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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



705
Septuagint, Tobit, 5.10-5.15


nanThen Tobit said to him, "My brother, to what tribe and family do you belong? Tell me.


nanBut he answered, "Are you looking for a tribe and a family or for a man whom you will pay to go with your son?" And Tobit said to him, "I should like to know, my brother, your people and your name.


nanHe replied, "I am Azarias the son of the great Ananias, one of your relatives.


nanThen Tobit said to him, "You are welcome, my brother. Do not be angry with me because I tried to learn your tribe and family. You are a relative of mine, of a good and noble lineage. For I used to know Ananias and Jathan, the sons of the great Shemaiah, when we went together to Jerusalem to worship and offered the first-born of our flocks and the tithes of our produce. They did not go astray in the error of our brethren. My brother, you come of good stock.


nanBut tell me, what wages am I to pay you -- a drachma a day, and expenses for yourself as for my son?


nanAnd besides, I will add to your wages if you both return safe and sound." So they agreed to these terms.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

27 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.8, 1.20, 2.3, 2.8, 2.14, 3.1, 3.6-3.15, 3.17, 4.12-4.13, 4.20, 5.4-5.6, 5.8-5.9, 5.11-5.15, 5.17, 6.2, 6.7, 6.11, 6.13-6.14, 7.1-7.2, 7.10, 8.5, 11.11-11.13, 12.13, 13.5, 14.4-14.5 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 2.3. But he came back and said, "Father, one of our people has been strangled and thrown into the market place. 2.8. And my neighbors laughed at me and said, "He is no longer afraid that he will be put to death for doing this; he once ran away, and here he is burying the dead again! 2.14. And she said, "It was given to me as a gift in addition to my wages." But I did not believe her, and told her to return it to the owners; and I blushed for her. Then she replied to me, "Where are your charities and your righteous deeds? You seem to know everything! 3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me. 3.7. On the same day, at Ecbatana in Media, it also happened that Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, was reproached by her fathers maids 3.8. because she had been given to seven husbands, and the evil demon Asmodeus had slain each of them before he had been with her as his wife. So the maids said to her, "Do you not know that you strangle your husbands? You already have had seven and have had no benefit from any of them. 3.9. Why do you beat us? If they are dead, go with them! May we never see a son or daughter of yours! 3.10. When she heard these things she was deeply grieved, even to the thought of hanging herself. But she said, "I am the only child of my father; if I do this, it will be a disgrace to him, and I shall bring his old age down in sorrow to the grave. 3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 3.12. And now, O Lord, I have turned my eyes and my face toward thee. 3.13. Command that I be released from the earth and that I hear reproach no more. 3.14. Thou knowest, O Lord, that I am innocent of any sin with man 3.15. and that I did not stain my name or the name of my father in the land of my captivity. I am my fathers only child, and he has no child to be his heir, no near kinsman or kinsmans son for whom I should keep myself as wife. Already seven husbands of mine are dead. Why should I live? But if it be not pleasing to thee to take my life, command that respect be shown to me and pity be taken upon me, and that I hear reproach no more. 3.17. And Raphael was sent to heal the two of them: to scale away the white films of Tobits eyes; to give Sarah the daughter of Raguel in marriage to Tobias the son of Tobit, and to bind Asmodeus the evil demon, because Tobias was entitled to possess her. At that very moment Tobit returned and entered his house and Sarah the daughter of Raguel came down from her upper room. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land. 4.13. So now, my son, love your brethren, and in your heart do not disdain your brethren and the sons and daughters of your people by refusing to take a wife for yourself from among them. For in pride there is ruin and great confusion; and in shiftlessness there is loss and great want, because shiftlessness is the mother of famine. 5.4. So he went to look for a man; and he found Raphael, who was an angel 5.5. but Tobias did not know it. Tobias said to him, "Can you go with me to Rages in Media? Are you acquainted with that region? 5.6. The angel replied, "I will go with you; I am familiar with the way, and I have stayed with our brother Gabael. 