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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



707
Septuagint, Wisdom Of Solomon, 10-19


nanHappy is the man whom the Lord remembereth with reproving, And whom He restraineth from the way of evil with strokes, That he may be cleansed from sin, that it may not be multiplied., He that maketh ready his back for strokes shall be cleansed, For the Lord is good to them that endure chastening., For He maketh straight the ways of the righteous, And doth not pervert (them) by His chastening., And the mercy of the Lord (is) upon them that love Him in truth, And the Lord remembereth His servants in mercy., For the testimony (is) in the law of the eternal covenant, The testimony of the Lord (is) on the ways of men in (His) visitation., Just and kind is our Lord in His judgements for ever, And Israel shall praise the name of the Lord in gladness., And the pious shall give thanks in the assembly of the people; And on the poor shall God have mercy in the gladness (?) of Israel;, For good and merciful is God for ever, And the assemblies of Israel shall glorify the name of the Lord. The salvation of the Lord be upon the house of Israel unto everlasting gladness!


nanWisdom protected the first-formed father of the world, when he alone had been created;she delivered him from his transgression,, and gave him strength to rule all things.", But when an unrighteous man departed from her in his anger,he perished because in rage he slew his brother., When the earth was flooded because of him,wisdom again saved it,steering the righteous man by a paltry piece of wood., Wisdom also, when the nations in wicked agreement had been confounded,recognized the righteous man and preserved him blameless before God,and kept him strong in the face of his compassion for his child., Wisdom rescued a righteous man when the ungodly were perishing;he escaped the fire that descended on the Five Cities.", Evidence of their wickedness still remains:a continually smoking wasteland,plants bearing fruit that does not ripen,and a pillar of salt standing as a monument to an unbelieving soul., For because they passed wisdom by,they not only were hindered from recognizing the good,but also left for mankind a reminder of their folly,so that their failures could never go unnoticed., Wisdom rescued from troubles those who served her.", When a righteous man fled from his brothers wrath,she guided him on straight paths;she showed him the kingdom of God,and gave him knowledge of angels;she prospered him in his labors,and increased the fruit of his toil., When his oppressors were covetous,she stood by him and made him rich., She protected him from his enemies,and kept him safe from those who lay in wait for him;in his arduous contest she gave him the victory,so that he might learn that godliness is more powerful than anything., When a righteous man was sold, wisdom did not desert him,but delivered him from sin. She descended with him into the dungeon,, and when he was in prison she did not leave him,until she brought him the scepter of a kingdom and authority over his masters. Those who accused him she showed to be false,and she gave him everlasting honor., A holy people and blameless race wisdom delivered from a nation of oppressors.", She entered the soul of a servant of the Lord,and withstood dread kings with wonders and signs., She gave holy men the reward of their labors;she guided them along a marvelous way,and became a shelter to them by day,and a starry flame through the night., She brought them over the Red Sea,and led them through deep waters;, but she drowned their enemies,and cast them up from the depth of the sea., Therefore the righteous plundered the ungodly;they sang hymns, O Lord, to thy holy name,and praised with one accord thy defending hand,, because wisdom opened the mouth of the dumb,and made the tongues of babes speak clearly.


nanBlow ye in Zion on the trumpet to summon (the) saints,, Cause ye to be heard in Jerusalem the voice of him that bringeth good tidings; For God hath had pity on Israel in visiting them., Stand on the height, O Jerusalem, and behold thy children, From the East and the West, gathered together by the Lord;, From the North they come in the gladness of their God, From the isles afar off God hath gathered them., High mountains hath He abased into a plain for them;, The hills fled at their entrance. The woods gave them shelter as they passed by;, Every sweet-smelling tree God caused to spring up for them, That Israel might pass by in the visitation of the glory of their God., Put on, O Jerusalem, thy glorious garments; Make ready thy holy robe; For God hath spoken good concerning Israel, for ever and ever., Let the Lord do what He hath spoken concerning Israel and Jerusalem; Let the Lord raise up Israel by His glorious name. The mercy of the Lord be upon Israel for ever and ever.


nanWisdom prospered their works by the hand of a holy prophet.", They journeyed through an uninhabited wilderness,and pitched their tents in untrodden places., They withstood their enemies and fought off their foes.", When they thirsted they called upon thee,and water was given them out of flinty rock,and slaking of thirst from hard stone., For through the very things by which their enemies were punished,they themselves received benefit in their need., Instead of the fountain of an ever-flowing river,stirred up and defiled with blood, in rebuke for the decree to slay the infants,thou gavest them abundant water unexpectedly,, showing by their thirst at that timehow thou didst punish their enemies.", For when they were tried, though they were being disciplined in mercy,they learned how the ungodly were tormented when judged in wrath., For thou didst test them as a father does in warning,but thou didst examine the ungodly as a stern king does in condemnation., Whether absent or present, they were equally distressed,, for a twofold grief possessed them,and a groaning at the memory of what had occurred., For when they heard that through their own punishments the righteous had received benefit, they perceived it was the Lords doing., For though they had mockingly rejected him who long before had been cast out and exposed,at the end of the events they marveled at him,for their thirst was not like that of the righteous., In return for their foolish and wicked thoughts,which led them astray to worship irrational serpents and worthless animals,thou didst send upon them a multitude of irrational creatures to punish them,, that they might learn that one is punished by the very things by which he sins.", For thy all-powerful hand,which created the world out of formless matter,did not lack the means to send upon them a multitude of bears, or bold lions,, or newly created unknown beasts full of rage,or such as breathe out fiery breath,or belch forth a thick pall of smoke,or flash terrible sparks from their eyes;, not only could their damage exterminate men,but the mere sight of them could kill by fright., Even apart from these, men could fall at a single breath when pursued by justice and scattered by the breath of thy power. But thou hast arranged all things by measure and number and weight., For it is always in thy power to show great strength,and who can withstand the might of thy arm?, Because the whole world before thee is like a speck that tips the scales,and like a drop of morning dew that falls upon the ground., But thou art merciful to all, for thou canst do all things,and thou dost overlook mens sins, that they may repent., For thou lovest all things that exist,and hast loathing for none of the things which thou hast made,for thou wouldst not have made anything if thou hadst hated it., How would anything have endured if thou hadst not willed it?Or how would anything not called forth by thee have been preserved?", Thou sparest all things, for they are thine,O Lord who lovest the living.


nanO Lord, deliver my soul from (the) lawless and wicked man, From the tongue that is lawless and slanderous, and speaketh lies and deceit., Manifoldly twisted (?) are the words of the tongue of the wicked man, Even as among a people a fire that burneth up their beauty., So he delights to fill houses with a lying tongue, To cut down the trees of gladness which setteth on fire transgressors,, To involve households in warfare by means of slanderous lips. May God remove far from the innocent the lips of transgressors by (bringing them to) want And may the bones of slanderers be scattered (far) away from them that fear the Lord!, In flaming fire perish the slanderous tongue (far) away from the pious!, May the Lord preserve the quiet soul that hateth the unrighteous; And may the Lord establish the man that followeth peace at home., The salvation of the Lord be upon Israel His servant for ever; And let the sinners perish together at the presence of the Lord; But let the Lord’s pious ones inherit the promises of the Lord.


