Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



707
Septuagint, Wisdom Of Solomon, 15.17


nanHe is mortal, and what he makes with lawless hands is dead,for he is better than the objects he worships,since he has life, but they never have.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

46 results
1. Septuagint, Psalms, 113 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.28, 6.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.28. וַעֲבַדְתֶּם־שָׁם אֱלֹהִים מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם עֵץ וָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִרְאוּן וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּן וְלֹא יֹאכְלוּן וְלֹא יְרִיחֻן׃ 6.13. אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תִּירָא וְאֹתוֹ תַעֲבֹד וּבִשְׁמוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵעַ׃ 4.28. And there ye shall serve gods, the work of men’s hands, wood and stone, which neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell." 6.13. Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; and Him shalt thou serve, and by His name shalt thou swear."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 7.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.27. וְאִם־מָאֵן אַתָּה לְשַׁלֵּחַ הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי נֹגֵף אֶת־כָּל־גְּבוּלְךָ בַּצְפַרְדְּעִים׃ 7.27. And if thou refuse to let them go, behold, I will smite all thy borders with frogs."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.1-12.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.1. וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה לָגוּר שָׁם כִּי־כָבֵד הָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ׃ 12.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם לֶךְ־לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ׃ 12.2. וַיְצַו עָלָיו פַּרְעֹה אֲנָשִׁים וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 12.2. וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה׃ 12.3. וַאֲבָרֲכָה מְבָרְכֶיךָ וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ אָאֹר וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ כֹּל מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה׃ 12.1. Now the LORD said unto Abram: ‘Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto the land that I will show thee." 12.2. And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and be thou a blessing." 12.3. And I will bless them that bless thee, and him that curseth thee will I curse; and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 12.1-12.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 12.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ וְיָלְדָה זָכָר וְטָמְאָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כִּימֵי נִדַּת דְּוֺתָהּ תִּטְמָא׃ 12.3. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִמּוֹל בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ׃ 12.4. וּשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּשֵׁב בִּדְמֵי טָהֳרָה בְּכָל־קֹדֶשׁ לֹא־תִגָּע וְאֶל־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא תָבֹא עַד־מְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ׃ 12.5. וְאִם־נְקֵבָה תֵלֵד וְטָמְאָה שְׁבֻעַיִם כְּנִדָּתָהּ וְשִׁשִּׁים יוֹם וְשֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּשֵׁב עַל־דְּמֵי טָהֳרָה׃ 12.6. וּבִמְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ לְבֵן אוֹ לְבַת תָּבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה וּבֶן־יוֹנָה אוֹ־תֹר לְחַטָּאת אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 12.7. וְהִקְרִיבוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ וְטָהֲרָה מִמְּקֹר דָּמֶיהָ זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַיֹּלֶדֶת לַזָּכָר אוֹ לַנְּקֵבָה׃ 12.8. וְאִם־לֹא תִמְצָא יָדָהּ דֵּי שֶׂה וְלָקְחָה שְׁתֵּי־תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה אֶחָד לְעֹלָה וְאֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵרָה׃ 12.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 12.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If a woman be delivered, and bear a man-child, then she shall be unclean seven days; as in the days of the impurity of her sickness shall she be unclean." 12.3. And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised." 12.4. And she shall continue in the blood of purification three and thirty days; she shall touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the sanctuary, until the days of her purification be fulfilled." 12.5. But if she bear a maid-child, then she shall be unclean two weeks, as in her impurity; and she shall continue in the blood of purification threescore and six days." 12.6. And when the days of her purification are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt-offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtle-dove, for a sin-offering, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest." 12.7. And he shall offer it before the LORD, and make atonement for her; and she shall be cleansed from the fountain of her blood. This is the law for her that beareth, whether a male or a female." 12.8. And if her means suffice not for a lamb, then she shall take two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons: the one for a burnt-offering, and the other for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for her, and she shall be clean."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 6.2-6.4, 51.5, 51.7, 58.3, 115.4-115.8, 135.15-135.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.2. יְהוָה אַל־בְּאַפְּךָ תוֹכִיחֵנִי וְאַל־בַּחֲמָתְךָ תְיַסְּרֵנִי׃ 6.3. חָנֵּנִי יְהוָה כִּי אֻמְלַל אָנִי רְפָאֵנִי יְהוָה כִּי נִבְהֲלוּ עֲצָמָי׃ 6.4. וְנַפְשִׁי נִבְהֲלָה מְאֹד ואת [וְאַתָּה] יְהוָה עַד־מָתָי׃ 51.5. כִּי־פְשָׁעַי אֲנִי אֵדָע וְחַטָּאתִי נֶגְדִּי תָמִיד׃ 51.7. הֵן־בְּעָווֹן חוֹלָלְתִּי וּבְחֵטְא יֶחֱמַתְנִי אִמִּי׃ 58.3. אַף־בְּלֵב עוֹלֹת תִּפְעָלוּן בָּאָרֶץ חֲמַס יְדֵיכֶם תְּפַלֵּסוּן׃ 115.4. עֲ‍צַבֵּיהֶם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם׃ 115.5. פֶּה־לָהֶם וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ׃ 115.6. אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִשְׁמָעוּ אַף לָהֶם וְלֹא יְרִיחוּן׃ 115.7. יְדֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְמִישׁוּן רַגְלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְהַלֵּכוּ לֹא־יֶהְגּוּ בִּגְרוֹנָם׃ 115.8. כְּמוֹהֶם יִהְיוּ עֹשֵׂיהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בֹּטֵחַ בָּהֶם׃ 135.15. עֲצַבֵּי הַגּוֹיִם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם׃ 135.16. פֶּה־לָהֶם וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ׃ 135.17. אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יַאֲזִינוּ אַף אֵין־יֶשׁ־רוּחַ בְּפִיהֶם׃ 135.18. כְּמוֹהֶם יִהְיוּ עֹשֵׂיהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בֹּטֵחַ בָּהֶם׃ 6.2. O LORD, rebuke me not in Thine anger, Neither chasten me in Thy wrath." 6.3. Be gracious unto me, O LORD, for I languish away; Heal me, O LORD, for my bones are affrighted." 6.4. My soul also is sore affrighted; And Thou, O LORD, how long?" 51.5. For I know my transgressions; And my sin is ever before me." 51.7. Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me." 58.3. Yea, in heart ye work wickedness; Ye weigh out in the earth the violence of your hands." 