5.9. So Tobias invited him in; he entered and they greeted each other. 5.11. But he answered, "Are you looking for a tribe and a family or for a man whom you will pay to go with your son?" And Tobit said to him, "I should like to know, my brother, your people and your name. 5.12. He replied, "I am Azarias the son of the great Aias, one of your relatives. 5.13. Then Tobit said to him, "You are welcome, my brother. Do not be angry with me because I tried to learn your tribe and family. You are a relative of mine, of a good and noble lineage. For I used to know Aias and Jathan, the sons of the great Shemaiah, when we went together to Jerusalem to worship and offered the first-born of our flocks and the tithes of our produce. They did not go astray in the error of our brethren. My brother, you come of good stock. 5.14. But tell me, what wages am I to pay you -- a drachma a day, and expenses for yourself as for my son? 5.15. And besides, I will add to your wages if you both return safe and sound." So they agreed to these terms. 5.17. But Anna, his mother, began to weep, and said to Tobit, "Why have you sent our child away? Is he not the staff of our hands as he goes in and out before us? 6.2. Then the young man went down to wash himself. A fish leaped up from the river and would have swallowed the young man; 6.7. He replied, "As for the heart and liver, if a demon or evil spirit gives trouble to any one, you make a smoke from these before the man or woman, and that person will never be troubled again. 6.11. because you are entitled to her and to her inheritance, for you are her only eligible kinsman. 6.13. Then the young man said to the angel, "Brother Azarias, I have heard that the girl has been given to seven husbands and that each died in the bridal chamber. 6.14. Now I am the only son my father has, and I am afraid that if I go in I will die as those before me did, for a demon is in love with her, and he harms no one except those who approach her. So now I fear that I may die and bring the lives of my father and mother to the grave in sorrow on my account. And they have no other son to bury them. 7.1. When they reached Ecbatana and arrived at the house of Raguel, Sarah met them and greeted them. They returned her greeting, and she brought them into the house. 7.2. Then Raguel said to his wife Edna, "How much the young man resembles my cousin Tobit! 7.10. for it is your right to take my child. But let me explain the true situation to you. 8.5. And Tobias began to pray, "Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers,and blessed be thy holy and glorious name for ever. Let the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee. 11.11. and took hold of his father, and he sprinkled the gall upon his fathers eyes, saying, "Be of good cheer, father. 11.13. and the white films scaled off from the corners of his eyes. 12.13. When you did not hesitate to rise and leave your dinner in order to go and lay out the dead, your good deed was not hidden from me, but I was with you. 13.5. He will afflict us for our iniquities;and again he will show mercy,and will gather us from all the nations among whom you have been scattered. 14.4. Go to Media, my son, for I fully believe what Jonah the prophet said about Nineveh, that it will be overthrown. But in Media there will be peace for a time. Our brethren will be scattered over the earth from the good land, and Jerusalem will be desolate. The house of God in it will be burned down and will be in ruins for a time. 14.5. But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 30.1-30.3, 31.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.1. וְהָיָה כִי־יָבֹאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתָ אֶל־לְבָבֶךָ בְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הִדִּיחֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שָׁמָּה׃ 30.1. כִּי תִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו הַכְּתוּבָה בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה כִּי תָשׁוּב אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 30.2. לְאַהֲבָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּקֹלוֹ וּלְדָבְקָה־בוֹ כִּי הוּא חַיֶּיךָ וְאֹרֶךְ יָמֶיךָ לָשֶׁבֶת עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לְאַבְרָהָם לְיִצְחָק וּלְיַעֲקֹב לָתֵת לָהֶם׃ 30.2. וְשַׁבְתָּ עַד־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְשָׁמַעְתָּ בְקֹלוֹ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃ 30.3. וְשָׁב יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶת־שְׁבוּתְךָ וְרִחֲמֶךָ וְשָׁב וְקִבֶּצְךָ מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר הֱפִיצְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ שָׁמָּה׃ 31.21. וְהָיָה כִּי־תִמְצֶאןָ אֹתוֹ רָעוֹת רַבּוֹת וְצָרוֹת וְעָנְתָה הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לְפָנָיו לְעֵד כִּי לֹא תִשָּׁכַח מִפִּי זַרְעוֹ כִּי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת־יִצְרוֹ אֲשֶׁר הוּא עֹשֶׂה הַיּוֹם בְּטֶרֶם אֲבִיאֶנּוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבָּעְתִּי׃ 30.1. And it shall come to pass, when all these things are come upon thee, the blessing and the curse, which I have set before thee, and thou shalt bethink thyself among all the nations, whither the LORD thy God hath driven thee," 30.2. and shalt return unto the LORD thy God, and hearken to His voice according to all that I command thee this day, thou and thy children, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul;" 30.3. that then the LORD thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the peoples, whither the LORD thy God hath scattered thee." 31.21. then it shall come to pass, when many evils and troubles are come upon them, that this song shall testify before them as a witness; for it shall not be forgotten out of the mouths of their seed; for I know their imagination how they do even now, before I have brought them into the land which I swore.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.13-1.20, 2.7-2.9, 2.11-2.13, 7.9, 33.30, 42.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.13. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וּבָנָיו וּבְנֹתָיו אֹכְלִים וְשֹׁתִים יַיִן בְּבֵית אֲחִיהֶם הַבְּכוֹר׃ 1.14. וּמַלְאָךְ בָּא אֶל־אִיּוֹב וַיֹּאמַר הַבָּקָר הָיוּ חֹרְשׁוֹת וְהָאֲתֹנוֹת רֹעוֹת עַל־יְדֵיהֶם׃ 1.15. וַתִּפֹּל שְׁבָא וַתִּקָּחֵם וְאֶת־הַנְּעָרִים הִכּוּ לְפִי־חָרֶב וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק־אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ׃ 1.16. עוֹד זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר אֵשׁ אֱלֹהִים נָפְלָה מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַתִּבְעַר בַּצֹּאן וּבַנְּעָרִים וַתֹּאכְלֵם וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק־אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ׃ 1.17. עוֹד זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר כַּשְׂדִּים שָׂמוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה רָאשִׁים וַיִּפְשְׁטוּ עַל־הַגְּמַלִּים וַיִּקָּחוּם וְאֶת־הַנְּעָרִים הִכּוּ לְפִי־חָרֶב וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק־אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ׃ 1.18. עַד זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר בָּנֶיךָ וּבְנוֹתֶיךָ אֹכְלִים וְשֹׁתִים יַיִן בְּבֵית אֲחִיהֶם הַבְּכוֹר׃ 1.19. וְהִנֵּה רוּחַ גְּדוֹלָה בָּאָה מֵעֵבֶר הַמִּדְבָּר וַיִּגַּע בְּאַרְבַּע פִּנּוֹת הַבַּיִת וַיִּפֹּל עַל־הַנְּעָרִים וַיָּמוּתוּ וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק־אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ׃ 2.7. וַיֵּצֵא הַשָּׂטָן מֵאֵת פְּנֵי יְהוָה וַיַּךְ אֶת־אִיּוֹב בִּשְׁחִין רָע מִכַּף רַגְלוֹ עד [וְעַד] קָדְקֳדוֹ׃ 2.8. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ חֶרֶשׂ לְהִתְגָּרֵד בּוֹ וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ־הָאֵפֶר׃ 2.9. וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ עֹדְךָ מַחֲזִיק בְּתֻמָּתֶךָ בָּרֵךְ אֱלֹהִים וָמֻת׃ 2.11. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת רֵעֵי אִיּוֹב אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת הַבָּאָה עָלָיו וַיָּבֹאוּ אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי וּבִלְדַּד הַשּׁוּחִי וְצוֹפַר הַנַּעֲמָתִי וַיִּוָּעֲדוּ יַחְדָּו לָבוֹא לָנוּד־לוֹ וּלְנַחֲמוֹ׃ 2.12. וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־עֵינֵיהֶם מֵרָחוֹק וְלֹא הִכִּירֻהוּ וַיִּשְׂאוּ קוֹלָם וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיִּקְרְעוּ אִישׁ מְעִלוֹ וַיִּזְרְקוּ עָפָר עַל־רָאשֵׁיהֶם הַשָּׁמָיְמָה׃ 2.13. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ אִתּוֹ לָאָרֶץ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְשִׁבְעַת לֵילוֹת וְאֵין־דֹּבֵר אֵלָיו דָּבָר כִּי רָאוּ כִּי־גָדַל הַכְּאֵב מְאֹד׃ 7.9. כָּלָה עָנָן וַיֵּלַךְ כֵּן יוֹרֵד שְׁאוֹל לֹא יַעֲלֶה׃ 42.5. לְשֵׁמַע־אֹזֶן שְׁמַעְתִּיךָ וְעַתָּה עֵינִי רָאָתְךָ׃ 1.13. And it fell on a day when his sons and his daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house," 1.14. that there came a messenger unto Job, and said: ‘The oxen were plowing, and the asses feeding beside them;" 1.15. and the Sabeans made a raid, and took them away; yea, they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’" 1.16. While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said: ‘A fire of God is fallen from heaven, and hath burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’" 1.17. While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said: ‘The Chaldeans set themselves in three bands, and fell upon the camels, and have taken them away, yea, and slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’" 1.18. While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said: ‘Thy sons and thy daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house;" 1.19. And, behold, there came a great wind from across the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young people, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’" 1.20. Then Job arose, and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped;" 2.7. So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD, and smote Job with sore boils from the sole of his foot even unto his crown." 