nanFor thy immortal spirit is in all things.", Therefore thou dost correct little by little those who trespass,and dost remind and warn them of the things wherein they sin,that they may be freed from wickedness and put their trust in thee, O Lord., Those who dwelt of old in thy holy land", thou didst hate for their detestable practices,their works of sorcery and unholy rites,, their merciless slaughter of children,and their sacrificial feasting on human flesh and blood. These initiates from the midst of a heathen cult,, these parents who murder helpless lives,thou didst will to destroy by the hands of our fathers,, that the land most precious of all to thee might receive a worthy colony of the servants of God.", But even these thou didst spare, since they were but men,and didst send wasps as forerunners of thy army,to destroy them little by little,, though thou wast not unable to give the ungodly into the hands of the righteous in battle,or to destroy them at one blow by dread wild beasts or thy stern word., But judging them little by little thou gavest them a chance to repent,though thou wast not unaware that their origin was evil and their wickedness inborn,and that their way of thinking would never change., For they were an accursed race from the beginning,and it was not through fear of any one that thou didst leave them unpunished for their sins., For who will say, "What hast thou done?" Or will resist thy judgment?Who will accuse thee for the destruction of nations which thou didst make?Or who will come before thee to plead as an advocate for unrighteous men?, For neither is there any god besides thee,whose care is for all men,to whom thou shouldst prove that thou hast not judged unjustly;, nor can any king or monarch confront thee about those whom thou hast punished.", Thou art righteous and rulest all things righteously,deeming it alien to thy power to condemn him who does not deserve to be punished., For thy strength is the source of righteousness,and thy sovereignty over all causes thee to spare all., For thou dost show thy strength when men doubt the completeness of thy power,and dost rebuke any insolence among those who know it., Thou who art sovereign in strength dost judge with mildness,and with great forbearance thou dost govern us;for thou hast power to act whenever thou dost choose., Through such works thou has taught thy people that the righteous man must be kind,and thou hast filled thy sons with good hope,because thou givest repentance for sins., For if thou didst punish with such great care and indulgence the enemies of thy servants and those deserving of death,granting them time and opportunity to give up their wickedness,, with what strictness thou hast judged thy sons,to whose fathers thou gavest oaths and covenants full of good promises!, Therefore those who in folly of life lived unrighteously thou didst torment through their own abominations.", For they went far astray on the paths of error,accepting as gods those animals which even their enemies despised;they were deceived like foolish babes., Therefore, as to thoughtless children,thou didst send thy judgment to mock them., But those who have not heeded the warning of light rebukes will experience the deserved judgment of God.", For when in their suffering they became incensed at those creatures which they had thought to be gods, being punished by means of them,they saw and recognized as the true God him whom they had before refused to know. Therefore the utmost condemnation came upon them.


nanThe right hand of the Lord hath covered me; The right hand of the Lord hath spared us., The arm of the Lord hath saved us from the sword that passed through, From famine and the death of sinners., Noisome beasts ran upon them: With their teeth they tore their flesh, And with their molars crushed their bones. But from all these things the Lord delivered us,, The righteous was troubled on account of his errors, Lest he should be taken away along with the sinners;, For terrible is the overthrow of the sinner; But not one of all these things toucheth the righteous. For not alike are the chastening of the righteous (for sins done) in ignorance, And the overthrow of the sinners, Secretly (?) is the righteous chastened, Lest the sinner rejoice over the righteous., For He correcteth the righteous as a beloved son, And his chastisement is as that of a firstborn., 10) For the Lord spareth His pious ones, And blotteth out their errors by His chastening. For the life of the righteous shall be for ever;, But sinners shall be taken away into destruction, And their memorial shall be found no more., But upon the pious is the mercy of the Lord, And upon them that fear Him His mercy.


nanFor all men who were ignorant of God were foolish by nature;and they were unable from the good things that are seen to know him who exists,nor did they recognize the craftsman while paying heed to his works;, but they supposed that either fire or wind or swift air,or the circle of the stars, or turbulent water,or the luminaries of heaven were the gods that rule the world., If through delight in the beauty of these things men assumed them to be gods,let them know how much better than these is their Lord,for the author of beauty created them., And if men were amazed at their power and working,let them perceive from them how much more powerful is he who formed them., For from the greatness and beauty of created things comes a corresponding perception of their Creator.", Yet these men are little to be blamed,for perhaps they go astray while seeking God and desiring to find him., For as they live among his works they keep searching,and they trust in what they see, because the things that are seen are beautiful., Yet again, not even they are to be excused;, for if they had the power to know so much that they could investigate the world,how did they fail to find sooner the Lord of these things?, But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are the men who give the name "gods" to the works of mens hands,gold and silver fashioned with skill,and likenesses of animals,or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand., A skilled woodcutter may saw down a tree easy to handle and skilfully strip off all its bark,and then with pleasing workmanship make a useful vessel that serves lifes needs,, and burn the castoff pieces of his work to prepare his food, and eat his fill., But a castoff piece from among them, useful for nothing,a stick crooked and full of knots,he takes and carves with care in his leisure,and shapes it with skill gained in idleness;he forms it like the image of a man,, or makes it like some worthless animal,giving it a coat of red paint and coloring its surface red and covering every blemish in it with paint;, then he makes for it a niche that befits it,and sets it in the wall, and fastens it there with iron., So he takes thought for it, that it may not fall,because he knows that it cannot help itself,for it is only an image and has need of help., When he prays about possessions and his marriage and children,he is not ashamed to address a lifeless thing., For health he appeals to a thing that is weak;for life he prays to a thing that is dead;for aid he entreats a thing that is utterly inexperienced;for a prosperous journey, a thing that cannot take a step;, for money-making and work and success with his hands he asks strength of a thing whose hands have no strength.


nanFaithful is the Lord to them that love Him in truth, To them that endure His chastening, To them that walk in the righteousness of His commandments, In the law which He commanded us that we might live., The pious of the Lord shall live by it for ever; The Paradise of the Lord, the trees of life, are His pious ones., Their planting is rooted for ever; They shall not be plucked up all the days of heaven: For the portion and the inheritance of God is Israel., But not so are the sinners and transgressors, Who love (the brief) day (spent) in companionship with their sin; Their delight is in fleeting corruption,, And they remember not God. For the ways of men are known before Him at all times, And He knoweth the secrets of the heart before they come to pass., Therefore their inheritance is Sheol and darkness and destruction, And they shall not be found in the day when the righteous obtain mercy;, But the pious of the Lord shall inherit life in gladness.


nanAgain, one preparing to sail and about to voyage over raging waves calls upon a piece of wood more fragile than the ship which carries him., For it was desire for gain that planned that vessel,and wisdom was the craftsman who built it;, but it is thy providence, O Father, that steers its course,because thou hast given it a path in the sea,and a safe way through the waves,, showing that thou canst save from every danger,so that even if a man lacks skill, he may put to sea., It is thy will that works of thy wisdom should not be without effect;therefore men trust their lives even to the smallest piece of wood,and passing through the billows on a raft they come safely to land., For even in the beginning, when arrogant giants were perishing,the hope of the world took refuge on a raft,and guided by thy hand left to the world the seed of a new generation., "For blessed is the wood by which righteousness comes.", But the idol made with hands is accursed, and so is he who made it;because he did the work, and the perishable thing was named a god., For equally hateful to God are the ungodly man and his ungodliness,, for what was done will be punished together with him who did it., Therefore there will be a visitation also upon the heathen idols,because, though part of what God created, they became an abomination,and became traps for the souls of men and a snare to the feet of the foolish., For the idea of making idols was the beginning of fornication,and the invention of them was the corruption of life,, for neither have they existed from the beginning nor will they exist for ever.", For through the vanity of men they entered the world,and therefore their speedy end has been planned., For a father, consumed with grief at an untimely bereavement,made an image of his child, who had been suddenly taken from him;and he now honored as a god what was once a dead human being,and handed on to his dependents secret rites and initiations., Then the ungodly custom, grown strong with time, was kept as a law,and at the command of monarchs graven images were worshiped., When men could not honor monarchs in their presence, since they lived at a distance,they imagined their appearance far away,and made a visible image of the king whom they honored,so that by their zeal they might flatter the absent one as though present., Then the ambition of the craftsman impelled even those who did not know the king to intensify their worship.", For he, perhaps wishing to please his ruler,skilfully forced the likeness to take more beautiful form,, and the multitude, attracted by the charm of his work,now regarded as an object of worship the one whom shortly before they had honored as a man., And this became a hidden trap for mankind,because men, in bondage to misfortune or to royal authority,bestowed on objects of stone or wood the name that ought not to be shared., Afterward it was not enough for them to err about the knowledge of God,but they live in great strife due to ignorance,and they call such great evils peace., For whether they kill children in their initiations,or celebrate secret mysteries,or hold frenzied revels with strange customs,, they no longer keep either their lives or their marriages pure,but they either treacherously kill one another,or grieve one another by adultery,, and all is a raging riot of blood and murder,theft and deceit, corruption, faithlessness, tumult, perjury,, confusion over what is good, forgetfulness of favors,pollution of souls, sex perversion,disorder in marriage, adultery, and debauchery., For the worship of idols not to be named is the beginning and cause and end of every evil.", For their worshipers either rave in exultation,or prophesy lies,or live unrighteously, or readily commit perjury;,for because they trust in lifeless idols they swear wicked oaths and expect to suffer no harm., But just penalties will overtake them on two counts:because they thought wickedly of God in devoting themselves to idols,and because in deceit they swore unrighteously through contempt for holiness., For it is not the power of the things by which men swear,but the just penalty for those who sin,that always pursues the transgression of the unrighteous.


