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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



707
Septuagint, Wisdom Of Solomon, 2-9


nanWhen the sinner waxed proud, with a battering-ram he cast down fortified walls, And Thou didst not restrain (him)., Alien nations ascended Thine altar, They trampled (it) proudly with their sandals;, Because the sons of Jerusalem had defiled the holy things of the Lord, Had profaned with iniquities the offerings of God., Therefore He said: Cast them far from Me;, It was set at naught before God, It was utterly dishonoured;, The sons and the daughters were in grievous captivity, Sealed (?) (was) their neck, branded (?) (was it) among the nations., According to their sins hath He done unto them, For He hath left them in the hands of them that prevailed., He hath turned away His face from pitying them, Young and old and their children together;, For they had done evil one and all, in not hearkening., And the heavens were angry, And the earth abhorred them;, For no man upon it had done what they did,, And the earth recognized all Thy righteous judgements, O God., They set the sons of Jerusalem to be mocked at in return for (the) harlots in her; Every wayfarer entered in in the full light of day., They made mock with their transgressions, as they themselves were wont to do; In the full light of day they revealed their iniquities. And the daughters of Jerusalem were defiled in accordance with Thy judgement,, Because they had defiled themselves with unnatural intercourse. I am pained in my bowels and my inward parts for these things. (And yet) I will justify Thee, O God, in uprightness of heart, For in Thy judgements is Thy righteousness (displayed), O God., For Thou hast rendered to the sinners according to their deeds, Yea according to their sins, which were very wicked., Thou hast uncovered their sins, that Thy judgement might be manifest;, Thou hast wiped out their memorial from the earth. God is a righteous judge, And He is no respecter of persons., For the nations reproached Jerusalem, trampling it down; Her beauty was dragged down from the throne of glory., She girded on sackcloth instead of comely raiment, A rope (was) about her head instead of a crown., She put off the glorious diadem which God had set upon her,, In dishonour was her beauty cast upon the ground., And I saw and entreated the Lord and said, Long enough, O Lord, has Thine hand been heavy on Israel, in bringing the nations upon (them)., For they have made sport unsparingly in wrath and fierce anger;, And they will make an utter end, unless Thou, O Lord, rebuke them in Thy wrath., For they have done it not in zeal, but in lust of soul,, Pouring out their wrath upon us with a view to rapine., Delay not, O God, to recompense them on (their) heads, To turn the pride of the dragon into dishonour. 30 And I had not long to wait before God showed me the insolent one Slain on the mountains of Egypt, Esteemed of less account than the least on land and sea;, His body, ( too,) borne hither and thither on the billows with much insolence, With none to bury (him), because He had rejected him with dishonour. He reflected not that he was man., And reflected not on the latter end;, He said: I will be lord of land and sea; And he recognized not that it is God who is great, Mighty in His great strength., He is king over the heavens, And judgeth kings and kingdoms., (It is He) who setteth me up in glory, And bringeth down the proud to eternal destruction in dishonour, Because they knew Him not., And now behold, ye princes of the earth, the judgement of the Lord, For a great king and righteous (is He), judging (all) that is under heaven., Bless God, ye that fear the Lord with wisdom, For the mercy of the Lord will be upon them that fear Him, in the Judgement;, So that He will distinguish between the righteous and the sinner, (And) recompense the sinners for ever according to their deeds;, And have mercy on the righteous, (delivering him) from the affliction of the sinner, And recompensing the sinner for what he hath done to the righteous., For the Lord is good to them that call upon Him in patience, Doing according to His mercy to His pious ones, Establishing (them) at all times before Him in strength., Blessed be the Lord for ever before His servants.


nanFor they reasoned unsoundly, saying to themselves,"Short and sorrowful is our life,and there is no remedy when a man comes to his end,and no one has been known to return from Hades., Because we were born by mere chance,and hereafter we shall be as though we had never been;because the breath in our nostrils is smoke,and reason is a spark kindled by the beating of our hearts., When it is extinguished, the body will turn to ashes,and the spirit will dissolve like empty air., Our name will be forgotten in time and no one will remember our works;our life will pass away like the traces of a cloud,and be scattered like mist that is chased by the rays of the sun and overcome by its heat., For our allotted time is the passing of a shadow,and there is no return from our death,because it is sealed up and no one turns back., "Come, therefore, let us enjoy the good things that exist,and make use of the creation to the full as in youth., Let us take our fill of costly wine and perfumes,and let no flower of spring pass by us., Let us crown ourselves with rosebuds before they wither.", Let none of us fail to share in our revelry,everywhere let us leave signs of enjoyment,because this is our portion, and this our lot., Let us oppress the righteous poor man;let us not spare the widow nor regard the gray hairs of the aged.", But let our might be our law of right,for what is weak proves itself to be useless., "Let us lie in wait for the righteous man,because he is inconvenient to us and opposes our actions;he reproaches us for sins against the law,and accuses us of sins against our training., He professes to have knowledge of God,and calls himself a child of the Lord., He became to us a reproof of our thoughts;", the very sight of him is a burden to us,because his manner of life is unlike that of others,and his ways are strange., We are considered by him as something base,and he avoids our ways as unclean;he calls the last end of the righteous happy,and boasts that God is his father., Let us see if his words are true,and let us test what will happen at the end of his life;, for if the righteous man is Gods son, he will help him,and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries., Let us test him with insult and torture,that we may find out how gentle he is,and make trial of his forbearance., Let us condemn him to a shameful death,for, according to what he says, he will be protected., Thus they reasoned, but they were led astray,for their wickedness blinded them,, and they did not know the secret purposes of God,nor hope for the wages of holiness,nor discern the prize for blameless souls;, for God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity,, but through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it.


nanWhy sleepest thou, O my soul, And blessest not the Lord?, Sing a new song, Unto God who is worthy to be praised. Sing and be wakeful against His awaking, For good is a psalm (sung) to God from a glad heart., The righteous remember the Lord at all times, With thanksgiving and declaration of the righteousness of the Lord’s judgements, The righteous despiseth not the chastening of the Lord; His will is always before the Lord., The righteous stumbleth and holdeth the Lord righteous: He falleth and looketh out for what God will do to him;, He seeketh out whence his deliverance will come., The steadfastness of the righteous is from God their deliverer; There lodgeth not in the house of the righteous sin upon sin., The righteous continually searcheth his house, To remove utterly (all) iniquity (done) by him in error., He maketh atonement for (sins of) ignorance by fasting and afflicting his soul,, And the Lord counteth guiltless every pious man and his house., The sinner stumbleth and curseth his life, The day when he was begotten, and his mother’s travail., He addeth sins to sins, while he liveth (?);, He falleth -verily grievous is his fall- and riseth no more. The destruction of the sinner is for ever,, And he shall not be remembered, when the righteous is visited. , This is the portion of sinners for ever., But they that fear the Lord shall rise to life eternal, And their life (shall be) in the light of the Lord, and shall come to an end no more.


nanBut the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them., In the eyes of the foolish they seemed to have died,and their departure was thought to be an affliction,, and their going from us to be their destruction;but they are at peace.", For though in the sight of men they were punished,their hope is full of immortality., Having been disciplined a little, they will receive great good,because God tested them and found them worthy of himself;, like gold in the furnace he tried them,and like a sacrificial burnt offering he accepted them., In the time of their visitation they will shine forth,and will run like sparks through the stubble., They will govern nations and rule over peoples,and the Lord will reign over them for ever., Those who trust in him will understand truth,and the faithful will abide with him in love,because grace and mercy are upon his elect,and he watches over his holy ones., But the ungodly will be punished as their reasoning deserves,who disregarded the righteous man and rebelled against the Lord;, for whoever despises wisdom and instruction is miserable. Their hope is vain, their labors are unprofitable,and their works are useless., Their wives are foolish, and their children evil;, their offspring are accursed. For blessed is the barren woman who is undefiled,who has not entered into a sinful union;she will have fruit when God examines souls., Blessed also is the eunuch whose hands have done no lawless deed,and who has not devised wicked things against the Lord;for special favor will be shown him for his faithfulness,and a place of great delight in the temple of the Lord., For the fruit of good labors is renowned,and the root of understanding does not fail., But children of adulterers will not come to maturity,and the offspring of an unlawful union will perish., Even if they live long they will be held of no account,and finally their old age will be without honor., If they die young, they will have no hope and no consolation in the day of decision., For the end of an unrighteous generation is grievous.


nanWherefore sittest thou, O profane (man), in the council of the pious, Seeing that thy heart is far removed from the Lord, Provoking with transgressions the God of Israel?, Extravagant in speech, extravagant in outward seeming beyond all (men), Is he that is severe of speech in condemning sinners in judgement., And his hand is first upon him as (though he acted) in zeal, And (yet) he is himself guilty in respect of manifold sins and of wantonness., His eyes are upon every woman without distinction; His tongue lieth when he maketh contract with an oath., By night and in secret he sinneth as though unseen, With his eyes he talketh to every woman of evil compacts., He is swift to enter every house with cheerfulness as though guileless., Let God remove those that live in hypocrisy in the company of the pious, (Even) the life of such an one with corruption of his flesh and penury., Let God reveal the deeds of the men-pleasers, The deeds of such an one with laughter and derision;, That the pious may count righteous the judgement of their God, When sinners are removed from before the righteous,, (Even the) man- pleaser who uttereth law guilefully., And their eyes (are fixed) upon any man’s house that is (still) secure, That they may, like (the) Serpent, destroy the wisdom of… with words of transgressors,, His words are deceitful that (he) may accomplish (his) wicked desire., He never ceaseth from scattering (families) as though (they were) orphans, Yea, he layeth waste a house on account of (his) lawless desire., He deceiveth with words, (saying,) There is none that seeth, or judgeth., He fills one (house) with lawlessness, And (then) his eyes (are fixed) upon the next house, To destroy it with words that give wing to (desire). (Yet) with all these his soul, like Sheol, is not sated., Let his portion, O Lord, be dishonoured before thee; Let him go forth groaning and come home cursed., Let his life be (spent) in anguish, and penury, and want, O Lord; Let his sleep be (beset) with pains and his awaking with perplexities., Let sleep be withdrawn from his eyelids at night; Let him fail dishonorably in every work of his hands., Let him come home empty-handed to his house, And his house be void of everything wherewith he could sate his appetite., (Let) his old age (be spent) in childless loneliness until his removal (by death)., Let the flesh of the men-pleasers be rent by wild beasts, And (let) the bones of the lawless (lie) dishonoured in the sight of the sun., Let ravens peck out the eyes of the hypocrites., For they have laid waste many houses of men, in dishonour, And scattered (them) in (their) lust;, And they have not remembered God, Nor feared God in all these things;, But they have provoked God’s anger and vexed Him. May He remove them from off the earth, Because with deceit they beguiled the souls of the flawess., Blessed are they that fear the Lord in their flawlessness;, The Lord shall deliver them from guileful men and sinners, And deliver us from every stumbling-block of the lawless (men)., Let God destroy them that insolently work all unrighteousness, For a great and mighty judge is the Lord our God in righteousness., Let Thy mercy, O Lord, be upon all them that love Thee.


