban incident involving four hundred boys and girls who were taken as captives forthe purpose of bprostitution.These children bsensed on their own what they were expectedto do, and bthey said: If wecommit suicide and bdrown in the sea,will bwe come toeternal blife in the World-to-Come? The oldestchild bamong them expoundedthe verse: b“The Lord said, I will bring back from Bashan, I will bring them back from the depths of the sea”(Psalms 68:23). b“I will bring back from Bashan,”i.e., bfrom between the teeth [ ibein shen /i] of the lion,and b“I will bring them back from the depths of the sea”is referring to bthose who drown in the seafor the sake of Heaven., bWhen the girls heard this, they all leapt and fell into the sea. The boysthen bdrew an ia fortiori /iinference bwith regard to themselves and said: If thesegirls, bfor whomsexual intercourse with men bis their natural way,act in bsucha manner, then bwe, for whomsexual intercourse with men bis not our natural way,should ball the more soconduct ourselves likewise. bThey too leapt into the sea. Concerning themand others like them bthe verse states: “As For Your sake we are killed all the day long; we are reckoned as sheep for the slaughter”(Psalms 44:23)., bAnd Rav Yehuda said: Thisverse applies to the bwoman and her seven sonswho died as martyrs for the sake of the sanctification of God’s name. The incident occurred as follows: bThey broughtin bthe firstof the woman’s sons bbefore the emperorand bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “I am the Lord your God”(Exodus 20:2). bTheyimmediately btook him out and killed him. /b, bAnd theythen bbroughtin banotherson bbefore the emperor,and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You shall have no other gods beside Me”(Exodus 20:3). And so bthey took him out and killed him. Theythen bbrought inyet banotherson before the emperor, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “He that sacrifices to any god,save to the Lord only, bhe shall be utterly destroyed”(Exodus 22:19). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You shall not bow down to any other god”(Exodus 34:14). And so bthey took him out and killed him. Theythen bbroughtin yet banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One”(Deuteronomy 6:4). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “Know therefore this today, and consider it in your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is no other”(Deuteronomy 4:39). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin yet banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You have avouched the Lordthis day to be your God… band the Lord has avouched you this dayto be a people for His own possession” (Deuteronomy 26:17–18). bWe already took an oath to the Holy One, Blessed be He, that we will not exchange Him for a different god, and He too has taken an oath to us that He will not exchange us for another nation. /b,It was the youngest brother who had said this, and the emperor pitied him. Seeking a way to spare the boy’s life, bthe emperor said to him: I will throw down my seal before you; bend over and pick it up, so thatpeople bwill saythat bhe has accepted the king’s authority [ iharmana /i].The boy bsaid to him: Woe [ iḥaval /i] to you, Caesar, woe to you, Caesar.If you think that bfor the sake of your honorI should fulfill your command and do bthis,then bfor the sake of the honor of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more soshould I fulfill His command.,As bthey were taking him out to be killed, his mother said to them: Give him to me so that I may give him a small kiss. She said to him: My son, go and say to your father Abraham, You bound oneson to the baltar, but I bound seven altars. She tooin the end bwent up to the roof, fell, and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: “A joyful mother of children”(Psalms 113:9), as she raised her children to be devoted in their service of God., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saysconcerning the verse: “For Your sake we are killed all the day long” (Psalms 44:23), that bthisis referring to bcircumcision, which was given for the eighthday, as the blood of our newborn sons is spilled for the sake of the covet with God. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says:This verse was stated in reference to bTorah scholars who demonstrate the ihalakhotof slaughter on themselves,meaning that they demonstrate on their own bodies how ritual slaughter should be performed and occasionally injure themselves in the process. This is bas Rava says: A person may demonstrate anything using himselfto illustrate the act bexcept for slaughter and another matter,a euphemism for sexual intercourse., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: Thesepeople in the verse bare Torah scholars who kill themselves over the words of Torah, in accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The words of the Torah endure only for one who kills himself over them, as it is stated: “This is the Torah, when a man dies in a tent”(Numbers 19:14). bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Forty ise’a/b
50. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.51 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