nanWhen I was in distress I called upon the name of the Lord, I hoped for the help of the God of Jacob and was saved;, For the hope and refuge of the poor art Thou, O God., (a) For who, O God, is strong except to give thanks unto Thee in truth?, And wherein is a man powerful except in giving thanks to Thy name?, A new psalm with song in gladness of heart, The fruit of the lips with the well-tuned instrument of the tongue, The firstfruits of the lips from a pious and righteous heart–, He that offereth these things shall never be shaken by evil; The flame of fire and the wrath against the unrighteous shall not touch him,, When it goeth forth from the face of the Lord against sinners, To destroy all the substance of sinners,, For the mark of God is upon the righteous that they .may be saved. Famine and sword and pestilence (shall be) far from the righteous,, For they shall flee away from the pious as men pursued in war; But they shall pursue sinners and overtake (them), And they that do lawlessness shall not escape the judgement of God; As by enemies experienced (in war) shall they be overtaken,, For the mark of destruction is upon their forehead., And the inheritance of sinners is destruction and darkness, And their iniquities shall pursue them unto Sheol beneath., Their inheritance shall not be found of their children,, For sins shall lay waste the houses of sinners. And sinners shall perish for ever in the day of the Lord’s judgement,, When God visiteth the earth with His judgement., But they that fear the Lord shall find mercy therein, And shall live by the compassion of their God; But sinners shall perish for ever.


nanBut thou, our God, art kind and true,patient, and ruling all things in mercy., For even if we sin we are thine, knowing thy power;but we will not sin, because we know that we are accounted thine., For to know thee is complete righteousness,and to know thy power is the root of immortality., For neither has the evil intent of human art misled us,nor the fruitless toil of painters,a figure stained with varied colors,, whose appearance arouses yearning in fools,so that they desire the lifeless form of a dead image., Lovers of evil things and fit for such objects of hope are those who either make or desire or worship them.", For when a potter kneads the soft earth and laboriously molds each vessel for our service,he fashions out of the same clay both the vessels that serve clean uses and those for contrary uses, making all in like manner;but which shall be the use of each of these the worker in clay decides., With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him., But he is not concerned that he is destined to die or that his life is brief,but he competes with workers in gold and silver,and imitates workers in copper;and he counts it his glory that he molds counterfeit gods., His heart is ashes, his hope is cheaper than dirt,and his life is of less worth than clay,, because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit.", But he considered our existence an idle game,and life a festival held for profit,for he says one must get money however one can, even by base means., For this man, more than all others, knows that he sins when he makes from earthy matter fragile vessels and graven images., But most foolish, and more miserable than an infant,are all the enemies who oppressed thy people., For they thought that all their heathen idols were gods,though these have neither the use of their eyes to see with,nor nostrils with which to draw breath,nor ears with which to hear,nor fingers to feel with,and their feet are of no use for walking., For a man made them,and one whose spirit is borrowed formed them;for no man can form a god which is like himself., He is mortal, and what he makes with lawless hands is dead,for he is better than the objects he worships,since he has life, but they never have., The enemies of thy people worship even the most hateful animals,which are worse than all others, when judged by their lack of intelligence;, and even as animals they are not so beautiful in appearance that one would desire them,but they have escaped both the praise of God and his blessing.


nanWhen my soul slumbered (being afar) from the Lord, I had all but slipped down to the pit, When (I was) far from God,, my soul had been well nigh poured out unto death, (I had been) nigh unto the gates of Sheol with thesinner,, when my soul departed from the Lord God of Israel– Had not the Lord helped me with His ever lasting mercy., He pricked me, as a horse is pricked, that I might serve Him, My saviour and helper at all times saved me., I will give thanks unto Thee, O God, for Thou hast helped me to (my) salvation; And hast not counted me with sinners to (my) destruction., Remove not Thy mercy from me, O God, Nor Thy memorial from my heart until I die., Rule me, O God, (keeping me back) from wicked sin, And from every wicked woman that causeth the simple to stumble., And let not the beauty of a lawless woman beguile me, Nor any one that is subject to (?) unprofitable sin., Establish the works of my hands before Thee, And preserve my goings in the remembrance of Thee., Protect my tongue and my lips with words of truth; Anger and unreasoning wrath put far from me., Murmuring, and impatience in affliction, remove far from me, When, if I sin, Thou chastenest me that I may return (unto Thee)., But with goodwill and cheerfulness support my soul; When Thou strengthenest my soul, what is given (to me) will be sufficient for me., For if Thou givest not strength, Who can endure chastisement with poverty?, When a man is rebuked by means of his corruption, Thy testing (of him) is in his flesh and in the affliction of poverty., If the righteous endureth in all these (trials), he shall receive mercy from the Lord.


nanTherefore those men were deservedly punished through such creatures,and were tormented by a multitude of animals., Instead of this punishment thou didst show kindness to thy people,and thou didst prepare quails to eat,a delicacy to satisfy the desire of appetite;, in order that those men, when they desired food,might lose the least remnant of appetite because of the odious creatures sent to them,while thy people, after suffering want a short time,might partake of delicacies., For it was necessary that upon those oppressors inexorable want should come,while to these it was merely shown how their enemies were being tormented., For when the terrible rage of wild beasts came upon thy people and they were being destroyed by the bites of writhing serpents,thy wrath did not continue to the end;, they were troubled for a little while as a warning,and received a token of deliverance to remind them of thy laws command., For he who turned toward it was saved, not by what he saw,but by thee, the Savior of all., And by this also thou didst convince our enemies that it is thou who deliverest from every evil.", For they were killed by the bites of locusts and flies,and no healing was found for them,because they deserved to be punished by such things;, but thy sons were not conquered even by the teeth of venomous serpents,for thy mercy came to their help and healed them., To remind them of thy oracles they were bitten,and then were quickly delivered,lest they should fall into deep forgetfulness and become unresponsive to thy kindness., For neither herb nor poultice cured them,but it was thy word, O Lord, which heals all men., For thou hast power over life and death;thou dost lead men down to the gates of Hades and back again.", A man in his wickedness kills another,but he cannot bring back the departed spirit,nor set free the imprisoned soul., To escape from thy hand is impossible;", for the ungodly, refusing to know thee,were scourged by the strength of thy arm,pursued by unusual rains and hail and relentless storms,and utterly consumed by fire., For -- most incredible of all -- in the water,which quenches all things,the fire had still greater effect,for the universe defends the righteous., At one time the flame was restrained,so that it might not consume the creatures sent against the ungodly,but that seeing this they might know that they were being pursued by the judgment of God;, and at another time even in the midst of water it burned more intensely than fire,to destroy the crops of the unrighteous land., Instead of these things thou didst give thy people food of angels,and without their toil thou didst supply them from heaven with bread ready to eat,providing every pleasure and suited to every taste., For thy sustenance manifested thy sweetness toward thy children;and the bread, ministering to the desire of the one who took it,was changed to suit every ones liking., Snow and ice withstood fire without melting,so that they might know that the crops of their enemies were being destroyed by the fire that blazed in the hail and flashed in the showers of rain;, whereas the fire, in order that the righteous might be fed,even forgot its native power., For creation, serving thee who hast made it,exerts itself to punish the unrighteous,and in kindness relaxes on behalf of those who trust in thee., Therefore at that time also, changed into all forms,it served thy all-nourishing bounty,according to the desire of those who had need,, so that thy sons, whom thou didst love, O Lord, might learn that it is not the production of crops that feeds man,but that thy word preserves those who trust in thee., For what was not destroyed by fire was melted when simply warmed by a fleeting ray of the sun,, to make it known that one must rise before the sun to give thee thanks,and must pray to thee at the dawning of the light;, for the hope of an ungrateful man will melt like wintry frost,and flow away like waste water.