nanBetter than this is childlessness with virtue,for in the memory of virtue is immortality,because it is known both by God and by men., When it is present, men imitate it,and they long for it when it has gone;and throughout all time it marches crowned in triumph,victor in the contest for prizes that are undefiled., But the prolific brood of the ungodly will be of no use,and none of their illegitimate seedlings will strike a deep root or take a firm hold., For even if they put forth boughs for a while,standing insecurely they will be shaken by the wind,and by the violence of the winds they will be uprooted., The branches will be broken off before they come to maturity,and their fruit will be useless,not ripe enough to eat, and good for nothing., For children born of unlawful unions are witnesses of evil against their parents when God examines them.", But the righteous man, though he die early, will be at rest., For old age is not honored for length of time,nor measured by number of years;, but understanding is gray hair for men,and a blameless life is ripe old age., There was one who pleased God and was loved by him,and while living among sinners he was taken up., He was caught up lest evil change his understanding or guile deceive his soul.", For the fascination of wickedness obscures what is good,and roving desire perverts the innocent mind., Being perfected in a short time, he fulfilled long years;, for his soul was pleasing to the Lord,therefore he took him quickly from the midst of wickedness., Yet the peoples saw and did not understand,nor take such a thing to heart,that Gods grace and mercy are with his elect,and he watches over his holy ones., The righteous man who had died will condemn the ungodly who are living,and youth that is quickly perfected will condemn the prolonged old age of the unrighteous man., For they will see the end of the wise man,and will not understand what the Lord purposed for him,and for what he kept him safe., They will see, and will have contempt for him,but the Lord will laugh them to scorn. After this they will become dishonored corpses,and an outrage among the dead for ever;, because he will dash them speechless to the ground,and shake them from the foundations;they will be left utterly dry and barren,and they will suffer anguish,and the memory of them will perish., They will come with dread when their sins are reckoned up,and their lawless deeds will convict them to their face.


nanO Lord God, I will praise Thy name with joy, In the midst of them that know Thy righteous judgements., For Thou art good and merciful, the refuge of the poor;, When I cry to Thee, do not silently disregard me., For no man taketh spoil from a mighty man;, Who, then, can take aught of all that Thou hast made, except Thou Thyself givest?, For man and his portion (lie) before Thee in the balance; He cannot add to, so as to enlarge, what has been prescribed by Thee. O God,, when we are in distress we call upon Thee for help, And Thou dost not turn back our petition, for Thou art our God., Cause not Thy hand to be heavy upon us, Lest through necessity we sin., Even though Thou restore us not, we will not keep away; But unto Thee will we come., For if I hunger, unto Thee will I cry, O God; And Thou wilt give to me., Birds and fish dost Thou nourish, In that Thou givest rain to the steppes that green grass may spring up, (So) to prepare fodder in the steppe for every living thing;, And if they hunger, unto Thee do they lift up their face., Kings and rulers and peoples Thou dost nourish, O God; And who is the help of the poor and needy, if not Thou, O Lord?, And Thou wilt hearken -for who is good and gentle but Thou?- Making glad the soul of the humble by opening Thine hand in mercy., Man’s goodness is (bestowed) grudgingly and …, And if he repeat (it) without murmuring, even that is marvellous., But Thy gift is great in goodness and wealth, And he whose hope is (set) on Thee shall have no lack of gifts., Upon the whole earth is Thy mercy, O Lord, in goodness., Happy is he whom God remembereth in (granting to him) a due sufficiency;, If a man abound over much, he sinneth., Sufficient are moderate means with righteousness, And hereby the blessing of the Lord (becomes) abundance with righteousness., They that fear the Lord rejoice in good (gifts), And Thy goodness is upon Israel in Thy kingdom. Blessed is the glory of the Lord for He is our king.


nanThen the righteous man will stand with great confidence in the presence of those who have afflicted him,and those who make light of his labors., When they see him, they will be shaken with dreadful fear,and they will be amazed at his unexpected salvation., They will speak to one another in repentance,and in anguish of spirit they will groan, and say,, "This is the man whom we once held in derision and made a byword of reproach -- we fools!We thought that his life was madness and that his end was without honor., Why has he been numbered among the sons of God?And why is his lot among the saints?", So it was we who strayed from the way of truth,and the light of righteousness did not shine on us,and the sun did not rise upon us., We took our fill of the paths of lawlessness and destruction,and we journeyed through trackless deserts,but the way of the Lord we have not known., What has our arrogance profited us?And what good has our boasted wealth brought us?", "All those things have vanished like a shadow,and like a rumor that passes by;, like a ship that sails through the billowy water,and when it has passed no trace can be found,nor track of its keel in the waves;, or as, when a bird flies through the air,no evidence of its passage is found;the light air, lashed by the beat of its pinions and pierced by the force of its rushing flight,is traversed by the movement of its wings,and afterward no sign of its coming is found there;, or as, when an arrow is shot at a target,the air, thus divided, comes together at once,so that no one knows its pathway., So we also, as soon as we were born, ceased to be,and we had no sign of virtue to show,but were consumed in our wickedness., Because the hope of the ungodly man is like chaff carried by the wind,and like a light hoarfrost driven away by a storm;it is dispersed like smoke before the wind,and it passes like the remembrance of a guest who stays but a day., But the righteous live for ever,and their reward is with the Lord;the Most High takes care of them., Therefore they will receive a glorious crown and a beautiful diadem from the hand of the Lord,because with his right hand he will cover them,and with his arm he will shield them., The Lord will take his zeal as his whole armor,and will arm all creation to repel his enemies;, he will put on righteousness as a breastplate,and wear impartial justice as a helmet;, he will take holiness as an invincible shield,, and sharpen stern wrath for a sword,and creation will join with him to fight against the madmen., Shafts of lightning will fly with true aim,and will leap to the target as from a well-drawn bow of clouds,, and hailstones full of wrath will be hurled as from a catapult;the water of the sea will rage against them,and rivers will relentlessly overwhelm them;, a mighty wind will rise against them,and like a tempest it will winnow them away. Lawlessness will lay waste the whole earth,and evil-doing will overturn the thrones of rulers.


nanHappy is the man whose heart is fixed to call upon the name of the Lord;, When he remembereth the name of the Lord, he will be saved., His ways are made even by the Lord, And the works of his hands are preserved by the Lord his God., At what he sees in his bad dreams, his soul shall not be troubled;, When he passes through rivers and the tossing of the seas, he shall not be dismayed., He ariseth from his sleep, and blesseth the name of the Lord:, When his heart is at peace, he singeth to the name of his God, And he entreateth the Lord for all his house., And the Lord heareth the prayer of every one that feareth God, And every request of the soul that hopes for Him doth the Lord accomplish., Blessed is the Lord, who showeth mercy to those who love Him in sincerity.


nanListen therefore, O kings, and understand;learn, O judges of the ends of the earth., Give ear, you that rule over multitudes,and boast of many nations., For your dominion was given you from the Lord,and your sovereignty from the Most High,who will search out your works and inquire into your plans., Because as servants of his kingdom you did not rule rightly,nor keep the law,nor walk according to the purpose of God,, he will come upon you terribly and swiftly,because severe judgment falls on those in high places., For the lowliest man may be pardoned in mercy,but mighty men will be mightily tested., For the Lord of all will not stand in awe of any one,nor show deference to greatness;because he himself made both small and great,and he takes thought for all alike., But a strict inquiry is in store for the mighty., To you then, O monarchs, my words are directed,that you may learn wisdom and not transgress., For they will be made holy who observe holy things in holiness,and those who have been taught them will find a defense., Therefore set your desire on my words;long for them, and you will be instructed., Wisdom is radiant and unfading,and she is easily discerned by those who love her,and is found by those who seek her., She hastens to make herself known to those who desire her.", He who rises early to seek her will have no difficulty,for he will find her sitting at his gates., To fix ones thought on her is perfect understanding,and he who is vigilant on her account will soon be free from care,, because she goes about seeking those worthy of her,and she graciously appears to them in their paths,and meets them in every thought., The beginning of wisdom is the most sincere desire for instruction,and concern for instruction is love of her,, and love of her is the keeping of her laws,and giving heed to her laws is assurance of immortality,, and immortality brings one near to God;, so the desire for wisdom leads to a kingdom., Therefore if you delight in thrones and scepters,O monarchs over the peoples,honor wisdom, that you may reign for ever., I will tell you what wisdom is and how she came to be,and I will hide no secrets from you,but I will trace her course from the beginning of creation,and make knowledge of her clear,and I will not pass by the truth;, neither will I travel in the company of sickly envy,for envy does not associate with wisdom., A multitude of wise men is the salvation of the world,and a sensible king is the stability of his people., Therefore be instructed by my words, and you will profit.


nanMake not Thy dwelling afar from us, O God; Lest they assail us that hate us without cause., For Thou hast rejected them, O God; Let not their foot trample upon Thy holy inheritance., Chasten us Thyself in Thy good pleasure; But give (us) not up to the nations;, For, if Thou sendest pestilence, Thou Thyself givest it charge concerning us; For Thou art merciful, And wilt not be angry to the point of consuming us., While Thy name dwelleth in our midst, we shall find mercy;, And the nations shall not prevail against us. For Thou art our shield,, And when we call upon Thee, Thou hearkenest to us;, For Thou wilt pity the seed of Israel for ever And Thou wilt not reject (them): But we (shall be) under Thy yoke for ever, And (under) the rod of Thy chastening., Thou wilt establish us in the time that Thou helpest us, Showing mercy to the house of Jacob on the day wherein Thou didst promise (to help them).