6.51. Good men he called images of the gods, and love the business of the idle. To the question what is wretched in life he replied, An old man destitute. Being asked what creature's bite is the worst, he said, of those that are wild a sycophant's; of those that are tame a flatterer's. Upon seeing two centaurs very badly painted, he asked, Which of these is Chiron? (worse man). Ingratiating speech he compared to honey used to choke you. The stomach he called livelihood's Charybdis. Hearing a report that Didymon the flute-player had been caught in adultery, his comment was, His name alone is sufficient to hang him. To the question why gold is pale, his reply was, Because it has so many thieves plotting against it. On seeing a woman carried in a litter, he remarked that the cage was not in keeping with the quarry.
51. Plotinus, Enneads, 1.6.9, 4.8.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

52. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4.21, 6.49-6.59, 7.11-7.12, 8.44-8.45

4.21. For as the land is assigned to the forest and the sea to its waves, so also those who dwell upon earth can understand only what is on the earth, and he who is above the heavens can understand what is above the height of the heavens. 6.53. On the sixth day thou didst command the earth to bring forth before thee cattle, beasts, and creeping things; 6.54. and over these thou didst place Adam, as ruler over all the works which thou hadst made; and from him we have all come, the people whom thou hast chosen. 6.55. All this I have spoken before thee, O Lord, because thou hast said that it was for us that thou didst create this world. 6.56. As for the other nations which have descended from Adam, thou hast said that they are nothing, and that they are like spittle, and thou hast compared their abundance to a drop from a bucket. 6.57. And now, O Lord, behold, these nations, which are reputed as nothing, domineer over us and devour us. 6.58. But we thy people, whom thou hast called thy first-born, only begotten, zealous for thee, and most dear, have been given into their hands. 6.59. If the world has indeed been created for us, why do we not possess our world as an inheritance? How long will this be so? 7.11. For I made the world for their sake, and when Adam transgressed my statutes, what had been made was judged. 7.12. And so the entrances of this world were made narrow and sorrowful and toilsome; they are few and evil, full of dangers and involved in great hardships. 8.44. But man, who has been formed by thy hands and is called thy own image because he is made like thee, and for whose sake thou hast formed all things -- hast thou also made him like the farmer's seed? 8.45. No, O Lord who art over us! But spare thy people and have mercy on thy inheritance, for thou hast mercy on thy own creation.
53. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 13

54. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 2.22-2.23, 2.29, 2.32, 2.34