nanO Lord, Thou art our King for ever and ever, For in Thee, O God, doth our soul glory., How long are the days of man’s life upon the earth? As are his days, so is the hope (set) upon him., But we hope in God, our deliverer; For the might of our God is for ever with mercy,, And the kingdom of our God is for ever over the nations in judgement., Thou, O Lord, didst choose David (to be) king over Israel, And swaredst to him touching his seed that never should his kingdom fail before Thee., But, for our sins, sinners rose up against us; They assailed us and thrust us out; What Thou hadst not promised to them, they took away (from us) with violence., They in no wise glorified Thy honourable name; They set a (worldly) monarchy in place of (that which was) their excellency;, They laid waste the throne of David in tumultuous arrogance. But Thou, O God, didst cast them down and remove their seed from the earth,, In that there rose up against them a man that was alien to our race., According to their sins didst Thou recompense them, O God; So that it befell them according to their deeds., God showed them no pity; He sought out their seed and let not one of them go free., Faithful is the Lord in all His judgements Which He doeth upon the earth., The lawless one laid waste our land so that none inhabited it, They destroyed young and old and their children together., In the heat of His anger He sent them away even unto the west, And (He exposed) the rulers of the land unsparingly to derision., Being an alien the enemy acted proudly, And his heart was alien from our God., And all things whatsoever he did in Jerusalem, As also the nations in the cities to their gods., And the children of the covenant in the midst of the mingled peoples surpassed them in evil. There was not among them one that wrought in the midst of Jerusalem mercy and truth., They that loved the synagogues of the pious fled from them, As sparrows that fly from their nest., They wandered in deserts that their lives might be saved from harm, And precious in the eyes of them that lived abroad was any that escaped alive from them., Over the whole earth were they scattered by lawless (men)., For the heavens withheld the rain from dropping upon the earth, Springs were stopped (that sprang) perennial(ly) out of the deeps, (that ran down) from lofty mountains. For there was none among them that wrought righteousness and justice; From the chief of them to the least (of them) all were sinful;, The king was a transgressor, and the judge disobedient, and the people sinful., Behold, O Lord, and raise up unto them their king, the son of David, At the time in the which Thou seest, O God, that he may reign over Israel Thy servant, And gird him with strength, that he may shatter unrighteous rulers,, And that he may purge Jerusalem from nations that trample (her) down to destruction. Wisely, righteously, he shall thrust out sinners from (the) inheritance, He shall destroy the pride of the sinner as a potter’s vessel. With a rod of iron he shall break in pieces all their substance,, He shall destroy the godless nations with the word of his mouth; At his rebuke nations shall flee before him, And he shall reprove sinners for the thoughts of their heart., And he shall gather together a holy people, whom he shall lead in righteousness, And he shall judge the tribes of the people that has been sanctified by the Lord his God., And he shall not suffer unrighteousness to lodge any more in their midst, Nor shall there dwell with them any man that knoweth wickedness,, For he shall know them, that they are all sons of their God. And he shaIl divide them according to their tribes upon the land,, And neither sojourner nor alien shall sojourn with them any more. He shall judge peoples and nations in the wisdom of his righteousness. Selah., And he shall have the heathen nations to serve him under his yoke; And he shall glorify the Lord in a place to be seen of (?) all the earth;, And he shall purge Jerusalem, making it holy as of old:, So that nations shall come from the ends of the earth to see his glory, Bringing as gifts her sons who had fainted,, And to see the glory of the Lord, wherewith God hath glorified her. And he (shall be) a righteous king, taught of God, over them,, And there shall be no unrighteousness in his days in their midst, For all shall be holy and their king the anointed of the Lord., For he shall not put his trust in horse and rider and bow, Nor shall he multiply for himself gold and silver for war, Nor shall he gather confidence from (?) a multitude (?) for the day of battle., The Lord Himself is his king, the hope of him that is mighty through (his) hope in God. All nations (shall be) in fear before him,, For he will smite the earth with the word of his mouth for ever., He will bless the people of the Lord with wisdom and gladness,, And he himself (will be) pure from sin, so that he may rule a great people. He will rebuke rulers, and remove sinners by the might of his word;, And (relying) upon his God, throughout his days he will not stumble; For God will make him mighty by means of (His) holy spirit, And wise by means of the spirit of understanding, with strength and righteousness., And the blessing of the Lord (will be) with him: he will be strong and stumble not;, His hope (will be) in the Lord: who then can prevail against him? (He will be) mighty in his works, and strong in the fear of God,, (He will be) shepherding the flock of the Lord faithfully and righteously, And will suffer none among them to stumble in their pasture., He will lead them all aright, And there will be no pride among them that any among them should be oppressed., This (will be) the majesty of the king of Israel whom God knoweth; He will raise him up over the house of Israel to correct him., His words (shall be) more refined than costly gold, the choicest; In the assemblies he will judge the peoples, the tribes of the sanctified., His words (shall be) like the words of the holy ones in the midst of sanctified peoples., Blessed be they that shall be in those days, In that they shall see the good fortune of Israel which God shall bring to pass in the gathering together of the tribes., May the Lord hasten His mercy upon Israel! May He deliver us from the uncleanness of unholy enemies! The Lord Himself is our king for ever and ever.


nanGreat are thy judgments and hard to describe;therefore unintructed souls have gone astray.", For when lawless men supposed that they held the holy nation in their power,they themselves lay as captives of darkness and prisoners of long night,shut in under their roofs, exiles from eternal providence., For thinking that in their secret sins they were unobserved behind a dark curtain of forgetfulness,they were scattered, terribly alarmed,and appalled by specters., For not even the inner chamber that held them protected them from fear,but terrifying sounds rang out around them,and dismal phantoms with gloomy faces appeared., And no power of fire was able to give light,nor did the brilliant flames of the stars avail to illumine that hateful night., Nothing was shining through to them except a dreadful, self-kindled fire,and in terror they deemed the things which they saw to be worse than that unseen appearance., The delusions of their magic art lay humbled,and their boasted wisdom was scornfully rebuked., For those who promised to drive off the fears and disorders of a sick soul were sick themselves with ridiculous fear.", For even if nothing disturbing frightened them,yet, scared by the passing of beasts and the hissing of serpents,, they perished in trembling fear,refusing to look even at the air, though it nowhere could be avoided., For wickedness is a cowardly thing, condemned by its own testimony;distressed by conscience, it has always exaggerated the difficulties., For fear is nothing but surrender of the helps that come from reason;", and the inner expectation of help, being weak,prefers ignorance of what causes the torment., But throughout the night, which was really powerless,and which beset them from the recesses of powerless Hades,they all slept the same sleep,, and now were driven by monstrous specters,and now were paralyzed by their souls surrender,for sudden and unexpected fear overwhelmed them., And whoever was there fell down,and thus was kept shut up in a prison not made of iron;, for whether he was a farmer or a shepherd or a workman who toiled in the wilderness,he was seized, and endured the inescapable fate;for with one chain of darkness they all were bound., Whether there came a whistling wind,or a melodious sound of birds in wide-spreading branches,or the rhythm of violently rushing water,, or the harsh crash of rocks hurled down,or the unseen running of leaping animals,or the sound of the most savage roaring beasts,or an echo thrown back from a hollow of the mountains,it paralyzed them with terror., For the whole world was illumined with brilliant light,and was engaged in unhindered work,, while over those men alone heavy night was spread,an image of the darkness that was destined to receive them;but still heavier than darkness were they to themselves.


nanLord, Thy mercy is over the works of Thy hands for ever; Thy goodness is over Israel with a rich gift., Thine eyes look upon them, so that none of them suffers want;, Thine ears listen to the hopeful prayer of the poor. Thy judgements (are executed) upon the whole earth in mercy;, And Thy love (is) toward the seed of Abraham, the children of Israel. Thy chastisement is upon us as (upon) a first-born, only-begotten son,, To turn back the obedient soul from folly (that is wrought) in ignorance., May God cleanse Israel against the day of mercy and blessing, Against the day of choice when He bringeth back His anointed., Blessed shall they be that shall be in those days, In that they shall see the goodness of the Lord which He shall perform for the generation that is to come,, Under the rod of chastening of the Lord’s anointed in the fear of his God, In the spirit of wisdom and righteousness and strength;, That he may direct (every} man in the works of righteousness by the fear of God, That he may establish them all before the Lord,, A good generation (living) in the fear of God in the days of mercy. Selah., Great is our God and glorious, dwelling in the highest., (It is He) who hath established in (their) courses the lights (of heaven) for determining seasons from year to year, And they have not turned aside from the way which He appointed them, In the fear of God (they pursue) their path every day, From the day God created them and for evermore., And they have erred not since the day He created them. Since the generations of old they have not withdrawn from their path, Unless God commanded them (so to do) by the command of His servants.