nanI also am mortal, like all men,a descendant of the first-formed child of earth;and in the womb of a mother I was molded into flesh,, within the period of ten months, compacted with blood,from the seed of a man and the pleasure of marriage., And when I was born, I began to breathe the common air,and fell upon the kindred earth,and my first sound was a cry, like that of all., I was nursed with care in swaddling cloths.", For no king has had a different beginning of existence;", there is for all mankind one entrance into life, and a common departure., Therefore I prayed, and understanding was given me;I called upon God, and the spirit of wisdom came to me., I preferred her to scepters and thrones,and I accounted wealth as nothing in comparison with her., Neither did I liken to her any priceless gem,because all gold is but a little sand in her sight,and silver will be accounted as clay before her., I loved her more than health and beauty,and I chose to have her rather than light,because her radiance never ceases., All good things came to me along with her,and in her hands uncounted wealth., I rejoiced in them all, because wisdom leads them;but I did not know that she was their mother., I learned without guile and I impart without grudging;I do not hide her wealth,, for it is an unfailing treasure for men;those who get it obtain friendship with God,commended for the gifts that come from instruction., May God grant that I speak with judgment and have thought worthy of what I have received,for he is the guide even of wisdom and the corrector of the wise., For both we and our words are in his hand,as are all understanding and skill in crafts., For it is he who gave me unerring knowledge of what exists,to know the structure of the world and the activity of the elements;, the beginning and end and middle of times,the alternations of the solstices and the changes of the seasons,, the cycles of the year and the constellations of the stars,, the natures of animals and the tempers of wild beasts,the powers of spirits and the reasonings of men,the varieties of plants and the virtues of roots;, I learned both what is secret and what is manifest,, for wisdom, the fashioner of all things, taught me. For in her there is a spirit that is intelligent, holy,unique, manifold, subtle,mobile, clear, unpolluted,distinct, invulnerable, loving the good, keen,irresistible,, beneficent, humane, steadfast, sure, free from anxiety,all-powerful, overseeing all,and penetrating through all spirits that are intelligent and pure and most subtle., For wisdom is more mobile than any motion;because of her pureness she pervades and penetrates all things.", For she is a breath of the power of God,and a pure emanation of the glory of the Almighty;therefore nothing defiled gains entrance into her., For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness., Though she is but one, she can do all things,and while remaining in herself, she renews all things;in every generation she passes into holy souls and makes them friends of God, and prophets;, for God loves nothing so much as the man who lives with wisdom.", For she is more beautiful than the sun,and excels every constellation of the stars. Compared with the light she is found to be superior,, for it is succeeded by the night,but against wisdom evil does not prevail.


nanDistress and the sound of war hath my ear heard; The sound of a trumpet announcing slaughter and calamity,, The sound of much people as of an exceeding high wind, As a tempest with mighty fire sweeping through the Negeb., And I said in my heart; Surely (?) God judgeth us;, A sound I hear (moving) towards Jerusalem, the holy city., My loins were broken at what I heard, my knees tottered:, My heart was afraid, my bones were dismayed like flax., I said: They establish their ways in righteousness. I thought upon the judgements of God since the creation of heaven and earth; I held God righteous in His judgements which have been from of old., God laid bare their sins in the full light of day; All the earth came to know the righteous judgements of God., In secret places underground their iniquities (were committed) to provoke (Him) to anger;, They wrought confusion, son with mother and father with daughter;, They committed adultery, every man with his neighbour’s wife. They concluded covenants with one another with an oath touching these things;, They plundered the sanctuary of God, as though there was no avenger., They trode the altar of the Lord, (coming straight) from all manner of uncleanness; And with menstrual blood they defiled the sacrifices, as (though these were) common flesh., They left no sin undone, wherein they surpassed not the heathen., Therefore God mingled for them a spirit of wandering; And gave them to drink a cup of undiluted wine, that they might become drunken., He brought him that is from the end of the earth, that smiteth mightily;, He decreed (?) war against Jerusalem, and against her land., The princes of the land went to meet him with joy: they said unto him: Blessed be thy way! Come ye, enter ye in with peace., They made the rough ways even, before his entering in; They opened the gates to Jerusalem, they crowned its walls., As a father (entereth) the house of his sons, (so) he entered (JerusaIem) in peace; He established his feet (there) in great safety., He captured her fortresses and the wall of Jerusalem;, For God Himself led him in safety, while they wandered., He destroyed their princes and every one wise in counsel; He poured out the blood of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, like the water of uncleanness., He led away their sons and daughters, whom they had begotten in defilement., They did according to their uncleanness, even as their fathers (had done):, They defiled Jerusalem and the things that had been hallowed to the name of God., (But) God hath shown Himself righteous in His judgements upon the nations of the earth;, And the pious (servants) of God are like innocent lambs in their midst., Worthy to be praised is the Lord that judgeth the whole earth in His righteousness., Behold, now, O God, Thou hast shown us Thy judgement in Thy righteousness;, Our eyes have seen Thy judgements, O God. We have justified Thy name that is honoured for ever;, For Thou art the God of righteousness, judging Israel with chastening., Turn, O God, Thy mercy upon us, and have pity upon us;, Gather together the dispersed of Israel, with mercy and goodness;, For Thy faithfulness is with us. And (though) we have stiffened our neck, yet Thou art our chastener;, Overlook us not, O our God, lest the nations swallow us up, as though there were none to deliver., But Thou art our God from the beginning, And upon Thee is our hope (set), O Lord;, And we will not depart from Thee, For good are Thy judgements upon us., Ours and our children’s be Thy good pleasure for ever O Lord our Saviour, we shall never more be moved., The Lord is worthy to be praised for His judgements with the mouth of His pious ones; And blessed be Israel of the Lord for ever


nanShe reaches mightily from one end of the earth to the other,and she orders all things well., I loved her and sought her from my youth,and I desired to take her for my bride,and I became enamored of her beauty., She glorifies her noble birth by living with God,and the Lord of all loves her., For she is an initiate in the knowledge of God,and an associate in his works., If riches are a desirable possession in life,what is richer than wisdom who effects all things?, And if understanding is effective,who more than she is fashioner of what exists?, And if any one loves righteousness,her labors are virtues;for she teaches self-control and prudence,justice and courage;nothing in life is more profitable for men than these., And if any one longs for wide experience,she knows the things of old, and infers the things to come;she understands turns of speech and the solutions of riddles;she has foreknowledge of signs and wonders and of the outcome of seasons and times., Therefore I determined to take her to live with me,knowing that she would give me good counsel and encouragement in cares and grief., Because of her I shall have glory among the multitudesand honor in the presence of the elders, though I am young., I shall be found keen in judgment,and in the sight of rulers I shall be admired., When I am silent they will wait for me,and when I speak they will give heed;and when I speak at greater length they will put their hands on their mouths., Because of her I shall have immortality,and leave an everlasting remembrance to those who come after me., I shall govern peoples,and nations will be subject to me;, dread monarchs will be afraid of me when they hear of me;among the people I shall show myself capable,and courageous in war., When I enter my house, I shall find rest with her,for companionship with her has no bitterness,and life with her has no pain, but gladness and joy., When I considered these things inwardly,and thought upon them in my mind,that in kinship with wisdom there is immortality,, and in friendship with her, pure delight,and in the labors of her hands, unfailing wealth,and in the experience of her company, understanding,and renown in sharing her words,I went about seeking how to get her for myself., As a child I was by nature well endowed,and a good soul fell to my lot;, or rather, being good, I entered an undefiled body., But I perceived that I would not possess wisdom unless God gave her to me -- and it was a mark of insight to know whose gift she was -- so I appealed to the Lord and besought him,and with my whole heart I said:


nanWhen Israel was led away captive into a strange land, When they fell away from the Lord who redeemed them,, They were cast away from the inheritance, which Lord had given them. A mong every nation (were) the dispersed of Israel according to the word of God,, That Thou mightest be justified, O God, in Thy righteousness by reason of our transgressions:, For Thou art a just judge over all the peoples of the earth., For from Thy knowledge none that doeth unjustly is hidden,, And the righteous deeds of Thy pious ones (are) before Thee, O Lord, Where, then, can a man hide himself from Thy knowledge, O God?, Our works are subject to our own choice and power To do right or wrong in the works of our hands, And in Thy righteousness Thou visitest the sons of men., He that doeth righteousness layeth up life for himself with the Lord; And he that doeth wrongly forfeits his life to destruction;, For the judgements of the Lord are (given) in righteousness to (every) man and (his) house. Unto whom art Thou good, O God, except to them that call upon the Lord?, He cleanseth from sins a soul when it maketh confession, when it maketh acknowledgement;, For shame is upon us and upon our faces on account of all these things., And to whom doth He forgive sins, except to them that have sinned?, Thou blessest the righteous, and dost not reprove them for the sins that they have committed; And Thy goodness is upon them that sin, when they repent., And, now, Thou art our God, and we the people whom Thou hast loved: Behold and show pity, O God of Israel, for we are Thine; And remove not Thy mercy from us, lest they assail us., For Thou didst choose the seed of Abraham before all the nations, And didst set Thy name upon us, O Lord,, And Thou wilt not reject (us) for ever. Thou madest a covenant with our fathers concerning us;, And we hope in Thee, when our soul turneth (unto Thee). The mercy of the Lord be upon the house of Israel for ever and ever.


nanO God of my fathers and Lord of mercy,who hast made all things by thy word,, and by thy wisdom hast formed man,to have dominion over the creatures thou hast made,, and rule the world in holiness and righteousness,and pronounce judgment in uprightness of soul,, give me the wisdom that sits by thy throne,and do not reject me from among thy servants., For I am thy slave and the son of thy maidservant,a man who is weak and short-lived,with little understanding of judgment and laws;, for even if one is perfect among the sons of men,yet without the wisdom that comes from thee he will be regarded as nothing., Thou hast chosen me to be king of thy people and to be judge over thy sons and daughters.", Thou hast given command to build a temple on thy holy mountain,and an altar in the city of thy habitation,a copy of the holy tent which thou didst prepare from the beginning., With thee is wisdom, who knows thy works and was present when thou didst make the world,and who understand what is pleasing in thy sight and what is right according to thy commandments., Send her forth from the holy heavens,and from the throne of thy glory send her,that she may be with me and toil,and that I may learn what is pleasing to thee., For she knows and understands all things,and she will guide me wisely in my actions and guard me with her glory., Then my works will be acceptable,and I shall judge thy people justly,and shall be worthy of the throne of my father., For what man can learn the counsel of God?Or who can discern what the Lord wills?", For the reasoning of mortals is worthless,and our designs are likely to fail,, for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind., We can hardly guess at what is on earth,and what is at hand we find with labor;but who has traced out what is in the heavens?, Who has learned thy counsel, unless thou hast given wisdom and sent thy holy Spirit from on high?, And thus the paths of those on earth were set right,and men were taught what pleases thee,and were saved by wisdom.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