2.8. And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself therewith; and he sat among the ashes." 2.9. Then said his wife unto him: ‘Dost thou still hold fast thine integrity? blaspheme God, and die.’" 2.11. Now when Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite; and they made an appointment together to come to bemoan him and to comfort him." 2.12. And when they lifted up their eyes afar off, and knew him not, they lifted up their voice, and wept; and they rent every one his mantle, and threw dust upon their heads toward heaven." 2.13. So they sat down with him upon the ground seven days and seven nights, and none spoke a word unto him; for they saw that his grief was very great." 7.9. As the cloud is consumed and vanisheth away, So he that goeth down to the grave shall come up no more." 33.30. To bring back his soul from the pit, That he may be enlightened with the light of the living." 42.5. I had heard of Thee by the hearing of the ear; But now mine eye seeth Thee;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 7.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.8. אַל־תִּשְׂמְחִי אֹיַבְתִּי לִי כִּי נָפַלְתִּי קָמְתִּי כִּי־אֵשֵׁב בַּחֹשֶׁךְ יְהוָה אוֹר לִי׃ 7.8. Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy; Though I am fallen, I shall arise; Though I sit in darkness, the LORD is a light unto me."
5. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 4.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.9. הִתְחַזְּקוּ וִהְיוּ לַאֲנָשִׁים פְּלִשְׁתִּים פֶּן תַּעַבְדוּ לָעִבְרִים כַּאֲשֶׁר עָבְדוּ לָכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם לַאֲנָשִׁים וְנִלְחַמְתֶּם׃ 4.9. Strengthen yourselves and act like men, O Pelishtim, lest you fall slaves to the Hebrews, as they have been slaves to you: quit yourselves like men, and fight."
6. Herodotus, Histories, 2.55-2.57 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.55. That, then, I heard from the Theban priests; and what follows, the prophetesses of Dodona say: that two black doves had come flying from Thebes in Egypt, one to Libya and one to Dodona ; ,the latter settled on an oak tree, and there uttered human speech, declaring that a place of divination from Zeus must be made there; the people of Dodona understood that the message was divine, and therefore established the oracular shrine. ,The dove which came to Libya told the Libyans (they say) to make an oracle of Ammon; this also is sacred to Zeus. Such was the story told by the Dodonaean priestesses, the eldest of whom was Promeneia and the next Timarete and the youngest Nicandra; and the rest of the servants of the temple at Dodona similarly held it true. 2.56. But my own belief about it is this. If the Phoenicians did in fact carry away the sacred women and sell one in Libya and one in Hellas, then, in my opinion, the place where this woman was sold in what is now Hellas, but was formerly called Pelasgia, was Thesprotia ; ,and then, being a slave there, she established a shrine of Zeus under an oak that was growing there; for it was reasonable that, as she had been a handmaid of the temple of Zeus at Thebes , she would remember that temple in the land to which she had come. ,After this, as soon as she understood the Greek language, she taught divination; and she said that her sister had been sold in Libya by the same Phoenicians who sold her. 2.57. I expect that these women were called “doves” by the people of Dodona because they spoke a strange language, and the people thought it like the cries of birds; ,then the woman spoke what they could understand, and that is why they say that the dove uttered human speech; as long as she spoke in a foreign tongue, they thought her voice was like the voice of a bird. For how could a dove utter the speech of men? The tale that the dove was black signifies that the woman was Egyptian . ,The fashions of divination at Thebes of Egypt and at Dodona are like one another; moreover, the practice of divining from the sacrificed victim has also come from Egypt .
7. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.8, 1.20, 2.3, 2.8, 2.14, 3.1, 3.6-3.15, 3.17, 4.12-4.13, 4.20, 5.4-5.6, 5.8-5.15, 5.17, 6.2, 6.7, 6.11, 6.13-6.14, 7.1-7.2, 7.10, 8.5, 11.11-11.13, 12.13, 13.5, 14.4-14.5 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 2.3. But he came back and said, "Father, one of our people has been strangled and thrown into the market place. 2.8. And my neighbors laughed at me and said, "He is no longer afraid that he will be put to death for doing this; he once ran away, and here he is burying the dead again! 2.14. And she said, "It was given to me as a gift in addition to my wages." But I did not believe her, and told her to return it to the owners; and I blushed for her. Then she replied to me, "Where are your charities and your righteous deeds? You seem to know everything! 3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me. 3.7. On the same day, at Ecbatana in Media, it also happened that Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, was reproached by her fathers maids 3.8. because she had been given to seven husbands, and the evil demon Asmodeus had slain each of them before he had been with her as his wife. So the maids said to her, "Do you not know that you strangle your husbands? You already have had seven and have had no benefit from any of them. 3.9. Why do you beat us? If they are dead, go with them! May we never see a son or daughter of yours! 3.10. When she heard these things she was deeply grieved, even to the thought of hanging herself. But she said, "I am the only child of my father; if I do this, it will be a disgrace to him, and I shall bring his old age down in sorrow to the grave. 3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 3.12. And now, O Lord, I have turned my eyes and my face toward thee. 3.13. Command that I be released from the earth and that I hear reproach no more. 3.14. Thou knowest, O Lord, that I am innocent of any sin with man 3.15. and that I did not stain my name or the name of my father in the land of my captivity. I am my fathers only child, and he has no child to be his heir, no near kinsman or kinsmans son for whom I should keep myself as wife. Already seven husbands of mine are dead. Why should I live? But if it be not pleasing to thee to take my life, command that respect be shown to me and pity be taken upon me, and that I hear reproach no more. 3.17. And Raphael was sent to heal the two of them: to scale away the white films of Tobits eyes; to give Sarah the daughter of Raguel in marriage to Tobias the son of Tobit, and to bind Asmodeus the evil demon, because Tobias was entitled to possess her. At that very moment Tobit returned and entered his house and Sarah the daughter of Raguel came down from her upper room. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land. 4.13. So now, my son, love your brethren, and in your heart do not disdain your brethren and the sons and daughters of your people by refusing to take a wife for yourself from among them. For in pride there is ruin and great confusion; and in shiftlessness there is loss and great want, because shiftlessness is the mother of famine. 5.4. So he went to look for a man; and he found Raphael, who was an angel 5.5. but Tobias did not know it. Tobias said to him, "Can you go with me to Rages in Media? Are you acquainted with that region? 5.6. The angel replied, "I will go with you; I am familiar with the way, and I have stayed with our brother Gabael. 5.9. So Tobias invited him in; he entered and they greeted each other. 5.10. Then Tobit said to him, "My brother, to what tribe and family do you belong? Tell me. 5.11. But he answered, "Are you looking for a tribe and a family or for a man whom you will pay to go with your son?" And Tobit said to him, "I should like to know, my brother, your people and your name. 5.12. He replied, "I am Azarias the son of the great Aias, one of your relatives. 5.13. Then Tobit said to him, "You are welcome, my brother. Do not be angry with me because I tried to learn your tribe and family. You are a relative of mine, of a good and noble lineage. For I used to know Aias and Jathan, the sons of the great Shemaiah, when we went together to Jerusalem to worship and offered the first-born of our flocks and the tithes of our produce. They did not go astray in the error of our brethren. My brother, you come of good stock. 5.14. But tell me, what wages am I to pay you -- a drachma a day, and expenses for yourself as for my son? 5.15. And besides, I will add to your wages if you both return safe and sound." So they agreed to these terms. 5.17. But Anna, his mother, began to weep, and said to Tobit, "Why have you sent our child away? Is he not the staff of our hands as he goes in and out before us? 6.2. Then the young man went down to wash himself. A fish leaped up from the river and would have swallowed the young man; 6.7. He replied, "As for the heart and liver, if a demon or evil spirit gives trouble to any one, you make a smoke from these before the man or woman, and that person will never be troubled again. 6.11. because you are entitled to her and to her inheritance, for you are her only eligible kinsman. 6.13. Then the young man said to the angel, "Brother Azarias, I have heard that the girl has been given to seven husbands and that each died in the bridal chamber. 6.14. Now I am the only son my father has, and I am afraid that if I go in I will die as those before me did, for a demon is in love with her, and he harms no one except those who approach her. So now I fear that I may die and bring the lives of my father and mother to the grave in sorrow on my account. And they have no other son to bury them. 7.1. When they reached Ecbatana and arrived at the house of Raguel, Sarah met them and greeted them. They returned her greeting, and she brought them into the house. 7.2. Then Raguel said to his wife Edna, "How much the young man resembles my cousin Tobit! 7.10. for it is your right to take my child. But let me explain the true situation to you. 8.5. And Tobias began to pray, "Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers,and blessed be thy holy and glorious name for ever. Let the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee. 11.11. and took hold of his father, and he sprinkled the gall upon his fathers eyes, saying, "Be of good cheer, father. 11.13. and the white films scaled off from the corners of his eyes. 12.13. When you did not hesitate to rise and leave your dinner in order to go and lay out the dead, your good deed was not hidden from me, but I was with you. 13.5. He will afflict us for our iniquities;and again he will show mercy,and will gather us from all the nations among whom you have been scattered. 14.4. Go to Media, my son, for I fully believe what Jonah the prophet said about Nineveh, that it will be overthrown. But in Media there will be peace for a time. Our brethren will be scattered over the earth from the good land, and Jerusalem will be desolate. The house of God in it will be burned down and will be in ruins for a time. 14.5. But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it.