115.4. Their idols are silver and gold, The work of men's hands." 115.5. They have mouths, but they speak not; Eyes have they, but they see not;" 115.6. They have ears, but they hear not; Noses have they, but they smell not;" 115.7. They have hands, but they handle not; Feet have they, but they walk not; Neither speak they with their throat. ." 115.8. They that make them shall be like unto them; Yea, every one that trusteth in them." 135.15. The idols of the nations are silver and gold, The work of men's hands." 135.16. They have mouths, but they speak not; Eyes have they, but they see not;" 135.17. They have ears, but they hear not; Neither is there any breath in their mouths." 135.18. They that make them shall be like unto them; Yea, every one that trusteth in them."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 44.9-44.20, 46.7, 66.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.9. יֹצְרֵי־פֶסֶל כֻּלָּם תֹּהוּ וַחֲמוּדֵיהֶם בַּל־יוֹעִילוּ וְעֵדֵיהֶם הֵמָּה בַּל־יִרְאוּ וּבַל־יֵדְעוּ לְמַעַן יֵבֹשׁוּ׃ 44.11. הֵן כָּל־חֲבֵרָיו יֵבֹשׁוּ וְחָרָשִׁים הֵמָּה מֵאָדָם יִתְקַבְּצוּ כֻלָּם יַעֲמֹדוּ יִפְחֲדוּ יֵבֹשׁוּ יָחַד׃ 44.12. חָרַשׁ בַּרְזֶל מַעֲצָד וּפָעַל בַּפֶּחָם וּבַמַּקָּבוֹת יִצְּרֵהוּ וַיִּפְעָלֵהוּ בִּזְרוֹעַ כֹּחוֹ גַּם־רָעֵב וְאֵין כֹּחַ לֹא־שָׁתָה מַיִם וַיִּיעָף׃ 44.13. חָרַשׁ עֵצִים נָטָה קָו יְתָאֲרֵהוּ בַשֶּׂרֶד יַעֲשֵׂהוּ בַּמַּקְצֻעוֹת וּבַמְּחוּגָה יְתָאֳרֵהוּ וַיַּעֲשֵׂהוּ כְּתַבְנִית אִישׁ כְּתִפְאֶרֶת אָדָם לָשֶׁבֶת בָּיִת׃ 44.14. לִכְרָת־לוֹ אֲרָזִים וַיִּקַּח תִּרְזָה וְאַלּוֹן וַיְאַמֶּץ־לוֹ בַּעֲצֵי־יָעַר נָטַע אֹרֶן וְגֶשֶׁם יְגַדֵּל׃ 44.15. וְהָיָה לְאָדָם לְבָעֵר וַיִּקַּח מֵהֶם וַיָּחָם אַף־יַשִּׂיק וְאָפָה לָחֶם אַף־יִפְעַל־אֵל וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ עָשָׂהוּ פֶסֶל וַיִּסְגָּד־לָמוֹ׃ 44.16. חֶצְיוֹ שָׂרַף בְּמוֹ־אֵשׁ עַל־חֶצְיוֹ בָּשָׂר יֹאכֵל יִצְלֶה צָלִי וְיִשְׂבָּע אַף־יָחֹם וְיֹאמַר הֶאָח חַמּוֹתִי רָאִיתִי אוּר׃ 44.17. וּשְׁאֵרִיתוֹ לְאֵל עָשָׂה לְפִסְלוֹ יסגוד־[יִסְגָּד־] לוֹ וְיִשְׁתַּחוּ וְיִתְפַּלֵּל אֵלָיו וְיֹאמַר הַצִּילֵנִי כִּי אֵלִי אָתָּה׃ 44.18. לֹא יָדְעוּ וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כִּי טַח מֵרְאוֹת עֵינֵיהֶם מֵהַשְׂכִּיל לִבֹּתָם׃ 44.19. וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶל־לִבּוֹ וְלֹא דַעַת וְלֹא־תְבוּנָה לֵאמֹר חֶצְיוֹ שָׂרַפְתִּי בְמוֹ־אֵשׁ וְאַף אָפִיתִי עַל־גֶּחָלָיו לֶחֶם אֶצְלֶה בָשָׂר וְאֹכֵל וְיִתְרוֹ לְתוֹעֵבָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לְבוּל עֵץ אֶסְגּוֹד׃ 46.7. יִשָּׂאֻהוּ עַל־כָּתֵף יִסְבְּלֻהוּ וְיַנִּיחֻהוּ תַחְתָּיו וְיַעֲמֹד מִמְּקוֹמוֹ לֹא יָמִישׁ אַף־יִצְעַק אֵלָיו וְלֹא יַעֲנֶה מִצָּרָתוֹ לֹא יוֹשִׁיעֶנּוּ׃ 66.3. שׁוֹחֵט הַשּׁוֹר מַכֵּה־אִישׁ זוֹבֵחַ הַשֶּׂה עֹרֵף כֶּלֶב מַעֲלֵה מִנְחָה דַּם־חֲזִיר מַזְכִּיר לְבֹנָה מְבָרֵךְ אָוֶן גַּם־הֵמָּה בָּחֲרוּ בְּדַרְכֵיהֶם וּבְשִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם נַפְשָׁם חָפֵצָה׃ 44.9. They that fashion a graven image are all of them vanity, And their delectable things shall not profit; And their own witnesses see not, nor know; That they may be ashamed." 44.10. Who hath fashioned a god, or molten an image That is profitable for nothing?" 44.11. Behold, all the fellows thereof shall be ashamed; And the craftsmen skilled above men; Let them all be gathered together, let them stand up; They shall fear, they shall be ashamed together." 44.12. The smith maketh an axe, And worketh in the coals, and fashioneth it with hammers, And worketh it with his strong arm; Yea, he is hungry, and his strength faileth; He drinketh no water, and is faint." 44.13. The carpenter stretcheth out a line; He marketh it out with a pencil; He fitteth it with planes, And he marketh it out with the compasses, And maketh it after the figure of a man, According to the beauty of a man, to dwell in the house." 44.14. He heweth him down cedars, And taketh the ilex and the oak, And strengtheneth for himself one among the trees of the forest; He planteth a bay-tree, and the rain doth nourish it." 44.15. Then a man useth it for fuel; And he taketh thereof, and warmeth himself; Yea, he kindleth it, and baketh bread; Yea, he maketh a god, and worshippeth it; He maketh it a graven image, and falleth down thereto." 44.16. He burneth the half thereof in the fire; With the half thereof he eateth flesh; He roasteth roast, and is satisfied; Yea, he warmeth himself, and saith: ‘Aha, I am warm, I have seen the fire’;" 44.17. And the residue thereof he maketh a god, even his graven image; He falleth down unto it and worshippeth, and prayeth unto it, And saith: ‘Deliver me, for thou art my god.’" 44.18. They know not, neither do they understand; For their eyes are bedaubed, that they cannot see, And their hearts, that they cannot understand." 44.19. And none considereth in his heart, Neither is there knowledge nor understanding to say: ‘I have burned the half of it in the fire; Yea, also I have baked bread upon the coals thereof; I have roasted flesh and eaten it; And shall I make the residue thereof an abomination? Shall I fall down to the stock of a tree?’" 44.20. He striveth after ashes, A deceived heart hath turned him aside, That he cannot deliver his soul, nor say: ‘Is there not a lie in my right hand?’" 46.7. He is borne upon the shoulder, he is carried, and set in his place, and he standeth, from his place he doth not remove; yea, though one cry unto him, he cannot answer, nor save him out of his trouble." 66.3. He that killeth an ox is as if he slew a man; he that sacrificeth a lamb, as if he broke a dog’s neck; He that offereth a meal-offering, as if he offered swine’s blood; he that maketh a memorial-offering of frankincense, as if he blessed an idol; according as they have chosen their own ways, and their soul delighteth in their abominations;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.5, 10.5, 10.8, 10.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.5. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה מַה־מָּצְאוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם בִּי עָוֶל כִּי רָחֲקוּ מֵעָלָי וַיֵּלְכוּ אַחֲרֵי הַהֶבֶל וַיֶּהְבָּלוּ׃ 10.5. כְּתֹמֶר מִקְשָׁה הֵמָּה וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ נָשׂוֹא יִנָּשׂוּא כִּי לֹא יִצְעָדוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ מֵהֶם כִּי־לֹא יָרֵעוּ וְגַם־הֵיטֵיב אֵין אוֹתָם׃ 10.8. וּבְאַחַת יִבְעֲרוּ וְיִכְסָלוּ מוּסַר הֲבָלִים עֵץ הוּא׃ 10.14. נִבְעַר כָּל־אָדָם מִדַּעַת הֹבִישׁ כָּל־צוֹרֵף מִפָּסֶל כִּי שֶׁקֶר נִסְכּוֹ וְלֹא־רוּחַ בָּם׃ 2.5. Thus saith the LORD: What unrighteousness have your fathers found in Me, that they are gone far from Me, and have walked after things of nought, and are become nought?" 10.5. They are like a pillar in a garden of cucumbers, and speak not; They must needs be borne, because they cannot go. Be not afraid of them, for they cannot do evil, Neither is it in them to do good." 10.8. But they are altogether brutish and foolish: The vanities by which they are instructed are but a stock;" 10.14. Every man is proved to be brutish, without knowledge, Every goldsmith is put to shame by the graven image, His molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them."
9. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 24.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.15. וְאִם רַע בְּעֵינֵיכֶם לַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה בַּחֲרוּ לָכֶם הַיּוֹם אֶת־מִי תַעֲבֹדוּן אִם אֶת־אֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר־עָבְדוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר בעבר [מֵעֵבֶר] הַנָּהָר וְאִם אֶת־אֱלֹהֵי הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יֹשְׁבִים בְּאַרְצָם וְאָנֹכִי וּבֵיתִי נַעֲבֹד אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 24.15. And if it seem evil unto you to serve the LORD, choose you this day whom ye will serve; whether the gods which your fathers served that were beyond the River, or the gods of the Amorites, in whose land ye dwell; but as for me and my house, we will serve the LORD.’"
10. Anon., 1 Enoch, 53.2, 94.7, 97.8, 98.2, 99.2, 99.7-99.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

53.2. And their hands commit lawless deeds, And the sinners devour all whom they lawlessly oppress: Yet the sinners shall be destroyed before the face of the Lord of Spirits, And they shall be banished from off the face of His earth, And they shall perish for ever and ever. 94.7. Woe to those who build their houses with sin; For from all their foundations shall they be overthrown, And by the sword shall they fall. [And those who acquire gold and silver in judgement suddenly shall perish.] 97.8. Woe to you who acquire silver and gold in unrighteousness and say: ' We have become rich with riches and have possessions; And have acquired everything we have desired. 98.2. For ye men shall put on more adornments than a woman, And coloured garments more than a virgin: In royalty and in grandeur and in power, And in silver and in gold and in purple, And in splendour and in food they shall be poured out as water. 99.2. Woe to them who pervert the words of uprightness, And transgress the eternal law, And transform themselves into what they were not [into sinners]: They shall be trodden under foot upon the earth. 99.7. And again I swear to you, ye sinners, that sin is prepared for a day of unceasing bloodshed. And they who worship stones, and grave images of gold and silver and wood (and stone) and clay, and those who worship impure spirits and demons, and all kinds of idols not according to knowledge, shall get no manner of help from them. 99.8. And they shall become godless by reason of the folly of their hearts, And their eyes shall be blinded through the fear of their hearts And through visions in their dreams. 99.9. Through these they shall become godless and fearful; For they shall have wrought all their work in a lie, And shall have worshiped a stone: Therefore in an instant shall they perish.
11. Anon., Jubilees, 11.16-11.17, 12.1-12.8, 20.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.16. And in the thirty-seventh jubilee, in the sixth week, in the first year thereof, he took to himself a wife, and her name was ’Îjâskâ, the daughter of Nêstâg of the Chaldees. And she bare him Terah in the seventh year of this week. 11.17. And the prince Mastêmâ sent ravens and birds to devour the seed which was sown in the land, in order to destroy the land, and rob the children of men of their labours. 12.1. And it came to pass in the sixth week, in the seventh year thereof, that Abram said to Terah his father, saying, "Father!" And he said, "Behold, here am I, my son. 12.2. And he said, "What help and profit have we from those idols which thou dost worship, And before which thou dost bow thyself? For there is no spirit in them, For they are dumb forms, and a misleading of the heart. Worship them not: 12.3. Worship the God of heaven, Who causeth the rain and the dew to descend on the earth, And doeth everything upon the earth, And hath created everything by His word, And all life is from before His face. 12.4. Why do ye worship things that have no spirit in them? For they are the work of (men's) hands, And on your shoulders do ye bear them 12.5. And ye have no help from them, But they are a great cause of shame to those who make them, And a misleading of the heart to those who worship them: Worship them not. 12.6. And his father said unto him, "I also know it, my son, but what shall I do with a people who have made me to serve before them? 12.7. And if I tell them the truth, they will slay me; for their soul cleaveth to them to worship them and honour them. Keep silent, my son, lest they slay thee. 12.8. And these words he spake to his two brothers, and they were angry with him and he kept silent. 20.7. and mutual corruption through fornication. br"And guard yourselves from all fornication and uncleanness, And from all pollution of sin, Lest ye make our name a curse, And your whole life a hissing
12. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 9.4, 14.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Epistle of Jeremiah, 63 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 2.1-2.2, 2.4, 2.9, 2.11, 2.16-2.18, 4.26, 8.5, 15.7, 15.11-15.20, 21.1-21.2, 23.18-23.20, 27.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. My son, if you come forward to serve the Lord,prepare yourself for temptation. 2.1. Consider the ancient generations and see:who ever trusted in the Lord and was put to shame?Or who ever persevered in the fear of the Lord and was forsaken?Or who ever called upon him and was overlooked? 2.2. Set your heart right and be steadfast,and do not be hasty in time of calamity. 2.4. Accept whatever is brought upon you,and in changes that humble you be patient. 2.9. you who fear the Lord, hope for good things,for everlasting joy and mercy. 2.11. For the Lord is compassionate and merciful;he forgives sins and saves in time of affliction. 2.16. Those who fear the Lord will seek his approval,and those who love him will be filled with the law. 2.17. Those who fear the Lord will prepare their hearts,and will humble themselves before him. 2.18. Let us fall into the hands of the Lord,but not into the hands of men;for as his majesty is,so also is his mercy. 4.26. Do not be ashamed to confess your sins,and do not try to stop the current of a river. 8.5. Do not reproach a man who is turning away from sin;remember that we all deserve punishment. 15.7. Foolish men will not obtain her,and sinful men will not see her. 15.11. Do not say, "Because of the Lord I left the right way";for he will not do what he hates. 15.12. Do not say, "It was he who led me astray";for he had no need of a sinful man. 15.13. The Lord hates all abominations,and they are not loved by those who fear him. 15.14. It was he who created man in the beginning,and he left him in the power of his own inclination. 15.15. If you will, you can keep the commandments,and to act faithfully is a matter of your own choice. 15.16. He has placed before you fire and water:stretch out your hand for whichever you wish. 15.17. Before a man are life and death,and whichever he chooses will be given to him. 15.18. For great is the wisdom of the Lord;he is mighty in power and sees everything; 15.19. his eyes are on those who fear him,and he knows every deed of man. 21.1. Have you sinned, my son? Do so no more,but pray about your former sins. 21.1. The way of sinners is smoothly paved with stones,but at its end is the pit of Hades. 21.2. Flee from sin as from a snake;for if you approach sin, it will bite you. Its teeth are lions teeth,and destroy the souls of men. 21.2. A fool raises his voice when he laughs,but a clever man smiles quietly. 27.8. If you pursue justice, you will attain it and wear it as a glorious robe.