nanBut for thy holy ones there was very great light. Their enemies heard their voices but did not see their forms,and counted them happy for not having suffered,, and were thankful that thy holy ones, though previously wronged, were doing them no injury;and they begged their pardon for having been at variance with them., Therefore thou didst provide a flaming pillar of fire as a guide for thy peoples unknown journey,and a harmless sun for their glorious wandering., For their enemies deserved to be deprived of light and imprisoned in darkness,those who had kept thy sons imprisoned,through whom the imperishable light of the law was to be given to the world., When they had resolved to kill the babes of thy holy ones,and one child had been exposed and rescued,thou didst in punishment take away a multitude of their children;and thou didst destroy them all together by a mighty flood., That night was made known beforehand to our fathers,so that they might rejoice in sure knowledge of the oaths in which they trusted., The deliverance of the righteous and the destruction of their enemies were expected by thy people.", For by the same means by which thou didst punish our enemies thou didst call us to thyself and glorify us.", For in secret the holy children of good men offered sacrifices,and with one accord agreed to the divine law,that the saints would share alike the same things,both blessings and dangers;and already they were singing the praises of the fathers., But the discordant cry of their enemies echoed back,and their piteous lament for their children was spread abroad., The slave was punished with the same penalty as the master,and the common man suffered the same loss as the king;, and they all together, by the one form of death,had corpses too many to count. For the living were not sufficient even to bury them,since in one instant their most valued children had been destroyed., For though they had disbelieved everything because of their magic arts,yet, when their first-born were destroyed,they acknowledged thy people to be Gods son., For while gentle silence enveloped all things,and night in its swift course was now half gone,, thy all-powerful word leaped from heaven, from the royal throne,into the midst of the land that was doomed,a stern warrior, carrying the sharp sword of thy authentic command, and stood and filled all things with death,and touched heaven while standing on the earth., Then at once apparitions in dreadful dreams greatly troubled them,and unexpected fears assailed them;, and one here and another there, hurled down half dead,made known why they were dying;, for the dreams which disturbed them forewarned them of this,so that they might not perish without knowing why they suffered., The experience of death touched also the righteous,and a plague came upon the multitude in the desert,but the wrath did not long continue., For a blameless man was quick to act as their champion;he brought forward the shield of his ministry,prayer and propitiation by incense;he withstood the anger and put an end to the disaster,showing that he was thy servant., He conquered the wrath not by strength of body,and not by force of arms,but by his word he subdued the punisher,appealing to the oaths and covenants given to our fathers., For when the dead had already fallen on one another in heaps,he intervened and held back the wrath,and cut off its way to the living., For upon his long robe the whole world was depicted,and the glories of the fathers were engraved on the four rows of stones,and thy majesty on the diadem upon his head., To these the destroyer yielded, these he feared;for merely to test the wrath was enough.


nanBut the ungodly were assailed to the end by pitiless anger,for God knew in advance even their future actions,, that, though they themselves had permitted thy people to depart and hastily sent them forth,they would change their minds and pursue them., For while they were still busy at mourning,and were lamenting at the graves of their dead,they reached another foolish decision,and pursued as fugitives those whom they had begged and compelled to depart., For the fate they deserved drew them on to this end,and made them forget what had happened,in order that they might fill up the punishment which their torments still lacked,, and that thy people might experience an incredible journey,but they themselves might meet a strange death., For the whole creation in its nature was fashioned anew,complying with thy commands,that thy children might be kept unharmed., The cloud was seen overshadowing the camp,and dry land emerging where water had stood before,an unhindered way out of the Red Sea,and a grassy plain out of the raging waves,, where those protected by thy hand passed through as one nation,after gazing on marvelous wonders., For they ranged like horses,and leaped like lambs,praising thee, O Lord, who didst deliver them., For they still recalled the events of their sojourn,how instead of producing animals the earth brought forth gnats,and instead of fish the river spewed out vast numbers of frogs., Afterward they saw also a new kind of birds,when desire led them to ask for luxurious food;, for, to give them relief, quails came up from the sea., The punishments did not come upon the sinners without prior signs in the violence of thunder,for they justly suffered because of their wicked acts;for they practiced a more bitter hatred of strangers., Others had refused to receive strangers when they came to them,but these made slaves of guests who were their benefactors., And not only so, but punishment of some sort will come upon the former for their hostile reception of the aliens;, but the latter, after receiving them with festal celebrations,afflicted with terrible sufferings those who had already shared the same rights., They were stricken also with loss of sight -- just as were those at the door of the righteous man -- when, surrounded by yawning darkness,each tried to find the way through his own door., For the elements changed places with one another,as on a harp the notes vary the nature of the rhythm,while each note remains the same. This may be clearly inferred from the sight of what took place., For land animals were transformed into water creatures,and creatures that swim moved over to the land., Fire even in water retained its normal power,and water forgot its fire-quenching nature., Flames, on the contrary, failed to consume the flesh of perishable creatures that walked among them,nor did they melt the crystalline, easily melted kind of heavenly food., For in everything, O Lord, thou hast exalted and glorified thy people;and thou hast not neglected to help them at all times and in all places.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 3-5, 8-9, 1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Septuagint, 2 Esdras, 11-16, 1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 7.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.2. מַה־יָּפוּ פְעָמַיִךְ בַּנְּעָלִים בַּת־נָדִיב חַמּוּקֵי יְרֵכַיִךְ כְּמוֹ חֲלָאִים מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָמָּן׃ 7.2. How beautiful are thy steps in sandals, O prince’s daughter! The roundings of thy thighs are like the links of a chain, The work of the hands of a skilled workman.
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 12.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.22-1.23, 3.19-3.20, 8.3, 8.22-8.31, 28.4, 31.10-31.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.22. עַד־מָתַי פְּתָיִם תְּאֵהֲבוּ פֶתִי וְלֵצִים לָצוֹן חָמְדוּ לָהֶם וּכְסִילִים יִשְׂנְאוּ־דָעַת׃ 1.23. תָּשׁוּבוּ לְתוֹכַחְתִּי הִנֵּה אַבִּיעָה לָכֶם רוּחִי אוֹדִיעָה דְבָרַי אֶתְכֶם׃ 3.19. יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃ 8.3. לְיַד־שְׁעָרִים לְפִי־קָרֶת מְבוֹא פְתָחִים תָּרֹנָּה׃ 8.3. וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשֻׁעִים יוֹם יוֹם מְשַׂחֶקֶת לְפָנָיו בְּכָל־עֵת׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 8.31. מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 28.4. עֹזְבֵי תוֹרָה יְהַלְלוּ רָשָׁע וְשֹׁמְרֵי תוֹרָה יִתְגָּרוּ בָם׃ 31.11. בָּטַח בָּהּ לֵב בַּעְלָהּ וְשָׁלָל לֹא יֶחְסָר׃ 31.12. גְּמָלַתְהוּ טוֹב וְלֹא־רָע כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיה׃ 31.13. דָּרְשָׁה צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים וַתַּעַשׂ בְּחֵפֶץ כַּפֶּיהָ׃ 31.14. הָיְתָה כָּאֳנִיּוֹת סוֹחֵר מִמֶּרְחָק תָּבִיא לַחְמָהּ׃ 31.15. וַתָּקָם בְּעוֹד לַיְלָה וַתִּתֵּן טֶרֶף לְבֵיתָהּ וְחֹק לְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ׃ 31.16. זָמְמָה שָׂדֶה וַתִּקָּחֵהוּ מִפְּרִי כַפֶּיהָ נטע [נָטְעָה] כָּרֶם׃ 31.17. חָגְרָה בְעוֹז מָתְנֶיהָ וַתְּאַמֵּץ זְרֹעוֹתֶיהָ׃ 31.18. טָעֲמָה כִּי־טוֹב סַחְרָהּ לֹא־יִכְבֶּה בליל [בַלַּיְלָה] נֵרָהּ׃ 31.19. יָדֶיהָ שִׁלְּחָה בַכִּישׁוֹר וְכַפֶּיהָ תָּמְכוּ פָלֶךְ׃ 31.21. לֹא־תִירָא לְבֵיתָהּ מִשָּׁלֶג כִּי כָל־בֵּיתָהּ לָבֻשׁ שָׁנִים׃ 31.22. מַרְבַדִּים עָשְׂתָה־לָּהּ שֵׁשׁ וְאַרְגָּמָן לְבוּשָׁהּ׃ 31.23. נוֹדָע בַּשְּׁעָרִים בַּעְלָהּ בְּשִׁבְתּוֹ עִם־זִקְנֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 31.24. סָדִין עָשְׂתָה וַתִּמְכֹּר וַחֲגוֹר נָתְנָה לַכְּנַעֲנִי׃ 31.25. עֹז־וְהָדָר לְבוּשָׁהּ וַתִּשְׂחַק לְיוֹם אַחֲרוֹן׃ 31.26. פִּיהָ פָּתְחָה בְחָכְמָה וְתוֹרַת־חֶסֶד עַל־לְשׁוֹנָהּ׃ 31.27. צוֹפִיָּה הֲלִיכוֹת בֵּיתָהּ וְלֶחֶם עַצְלוּת לֹא תֹאכֵל׃ 31.28. קָמוּ בָנֶיהָ וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ בַּעְלָהּ וַיְהַלְלָהּ׃ 31.29. רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל־כֻּלָּנָה׃ 31.31. תְּנוּ־לָהּ מִפְּרִי יָדֶיהָ וִיהַלְלוּהָ בַשְּׁעָרִים מַעֲשֶׂיהָ׃ 1.22. ’How long, ye thoughtless, will ye love thoughtlessness? And how long will scorners delight them in scorning, And fools hate knowledge?" 1.23. Turn you at my reproof; behold, I will pour out my spirit unto you, I will make known my words unto you." 3.19. The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens." 3.20. By His knowledge the depths were broken up, And the skies drop down the dew." 8.3. Beside the gates, at the entry of the city, At the coming in at the doors, she crieth aloud:" 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 8.31. Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men." 28.4. They that forsake the law praise the wicked; But such as keep the law contend with them." 31.10. A woman of valour who can find? For her price is far above rubies." 31.11. The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, and he hath no lack of gain." 31.12. She doeth him good and not evil all the days of her life." 31.13. She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands." 31.14. She is like the merchant-ships; she bringeth her food from afar." 31.15. She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth food to her household, and a portion to her maidens." 31.16. She considereth a field, and buyeth it; with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard." 31.17. She girdeth her loins with strength, And maketh strong her arms." 31.18. She perceiveth that her merchandise is good; Her lamp goeth not out by night." 31.19. She layeth her hands to the distaff, And her hands hold the spindle." 31.20. She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; Yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy." 31.21. She is not afraid of the snow for her household; For all her household are clothed with scarlet." 31.22. She maketh for herself coverlets; Her clothing is fine linen and purple." 31.23. Her husband is known in the gates, When he sitteth among the elders of the land." 31.24. She maketh linen garments and selleth them; And delivereth girdles unto the merchant." 31.25. Strength and dignity are her clothing; And she laugheth at the time to come." 31.26. She openeth her mouth with wisdom; And the law of kindness is on her tongue." 31.27. She looketh well to the ways of her household, And eateth not the bread of idleness." 31.28. Her children rise up, and call her blessed; Her husband also, and he praiseth her:" 31.29. ’Many daughters have done valiantly, But thou excellest them all.’" 31.30. Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain; But a woman that feareth the LORD, she shall be praised." 31.31. Give her of the fruit of her hands; And let her works praise her in the gates."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 95, 145 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.7-2.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.7. יְהוָה מוֹרִישׁ וּמַעֲשִׁיר מַשְׁפִּיל אַף־מְרוֹמֵם׃ 2.8. מֵקִים מֵעָפָר דָּל מֵאַשְׁפֹּת יָרִים אֶבְיוֹן לְהוֹשִׁיב עִם־נְדִיבִים וְכִסֵּא כָבוֹד יַנְחִלֵם כִּי לַיהוָה מְצֻקֵי אֶרֶץ וַיָּשֶׁת עֲלֵיהֶם תֵּבֵל׃ 2.9. רַגְלֵי חסידו [חֲסִידָיו] יִשְׁמֹר וּרְשָׁעִים בַּחֹשֶׁךְ יִדָּמּוּ כִּי־לֹא בְכֹחַ יִגְבַּר־אִישׁ׃ 2.7. The Lord makes poor, and makes rich: he brings low, and raises up." 2.8. He raises up the poor out of the dust, and lifts up the beggar from the dunghill, to set them among princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth are the Lord’s, and he has set the world upon them." 2.9. He will keep the feet of his pious ones, and the wicked shall be silent in darkness; for it is not by strength that man prevails."
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 42 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