48 results
1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 3-5, 8-9, 1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Septuagint, 2 Esdras, 11-16, 1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3. Septuagint, Baruch, 1.15-3.8 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1-1.2 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali 1.2. who in the days of Shalmaneser, king of the Assyrians, was taken into captivity from Thisbe, which is to the south of Kedesh Naphtali in Galilee above Asher.
5. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 7.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.2. מַה־יָּפוּ פְעָמַיִךְ בַּנְּעָלִים בַּת־נָדִיב חַמּוּקֵי יְרֵכַיִךְ כְּמוֹ חֲלָאִים מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָמָּן׃ 7.2. How beautiful are thy steps in sandals, O prince’s daughter! The roundings of thy thighs are like the links of a chain, The work of the hands of a skilled workman.
6. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.16-6.17, 8.2, 8.5, 17.15, 33.8-33.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.16. לֹא תְנַסּוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתֶם בַּמַּסָּה׃ 6.17. שָׁמוֹר תִּשְׁמְרוּן אֶת־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְעֵדֹתָיו וְחֻקָּיו אֲשֶׁר צִוָּךְ׃ 8.2. כַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה מַאֲבִיד מִפְּנֵיכֶם כֵּן תֹאבֵדוּן עֵקֶב לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּן בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 8.2. וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־כָּל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר הֹלִיכֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ זֶה אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בַּמִּדְבָּר לְמַעַן עַנֹּתְךָ לְנַסֹּתְךָ לָדַעַת אֶת־אֲשֶׁר בִּלְבָבְךָ הֲתִשְׁמֹר מצותו [מִצְוֺתָיו] אִם־לֹא׃ 8.5. וְיָדַעְתָּ עִם־לְבָבֶךָ כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר יְיַסֵּר אִישׁ אֶת־בְּנוֹ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מְיַסְּרֶךָּ׃ 17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃ 33.8. וּלְלֵוִי אָמַר תֻּמֶּיךָ וְאוּרֶיךָ לְאִישׁ חֲסִידֶךָ אֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתוֹ בְּמַסָּה תְּרִיבֵהוּ עַל־מֵי מְרִיבָה׃ 33.9. הָאֹמֵר לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא רְאִיתִיו וְאֶת־אֶחָיו לֹא הִכִּיר וְאֶת־בנו [בָּנָיו] לֹא יָדָע כִּי שָׁמְרוּ אִמְרָתֶךָ וּבְרִיתְךָ יִנְצֹרוּ׃ 33.11. בָּרֵךְ יְהוָה חֵילוֹ וּפֹעַל יָדָיו תִּרְצֶה מְחַץ מָתְנַיִם קָמָיו וּמְשַׂנְאָיו מִן־יְקוּמוּן׃ 6.16. Ye shall not try the LORD your God, as ye tried Him in Massah." 6.17. Ye shall diligently keep the commandments of the LORD your God, and His testimonies, and His statutes, which He hath commanded thee." 8.2. And thou shalt remember all the way which the LORD thy God hath led thee these forty years in the wilderness, that He might afflict thee, to prove thee, to know what was in thy heart, whether thou wouldest keep His commandments, or no." 8.5. And thou shalt consider in thy heart, that, as a man chasteneth his son, so the LORD thy God chasteneth thee." 17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother." 33.8. And of Levi he said: Thy Thummim and Thy Urim be with Thy holy one, Whom Thou didst prove at Massah, With whom Thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah;" 33.9. Who said of his father, and of his mother: ‘I have not seen him’; Neither did he acknowledge his brethren, Nor knew he his own children; For they have observed Thy word, And keep Thy covet." 33.10. They shall teach Jacob Thine ordices, And Israel Thy law; They shall put incense before Thee, And whole burnt-offering upon Thine altar. ." 33.11. Bless, LORD, his substance, And accept the work of his hands; Smite through the loins of them that rise up against him, And of them that hate him, that they rise not again."
7. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.25, 16.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.25. וַיִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה וַיּוֹרֵהוּ יְהוָה עֵץ וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶל־הַמַּיִם וַיִּמְתְּקוּ הַמָּיִם שָׁם שָׂם לוֹ חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט וְשָׁם נִסָּהוּ׃ 16.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנְנִי מַמְטִיר לָכֶם לֶחֶם מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם וְיָצָא הָעָם וְלָקְטוּ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ לְמַעַן אֲנַסֶּנּוּ הֲיֵלֵךְ בְּתוֹרָתִי אִם־לֹא׃ 15.25. And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD showed him a tree, and he cast it into the waters, and the waters were made sweet. There He made for them a statute and an ordice, and there He proved them;" 16.4. Then said the LORD unto Moses: ‘Behold, I will cause to rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a day’s portion every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in My law, or not."
8. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.3. וְיָשַׁב מְצָרֵף וּמְטַהֵר כֶּסֶף וְטִהַר אֶת־בְּנֵי־לֵוִי וְזִקַּק אֹתָם כַּזָּהָב וְכַכָּסֶף וְהָיוּ לַיהוָה מַגִּישֵׁי מִנְחָה בִּצְדָקָה׃ 3.3. And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver; and there shall be they that shall offer unto the LORD offerings in righteousness."
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.11-3.12, 8.3, 8.22-8.31, 28.4, 31.10-31.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.11. מוּסַר יְהוָה בְּנִי אַל־תִּמְאָס וְאַל־תָּקֹץ בְּתוֹכַחְתּוֹ׃ 3.12. כִּי אֶת אֲשֶׁר יֶאֱהַב יְהוָה יוֹכִיחַ וּכְאָב אֶת־בֵּן יִרְצֶה׃ 8.3. לְיַד־שְׁעָרִים לְפִי־קָרֶת מְבוֹא פְתָחִים תָּרֹנָּה׃ 8.3. וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשֻׁעִים יוֹם יוֹם מְשַׂחֶקֶת לְפָנָיו בְּכָל־עֵת׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 8.31. מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 28.4. עֹזְבֵי תוֹרָה יְהַלְלוּ רָשָׁע וְשֹׁמְרֵי תוֹרָה יִתְגָּרוּ בָם׃ 31.11. בָּטַח בָּהּ לֵב בַּעְלָהּ וְשָׁלָל לֹא יֶחְסָר׃ 31.12. גְּמָלַתְהוּ טוֹב וְלֹא־רָע כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיה׃ 31.13. דָּרְשָׁה צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים וַתַּעַשׂ בְּחֵפֶץ כַּפֶּיהָ׃ 31.14. הָיְתָה כָּאֳנִיּוֹת סוֹחֵר מִמֶּרְחָק תָּבִיא לַחְמָהּ׃ 31.15. וַתָּקָם בְּעוֹד לַיְלָה וַתִּתֵּן טֶרֶף לְבֵיתָהּ וְחֹק לְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ׃ 31.16. זָמְמָה שָׂדֶה וַתִּקָּחֵהוּ מִפְּרִי כַפֶּיהָ נטע [נָטְעָה] כָּרֶם׃ 31.17. חָגְרָה בְעוֹז מָתְנֶיהָ וַתְּאַמֵּץ זְרֹעוֹתֶיהָ׃ 31.18. טָעֲמָה כִּי־טוֹב סַחְרָהּ לֹא־יִכְבֶּה בליל [בַלַּיְלָה] נֵרָהּ׃ 31.19. יָדֶיהָ שִׁלְּחָה בַכִּישׁוֹר וְכַפֶּיהָ תָּמְכוּ פָלֶךְ׃ 31.21. לֹא־תִירָא לְבֵיתָהּ מִשָּׁלֶג כִּי כָל־בֵּיתָהּ לָבֻשׁ שָׁנִים׃ 31.22. מַרְבַדִּים עָשְׂתָה־לָּהּ שֵׁשׁ וְאַרְגָּמָן לְבוּשָׁהּ׃ 31.23. נוֹדָע בַּשְּׁעָרִים בַּעְלָהּ בְּשִׁבְתּוֹ עִם־זִקְנֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 31.24. סָדִין עָשְׂתָה וַתִּמְכֹּר וַחֲגוֹר נָתְנָה לַכְּנַעֲנִי׃ 31.25. עֹז־וְהָדָר לְבוּשָׁהּ וַתִּשְׂחַק לְיוֹם אַחֲרוֹן׃ 31.26. פִּיהָ פָּתְחָה בְחָכְמָה וְתוֹרַת־חֶסֶד עַל־לְשׁוֹנָהּ׃ 31.27. צוֹפִיָּה הֲלִיכוֹת בֵּיתָהּ וְלֶחֶם עַצְלוּת לֹא תֹאכֵל׃ 31.28. קָמוּ בָנֶיהָ וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ בַּעְלָהּ וַיְהַלְלָהּ׃ 31.29. רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל־כֻּלָּנָה׃ 31.31. תְּנוּ־לָהּ מִפְּרִי יָדֶיהָ וִיהַלְלוּהָ בַשְּׁעָרִים מַעֲשֶׂיהָ׃ 3.11. My son, despise not the chastening of the LORD, Neither spurn thou His correction;" 3.12. For whom the LORD loveth He correcteth, Even as a father the son in whom he delighteth." 8.3. Beside the gates, at the entry of the city, At the coming in at the doors, she crieth aloud:" 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 8.31. Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men." 28.4. They that forsake the law praise the wicked; But such as keep the law contend with them." 31.10. A woman of valour who can find? For her price is far above rubies." 31.11. The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, and he hath no lack of gain." 31.12. She doeth him good and not evil all the days of her life." 31.13. She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands." 31.14. She is like the merchant-ships; she bringeth her food from afar." 31.15. She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth food to her household, and a portion to her maidens." 31.16. She considereth a field, and buyeth it; with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard." 31.17. She girdeth her loins with strength, And maketh strong her arms." 31.18. She perceiveth that her merchandise is good; Her lamp goeth not out by night." 31.19. She layeth her hands to the distaff, And her hands hold the spindle." 31.20. She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; Yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy." 31.21. She is not afraid of the snow for her household; For all her household are clothed with scarlet." 31.22. She maketh for herself coverlets; Her clothing is fine linen and purple." 31.23. Her husband is known in the gates, When he sitteth among the elders of the land." 31.24. She maketh linen garments and selleth them; And delivereth girdles unto the merchant." 31.25. Strength and dignity are her clothing; And she laugheth at the time to come." 31.26. She openeth her mouth with wisdom; And the law of kindness is on her tongue." 31.27. She looketh well to the ways of her household, And eateth not the bread of idleness." 31.28. Her children rise up, and call her blessed; Her husband also, and he praiseth her:" 31.29. ’Many daughters have done valiantly, But thou excellest them all.’" 31.30. Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain; But a woman that feareth the LORD, she shall be praised." 31.31. Give her of the fruit of her hands; And let her works praise her in the gates."
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 17.3, 26.2, 66.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.3. בָּחַנְתָּ לִבִּי פָּקַדְתָּ לַּיְלָה צְרַפְתַּנִי בַל־תִּמְצָא זַמֹּתִי בַּל־יַעֲבָר־פִּי׃ 26.2. בְּחָנֵנִי יְהוָה וְנַסֵּנִי צרופה [צָרְפָה] כִלְיוֹתַי וְלִבִּי׃ 17.3. Thou hast tried my heart, Thou hast visited it in the night; Thou hast tested me, and Thou findest not That I had a thought which should not pass my mouth." 26.2. Examine me, O LORD, and try me; test my reins and my heart." 66.10. For Thou, O God, hast tried us; Thou hast refined us, as silver is refined."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 8.9 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