15. Septuagint, Judith, 8.25-8.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

8.25. In spite of everything let us give thanks to the Lord our God, who is putting us to the test as he did our forefathers. 8.26. Remember what he did with Abraham, and how he tested Isaac, and what happened to Jacob in Mesopotamia in Syria, while he was keeping the sheep of Laban, his mother's brother. 8.27. For he has not tried us with fire, as he did them, to search their hearts, nor has he taken revenge upon us; but the Lord scourges those who draw near to him, in order to admonish them.
16. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.1-2.18, 5.5, 9.4, 9.7, 12.19, 13.1-13.2, 13.6, 13.10-13.19, 14.2-14.13, 14.15, 14.21-14.23, 14.29-14.31, 15.1-15.16, 15.18-15.20, 16.2-16.14, 16.17-16.18, 16.20-16.21, 16.24, 18.13, 19.4, 19.22, 21.2, 23.18-23.20, 27.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.1. For they reasoned unsoundly, saying to themselves,"Short and sorrowful is our life,and there is no remedy when a man comes to his end,and no one has been known to return from Hades. 2.2. Because we were born by mere chance,and hereafter we shall be as though we had never been;because the breath in our nostrils is smoke,and reason is a spark kindled by the beating of our hearts. 2.3. When it is extinguished, the body will turn to ashes,and the spirit will dissolve like empty air. 2.4. Our name will be forgotten in time and no one will remember our works;our life will pass away like the traces of a cloud,and be scattered like mist that is chased by the rays of the sun and overcome by its heat. 2.5. For our allotted time is the passing of a shadow,and there is no return from our death,because it is sealed up and no one turns back. 2.6. Come, therefore, let us enjoy the good things that exist,and make use of the creation to the full as in youth. 2.7. Let us take our fill of costly wine and perfumes,and let no flower of spring pass by us. 2.8. Let us crown ourselves with rosebuds before they wither. 2.9. Let none of us fail to share in our revelry,everywhere let us leave signs of enjoyment,because this is our portion, and this our lot. 2.10. Let us oppress the righteous poor man;let us not spare the widow nor regard the gray hairs of the aged. 2.11. But let our might be our law of right,for what is weak proves itself to be useless. 2.12. Let us lie in wait for the righteous man,because he is inconvenient to us and opposes our actions;he reproaches us for sins against the law,and accuses us of sins against our training. 2.13. He professes to have knowledge of God,and calls himself a child of the Lord. 2.14. He became to us a reproof of our thoughts; 2.15. the very sight of him is a burden to us,because his manner of life is unlike that of others,and his ways are strange. 2.16. We are considered by him as something base,and he avoids our ways as unclean;he calls the last end of the righteous happy,and boasts that God is his father. 2.17. Let us see if his words are true,and let us test what will happen at the end of his life; 2.18. for if the righteous man is Gods son, he will help him,and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries. 5.5. Why has he been numbered among the sons of God?And why is his lot among the saints? 9.4. give me the wisdom that sits by thy throne,and do not reject me from among thy servants. 9.7. Thou hast chosen me to be king of thy people and to be judge over thy sons and daughters. 12.19. Through such works thou has taught thy people that the righteous man must be kind,and thou hast filled thy sons with good hope,because thou givest repentance for sins. 13.1. For all men who were ignorant of God were foolish by nature;and they were unable from the good things that are seen to know him who exists,nor did they recognize the craftsman while paying heed to his works; 13.2. but they supposed that either fire or wind or swift air,or the circle of the stars, or turbulent water,or the luminaries of heaven were the gods that rule the world. 13.6. Yet these men are little to be blamed,for perhaps they go astray while seeking God and desiring to find him. 13.10. But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are the men who give the name "gods" to the works of mens hands,gold and silver fashioned with skill,and likenesses of animals,or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand. 13.11. A skilled woodcutter may saw down a tree easy to handle and skilfully strip off all its bark,and then with pleasing workmanship make a useful vessel that serves lifes needs 13.12. and burn the castoff pieces of his work to prepare his food, and eat his fill. 13.13. But a castoff piece from among them, useful for nothing,a stick crooked and full of knots,he takes and carves with care in his leisure,and shapes it with skill gained in idleness;he forms it like the image of a man 13.14. or makes it like some worthless animal,giving it a coat of red paint and coloring its surface red and covering every blemish in it with paint; 13.15. then he makes for it a niche that befits it,and sets it in the wall, and fastens it there with iron. 13.16. So he takes thought for it, that it may not fall,because he knows that it cannot help itself,for it is only an image and has need of help. 13.17. When he prays about possessions and his marriage and children,he is not ashamed to address a lifeless thing. 13.18. For health he appeals to a thing that is weak;for life he prays to a thing that is dead;for aid he entreats a thing that is utterly inexperienced;for a prosperous journey, a thing that cannot take a step; 13.19. for money-making and work and success with his hands he asks strength of a thing whose hands have no strength. 14.2. For it was desire for gain that planned that vessel,and wisdom was the craftsman who built it; 14.3. but it is thy providence, O Father, that steers its course,because thou hast given it a path in the sea,and a safe way through the waves 14.4. showing that thou canst save from every danger,so that even if a man lacks skill, he may put to sea. 14.5. It is thy will that works of thy wisdom should not be without effect;therefore men trust their lives even to the smallest piece of wood,and passing through the billows on a raft they come safely to land. 14.6. For even in the beginning, when arrogant giants were perishing,the hope of the world took refuge on a raft,and guided by thy hand left to the world the seed of a new generation. 14.7. For blessed is the wood by which righteousness comes. 14.8. But the idol made with hands is accursed, and so is he who made it;because he did the work, and the perishable thing was named a god. 14.11. Therefore there will be a visitation also upon the heathen idols,because, though part of what God created, they became an abomination,and became traps for the souls of men and a snare to the feet of the foolish. 14.12. For the idea of making idols was the beginning of fornication,and the invention of them was the corruption of life 14.13. for neither have they existed from the beginning nor will they exist for ever. 14.15. For a father, consumed with grief at an untimely bereavement,made an image of his child, who had been suddenly taken from him;and he now honored as a god what was once a dead human being,and handed on to his dependents secret rites and initiations. 