42. Wisdom found no place where she might dwell; Then a dwelling-place was assigned her in the heavens.",Wisdom went forth to make her dwelling among the children of men, And found no dwelling-place:Wisdom returned to her place, And took her seat among the angels.,And unrighteousness went forth from her chambers: Whom she sought not she found, And dwelt with them,As rain in a desert And dew on a thirsty land.
9. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.51-2.60 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.51. Remember the deeds of the fathers, which they did in their generations; and receive great honor and an everlasting name. 2.52. Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness? 2.53. Joseph in the time of his distress kept the commandment, and became lord of Egypt. 2.54. Phinehas our father, because he was deeply zealous, received the covet of everlasting priesthood. 2.55. Joshua, because he fulfilled the command, became a judge in Israel. 2.56. Caleb, because he testified in the assembly, received an inheritance in the land. 2.57. David, because he was merciful, inherited the throne of the kingdom for ever. 2.58. Elijah because of great zeal for the law was taken up into heaven. 2.59. Haniah, Azariah, and Mishael believed and were saved from the flame. 2.60. Daniel because of his innocence was delivered from the mouth of the lions.
10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 10.13-10.14, 24.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.13. For the beginning of pride is sin,and the man who clings to it pours out abominations. Therefore the Lord brought upon them extraordinary afflictions,and destroyed them utterly. 10.13. and raises up his head,so that many are amazed at him. 10.14. The Lord has cast down the thrones of rulers,and has seated the lowly in their place. 10.14. Good things and bad, life and death,poverty and wealth, come from the Lord. 24.8. Then the Creator of all things gave me a commandment,and the one who created me assigned a place for my tent. And he said, `Make your dwelling in Jacob,and in Israel receive your inheritance.
11. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.7, 2.12-2.18, 5.1-5.2, 5.5, 6.1-6.11, 6.17-6.19, 6.24, 7.1, 7.7, 7.12, 7.21-7.27, 7.29, 8.1, 8.3, 8.6, 8.17, 9.17-9.18, 10.1, 10.3-10.4, 10.13-10.14, 10.17-10.19, 12.1, 12.3, 15.3, 18.3, 19.15, 19.22, 24.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.7. Because the Spirit of the Lord has filled the world,and that which holds all things together knows what is said; 2.12. Let us lie in wait for the righteous man,because he is inconvenient to us and opposes our actions;he reproaches us for sins against the law,and accuses us of sins against our training. 2.13. He professes to have knowledge of God,and calls himself a child of the Lord. 2.14. He became to us a reproof of our thoughts; 2.15. the very sight of him is a burden to us,because his manner of life is unlike that of others,and his ways are strange. 2.16. We are considered by him as something base,and he avoids our ways as unclean;he calls the last end of the righteous happy,and boasts that God is his father. 2.17. Let us see if his words are true,and let us test what will happen at the end of his life; 2.18. for if the righteous man is Gods son, he will help him,and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries. 5.1. Then the righteous man will stand with great confidence in the presence of those who have afflicted him,and those who make light of his labors. 5.5. Why has he been numbered among the sons of God?And why is his lot among the saints? 6.1. Listen therefore, O kings, and understand;learn, O judges of the ends of the earth. 6.2. Give ear, you that rule over multitudes,and boast of many nations. 6.3. For your dominion was given you from the Lord,and your sovereignty from the Most High,who will search out your works and inquire into your plans. 6.4. Because as servants of his kingdom you did not rule rightly,nor keep the law,nor walk according to the purpose of God 6.5. he will come upon you terribly and swiftly,because severe judgment falls on those in high places. 6.6. For the lowliest man may be pardoned in mercy,but mighty men will be mightily tested. 6.7. For the Lord of all will not stand in awe of any one,nor show deference to greatness;because he himself made both small and great,and he takes thought for all alike. 6.8. But a strict inquiry is in store for the mighty. 6.9. To you then, O monarchs, my words are directed,that you may learn wisdom and not transgress. 6.10. For they will be made holy who observe holy things in holiness,and those who have been taught them will find a defense. 6.11. Therefore set your desire on my words;long for them, and you will be instructed. 6.17. The beginning of wisdom is the most sincere desire for instruction,and concern for instruction is love of her 6.18. and love of her is the keeping of her laws,and giving heed to her laws is assurance of immortality 6.19. and immortality brings one near to God; 6.24. A multitude of wise men is the salvation of the world,and a sensible king is the stability of his people. 7.1. I also am mortal, like all men,a descendant of the first-formed child of earth;and in the womb of a mother I was molded into flesh 7.7. Therefore I prayed, and understanding was given me;I called upon God, and the spirit of wisdom came to me. 7.12. I rejoiced in them all, because wisdom leads them;but I did not know that she was their mother. 7.21. I learned both what is secret and what is manifest 7.22. for wisdom, the fashioner of all things, taught me. For in her there is a spirit that is intelligent, holy,unique, manifold, subtle,mobile, clear, unpolluted,distinct, invulnerable, loving the good, keen,irresistible 7.23. beneficent, humane, steadfast, sure, free from anxiety,all-powerful, overseeing all,and penetrating through all spirits that are intelligent and pure and most subtle. 7.24. For wisdom is more mobile than any motion;because of her pureness she pervades and penetrates all things. 7.25. For she is a breath of the power of God,and a pure emanation of the glory of the Almighty;therefore nothing defiled gains entrance into her. 7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 7.27. Though she is but one, she can do all things,and while remaining in herself, she renews all things;in every generation she passes into holy souls and makes them friends of God, and prophets; 7.29. For she is more beautiful than the sun,and excels every constellation of the stars. Compared with the light she is found to be superior 8.1. She reaches mightily from one end of the earth to the other,and she orders all things well. 8.3. She glorifies her noble birth by living with God,and the Lord of all loves her. 8.6. And if understanding is effective,who more than she is fashioner of what exists? 8.17. When I considered these things inwardly,and thought upon them in my mind,that in kinship with wisdom there is immortality 9.17. Who has learned thy counsel, unless thou hast given wisdom and sent thy holy Spirit from on high? 9.18. And thus the paths of those on earth were set right,and men were taught what pleases thee,and were saved by wisdom. 10.1. Wisdom protected the first-formed father of the world, when he alone had been created;she delivered him from his transgression 10.3. But when an unrighteous man departed from her in his anger,he perished because in rage he slew his brother. 10.4. When the earth was flooded because of him,wisdom again saved it,steering the righteous man by a paltry piece of wood. 10.13. When a righteous man was sold, wisdom did not desert him,but delivered him from sin. She descended with him into the dungeon 10.14. and when he was in prison she did not leave him,until she brought him the scepter of a kingdom and authority over his masters. Those who accused him she showed to be false,and she gave him everlasting honor. 10.17. She gave holy men the reward of their labors;she guided them along a marvelous way,and became a shelter to them by day,and a starry flame through the night. 10.18. She brought them over the Red Sea,and led them through deep waters; 10.19. but she drowned their enemies,and cast them up from the depth of the sea. 12.1. For thy immortal spirit is in all things. 12.3. Those who dwelt of old in thy holy land 15.3. For to know thee is complete righteousness,and to know thy power is the root of immortality. 18.3. Therefore thou didst provide a flaming pillar of fire as a guide for thy peoples unknown journey,and a harmless sun for their glorious wandering. 19.15. And not only so, but punishment of some sort will come upon the former for their hostile reception of the aliens; 19.22. For in everything, O Lord, thou hast exalted and glorified thy people;and thou hast not neglected to help them at all times and in all places.
12. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 16.16, 16.18-16.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.16. My sons, noble is the contest to which you are called to bear witness for the nation. Fight zealously for our ancestral law. 16.18. Remember that it is through God that you have had a share in the world and have enjoyed life 16.19. and therefore you ought to endure any suffering for the sake of God. 16.20. For his sake also our father Abraham was zealous to sacrifice his son Isaac, the ancestor of our nation; and when Isaac saw his father's hand wielding a sword and descending upon him, he did not cower. 16.21. And Daniel the righteous was thrown to the lions, and Haiah, Azariah, and Mishael were hurled into the fiery furnace and endured it for the sake of God. 16.22. You too must have the same faith in God and not be grieved. 16.23. It is unreasonable for people who have religious knowledge not to withstand pain.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