8.9. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וְהֵבֵאתִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בַּצָּהֳרָיִם וְהַחֲשַׁכְתִּי לָאָרֶץ בְּיוֹם אוֹר׃ 8.9. And it shall come to pass in that day, Saith the Lord GOD, That I will cause the sun to go down at noon, And I will darken the earth in the clear day."
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.25, 13.10, 48.10, 53.7, 53.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.25. וְאָשִׁיבָה יָדִי עָלַיִךְ וְאֶצְרֹף כַּבֹּר סִיגָיִךְ וְאָסִירָה כָּל־בְּדִילָיִךְ׃ 53.7. נִגַּשׂ וְהוּא נַעֲנֶה וְלֹא יִפְתַּח־פִּיו כַּשֶּׂה לַטֶּבַח יוּבָל וּכְרָחֵל לִפְנֵי גֹזְזֶיהָ נֶאֱלָמָה וְלֹא יִפְתַּח פִּיו׃ 53.12. לָכֵן אֲחַלֶּק־לוֹ בָרַבִּים וְאֶת־עֲצוּמִים יְחַלֵּק שָׁלָל תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱרָה לַמָּוֶת נַפְשׁוֹ וְאֶת־פֹּשְׁעִים נִמְנָה וְהוּא חֵטְא־רַבִּים נָשָׂא וְלַפֹּשְׁעִים יַפְגִּיעַ׃ 1.25. And I will turn My hand upon thee, And purge away thy dross as with lye, And will take away all thine alloy;" 13.10. For the stars of heaven and the constellations thereof Shall not give their light; The sun shall be darkened in his going forth, And the moon shall not cause her light to shine." 53.7. He was oppressed, though he humbled himself And opened not his mouth; As a lamb that is led to the slaughter, And as a sheep that before her shearers is dumb; Yea, he opened not his mouth." 53.12. Therefore will I divide him a portion among the great, And he shall divide the spoil with the mighty; Because he bared his soul unto death, And was numbered with the transgressors; Yet he bore the sin of many, And made intercession for the transgressors."
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 6.22-6.24, 15.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.22. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנֵּה עַם בָּא מֵאֶרֶץ צָפוֹן וְגוֹי גָּדוֹל יֵעוֹר מִיַּרְכְּתֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 6.23. קֶשֶׁת וְכִידוֹן יַחֲזִיקוּ אַכְזָרִי הוּא וְלֹא יְרַחֵמוּ קוֹלָם כַּיָּם יֶהֱמֶה וְעַל־סוּסִים יִרְכָּבוּ עָרוּךְ כְּאִישׁ לַמִּלְחָמָה עָלַיִךְ בַּת־צִיּוֹן׃ 6.24. שָׁמַעְנוּ אֶת־שָׁמְעוֹ רָפוּ יָדֵינוּ צָרָה הֶחֱזִיקַתְנוּ חִיל כַּיּוֹלֵדָה׃ 15.9. אֻמְלְלָה יֹלֶדֶת הַשִּׁבְעָה נָפְחָה נַפְשָׁהּ באה [בָּא] שִׁמְשָׁהּ בְּעֹד יוֹמָם בּוֹשָׁה וְחָפֵרָה וּשְׁאֵרִיתָם לַחֶרֶב אֶתֵּן לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֵיהֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 6.22. Thus saith the LORD: Behold, a people cometh from the north country, And a great nation shall be roused from the uttermost parts of the earth." 6.23. They lay hold on bow and spear, They are cruel, and have no compassion; Their voice is like the roaring sea, And they ride upon horses; Set in array, as a man for war, Against thee, O daughter of Zion." 6.24. ’We have heard the fame thereof, our hands wax feeble, Anguish hath taken hold of us, And pain, as of a woman in travail.’" 15.9. She that hath borne seven languisheth; Her spirit droopeth; Her sun is gone down while it was yet day, She is ashamed and confounded; And the residue of them will I deliver to the sword before their enemies, Saith the LORD.’"
15. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 22.20-22.21 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.21. וְכִנַּסְתִּי אֶתְכֶם וְנָפַחְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם בְּאֵשׁ עֶבְרָתִי וְנִתַּכְתֶּם בְּתוֹכָהּ׃ 22.20. As they gather silver and brass and iron and lead and tin into the midst of the furnace, to blow the fire upon it, to melt it; so will I gather you in Mine anger and in My fury, and I will cast you in, and melt you." 22.21. Yea, I will gather you, and blow upon you with the fire of My wrath, and ye shall be melted in the midst thereof."
17. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 24.17-24.25 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.17. וְאַחֲרֵי מוֹת יְהוֹיָדָע בָּאוּ שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַמֶּלֶךְ אָז שָׁמַע הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 24.18. וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרִים וְאֶת־הָעֲצַבִּים וַיְהִי־קֶצֶף עַל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם בְּאַשְׁמָתָם זֹאת׃ 24.19. וַיִּשְׁלַח בָּהֶם נְבִאִים לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֶל־יְהוָה וַיָּעִידוּ בָם וְלֹא הֶאֱזִינוּ׃ 24.21. וַיִּקְשְׁרוּ עָלָיו וַיִּרְגְּמֻהוּ אֶבֶן בְּמִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֲצַר בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 24.22. וְלֹא־זָכַר יוֹאָשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוֹיָדָע אָבִיו עִמּוֹ וַיַּהֲרֹג אֶת־בְּנוֹ וּכְמוֹתוֹ אָמַר יֵרֶא יְהוָה וְיִדְרֹשׁ׃ 24.23. וַיְהִי לִתְקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה עָלָה עָלָיו חֵיל אֲרָם וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּשְׁחִיתוּ אֶת־כָּל־שָׂרֵי הָעָם מֵעָם וְכָל־שְׁלָלָם שִׁלְּחוּ לְמֶלֶךְ דַּרְמָשֶׂק׃ 24.24. כִּי בְמִצְעַר אֲנָשִׁים בָּאוּ חֵיל אֲרָם וַיהוָה נָתַן בְּיָדָם חַיִל לָרֹב מְאֹד כִּי עָזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וְאֶת־יוֹאָשׁ עָשׂוּ שְׁפָטִים׃ 24.25. וּבְלֶכְתָּם מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי־עָזְבוּ אֹתוֹ במחליים [בְּמַחֲלוּיִם] רַבִּים הִתְקַשְּׁרוּ עָלָיו עֲבָדָיו בִּדְמֵי בְּנֵי יְהוֹיָדָע הַכֹּהֵן וַיַּהַרְגֻהוּ עַל־מִטָּתוֹ וַיָּמֹת וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בְּעִיר דָּוִיד וְלֹא קְבָרֻהוּ בְּקִבְרוֹת הַמְּלָכִים׃ 24.17. Now after the death of Jehoiada came the princes of Judah, and prostrated themselves before the king. Then the king hearkened unto them." 24.18. And they forsook the house of the LORD, the God of their fathers, and served the Asherim and the idols; and wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for this their guiltiness." 24.19. Yet He sent prophets to them, to bring them back unto the LORD; and they admonished them, but they would not give ear." 24.20. And the spirit of God clothed Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest; and he stood above the people, and said unto them: ‘Thus saith God: Why transgress ye the commandments of the LORD, that ye cannot prosper? because ye have forsaken the LORD, He hath also forsaken you.’" 24.21. And they conspired against him, and stoned him with stones at the commandment of the king in the court of the house of the LORD." 24.22. Thus Joash the king remembered not the kindness which Jehoiada his father had done to him, but slew his son. And when he died, he said: ‘The LORD look upon it, and require it.’" 24.23. And it came to pass, when the year was come about, that the army of the Arameans came up against him; and they came to Judah and Jerusalem, and destroyed all the princes of the people from among the people, and sent all the spoil of them unto the king of Damascus." 24.24. For the army of the Arameans came with a small company of men; and the LORD delivered a very great host into their hand, because they had forsaken the LORD, the God of their fathers. So they executed judgment upon Joash." 24.25. And when they were departed from him—for they left him in great diseases—his own servants conspired against him for the blood of the sons of Jehoiada the priest, and slew him on his bed, and he died; and they buried him in the city of David, but they buried him not in the sepulchres of the kings."
18. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 13.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

13.9. וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶת־הַשְּׁלִשִׁית בָּאֵשׁ וּצְרַפְתִּים כִּצְרֹף אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף וּבְחַנְתִּים כִּבְחֹן אֶת־הַזָּהָב הוּא יִקְרָא בִשְׁמִי וַאֲנִי אֶעֱנֶה אֹתוֹ אָמַרְתִּי עַמִּי הוּא וְהוּא יֹאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי׃ 13.9. And I will bring the third part through the fire, And will refine them as silver is refined, And will try them as gold is tried; They shall call on My name, And I will answer them; I will say: ‘It is My people’, And they shall say: ‘The LORD is my God.’"
19. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1-1.2 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali 1.2. who in the days of Shalmaneser, king of the Assyrians, was taken into captivity from Thisbe, which is to the south of Kedesh Naphtali in Galilee above Asher.
20. Anon., 1 Enoch, 37-71, 14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14. The book of the words of righteousness, and of the reprimand of the eternal Watchers in accordance,with the command of the Holy Great One in that vision. I saw in my sleep what I will now say with a tongue of flesh and with the breath of my mouth: which the Great One has given to men to",converse therewith and understand with the heart. As He has created and given to man the power of understanding the word of wisdom, so hath He created me also and given me the power of reprimanding,the Watchers, the children of heaven. I wrote out your petition, and in my vision it appeared thus, that your petition will not be granted unto you throughout all the days of eternity, and that judgement,has been finally passed upon you: yea (your petition) will not be granted unto you. And from henceforth you shall not ascend into heaven unto all eternity, and in bonds of the earth the decree,has gone forth to bind you for all the days of the world. And (that) previously you shall have seen the destruction of your beloved sons and ye shall have no pleasure in them, but they shall fall before,you by the sword. And your petition on their behalf shall not be granted, nor yet on your own: even though you weep and pray and speak all the words contained in the writing which I have,written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in,the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright,me. And I went into the tongues of fire and drew nigh to a large house which was built of crystals: and the walls of the house were like a tesselated floor (made) of crystals, and its groundwork was,of crystal. Its ceiling was like the path of the stars and the lightnings, and between them were,fiery cherubim, and their heaven was (clear as) water. A flaming fire surrounded the walls, and its,portals blazed with fire. And I entered into that house, and it was hot as fire and cold as ice: there,were no delights of life therein: fear covered me, and trembling got hold upon me. And as I quaked,and trembled, I fell upon my face. And I beheld a vision, And lo! there was a second house, greater,than the former, and the entire portal stood open before me, and it was built of flames of fire. And in every respect it so excelled in splendour and magnificence and extent that I cannot describe to,you its splendour and its extent. And its floor was of fire, and above it were lightnings and the path,of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of,cherubim. And from underneath the throne came streams of flaming fire so that I could not look",thereon. And the Great Glory sat thereon, and His raiment shone more brightly than the sun and,was whiter than any snow. None of the angels could enter and could behold His face by reason",of the magnificence and glory and no flesh could behold Him. The flaming fire was round about Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and none around could draw nigh Him: ten thousand times,ten thousand (stood) before Him, yet He needed no counselor. And the most holy ones who were,nigh to Him did not leave by night nor depart from Him. And until then I had been prostrate on my face, trembling: and the Lord called me with His own mouth, and said to me: ' Come hither,,Enoch, and hear my word.' And one of the holy ones came to me and waked me, and He made me rise up and approach the door: and I bowed my face downwards.
21. Anon., Jubilees, 23.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