14.21. And this became a hidden trap for mankind,because men, in bondage to misfortune or to royal authority,bestowed on objects of stone or wood the name that ought not to be shared. 14.22. Afterward it was not enough for them to err about the knowledge of God,but they live in great strife due to ignorance,and they call such great evils peace. 14.23. For whether they kill children in their initiations,or celebrate secret mysteries,or hold frenzied revels with strange customs 14.29. for because they trust in lifeless idols they swear wicked oaths and expect to suffer no harm. 14.30. But just penalties will overtake them on two counts:because they thought wickedly of God in devoting themselves to idols,and because in deceit they swore unrighteously through contempt for holiness. 14.31. For it is not the power of the things by which men swear,but the just penalty for those who sin,that always pursues the transgression of the unrighteous. 15.1. But thou, our God, art kind and true,patient, and ruling all things in mercy. 15.2. For even if we sin we are thine, knowing thy power;but we will not sin, because we know that we are accounted thine. 15.3. For to know thee is complete righteousness,and to know thy power is the root of immortality. 15.4. For neither has the evil intent of human art misled us,nor the fruitless toil of painters,a figure stained with varied colors 15.5. whose appearance arouses yearning in fools,so that they desire the lifeless form of a dead image. 15.6. Lovers of evil things and fit for such objects of hope are those who either make or desire or worship them. 15.7. For when a potter kneads the soft earth and laboriously molds each vessel for our service,he fashions out of the same clay both the vessels that serve clean uses and those for contrary uses, making all in like manner;but which shall be the use of each of these the worker in clay decides. 15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him. 15.9. But he is not concerned that he is destined to die or that his life is brief,but he competes with workers in gold and silver,and imitates workers in copper;and he counts it his glory that he molds counterfeit gods. 15.10. His heart is ashes, his hope is cheaper than dirt,and his life is of less worth than clay 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit. 15.12. But he considered our existence an idle game,and life a festival held for profit,for he says one must get money however one can, even by base means. 15.13. For this man, more than all others, knows that he sins when he makes from earthy matter fragile vessels and graven images. 15.14. But most foolish, and more miserable than an infant,are all the enemies who oppressed thy people. 15.15. For they thought that all their heathen idols were gods,though these have neither the use of their eyes to see with,nor nostrils with which to draw breath,nor ears with which to hear,nor fingers to feel with,and their feet are of no use for walking. 15.16. For a man made them,and one whose spirit is borrowed formed them;for no man can form a god which is like himself. 15.18. The enemies of thy people worship even the most hateful animals,which are worse than all others, when judged by their lack of intelligence; 15.19. and even as animals they are not so beautiful in appearance that one would desire them,but they have escaped both the praise of God and his blessing. 16.2. Instead of this punishment thou didst show kindness to thy people,and thou didst prepare quails to eat,a delicacy to satisfy the desire of appetite; 16.3. in order that those men, when they desired food,might lose the least remt of appetite because of the odious creatures sent to them,while thy people, after suffering want a short time,might partake of delicacies. 16.4. For it was necessary that upon those oppressors inexorable want should come,while to these it was merely shown how their enemies were being tormented. 16.5. For when the terrible rage of wild beasts came upon thy people and they were being destroyed by the bites of writhing serpents,thy wrath did not continue to the end; 16.6. they were troubled for a little while as a warning,and received a token of deliverance to remind them of thy laws command. 16.7. For he who turned toward it was saved, not by what he saw,but by thee, the Savior of all. 16.8. And by this also thou didst convince our enemies that it is thou who deliverest from every evil. 16.9. For they were killed by the bites of locusts and flies,and no healing was found for them,because they deserved to be punished by such things; 16.10. but thy sons were not conquered even by the teeth of venomous serpents,for thy mercy came to their help and healed them. 16.11. To remind them of thy oracles they were bitten,and then were quickly delivered,lest they should fall into deep forgetfulness and become unresponsive to thy kindness. 16.12. For neither herb nor poultice cured them,but it was thy word, O Lord, which heals all men. 16.13. For thou hast power over life and death;thou dost lead men down to the gates of Hades and back again. 16.14. A man in his wickedness kills another,but he cannot bring back the departed spirit,nor set free the imprisoned soul. 16.17. For -- most incredible of all -- in the water,which quenches all things,the fire had still greater effect,for the universe defends the righteous. 16.18. At one time the flame was restrained,so that it might not consume the creatures sent against the ungodly,but that seeing this they might know that they were being pursued by the judgment of God; 16.20. Instead of these things thou didst give thy people food of angels,and without their toil thou didst supply them from heaven with bread ready to eat,providing every pleasure and suited to every taste. 16.21. For thy sustece manifested thy sweetness toward thy children;and the bread, ministering to the desire of the one who took it,was changed to suit every ones liking. 16.24. For creation, serving thee who hast made it,exerts itself to punish the unrighteous,and in kindness relaxes on behalf of those who trust in thee. 18.13. For though they had disbelieved everything because of their magic arts,yet, when their first-born were destroyed,they acknowledged thy people to be Gods son. 19.4. For the fate they deserved drew them on to this end,and made them forget what had happened,in order that they might fill up the punishment which their torments still lacked 19.22. For in everything, O Lord, thou hast exalted and glorified thy people;and thou hast not neglected to help them at all times and in all places.
17. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 16.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.19. and therefore you ought to endure any suffering for the sake of God.
18. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 4.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.16. The king was greatly and continually filled with joy, organizing feasts in honor of all his idols, with a mind alienated from truth and with a profane mouth, praising speechless things that are not able even to communicate or to come to one's help, and uttering improper words against the supreme God.
19. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.30, 8.359, 8.366, 8.375-8.399, 8.402 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.30. 30 This is the God who formed four-lettered Adam 3.30. As foolish men go seeking day by day 8.359. Bringing the likeness antitypical 8.366. And a fish of the sea live thousand men 8.375. 375 Shall search the heart and bare it to conviction; 8.376. For of all things is he himself the ear 8.377. And mind and sight, and Word that maketh form 8.378. To whom all things submit, and he preserve 8.379. Them that are dead and every sickness heals. 8.380. 380 Into the hands of lawless men, at last 8.381. And faithless he shall come, and they will give 8.382. To God rude buffetings with impure hand 8.383. And poisonous spittle with polluted mouths. 8.384. And he to whips will openly give then 8.385. 385 His holy back; [for he unto the world 8.386. A holy virgin shall himself commit.] 8.387. And silent he will be when buffeted 8.388. Lest anyone should know whose son he i 8.389. Or whence he came, that he may talk to the dead. 8.390. 390 And he shall also wear a crown of thorns; 8.391. For of thorns is the crown an ornament 8.392. Elect, eternal. They shall pierce his side 8.393. With a reed that they may fulfill their law; 8.394. For of reeds shaken by another spirit 8.395. 395 Were nourished inclinations of the soul 8.396. of anger and revenge. But when these thing 8.397. Shall be accomplished, of the which I spoke 8.398. Then unto him shall every law be loosed 8.399. Which from the first by the decrees of men 8.402. But gall for food and vinegar to drink
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 144 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

144. What then is this hidden meaning? Those who, as it were, attribute many fathers to existing things, and who represent the company of the gods as numerous, displaying great ignorance of the nature of things and causing great confusion, and making pleasure the proper object of the soul, are those who are, if we must tell the plain truth, spoken of as the builders of the aforesaid city, and of the citadel in it; having increased the efficient causes of the desired end, building them up like houses, being, as I imagine, in no respect different from the children of the harlot whom the law expels from the assembly of God, where it says, "The offspring of a harlot shall not come into the assembly of the Lord." Because, like archers shooting at random at many objects, and not aiming skilfully or successfully at any one mark, so these men, putting forward ten thousand principles and causes for the creation of the universe, every one of which is false, display a perfect ignorance of the one Creator and Father of all things;
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 65 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

65. But still what advantage is derived from all that is said? For men, instead of attending, turn their mind in other directions, some to marine and mercantile affairs, others to rents and agriculture; some to public honours and affairs of state, some to the gains to be derived from each different profession and art, others to revenging themselves upon their enemies, others again to the enjoyments to be derived from the indulgence of the amorous appetites, and in short every body is under the influence of some distracting idea or other; so that, as far as the subjects of the discussion are concerned, they are completely deaf, and are present with their bodies only, but are at a distance as to their minds, being in no particular different from images or statues.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 107, 155, 32, 50-53, 61, 64, 66, 76, 79-80, 105 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 110, 109 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

109. On which account, beginning to make gods for himself, he has filled the world with images and statues, and innumerable other representations, made out of all kinds of different materials, fashioned by painters and statuaries, whom the lawgiver banished to a distance form his state, proposing both publicly and privately great rewards and surpassing honours to them, by which conduct he has brought about a contrary result to that which he intended, namely, impiety instead of religion.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 10, 100-109, 11, 110-119, 12, 120-129, 13, 130-134, 137, 14, 140-144, 146-149, 15, 150-151, 154-156, 159, 16, 164-167, 169, 17, 175-179, 18, 180-189, 19, 190-199, 2, 20, 200-209, 21, 210-211, 216-219, 22, 220-225, 23-29, 3, 30-39, 4, 40-49, 5, 50-59, 6, 60-69, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-89, 9, 90-99, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. And the Lord said to Abraham, "Depart from thy land, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house to a land which I will show thee; and I will make thee into a great nation. And I will bless thee, and I will magnify thy name, and thou shalt be blessed. And I will bless them that bless thee, and I will curse them that curse thee; and in thy name shall all the nations of the earth be Blessed.
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 101-116, 12, 19, 21, 39, 53, 68, 75-100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. Again, he takes with him his caduceus or herald's wand, as a token of reconciliation and peace, for wars receive their respites and terminations by means of heralds, who restore peace; and wars which have no heralds to terminate them cause endless calamities to both parties, both to those who invade their neighbours and to those who are endeavouring to repel the invasion.
26. Anon., 2 Baruch, 54.15-54.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Anon., Didache, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.251 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.251. but omitted it as a thing of very little consequence, and gave leave both to the poets to introduce what gods they pleased, and those subject to all sorts of passions, and to the orators to procure political decrees from the people for the admission of such foreign gods as they thought proper.
29. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.3. The following things belonging to non-Jews are forbidden [for Jews to use] and the prohibition extends to any benefit that may be derived from them: wine, or a non-Jew’s vinegar that was formerly wine, Hadrianic earthenware, skins pierced at the animal’s heart. Rabban Shimon Gamaliel says: when its tear is round, [the skin] is forbidden, but if oblong it is permitted. Meat which is being brought into a place of idol worship is permitted, but that which is brought out is forbidden, because it is like a sacrifice to the dead, this is the opinion of Rabbi Akiba. With non-Jews going on a pilgrimage [to worship idols] it is forbidden to have any business transactions, but with those returning it is permitted.
30. Mishnah, Avot, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. Rabbi Haiah ben Hakinai said: one who wakes up at night, or walks on the way alone and turns his heart to idle matters, behold, this man is mortally guilty."
31. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 8.4, 12.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.4. Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we knowthat no idol is anything in the world, and that there is no other Godbut one. 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led.
32. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.14, 9.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality. 9.20. The rest of mankind, who were not killed with these plagues, didn't repent of the works of their hands, that they wouldn't worship demons, and the idols of gold, and of silver, and of brass, and of stone, and of wood; which can neither see, nor hear, nor walk.
33. New Testament, James, 1.2-1.5, 1.12-1.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. Count it all joy, my brothers, when you fall into various temptations 1.3. knowing that the testing of your faith produces patience. 1.4. Let patience have its perfect work, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking in nothing. 1.5. But if any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all liberally and without reproach; and it will be given to him. 1.12. Blessed is the man who endures temptation, for when he has been approved, he will receive the crown of life, which the Lord promised to those who love him. 1.13. Let no man say when he is tempted, "I am tempted by God," for God can't be tempted by evil, and he himself tempts no one. 1.14. But each one is tempted, when he is drawn away by his own lust, and enticed. 1.15. Then the lust, when it has conceived, bears sin; and the sin, when it is full grown, brings forth death.
34. New Testament, Colossians, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly; in all wisdom teaching and admonishing one another with psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your heart to the Lord.
35. New Testament, Ephesians, 5.19-5.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.19. speaking to one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs; singing, and singing praises in your heart to the Lord; 5.20. giving thanks always concerning all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to God, even the Father;
36. New Testament, Galatians, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.6. And because you are sons, God sent out theSpirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, "Abba, Father!