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(im)mortality Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 36
abbreviation Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 2
abel Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228
adam,sin of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 470
adam Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 285; Dunderberg (2008), Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus. 39; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 58
afflict/afflictions Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
agency,all things McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 178
angels,fallen/evil Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
angels,michael Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
angels,of darkness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
angels,raphael Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
anger Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228, 551
anthropophagy Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228
antioch Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
apocalyptic Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 121
aristotle Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 39
asceticism Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 200
ash(es) Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61
atonement,as defeat of the devil nan
atonement,as means of deliverance from death nan
auerbach,erich Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 39
authority(ies) Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63, 79
authority Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411
babylon Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
balaam Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228
banishment Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 551
belief Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228
bind/binding Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
bitterness Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228
body,bodies Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
body-soul Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 133
body (human) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
body of death Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
book of wisdom Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 121
bostra (bosorra) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
cain Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228, 470
capability (human) Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 66
celestial Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61
christian/christianity Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 470
clay Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61, 66, 77
clement of alexandria Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 200
collective humanity Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 77
compatibilism Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 56
condensation Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 2
contemplation Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 200
corruptible Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 77, 133
cosmology Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
creation topoi Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 56, 58, 66
creations Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61
creator,creation Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
creator Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61
cynics Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 200
d/demonisation Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
dead sea scrolls Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
death,abel,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228
death,destruction of Dunderberg (2008), Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus. 39
death,origin of Dunderberg (2008), Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus. 39
death Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 56, 133; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
death (natural,physical) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
death as benefaction Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
death of condemnation Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
determinism Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 56, 66
devil,envy of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 470, 551
devil,satan Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
devil Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 70
divine,image Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61, 77
divine,sovereignty Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 56
divine passive Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 79
dragon Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
dualism Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 133
dust Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 56, 58, 66; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411
earth Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 77, 133
earthly origin Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61
enochic traditions Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
entrance Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 551
envy,devil,of the Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 470, 551
envy Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 470, 551
eschatology,apocalyptic Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 121
essenes Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 56, 133
eternality Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 56, 58, 66
eternity Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 36
eve Dunderberg (2008), Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus. 39
exorcisms/exorcise/exorcists/exorcistic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
eye Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 551
first-born McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 178
flesh Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 77
flood Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228
forgive/forgiveness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 79
forgiveness Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411
form,of history Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 2
form Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 13
form criticism Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 13
fullness McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 178
genuine humanness,expressed in source texts Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 133
gnostic,gnosticism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
gnosticism Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 200
god,goodness of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411
god,hands of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411
god,jealousy of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 551
god,likeness of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411
godlikeness Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 200
ground,from the Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 66
hades Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 470
hands,god,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411
heal/healers/healings Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
heaven Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
heavenly,man Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 77
heavenly person Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 77
heinemann,isaak,human vocation,language for Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 133
hellenistic jewish traditions Dunderberg (2008), Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus. 39
human,existence Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61
human beings,place and role in cosmos Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 133
human vocation,and isaak heinemann Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 133
human vocation,language for Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 133
human vocation Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 133
idolatry Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 66
idols Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61, 66
illness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
image,christ as image of god McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 178
image,of god McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 178
image,word as image of god McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 178
image of god Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 66, 77; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
image of god (in man) Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
imago dei Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61
immortal Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 58, 133
immortality Dunderberg (2008), Beyond Gnosticism: Myth, Lifestyle, and Society in the School of Valentinus. 39; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 58, 66, 133; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411, 470, 551; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 121; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
immortality in relation to sin,eschatological Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
incorruptibility,incorruptible Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
incorruption Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 56, 58, 61, 66
intercessory prayer Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 285
isaac Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228
israel-specific Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 66
jealousy,envy,envious Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
jerusalem Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 122, 411
jesus christ Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
jezebel Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
justice Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 66
korah Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228
käsemann,ernst Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 133
lamb,marriage supper of Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
land Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
language,for human vocation Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 133
law Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 56, 66
maccabean Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 108
magnates Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
mankind Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 58
marcionite thinking,on divine judgment Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 108
martyrdom and cry for vengeance Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 108
merchants Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
metaphysical Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 77, 133
molded Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 77
mortal Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 133
mortality Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 58, 66
moses,intercession of Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 285
moses Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 285; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228, 470
murder of abel Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228
mutation Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
mute/muteness Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 79
nakedness Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
name of god McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 178
neopythagoreanism Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 200
new creation McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 178
new jerusalem Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
noah Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 470
paralytic Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 79
passions Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
peace Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 470
penner,todd Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 108
philosophy Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
platonic Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 58, 133
platonism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250; Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 200
potter Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61, 66
preexistence Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 58
prophet persecution Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 108
protoevangelium of james Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 108
rebellion Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228
renunciation Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 200
repentance Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
responsibility,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 122
restoration,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 122
resurrection Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
reward Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 121
righteous,the Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 58, 133
righteousness Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 58, 66
rule/ruler Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411
satan Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 70; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
savior Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
scriptures,bible Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
sea Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
see also structure of human vocation,and human vocation Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 133
self-discipline Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 200
self Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 133
sethians Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
seven messages Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
shame Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
sin,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 122, 470
sinner Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 133
sinners Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
sins,sinful,sinners Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
smyrna Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
soul Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 58, 61, 133
spectators,human beings as Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 133
spirit,and wisdom McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 178
spirit Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 122
spirits,of deceit Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
stephen and the forgiveness prayer Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 108
stephen and zechariah,son of jehoiada Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 108
stoic,stoicism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
suffering righteous Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 108
temples Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 79
temporal Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 61, 133
testament of eve Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 122
testing passim,agents of Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 70
testing passim,roles in Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 70
thief Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
tongue Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411
topoi,creation Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 56, 58, 66
tradition,enochic Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 121
tree,life,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 551
two ways Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 66
typology,greek terms for' Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 39
valentinus,valentinianism Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
varro Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 39
vengeance,divine Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 108
virtue Pevarello (2013), The Sentences of Sextus and the Origins of Christian Ascetiscism. 200
visitation Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 121
war,eschatological Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 121
watchers,the Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019), Healing and Exorcism in Second Temple Judaism and Early Christianity, 63
wealth,critique of Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 209
weeds,adam,of Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 470
wicked Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 58
wilderness Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 285
wisdom Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 228, 411; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
wisdom of solomon,book of Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 183
wisdom of solomon Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 121
words of the luminaries Buster (2022), Remembering the Story of Israel Historical Summaries and Memory Formation in Second Temple Judaism. 285
zechariah,son of jehoiada and blood vengeance Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 108
zechariah,son of jehoiada linked to james and stephen traditions Matthews (2010), Perfect Martyr: The Stoning of Stephen and the Construction of Christian Identity, 108