23.23. And all these will come on an evil generation, which transgresseth on the earth: their works are uncleanness and fornication, and pollution and abominations.
22. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 17.5-17.6, 17.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

23. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.17, 6.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.17. וְהַיְלָדִים הָאֵלֶּה אַרְבַּעְתָּם נָתַן לָהֶם הָאֱלֹהִים מַדָּע וְהַשְׂכֵּל בְּכָל־סֵפֶר וְחָכְמָה וְדָנִיֵּאל הֵבִין בְּכָל־חָזוֹן וַחֲלֹמוֹת׃ 6.4. אֱדַיִן דָּנִיֵּאל דְּנָה הֲוָא מִתְנַצַּח עַל־סָרְכַיָּא וַאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי רוּחַ יַתִּירָא בֵּהּ וּמַלְכָּא עֲשִׁית לַהֲקָמוּתֵהּ עַל־כָּל־מַלְכוּתָא׃ 1.17. Now as for these four youths, God gave them knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom; and Daniel had understanding in all visions and dreams." 6.4. Then this Daniel distinguished himself above the presidents and the satraps, because a surpassing spirit was in him; and the king thought to set him over the whole realm."
24. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.15-2.19, 7.6, 7.14, 7.19, 7.31-7.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.15. So if you have need of them, send people to get them for you.' 2.16. Since, therefore, we are about to celebrate the purification, we write to you. Will you therefore please keep the days?' 2.17. It is God who has saved all his people, and has returned the inheritance to all, and the kingship and priesthood and consecration,' 2.18. as he promised through the law. For we have hope in God that he will soon have mercy upon us and will gather us from everywhere under heaven into his holy place, for he has rescued us from great evils and has purified the place.' 2.19. The story of Judas Maccabeus and his brothers, and the purification of the great temple, and the dedication of the altar,' 7.6. The Lord God is watching over us and in truth has compassion on us, as Moses declared in his song which bore witness against the people to their faces, when he said, `And he will have compassion on his servants.'' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 7.19. But do not think that you will go unpunished for having tried to fight against God!' 7.31. But you, who have contrived all sorts of evil against the Hebrews, will certainly not escape the hands of God.' 7.32. For we are suffering because of our own sins. 7.33. And if our living Lord is angry for a little while, to rebuke and discipline us, he will again be reconciled with his own servants.' 7.34. But you, unholy wretch, you most defiled of all men, do not be elated in vain and puffed up by uncertain hopes, when you raise your hand against the children of heaven.' 7.35. You have not yet escaped the judgment of the almighty, all-seeing God.' 7.36. For our brothers after enduring a brief suffering have drunk of everflowing life under God's covet; but you, by the judgment of God, will receive just punishment for your arrogance.'
25. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 2.6, 2.10-2.11, 2.13, 2.15, 4.11-4.19, 15.11-15.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.6. Trust in him, and he will help you;make your ways straight, and hope in him. 2.11. For the Lord is compassionate and merciful;he forgives sins and saves in time of affliction. 2.15. Those who fear the Lord will not disobey his words,and those who love him will keep his ways. 4.11. Wisdom exalts her sons and gives help to those who seek her. 4.12. Whoever loves her loves life,and those who seek her early will be filled with joy. 4.13. Whoever holds her fast will obtain glory,and the Lord will bless the place she enters. 4.14. Those who serve her will minister to the Holy One;the Lord loves those who love her. 4.15. He who obeys her will judge the nations,and whoever gives heed to her will dwell secure. 4.16. If he has faith in her he will obtain her;and his descendants will remain in possession of her. 4.17. For at first she will walk with him on tortuous paths,she will bring fear and cowardice upon him,and will torment him by her discipline until she trusts him,and she will test him with her ordices. 4.18. Then she will come straight back to him and gladden him,and will reveal her secrets to him. 4.19. If he goes astray she will forsake him,and hand him over to his ruin. 15.11. Do not say, "Because of the Lord I left the right way";for he will not do what he hates. 15.12. Do not say, "It was he who led me astray";for he had no need of a sinful man.
26. Septuagint, Judith, 8.25-8.26, 9.7-9.10, 16.1-16.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