37. New Testament, Hebrews, 6.1, 9.14, 10.28, 10.30, 10.37-10.38, 12.15, 12.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. Therefore leaving the doctrine of the first principles of Christ, let us press on to perfection -- not laying again a foundation of repentance from dead works, of faith toward God 9.14. how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God? 10.28. A man who disregards Moses' law dies without compassion on the word of two or three witnesses. 10.30. For we know him who said, "Vengeance belongs to me," says the Lord, "I will repay." Again, "The Lord will judge his people. 10.37. In a very little while, He who comes will come, and will not wait. 10.38. But the righteous will live by faith. If he shrinks back, my soul has no pleasure in him. 12.15. looking carefully lest there be any man who falls short of the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and thereby the many be defiled; 12.29. for our God is a consuming fire.
38. New Testament, Romans, 1.18-1.32, 5.3, 5.5, 8.11, 10.16-10.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.18. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness 1.19. because that which is known of God is revealed in them, for God revealed it to them. 1.20. For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without excuse. 1.21. Because, knowing God, they didn't glorify him as God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless heart was darkened. 1.22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves 1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 1.26. For this reason, God gave them up to vile passions. For their women changed the natural function into that which is against nature. 1.27. Likewise also the men, leaving the natural function of the woman, burned in their lust toward one another, men doing what is inappropriate with men, and receiving in themselves the due penalty of their error. 1.28. Even as they refused to have God in their knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not fitting; 1.29. being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil habits, secret slanderers 1.30. backbiters, hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents 1.31. without understanding, covet-breakers, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; 1.32. who, knowing the ordice of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but also approve of those who practice them. 5.3. Not only this, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, knowing that suffering works perseverance; 5.5. and hope doesn't disappoint us, because God's love has been poured out into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 10.16. But they didn't all listen to the glad news. For Isaiah says, "Lord, who has believed our report? 10.17. So faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.
39. New Testament, Mark, 13.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.13. You will be hated by all men for my name's sake, but he who endures to the end, the same will be saved.
40. Aristides of Athens, Apology, 15 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

42. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.96 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

43. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13a. ואין להן מחשבה,אמר ליה מחשבה גרידתא לא קא מיבעיא ליה כי קא מיבעיא ליה מחשבתו ניכרת מתוך מעשיו,כגון דהוה קיימא עולה בדרום ואתיוה בצפון ושחטה מאי מדאתייא בצפון ושחט איכוין לה או דילמא מקום הוא דלא איתרמי ליה,הא נמי אמרה רבי יוחנן חדא זימנא דתנן המעלה פירותיו לגג מפני הכנימה וירד עליהם טל אינן בכי יותן ואם נתכוין לכך הרי הן בכי יותן,העלום חרש שוטה וקטן אף על פי שנתכוונו לכך אינן בכי יותן מפני שיש להן מעשה ואין להן מחשבה,וא"ר יוחנן ל"ש אלא שלא היפך בהן אבל היפך בהן הרי זה בכי יותן,הכי קא מיבעיא ליה דאורייתא או דרבנן,רב נחמן בר יצחק מתני הכי א"ר חייא בר אבא בעי רבי יוחנן קטן יש לו מעשה או אין לו מעשה,אמר ליה רבי אמי ותיבעי ליה מחשבה מאי שנא מחשבה דלא קא מיבעיא ליה דתנן אין להן מחשבה מעשה נמי לא תיבעי ליה דתנן יש להן מעשה,הכי קא מיבעיא ליה דאורייתא או דרבנן ופשיט יש להן מעשה ואפילו מדאורייתא אין להן מחשבה ואפי' מדרבנן מחשבתו ניכרת מתוך מעשיו מדאורייתא אין לו מדרבנן יש לו,בעא מיניה שמואל מרב הונא מנין למתעסק בקדשים שהוא פסול שנאמר (ויקרא א, ה) ושחט את בן הבקר שתהא שחיטה לשם בן בקר אמר לו זו בידינו היא לעכב מנין (ת"ל) (ויקרא יט, ה) לרצונכם תזבחוהו לדעתכם זבוחו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big שחיטת עובד כוכבים נבלה ומטמאה במשא:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big נבלה אין איסור הנאה לא מאן תנא א"ר חייא ברבי אבא א"ר יוחנן דלא כרבי אליעזר דאי ר"א האמר סתם מחשבת עובד כוכבים לעבודת כוכבים,רבי אמי אמר הכי קתני שחיטת עובד כוכבים נבלה הא דמין לעבודת כוכבים תנינא להא דת"ר שחיטת מין לעבודת כוכבים פיתו פת כותי יינו יין נסך ספריו ספרי קוסמין פירותיו טבלין וי"א אף 13a. bbut they do not havethe capacity to effect a halakhic status by means of bthought. /b,Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba bsaid toRabbi Ami: With regard to a case of effecting a halakhic status by means of bthought alone,Rabbi Yoḥa bdoes not raise a dilemma. When he raises a dilemma,it is with regard to a case where bhis thought is discernible from his actions. /b, bFor example,in a case bwherean animal that is brought as ba burnt offering was standing in the southof the Temple courtyard banda minor btook it to the northof the courtyard, the designated place for its slaughter, band slaughtered itthere, bwhatis the ihalakha /i? Can one conclude bfromthe fact bthat he took it to the north and slaughteredit there that bhe hadthe bintent toslaughter the animal for the sake of a burnt offering; bor perhapshe moved the animal to the north because ba place did not happento be available bfor himin the south?,Rabbi Ami asked: But with regard to bthismatter, btoo, Rabbi Yoḥaalready bsaida conclusive resolution bone time, as we learnedin a mishna ( iMakhshirin6:1): In the case of bone who takes his produce up to the roofto protect it bfrom insects, and dew fell upon it,the produce bis not inthe category of the verse: “But bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed” (Leviticus 11:38), from which it is derived that produce becomes susceptible to ritual impurity only if it is dampened by one of seven liquids and its owner was agreeable to its dampening. bAnd ifafter taking the produce up to the roof bhe intendedthat the produce would be dampened by dew, the produce bis inthe category of the verse “But bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed.”,That mishna continues: In a case where ba deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor tookthe produce bupto the roof, beven if they intendedthat the produce would be dampened by dew, the produce bis not inthe category of the verse “But bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed” bdue tothe fact bthat they havethe capacity to perform ban action but they do not havethe capacity for halakhically effective bthought. /b, bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa says:The itanna btaughtthis ihalakha bonlyin a case bwherethe minor bdid not turn them over. Butif bhe turned them over,indicating that he wants them to be dampened by the dew, the produce bis inthe category of the verse “But bwhenwater bis placedupon the seed.” Evidently, Rabbi Yoḥa rules that when the intention of a minor is apparent from his actions, it is halakhically effective.,Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said to Rabbi Ami that bthisis bthe dilemmathat Rabbi Yoḥa braises:In a case where the intent of a minor is clear from his actions, is the fact that his thought is effective bby Torah law or by rabbinic law?That is one version of the exchange between Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba and Rabbi Ami., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak teachestheir exchange in bthismanner. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa raises a dilemma:With regard to ba minor, does he havethe capacity to perform ban actionthat is halakhically effective bor does he not havethe capacity to perform such ban action? /b, bRabbi Ami said toRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba: bAnd letRabbi Yoḥa braise this dilemmawith regard to the bthoughtof a minor. bWhat is differentabout the bthoughtof a minor bthatRabbi Yoḥa bdoes not raise a dilemma?Is it due to the fact bthat we learnedin a mishna ( iKelim17:15): A deaf-mute, an imbecile, and a minor bdo not havethe capacity for effective bthought?With regard to baction as well let him not raise this dilemma, as we learnedin the same mishna: bThey havethe capacity to perform ban action. /b,Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said to Rabbi Ami that bthisis bthe dilemmathat Rabbi Yoḥa braises:Is the fact that their actions are effective and their thought is ineffective bby Torah law,and a minor’s action would consequently be effective even with regard to the sacrifice of a burnt offering, boris this fact bby rabbinic lawand it is merely a stringency? bAndRabbi Yoḥa bresolvesthe dilemma: bThey havethe capacity to perform ban action andit is effective, beven by Torah law.But bthey do not havethe capacity for effective bthought, even by rabbinic law.Nevertheless, in a case where bhis thought is apparent from his actions, by Torah law he does not haveeffective thought, and bby rabbinic law he haseffective thought.,§ bShmuel asked Rav Huna: From whereis it derived with regard bto one who acts unawares inthe slaughter of bsacrificialanimals, i.e., he slaughtered without intending to perform the act of slaughter at all, bthatthe offering bis disqualified?Rav Huna said to him that it is derived from a verse, bas it is stated: “And he shall slaughter the young bull”(Leviticus 1:5), indicating bthat the slaughter must be for the sake of a young bull,i.e., knowing that he is performing an act of slaughter. Shmuel bsaid tohim: bwereceived bthisas an established ihalakhaalready bthatone must have intent to slaughter the animal iab initio /i. But bfrom whereis it derived that intent to slaughter is bindispensableeven after the fact? It is derived from a verse, as bthe verse states: “You shall slaughter it to your will”(Leviticus 19:5), indicating: bSlaughterthe animal bwith your intent,i.e., in the form of a purposeful action., strongMISHNA: /strong bSlaughterperformed by ba gentilerenders the animal ban unslaughtered carcass, andthe carcass bimparts ritual impurity through carrying. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The slaughter renders the animal ban unslaughtered carcass, yes; an item from whichderiving bbenefit is prohibited, no. Whois the itannawho btaughtthe mishna? bRabbi Ḥiyya, son of Rabbi Abba, saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: It is not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer, as, ifit were in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Eliezer, doesn’t he say: The unspecified thought of a gentile is for idol worship. /b, bRabbi Ami saidthat bthisis what the mishna bis teaching: Slaughterperformed by ba gentilerenders the animal ban unslaughtered carcass, butslaughter performed bby a hereticis bforthe sake of bidol worship.The Gemara notes: bWe learnfrom an inference in the mishna bthat which the Sages taughtexplictly in a ibaraita /i: bSlaughterperformed by ba hereticis bforthe sake of bidol worshipand deriving benefit from it is prohibited, the halakhic status of bhis breadis that of bthe bread of a Samaritan,the status of bhis wineis that of bwineused for ba libationin idol worship, bhissacred bscrollsthat he writes bare the scrolls of sorcerersand it is a mitzva to burn them, bhis produce is untithed produceeven if he separated iterumaand tithes, band some say: Even /b