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 8.4, 15.1, 91.11, 91.12, 91.13, 91.14, 91.15, 91.16, 91.17, 98.3, 98.10, 102.4-104.8, 102.7, 102.8, 102.9, 102.10, 102.11, 103.1, 103.5, 103.6, 103.7, 103.8, 104.1, 104.2, 104.6, 108.3, 108.7 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9. Anon., Jubilees, 3.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.28. And she said to it, "of all the fruit of the trees of the garden God hath said unto us, Eat;
10. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 15.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.33. but Simon gave him this reply: "We have neither taken foreign land nor seized foreign property, but only the inheritance of our fathers, which at one time had been unjustly taken by our enemies.
11. Septuagint, Judith, 11.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

11.1. Then Holofernes said to her, "Take courage, woman, and do not be afraid in your heart, for I have never hurt any one who chose to serve Nebuchadnezzar, the king of all the earth.
12. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 17.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17.5. The moon in heaven, with the stars, does not stand so august as you, who, after lighting the way of your star-like seven sons to piety, stand in honor before God and are firmly set in heaven with them.
13. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Mishnah, Avot, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.4. He used to say: do His will as though it were your will, so that He will do your will as though it were His. Set aside your will in the face of His will, so that he may set aside the will of others for the sake of your will. Hillel said: do not separate yourself from the community, Do not trust in yourself until the day of your death, Do not judge not your fellow man until you have reached his place. Do not say something that cannot be understood [trusting] that in the end it will be understood. Say not: ‘when I shall have leisure I shall study;’ perhaps you will not have leisure."
15. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 4.14-4.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.14. I don'twrite these things to shame you, but to admonish you as my belovedchildren. 4.15. For though you have ten thousand tutors in Christ, yetnot many fathers. For in Christ Jesus, I became your father through thegospel. 4.16. I beg you therefore, be imitators of me. 4.17. Becauseof this I have sent Timothy to you, who is my beloved and faithfulchild in the Lord, who will remind you of my ways which are in Christ,even as I teach everywhere in every assembly. 4.18. Now some arepuffed up, as though I were not coming to you. 4.19. But I will cometo you shortly, if the Lord is willing. And I will know, not the wordof those who are puffed up, but the power. 4.20. For the Kingdom ofGod is not in word, but in power. 4.21. What do you want? Shall I cometo you with a rod, or in love and a spirit of gentleness?
16. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.3, 2.7, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. remembering without ceasing your work of faith and labor of love and patience of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ, before our God and Father. 2.7. But we were gentle in the midst of you, as when a nurse cherishes her own children. 2.11. As you know how we exhorted, comforted, and implored every one of you, as a father does his own children
17. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 12.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18. New Testament, Philippians, 2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.22. But you know the proof of him, that, as a child serves a father, so he served with me in furtherance of the gospel.
19. New Testament, Romans, 8.18-8.22, 8.28, 10.1, 11.25, 14.11-14.12, 15.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.18. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which will be revealed toward us. 8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 8.22. For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now. 8.28. We know that all things work together for good for those who love God, to those who are called according to his purpose. 10.1. Brothers, my heart's desire and my prayer to God is for Israel, that they may be saved. 11.25. For I don't desire, brothers, to have you ignorant of this mystery, so that you won't be wise in your own conceits, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in 14.11. For it is written, "'As I live,' says the Lord, 'to me every knee will bow. Every tongue will confess to God.' 14.12. So then each one of us will give account of himself to God. 15.14. I myself am also persuaded about you, my brothers, that you yourselves are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish others.