8.25. In spite of everything let us give thanks to the Lord our God, who is putting us to the test as he did our forefathers. 8.26. Remember what he did with Abraham, and how he tested Isaac, and what happened to Jacob in Mesopotamia in Syria, while he was keeping the sheep of Laban, his mother's brother. 9.7. Behold now, the Assyrians are increased in their might; they are exalted, with their horses and riders; they glory in the strength of their foot soldiers; they trust in shield and spear, in bow and sling, and know not that thou art the Lord who crushest wars; the Lord is thy name. 9.8. Break their strength by thy might, and bring down their power in thy anger; for they intend to defile thy sanctuary, and to pollute the tabernacle where thy glorious name rests, and to cast down the horn of thy altar with the sword. 9.9. Behold their pride, and send thy wrath upon their heads; give to me, a widow, the strength to do what I plan. 9.10. By the deceit of my lips strike down the slave with the prince and the prince with his servant; crush their arrogance by the hand of a woman. 16.1. Then Judith began this thanksgiving before all Israel, and all the people loudly sang this song of praise. 16.2. And Judith said, Begin a song to my God with tambourines, sing to my Lord with cymbals. Raise to him a new psalm; exalt him, and call upon his name. 16.3. For God is the Lord who crushes wars; for he has delivered me out of the hands of my pursuers, and brought me to his camp, in the midst of the people. 16.4. The Assyrian came down from the mountains of the north; he came with myriads of his warriors; their multitude blocked up the valleys, their cavalry covered the hills. 16.5. He boasted that he would burn up my territory, and kill my young men with the sword, and dash my infants to the ground and seize my children as prey, and take my virgins as booty. 16.6. But the Lord Almighty has foiled them by the hand of a woman. 16.7. For their mighty one did not fall by the hands of the young men, nor did the sons of the Titans smite him, nor did tall giants set upon him; but Judith the daughter of Merari undid him with the beauty of her countece. 16.8. For she took off her widow's mourning to exalt the oppressed in Israel. She anointed her face with ointment and fastened her hair with a tiara and put on a linen gown to deceive him. 16.9. Her sandal ravished his eyes, her beauty captivated his mind, and the sword severed his neck. 16.10. The Persians trembled at her boldness, the Medes were daunted at her daring. 16.11. Then my oppressed people shouted for joy; my weak people shouted and the enemy trembled; they lifted up their voices, and the enemy were turned back. 16.12. The sons of maidservants have pierced them through; they were wounded like the children of fugitives, they perished before the army of my Lord. 16.13. I will sing to my God a new song: O Lord, thou are great and glorious, wonderful in strength, invincible. 16.14. Let all thy creatures serve thee, for thou didst speak, and they were made. Thou didst send forth thy Spirit, and it formed them; there is none that can resist thy voice. 16.15. For the mountains shall be shaken to their foundations with the waters; at thy presence the rocks shall melt like wax, but to those who fear thee thou wilt continue to show mercy. 16.16. For every sacrifice as a fragrant offering is a small thing, and all fat for burnt offerings to thee is a very little thing, but he who fears the Lord shall be great for ever. 16.17. Woe to the nations that rise up against my people! The Lord Almighty will take vengeance on them in the day of judgment; fire and worms he will give to their flesh; they shall weep in pain for ever.
27. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.4-2.6, 2.10-2.13, 2.15, 2.19, 3.5, 3.10-3.19, 4.1, 4.11-4.16, 6.1-6.11, 6.24, 7.1, 7.12, 7.17-7.23, 7.25-7.26, 7.29, 8.3, 8.6, 11.9, 12.3, 13.1-13.9, 14.2, 14.15, 15.11-15.12, 15.14-15.16, 17.5-17.8, 19.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.4. Our name will be forgotten in time and no one will remember our works;our life will pass away like the traces of a cloud,and be scattered like mist that is chased by the rays of the sun and overcome by its heat. 2.5. For our allotted time is the passing of a shadow,and there is no return from our death,because it is sealed up and no one turns back. 2.6. Come, therefore, let us enjoy the good things that exist,and make use of the creation to the full as in youth. 2.10. Let us oppress the righteous poor man;let us not spare the widow nor regard the gray hairs of the aged. 2.11. But let our might be our law of right,for what is weak proves itself to be useless. 2.12. Let us lie in wait for the righteous man,because he is inconvenient to us and opposes our actions;he reproaches us for sins against the law,and accuses us of sins against our training. 2.13. He professes to have knowledge of God,and calls himself a child of the Lord. 2.15. the very sight of him is a burden to us,because his manner of life is unlike that of others,and his ways are strange. 2.19. Let us test him with insult and torture,that we may find out how gentle he is,and make trial of his forbearance. 3.5. Having been disciplined a little, they will receive great good,because God tested them and found them worthy of himself; 3.10. But the ungodly will be punished as their reasoning deserves,who disregarded the righteous man and rebelled against the Lord; 3.11. for whoever despises wisdom and instruction is miserable. Their hope is vain, their labors are unprofitable,and their works are useless. 3.12. Their wives are foolish, and their children evil; 3.13. their offspring are accursed. For blessed is the barren woman who is undefiled,who has not entered into a sinful union;she will have fruit when God examines souls. 3.14. Blessed also is the eunuch whose hands have done no lawless deed,and who has not devised wicked things against the Lord;for special favor will be shown him for his faithfulness,and a place of great delight in the temple of the Lord. 3.15. For the fruit of good labors is renowned,and the root of understanding does not fail. 3.16. But children of adulterers will not come to maturity,and the offspring of an unlawful union will perish. 3.17. Even if they live long they will be held of no account,and finally their old age will be without honor. 3.18. If they die young, they will have no hope and no consolation in the day of decision. 3.19. For the end of an unrighteous generation is grievous. 4.1. Better than this is childlessness with virtue,for in the memory of virtue is immortality,because it is known both by God and by men. 4.11. He was caught up lest evil change his understanding or guile deceive his soul. 4.12. For the fascination of wickedness obscures what is good,and roving desire perverts the innocent mind. 4.13. Being perfected in a short time, he fulfilled long years; 4.14. for his soul was pleasing to the Lord,therefore he took him quickly from the midst of wickedness. 4.15. Yet the peoples saw and did not understand,nor take such a thing to heart,that Gods grace and mercy are with his elect,and he watches over his holy ones. 4.16. The righteous man who had died will condemn the ungodly who are living,and youth that is quickly perfected will condemn the prolonged old age of the unrighteous man. 6.1. Listen therefore, O kings, and understand;learn, O judges of the ends of the earth. 6.2. Give ear, you that rule over multitudes,and boast of many nations. 6.3. For your dominion was given you from the Lord,and your sovereignty from the Most High,who will search out your works and inquire into your plans. 6.4. Because as servants of his kingdom you did not rule rightly,nor keep the law,nor walk according to the purpose of God 6.5. he will come upon you terribly and swiftly,because severe judgment falls on those in high places. 6.6. For the lowliest man may be pardoned in mercy,but mighty men will be mightily tested. 6.7. For the Lord of all will not stand in awe of any one,nor show deference to greatness;because he himself made both small and great,and he takes thought for all alike. 6.8. But a strict inquiry is in store for the mighty. 6.9. To you then, O monarchs, my words are directed,that you may learn wisdom and not transgress. 6.10. For they will be made holy who observe holy things in holiness,and those who have been taught them will find a defense. 6.11. Therefore set your desire on my words;long for them, and you will be instructed. 6.24. A multitude of wise men is the salvation of the world,and a sensible king is the stability of his people. 7.1. I also am mortal, like all men,a descendant of the first-formed child of earth;and in the womb of a mother I was molded into flesh 7.12. I rejoiced in them all, because wisdom leads them;but I did not know that she was their mother. 7.17. For it is he who gave me unerring knowledge of what exists,to know the structure of the world and the activity of the elements; 7.18. the beginning and end and middle of times,the alternations of the solstices and the changes of the seasons 7.19. the cycles of the year and the constellations of the stars 7.20. the natures of animals and the tempers of wild beasts,the powers of spirits and the reasonings of men,the varieties of plants and the virtues of roots; 7.21. I learned both what is secret and what is manifest 7.22. for wisdom, the fashioner of all things, taught me. For in her there is a spirit that is intelligent, holy,unique, manifold, subtle,mobile, clear, unpolluted,distinct, invulnerable, loving the good, keen,irresistible 7.23. beneficent, humane, steadfast, sure, free from anxiety,all-powerful, overseeing all,and penetrating through all spirits that are intelligent and pure and most subtle. 7.25. For she is a breath of the power of God,and a pure emanation of the glory of the Almighty;therefore nothing defiled gains entrance into her. 7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 7.29. For she is more beautiful than the sun,and excels every constellation of the stars. Compared with the light she is found to be superior 8.3. She glorifies her noble birth by living with God,and the Lord of all loves her. 8.6. And if understanding is effective,who more than she is fashioner of what exists? 11.9. For when they were tried, though they were being disciplined in mercy,they learned how the ungodly were tormented when judged in wrath. 12.3. Those who dwelt of old in thy holy land 13.1. For all men who were ignorant of God were foolish by nature;and they were unable from the good things that are seen to know him who exists,nor did they recognize the craftsman while paying heed to his works; 13.2. but they supposed that either fire or wind or swift air,or the circle of the stars, or turbulent water,or the luminaries of heaven were the gods that rule the world. 13.3. If through delight in the beauty of these things men assumed them to be gods,let them know how much better than these is their Lord,for the author of beauty created them. 13.4. And if men were amazed at their power and working,let them perceive from them how much more powerful is he who formed them. 13.5. For from the greatness and beauty of created things comes a corresponding perception of their Creator. 13.6. Yet these men are little to be blamed,for perhaps they go astray while seeking God and desiring to find him. 13.7. For as they live among his works they keep searching,and they trust in what they see, because the things that are seen are beautiful. 13.8. Yet again, not even they are to be excused; 13.9. for if they had the power to know so much that they could investigate the world,how did they fail to find sooner the Lord of these things? 14.2. For it was desire for gain that planned that vessel,and wisdom was the craftsman who built it; 14.15. For a father, consumed with grief at an untimely bereavement,made an image of his child, who had been suddenly taken from him;and he now honored as a god what was once a dead human being,and handed on to his dependents secret rites and initiations. 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit. 15.12. But he considered our existence an idle game,and life a festival held for profit,for he says one must get money however one can, even by base means. 15.14. But most foolish, and more miserable than an infant,are all the enemies who oppressed thy people. 15.15. For they thought that all their heathen idols were gods,though these have neither the use of their eyes to see with,nor nostrils with which to draw breath,nor ears with which to hear,nor fingers to feel with,and their feet are of no use for walking. 15.16. For a man made them,and one whose spirit is borrowed formed them;for no man can form a god which is like himself. 17.5. And no power of fire was able to give light,nor did the brilliant flames of the stars avail to illumine that hateful night. 17.6. Nothing was shining through to them except a dreadful, self-kindled fire,and in terror they deemed the things which they saw to be worse than that unseen appearance. 17.7. The delusions of their magic art lay humbled,and their boasted wisdom was scornfully rebuked. 17.8. For those who promised to drive off the fears and disorders of a sick soul were sick themselves with ridiculous fear. 19.15. And not only so, but punishment of some sort will come upon the former for their hostile reception of the aliens;
28. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 9.9, 9.32, 10.11, 11.3, 11.23, 12.12, 18.5, 18.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.9. but you, because of your bloodthirstiness toward us, will deservedly undergo from the divine justice eternal torment by fire. 9.32. but you suffer torture by the threats that come from impiety. You will not escape, most abominable tyrant, the judgments of the divine wrath. 10.11. but you, because of your impiety and bloodthirstiness, will undergo unceasing torments. 11.3. I have come of my own accord, so that by murdering me you will incur punishment from the heavenly justice for even more crimes. 11.23. and I myself will bring a great avenger upon you, you inventor of tortures and enemy of those who are truly devout. 12.12. Because of this, justice has laid up for you intense and eternal fire and tortures, and these throughout all time will never let you go. 18.5. The tyrant Antiochus was both punished on earth and is being chastised after his death. Since in no way whatever was he able to compel the Israelites to become pagans and to abandon their ancestral customs, he left Jerusalem and marched against the Persians. 18.22. For these crimes divine justice pursued and will pursue the accursed tyrant.
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.211-2.220 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.211. For this reason the all-great Moses thought fit that all who were enrolled in his sacred polity should follow the laws of nature and meet in a solemn assembly, passing the time in cheerful joy and relaxation, abstaining from all work, and from all arts which have a tendency to the production of anything; and from all business which is connected with the seeking of the means of living, and that they should keep a complete truce, abstaining from all laborious and fatiguing thought and care, and devoting their leisure, not as some persons scoffingly assert, to sports, or exhibitions of actors and dancers, for the sake of which those who run madly after theatrical amusements suffer disasters and even encounter miserable deaths, and for the sake of these the most domit and influential of the outward senses, sight and hearing, make the soul, which should be the heavenly nature, the slave of these senses. 2.212. But, giving up their time wholly to the study of philosophy, not of that sort of philosophy which wordcatchers and sophists, seek to reduce to a system, selling doctrines and reasonings as they would any other vendible thing in the market. Men who (O you earth and sun! 2.213. Now some one disregarding this injunction, even while he yet had the sacred words of God respecting the holy seventh day still ringing in his ears, which God had uttered without the intervention of the prophet, and, what is the most wonderful thing of all, by a visible voice which affected the eyes of those who were present even more than their ears, went forth through the middle of the camp to pick up sticks, well knowing that all the people in the camp were perfectly quiet and doing nothing, and even while he was committing the iniquity was seen and detected, all disguise being impossible; 2.214. for some persons, having gone forth out of the gates to some quiet spot, that they might pray in some retired and peaceful place, seeing a most unholy spectacle, namely this man carrying a faggot of sticks, and being very indigt, were about to put him to death; but reasoning with themselves they restrained the violence of their wrath, that they might not appear, as they were only private persons, to chastise any one rather than the magistrates, and that too uncondemned; though indeed in other respects the transgression was manifest and undeniable, wishing also that no pollution arising from an execution, even though most righteously inflicted, should defile the sacred day. But they apprehended him, and led him away to the magistrate, with whom the priests were sitting as assessors; and the whole multitude collected together to hear the trial; 2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing? 2.217. On this day, then, the man who had done this deed of impiety was led away to prison; and Moses being at a loss what ought to be done to the man (for he knew that he had committed a crime worthy of death, but did not know what was the most suitable manner for the punishment to be inflicted upon him 2.218. And that Judge delivered his sentence that the man ought to die, and in no other way than being stoned, since in his case, as in that of the criminal mentioned above, his mind had been changed to a dumb stone, and he had committed the most complete of offences, in which nearly every other sin is comprised which can be committed against the laws enacted respecting the reverence due to the seventh day. 2.219. Why so? Because, not only mere handicraft trades, but also nearly all other acts and businesses, and especially all such as have reference to any providing of or seeking for the means of life, are either carried on by means of fire themselves, or, at all events, not without those instruments which are made by fire. On which account Moses, in many places, forbids any one to handle a fire on the sabbath day, inasmuch as that is the most primary and efficient source of things and the most ancient and important work; and if that is reduced to a state of tranquillity, he thought that it would be probable that all particular works would be at a stand-still likewise. 2.220. And wood is the material of fire, so that a man who is picking up wood is committing a crime which is akin to and nearly connected with that of burning fire, doubling his transgression, in fact, partly in that he was collecting what it was commanded should remain unmoved, and partly that what he was collecting was that which is the material of fire, the beginning of all arts.
30. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 9.169, 14.403 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.169. for when God had appointed him to prophesy, he stood in the midst of the multitude, and gave this counsel to them and to the king: That they should act righteously; and foretold to them, that if they would not hearken to his admonitions, they should suffer a heavy punishment. But as Zechariah was ready to die, he appealed to God as a witness of what he suffered for the good counsel he had given them, and how he perished after a most severe and violent manner for the good deeds his father had done to Jehoash. 14.403. But Antigonus, by way of reply to what Herod had caused to be proclaimed, and this before the Romans, and before Silo also, said that they would not do justly, if they gave the kingdom to Herod, who was no more than a private man, and an Idumean, i.e. a half Jew, whereas they ought to bestow it on one of the royal family, as their custom was;
31. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 6.288-6.289 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.288. 3. Thus were the miserable people persuaded by these deceivers, and such as belied God himself; while they did not attend nor give credit to the signs that were so evident, and did so plainly foretell their future desolation, but, like men infatuated, without either eyes to see or minds to consider, did not regard the denunciations that God made to them. 6.289. Thus there was a star resembling a sword, which stood over the city, and a comet, that continued a whole year.
32. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. A scroll on which the writing has become erased and eighty-five letters remain, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\" (Numbers 11:35-36) defiles the hands. A single sheet on which there are written eighty-five letters, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\", defiles the hands. All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands. The Song of Songs and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) defile the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the Song of Songs defiles the hands, but there is a dispute about Kohelet. Rabbi Yose says: Kohelet does not defile the hands, but there is a dispute about the Song of Songs. Rabbi Shimon says: [the ruling about] Kohelet is one of the leniencies of Bet Shammai and one of the stringencies of Bet Hillel. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I have received a tradition from the seventy-two elders on the day when they appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah head of the academy that the Song of Songs and Kohelet defile the hands. Rabbi Akiba said: Far be it! No man in Israel disputed that the Song of Songs [saying] that it does not defile the hands. For the whole world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the writings are holy but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies. If they had a dispute, they had a dispute only about Kohelet. Rabbi Yoha ben Joshua the son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva said in accordance with the words of Ben Azzai: so they disputed and so they reached a decision."
33. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.12. To them it was revealed, that not to themselves, but to you, did they minister these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent out from heaven; which things angels desire to look into.
34. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