146. And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his angels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called, the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God's image, and he who sees Israel.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 109, 101 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

101. But the divine word which is above these does not come into any visible appearance, inasmuch as it is not like to any of the things that come under the external senses, but is itself an image of God, the most ancient of all the objects of intellect in the whole world, and that which is placed in the closest proximity to the only truly existing God, without any partition or distance being interposed between them: for it is said, "I will speak unto thee from above the mercyseat, in the midst, between the two Cherubim." So that the word is, as it were, the charioteer of the powers, and he who utters it is the rider, who directs the charioteer how to proceed with a view to the proper guidance of the universe.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

146. Every man in regard of his intellect is connected with divine reason, being an impression of, or a fragment or a ray of that blessed nature; but in regard of the structure of his body he is connected with the universal world. For he is composed of the same materials as the world, that is of earth, and water, and air and fire, each of the elements having contributed its appropriate part towards the completion of most sufficient materials, which the Creator was to take in order to fashion this visible image.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On Rewards And Punishments, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. We find, then, that in the sacred oracles delivered by the prophet Moses, there are three separate characters; for a portion of them relates to the creation of the world, a portion is historical, and the third portion is legislative. Now the creation of the world is related throughout with exceeding beauty and in a manner admirably suited to the dignity of God, taking its beginning in the account of the creation of the heaven, and ending with that of the formation of man; the first of which things is the most perfect of all imperishable things, and the other of all corruptible and perishable things. And the Creator, connecting together immortal and mortal things at the creation, made the world, making what he had already created the domit parts, and what he was about to create the subject parts.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.81 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.81. For if it was necessary to examine the mortal body of the priest that it ought not be imperfect through any misfortune, much more was it necessary to look into his immortal soul, which they say is fashioned in the form of the living God. Now the image of God is the Word, by which all the world was made.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 198 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

198. But that nobility is placed only in the acquisition of virtue, and that you ought to imagine that he who has that is the only man really noble, and not the man who is born of noble and virtuous parents, is plain from many circumstances." XXXVII.
19. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.43 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.43. And God planted a paradise in Eden, in the east: and there he placed the man whom he had Formed:" for he called that divine and heavenly wisdom by many names; and he made it manifest that it had many appellations; for he called it the beginning, and the image, and the sight of God. And now he exhibits the wisdom which is conversant about the things of the earth (as being an imitation of this archetypal wisdom), in the plantation of this Paradise. For let not such impiety ever occupy our thoughts as for us to suppose that God cultivates the land and plants paradises, since if we were to do so, we should be presently raising the question of why he does so: for it could not be that he might provide himself with pleasant places of recreation and pastime, or with amusement.
21. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 62, 314 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

314. But what land does he mean but that which has been already mentioned, to which he is now making reference? The fruit of which is the safe and most certain comprehension of the wisdom of God, according to which it preserves for its dividers all the good things which exist without any admixture or taint of evil, as if they had been incorruptible from their very beginning.
22. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 4-6, 36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