20. New Testament, Titus, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.4. to Titus, my true child according to a common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Savior.
21. New Testament, Luke, 1.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.35. The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God.
22. New Testament, Matthew, 11.4, 24.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.4. Jesus answered them, "Go and tell John the things which you hear and see: 24.28. For wherever the carcass is, there will the vultures be gathered together.
23. Babylonian Talmud, Keritot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28b. בקינוח סעודה אמרו כל ימיו לא היה נותר בעזרה,צווחה שלישית שאו שערים ראשיכם ויכנס אלישמע בן פיכאי תלמידו של פנחס וישמש בכהונה גדולה,צווחה רביעית פתחו שערים והוציאו יששכר איש כפר ברקאי שמכבד עצמו ומבזה קדשי שמים מאי הוי עביד הוה כריך שיראי על ידיה והוה עביד עבודה,מאי סליקא ליה ינאי מלכא ומלכתא הוו יתבין מלכא אמר גדיא יאי ומלכתא אמרה אימרא יאי אמרו נשייליה ליששכר איש כפר ברקאי דכהן גדול הוא וקים ליה קדירה,שיילוהו א"ל אי גדיא יאי ייסק לתמידא בהדי דאמר אחוי בידיה אמר להון מלכא הואיל ואחוי בידיה קוצו לידיה דימינא יהיב שוחדא קציוה לידיה שמאלא שמע מלכא אמר ליקצו נמי לידיה דימינא אמר רב יוסף בריך רחמנא דשקליה ליששכר איש כפר ברקאי למטרפסיה,אמר רב אשי ולא הוה תני ליה דתנן כבשים קודמין לעזים בכל מקום יכול מפני שמובחרין ת"ל (ויקרא ד, לב) ואם כבש מלמד ששניהן שקולין כאחת,רבינא אמר אפילו מקרא נמי לא קרא דכתיב (ויקרא ג, ז\יב) אם כבש אם עז:,א"ר אלעזר א"ר חנינא תלמידי חכמים מרבים שלום בעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו נד, יג) וכל בניך למודי ה' ורב שלום בניך:, br br big strongהדרן עלך המביא אשם וסליקא לה מסכת כריתות /strong /big br br
24. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

25b. ומה לפנים ומה לאחור קמ"ל,מעשה לוט ושתי בנותיו נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא מהו דתימא ניחוש לכבודו דאברהם קמ"ל,מעשה תמר ויהודה נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא מהו דתימא ליחוש לכבודו דיהודה קמ"ל שבחיה הוא דאודי,מעשה עגל הראשון נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא מהו דתימא ליחוש לכבודן של ישראל קמ"ל כל שכן דניחא להו דהויא להו כפרה,קללות וברכות נקרין ומתרגמין פשיטא מהו דתימא ניחוש דלמא פייגא דעתייהו דצבורא קמ"ל,אזהרות ועונשין נקרין ומתרגמין פשיטא מהו דתימא ניחוש דלמא אתו למעבד מיראה קמ"ל,מעשה אמנון ותמר נקרא ומתרגם [מעשה אבשלום נקרא ומתרגם] פשיטא מהו דתימא ליחוש ליקריה דדוד קמ"ל,מעשה פילגש בגבעה נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא מהו דתימא ליחוש לכבודו דבנימין קמ"ל,(יחזקאל טז, ב) הודע את ירושלם את תועבותיה נקרא ומתרגם פשיטא לאפוקי מדרבי אליעזר דתניא מעשה באדם אחד שהיה קורא למעלה מרבי אליעזר הודע את ירושלם את תועבותיה אמר לו עד שאתה בודק בתועבות ירושלים צא ובדוק בתועבות אמך בדקו אחריו ומצאו בו שמץ פסול:,ואלו נקרין ולא מתרגמין (רעבד"ן סימן) מעשה ראובן נקרא ולא מתרגם ומעשה ברבי חנינא בן גמליאל שהלך לכבול והיה קורא חזן הכנסת (בראשית לה, כב) ויהי בשכון ישראל ואמר לו למתורגמן (הפסק) אל תתרגם אלא אחרון ושיבחוהו חכמים,מעשה עגל השני נקרא ולא מתרגם איזה מעשה עגל השני מן (שמות לב, כא) ויאמר משה עד וירא משה,תניא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר לעולם יהא אדם זהיר בתשובותיו שמתוך תשובה שהשיבו אהרן למשה פקרו המערערים שנאמר (שמות לב, כד) ואשליכהו באש ויצא העגל הזה:,ברכת כהנים נקרין ולא מתרגמין מ"ט משום דכתיב (במדבר