35. New Testament, Acts, 8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. New Testament, James, 2.5, 2.9-2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.5. Listen, my beloved brothers. Didn't God choose those who are poor in this world to be rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he promised to those who love him? 2.9. But if you show partiality, you commit sin, being convicted by the law as transgressors. 2.10. For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he has become guilty of all. 2.11. For he who said, "Do not commit adultery," said also, "Do not commit murder." Now if you do not commit adultery, but murder, you have become a transgressor of the law.
37. New Testament, Colossians, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.3. in whom are all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge hidden.
38. New Testament, Philippians, 2.10-2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, those on earth, and those under the earth 2.11. and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.
39. New Testament, John, 1.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.51. He said to him, "Most assuredly, I tell you, hereafter you will see heaven opened, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man.
40. New Testament, Luke, 23.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

23.34. Jesus said, "Father, forgive them, for they don't know what they are doing."Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots.
41. New Testament, Mark, 1.10, 9.2-9.3, 15.22-15.25, 15.29, 15.31, 15.38-15.39 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 9.2. After six days Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John, and brought them up onto a high mountain privately by themselves, and he was changed into another form in front of them. 9.3. His clothing became glistening, exceedingly white, like snow, such as no launderer on earth can whiten them. 15.22. They brought him to the place called Golgotha, which is, being interpreted, "The place of a skull. 15.23. They offered him wine mixed with myrrh to drink, but he didn't take it. 15.24. Crucifying him, they parted his garments among them, casting lots on them, what each should take. 15.25. It was the third hour, and they crucified him. 15.29. Those who passed by blasphemed him, wagging their heads, and saying, "Ha! You who destroy the temple, and build it in three days 15.31. Likewise, also the chief priests mocking among themselves with the scribes said, "He saved others. He can't save himself. 15.38. The veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. 15.39. When the centurion, who stood by opposite him, saw that he cried out like this and breathed his last, he said, "Truly this man was the Son of God!
42. New Testament, Matthew, 27.51 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27.51. Behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. The earth quaked and the rocks were split.
43. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 1.16 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.16. חַד מִתַּלְמִידוֹי דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֲוָה יָתֵיב קוֹמֵיהּ מִיסְבַּר לֵיהּ וְלָא סְבַר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה לֵית אַתְּ סָבַר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלַת מִילִין קַשְׁיָן חֲמֵית בַּהֲדֵין לֵילְיָא וְלֵית אֲנָא יָדַע מָה אִינוּן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵימָא לִי מָה אִינוּן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי דְּאָמְרִין לִי בַּאֲדָר אַתְּ מַיְית, וְנִיסָן לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי, וְזָרַע וְלָא חָצַד. אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלָתֵיהוֹן הֵן טָבִין, בַּאֲדָר אַתְּ מַיְית, בְּהִדּוּרָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אַתְּ מַיְית, [פרוש מתגבר], וְנִיסָן לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי, נִסְיוֹנִין לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי. וְזָרַע וְלָא חֲצָד, מַה דִּילֵידִית לֵית אַתְּ קָבֵיר. אֲמַר לוֹ חוֹרָן חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי דְּלָא הֲוָה בְּרַגְלִי פְּטִישׁ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַיֶּיךָ לֵית הָא בִּישָׁא אֶלָּא טָבָא, דְּמָטֵי חַגָּא וְלָא הֲוָה לֵיהּ לְהַהוּא גַבְרָא כְּלוּם, מִן הָן יְלִיף רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, רֶגֶל בְּרָגֶל.
44. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.28-3.33

3.28. Then I said in my heart, Are the deeds of those who inhabit Babylon any better? Is that why she has gained dominion over Zion? 3.29. For when I came here I saw ungodly deeds without number, and my soul has seen many sinners during these thirty years. And my heart failed me 3.30. for I have seen how thou dost endure those who sin, and hast spared those who act wickedly, and hast destroyed thy people, and hast preserved thy enemies 3.31. and hast not shown to any one how thy way may be comprehended. Are the deeds of Babylon better than those of Zion? 3.32. Or has another nation known thee besides Israel? Or what tribes have so believed thy covets as these tribes of Jacob? 3.33. Yet their reward has not appeared and their labor has borne no fruit. For I have traveled widely among the nations and have seen that they abound in wealth, though they are unmindful of thy commandments.
45. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 21, 20

46. Anon., Assumption of Moses, 9.6, 10.2, 10.7

47. Anon., Leges Publicae, 1.16

48. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 121-171, 120

120. abroad a false report that the working of the mines was useless and expensive, in order to prevent their country from being destroyed by the mining in these districts and possibly taken away from them owing to the Persian rule, since by the assistance of this false report they found an excuse for entering the district.I have now, my dear brother Philocrates, given you all the essential information upon this subject


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(im)mortality Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 36, 37
aaron Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
achilles Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
aeneas Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
aeschylus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
alexandria, jewish community of Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 179
alexandria, jewish writings of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
alexandria, setting of lxx translation Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145
andromache Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
angels Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 123
antigonus mattathias Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 96
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253
apocalypse/apocalyptic Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 7
apocalypticism, apocalypse Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 122, 123
aquila (translator) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
arabia Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 2
aristeas, letter of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
aristobulus (= aristobulos) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144
aristotle Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
atonement Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 128
baptism of jesus Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 122
ben sira Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
bible, texts and exegesis relating to egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
canaanites, canticles, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
christians (byzantines, copts, nubians, syrian orthodox) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
chronology Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 7
cn. pompeius magnus Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 96
colossians, letter to Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 123
covenant Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
creation Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 37
dammūh, theodotion Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
david Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
death of christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 122
diaspora Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 7
diogenes laertius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 37
ecbatana, ecclesiastes, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
egyptians, depictions in hebrew bible, lxx, and ancient jewish writings Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
eleazar (high priest in letter of aristeas) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
enemies, clemency toward ones, prayer of forgiveness for ones Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 128
eroticism Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253
eschatology Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 2; Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 123
essenes, esther, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
eternity Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 7, 36
euripides Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
euryalus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
exodus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
ezekiel, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
ezekiel Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 122
ezekiel b. nethanel, ezra, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
ezekiel the tragedian Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
genealogy Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 7
george syncellus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 37
god, as tested Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 136
god, representations of, creator Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 60, 62
gospels, new testament Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 122, 123
greek. see also ethnography education Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 179
hector Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
hellenistic judaism, conservatives Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 179
hellenistic judaism, religious divisions in Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 179
herod agrippa i Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
herod the great Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 96
hiddenness Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 123
hippodromes Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 2
homer Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
horus, hosea, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
identity Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 2
idumea, idumeans Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 96
israel, biblical, people Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 136
israelites Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
joazar, lxx Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
job Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 179
john, gospel of Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 123
josephus Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 2
judaism (karaites, rabbanites) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
judith Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 136
julius africanus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 37
kingship Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 96
knowledge Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 123
levitical Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 136
livy Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 37
luke, gospel of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 128, 130
martyr and martyrdom, cry of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
martyr and martyrdom, maccabean Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
martyr and martyrdom Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
massah Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 136
mime Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 2
moses, as lawgiver Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 136
mystery Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 122, 123
myth(ological), mythology Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253
nehemiah, nehemiah, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
oniads Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
palestine Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 2
passion, the Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 128
pentateuch Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 179
philo judaeus Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 179
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145, 172
philostratus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 37
phinehas Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
physical labor, prohibited on sabbath Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 153
plato Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
plutarch Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 37
poetry Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
pompeius trogus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 37
prayer, dominical Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 128
prayer, of forgiveness for enemies Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 128, 130
priesthood Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
provence, proverbs, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145
proverbs Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 179
pseudo-aristeas, compared with pseudo-hecataeus Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 179
pseudo-hecataeus, on the jews, compared with pseudo-aristeas Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 179
revelation, the apocalypse of jesus christ Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 123
rhetoric, – epideictic, protreptic Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 35
rhetoric, – epideictic Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 35
roman empire virtue of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 128
roman entertainment, inscriptional evidence Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 2
rome, romans Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 96
scarce resources theory' Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
scribes Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
secrecy Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 123
septuagint, used by author of wisdom of solomon Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 179
septuagint Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 153
septuagint (lxx) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145, 172
similitudes of enoch, righteousness in Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 231
similitudes of enoch, son of man title Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 231
similitudes of enoch Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 231
solomon Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144, 145
son of man, in the similitudes of enoch Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature (2016) 231
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 74
stephen Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 128, 130
stoic(ism) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253
stoics Bar Kochba, Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora (1997) 179
suffering, of the righteous Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 128
suffering, servant Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
taxo Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 136
temple Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 122
temple jerusalem (first) Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
temporality, approaches to Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 35
temporality Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 2
testing passim, agents of Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 74, 75
testing passim, roles in Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 75
thallus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 37
theaters Spielman, Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World (2020) 2
thoughts, prohibition of, in philo Jassen, Scripture and Law in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2014) 153
throne, enthroned Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 123
time, exilic Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 2
time, historiographical Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 2
time, mythic Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 2
time, thanatological Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 2, 35
time, translational Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 2
torah, obedience to Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 35
torah (pentateuch) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
translation of biblical books Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
turnus Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
tyranny and tyrants, x Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
vengeance Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
vergil (virgil) Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 380
vision Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 122, 123
wicked Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 75
wilderness passim, place Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 136
wisdom Rowland, The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament (2009) 123; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 75
wisdom (female) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253
wisdom of solomon Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 128, 130; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145, 172
yhwh, yahweh Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253
zechariah Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130