36. This is the way, beloved, in which we find our Saviour, even Jesus Christ, the High Priest of all our offerings, the defender and helper of our infirmity. By Him we look up to the heights of heaven. By Him we behold, as in a glass, His immaculate and most excellent visage. By Him are the eyes of our hearts opened. By Him our foolish and darkened understanding blossoms up anew towards His marvellous light. By Him the Lord has willed that we should taste of immortal knowledge, who, being the brightness of His majesty, is by so much greater than the angels, as He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they. Hebrews 1:3-4 For it is thus written, Who makes His angels spirits, and His ministers a flame of fire. But concerning His Son the Lord spoke thus: You are my Son, today have I begotten You. Ask of me, and I will give You the heathen for Your inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for Your possession. And again He says to Him, Sit at my right hand, until I make Your enemies Your footstool. But who are His enemies? All the wicked, and those who set themselves to oppose the will of God.
23. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. A scroll on which the writing has become erased and eighty-five letters remain, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\" (Numbers 11:35-36) defiles the hands. A single sheet on which there are written eighty-five letters, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\", defiles the hands. All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands. The Song of Songs and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) defile the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the Song of Songs defiles the hands, but there is a dispute about Kohelet. Rabbi Yose says: Kohelet does not defile the hands, but there is a dispute about the Song of Songs. Rabbi Shimon says: [the ruling about] Kohelet is one of the leniencies of Bet Shammai and one of the stringencies of Bet Hillel. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I have received a tradition from the seventy-two elders on the day when they appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah head of the academy that the Song of Songs and Kohelet defile the hands. Rabbi Akiba said: Far be it! No man in Israel disputed that the Song of Songs [saying] that it does not defile the hands. For the whole world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the writings are holy but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies. If they had a dispute, they had a dispute only about Kohelet. Rabbi Yoha ben Joshua the son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva said in accordance with the words of Ben Azzai: so they disputed and so they reached a decision."
24. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.24. but to thosewho are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God andthe wisdom of God.
25. New Testament, Acts, 2.5, 6.9-6.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.5. Now there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, from every nation under the sky. 6.9. But some of those who were of the synagogue called "The Libertines," and of the Cyrenians, of the Alexandrians, and of those of Cilicia and Asia arose, disputing with Stephen. 6.10. They weren't able to withstand the wisdom and the Spirit by which he spoke. 6.11. Then they secretly induced men who said, "We have heard him speak blasphemous words against Moses and God. 6.12. They stirred up the people, the elders, and the scribes, and came on him and seized him, and brought him in to the council 6.13. and set up false witnesses who said, "This man never stops speaking blasphemous words against this holy place and the law. 6.14. For we have heard him say that this Jesus of Nazareth will destroy this place, and will change the customs which Moses delivered to us. 6.15. All who sat in the council, fastening their eyes on him, saw his face like it was the face of an angel.
26. New Testament, Colossians, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.1-2.2, 2.17, 3.1, 4.14, 8.5, 9.23, 13.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.1. Therefore we ought to pay greater attention to the things that were heard, lest perhaps we drift away. 2.2. For if the word spoken through angels proved steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense; 2.17. Therefore he was obligated in all things to be made like his brothers, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. 3.1. Therefore, holy brothers, partakers of a heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our confession, Jesus; 4.14. Having then a great high priest, who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold tightly to our confession. 8.5. who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses was warned by God when he was about to make the tabernacle, for he said, "See, you shall make everything according to the pattern that was shown to you on the mountain. 9.23. It was necessary therefore that the copies of the things in the heavens should be cleansed with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. 13.19. I strongly urge you to do this, that I may be restored to you sooner.
28. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 3.2, 12.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.' 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 3.2. The same came to him by night, and said to him, "Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do, unless God is with him. 12.21. These, therefore, came to Philip, who was from Bethsaida of Galilee, and asked him, saying, "Sir, we want to see Jesus.
29. New Testament, Matthew, 3.13, 4.25, 9.15, 21.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan to John, to be baptized by him. 4.25. Great multitudes from Galilee, Decapolis, Jerusalem, Judea and from beyond the Jordan followed him. 9.15. Jesus said to them, "Can the friends of the bridegroom mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then they will fast. 21.11. The multitudes said, "This is the prophet, Jesus, from Nazareth of Galilee.
30. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.30.1-1.30.4, 1.30.6-1.30.14 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

31. Nag Hammadi, The Apocalypse of Adam, 66.25-66.27 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

32. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Philip, 61.7-61.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

33. Epiphanius, Panarion, 40.5.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 121-171, 186, 191, 202, 211, 252, 261-263, 269, 274, 120

120. abroad a false report that the working of the mines was useless and expensive, in order to prevent their country from being destroyed by the mining in these districts and possibly taken away from them owing to the Persian rule, since by the assistance of this false report they found an excuse for entering the district.I have now, my dear brother Philocrates, given you all the essential information upon this subject


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
2 baruch (apocalypse of baruch) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
3 baruch Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
aaron, high priest Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
aaron Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
abel Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65; Thomassen, Before Valentinus: The Gnostics of Irenaeus (2023) 80
adam Thomassen, Before Valentinus: The Gnostics of Irenaeus (2023) 80
aeschylus Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
agency, all things McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 81
alexandria, jewish writings of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
alexandria, setting of lxx translation Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145
aphrodite Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253
apocalypse of baruch ( Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
apocalyptic Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha of hebrew bible, canonical books, relationship to Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha of hebrew bible Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
aquila (translator) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
aristeas, letter of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
aristobulus (= aristobulos) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144
aristotle Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
arrogance Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
baptism, of jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 266
barak, judge Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
barbeloite, modern definitions Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
ben sira/sirach Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
ben sira Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
bible, texts and exegesis relating to egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
bride Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 266
cain Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65; Thomassen, Before Valentinus: The Gnostics of Irenaeus (2023) 80
canaanites, canticles, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
christ, see also jesus Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 266
christian saints Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
christians (byzantines, copts, nubians, syrian orthodox) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
christology, sophia/wisdom Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 266
christology Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 266
corinthians Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130, 266
covenant Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
dammūh, theodotion Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
dathan and abiram Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
david, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
david Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
demosthenes Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
descent, of sophia/wisdom Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130, 266
devil Thomassen, Before Valentinus: The Gnostics of Irenaeus (2023) 80
ecbatana, ecclesiastes, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
educated, erudite Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
egyptians, depictions in hebrew bible, lxx, and ancient jewish writings Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
eleazar (high priest in letter of aristeas) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
ennoia Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130, 266
enoch Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
eroticism Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253
esau Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
essenes, esther, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
euripides Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
eve Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130; Thomassen, Before Valentinus: The Gnostics of Irenaeus (2023) 80
example lists Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
exodus McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 81; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
ezekiel, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
ezekiel b. nethanel, ezra, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
ezekiel the tragedian Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
ezra, 4 ezra Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
faith Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
false worship, nature worship Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 70
fides Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
gentile christians Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
glory McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 82
gnosis, knowledge Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
god, of the jews Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
god, representations of, creator Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 60, 62, 70
god, representations of, true existence Rogers, God and the Idols: Representations of God in 1 Corinthians 8-10 (2016) 70
groom Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 266
hebrew bible/old testament, wisdom literature Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
homer Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
horus, hosea, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
ialdabaoth Thomassen, Before Valentinus: The Gnostics of Irenaeus (2023) 80
image Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 266
impartiality Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
israel, biblical, people Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
israelites Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 172
italy, italians Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
jacob, patriarch Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
jesus, see also christ Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 266
jewish christians Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
jewish schools Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
jews, jewish Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
joazar, lxx Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
john, baptist Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 266
joseph, patriarch Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
judaism (karaites, rabbanites) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
justice Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
king Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
kingship Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
knowledge Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
life, eve Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
logos, in wisdom of solomon McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 81
logos, johannine Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 266
logos, philo Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 266
miriam Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
moses, as lawgiver Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
moses Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144
myth(ological), mythology Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253
nehemiah, nehemiah, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
noah Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65; McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 82
oniads Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
petition Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
pharaoh Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145, 172
phinehas Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
plato Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
platonism Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
poetry Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116
priesthood Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
pronoia, providence Thomassen, Before Valentinus: The Gnostics of Irenaeus (2023) 80
provence, proverbs, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145
ps.-aristeas Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
psalms, apocrypha and pseudepigrapha Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
reason Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
ruler cult Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
sacrifice/offering Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
salvation/soteriology Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130, 266
sapiential texts (wisdom literature) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
saul, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
scribes Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
sebomenoi Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
septuagint (lxx) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145, 172
serpent Thomassen, Before Valentinus: The Gnostics of Irenaeus (2023) 80
sethians, sethianism Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130, 266
solomon Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 144, 145
sophia, see also prunicus, wisdom, zoe Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130, 266
sophia prounikos Thomassen, Before Valentinus: The Gnostics of Irenaeus (2023) 80
soul, world Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
spirit, and wisdom McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 81, 82
spirit, divine Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
stoic(ism) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253
symposium/symposia Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
synoptics Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 266
timothy Lampe, Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus (2003) 77
torah (pentateuch) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
translation of biblical books Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
translators, jewish Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
wisdom, and messiah McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 82
wisdom, as savior' McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 81
wisdom, as savior McDonough, Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine (2009) 82
wisdom, concept Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130
wisdom, jewish Rasimus, Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence (2009) 130, 266
wisdom/wisdom Wright, The Letter of Aristeas: 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' (2015) 402
wisdom (female) Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253
wisdom literature (sapiential texts) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
wisdom of solomon Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 116, 144, 145, 172
yhwh, yahweh Nissinen and Uro, Sacred Marriages: The Divine-Human Sexual Metaphor from Sumer to Early Christianity (2008) 253
ὑπόδειγμα Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65