44. Anon., 6 Ezra, 16.69-16.70

45. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 8.6

46. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 129-137, 139, 144-169, 128

128. It is worth while to mention briefly the information which he gave in reply to our questions. For I suppose that most people feel a curiosity with regard to some of the enactments in the law


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 103
abraham Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
alexandria Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
anger, wrath, divine Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
anima/soul Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
apocrypha Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
apostasy Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 268; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
apostle, paul Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
astray, to lead/go/wander Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
ben sira Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 59
covenant Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 268
crucifixion Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 42
death, impurity of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 73
death Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 59
decalogue Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 103
demons, worship of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
demons and food Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 73
demons in second- and third-century texts Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 73
desires Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68, 73, 103, 104
determinism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
dietary laws in the second-and third-century texts Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 73
discipline Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 103
earth Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 59
egypt Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
eschatology Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
eschaton Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68
eternality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 59
ethics Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68
false worship, theriolatry Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 82, 83, 84, 225
fate/fatalism Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
food, impurity of and demonology Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 73
food, impurity of in second- and third-century sources Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 73
food, impurity of offered to idols Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 73
fools/foolishness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
foreknowledge Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
free choice/free will Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
futility Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 59
gentiles, and idolatry Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 146
god, representations of, creator Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 82, 83, 84, 223
god, representations of, father Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 223
god, representations of, judge Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 223
god, representations of, king Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 223
god, representations of, true existence Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 223
gold Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
golden calf Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 227; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 103
gratitude Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
greeks/hellenes, and jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 146
guilt, and reatus, sin nature/propensity/principle Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
heart Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
help Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 42
honor Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
identity Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 73
idolatry, action Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 225
idolatry, denounced in jewish texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 146
idolatry, error Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 225
idolatry Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 59; Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 268; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 103, 104; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
idols, making/fashioning of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
idols, manmade Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 82
idols Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 59; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
images, material for idols Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
immortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 59
imperial culture Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 268
incorruption Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 59
instruction/teaching, false Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
israel, israelites Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 103, 104
jerusalem Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 146
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and ethnicity in post-biblical texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 146
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and idolatry Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 146
joshua Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 268
judaism, second temple/apocrypha Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
judaism Martin and Whitlark, Inventing Hebrews: Design and Purpose in Ancient Rhetoric (2018) 268; Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
judgment Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 73
justice, righteousness, principle Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
king, emperor, marcus aurelius Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
lords supper Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 227
lot Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
mastema Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68
meat Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 73
mediation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 42
metals, fashioning of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
mind, cognition Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
mind Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
moses Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 146; Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 223; Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 103, 104
nature, natural phenomena Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
original sin, augustinian Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
original sin Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
parties, strong and weak Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 227
perfection Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 42
perseverance Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 42
potter Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 59
prayer (see also lords prayer) Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
providence, judaeo-christian type Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
quail Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 103
red sea Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
religion passim, origin of religion Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
religion passim, piety Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
rhetoric, brevity Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
rhetoric, narrative Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
righteousness Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 59
sacrifice to idols/pagan gods Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 73
satan Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68
self-determination Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
septuagint, lukes use Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 392
silver Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
sin, adams sin/fall Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
souls Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 73
sovereignty of god, judaeo-christian view Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
sovereignty of god Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
spirits, evil/of evil Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
suffering Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 42
temple Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
temptation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 42
terah Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399
testing passim, agents of Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68
testing passim, roles in Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 68
theodicy Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
tombs of desire Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 104
total depravity/incapacity, residual capacity Wilson, Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology (2018) 22
universalism Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
vegetarianism' Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 73
vice, immorality Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
wilderness passim, place Smith and Stuckenbruck, Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts (2020) 103, 104
wisdom, literature Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun, The History of Religions School Today: Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts (2014) 64
worship/ritual/cult as identity markers, for jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 146
worship Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 399