ו, כו) ישא:,מעשה דוד ואמנון לא נקרין ולא מתרגמין והא אמרת מעשה אמנון ותמר נקרא ומתרגם לא קשיא הא דכתיב אמנון בן דוד הא דכתיב אמנון סתמא,ת"ר כל המקראות הכתובין בתורה לגנאי קורין אותן לשבח כגון (דברים כח, ל) ישגלנה ישכבנה (דברים כח, כז) בעפולים בטחורים (מלכים ב ו, כה) חריונים דביונים (מלכים ב יח, כז) לאכול את חוריהם ולשתות את מימי שיניהם לאכול את צואתם ולשתות את מימי רגליהם,(מלכים ב י, כז) למחראות למוצאות ר' יהושע בן קרחה אומר למחראות כשמן מפני שהוא גנאי לעבודת כוכבים,אמר רב נחמן כל ליצנותא אסירא בר מליצנותא דעבודת כוכבים דשריא דכתיב (ישעיהו מו, א) כרע בל קרס נבו וכתיב (ישעיהו מו, ב) קרסו כרעו יחדיו לא יכלו מלט משא וגו' ר' ינאי אמר מהכא (הושע י, ה) לעגלות בית און יגורו שכן שומרון כי אבל עליו עמו וכמריו עליו יגילו על כבודו כי גלה ממנו אל תקרי כבודו אלא כבידו,אמר רב הונא בר מנוח משמיה דרב אחא בריה דרב איקא שרי ליה לבר ישראל למימר ליה לעובד כוכבים שקליה לעבודת כוכבים ואנחיה בשין תיו שלו אמר רב אשי האי מאן דסנאי שומעניה שרי ליה לבזוייה בגימ"ל ושי"ן האי מאן דשפיר שומעניה שרי לשבוחיה ומאן דשבחיה ינוחו לו ברכות על ראשו:, br br big strongהדרן עלך הקורא את המגילה עומד /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongבני /strong /big העיר שמכרו רחובה של עיר לוקחין בדמיו בית הכנסת בית הכנסת לוקחין תיבה תיבה לוקחין מטפחות מטפחות 25b. bwhat was beforeCreation band what is after,i.e., what will be at the end of time, bthereforethe iTosefta bteaches usthat the act of Creation is read in public.,The iToseftacontinues: bThe incident of Lot and his two daughters is read and translated.The name Lot begins with a ilamed /i, the second letter of the mnemonic. The Gemara comments: This bis obvious.Why might one think otherwise? The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat bone should be concerned for the honor of Abraham,as Lot was his nephew, and therefore the incident casts shame upon Abraham as well, bthereforethe ibaraita bteaches usthat this is not a concern.,The iToseftacontinues: bThe incident of Tamar,beginning with a itav /i, band Judah is read and translated.The Gemara comments: This bis obvious.The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat bone should be concerned for the honor of Judah, thereforethe iTosefta bteaches usthat there is no such concern. On the contrary, the story bis to his credit, as he confessedto his sin.,The iToseftacontinues: bThe firstreport bof the incident of theGolden bCalf [ iegel /i] is read and translated. iEgelbegins with the letter iayin /i, the next letter of the mnemonic. The Gemara comments: This bis obvious.The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat bone should be concerned for the honor of the Jewish people, thereforethe iTosefta bteaches us that all the more so is it amenable to themthat the matter be publicized, bso that they will achieve atonementthrough their shame.,The iToseftastates: bThe curses [ ikelalot /i] and blessings are read and translated.The Gemara comments: This bis obvious.The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat bone should be concerned that perhaps the congregation will become dismayedby the many curses, bthereforethe iTosefta bteaches usthat this is not a concern.,The iToseftacontinues: bThe warnings and punishments [ ionashin /i],alluded to in the first inunof the mnemonic mentioned above, bare read and translated.The Gemara comments: This bis obvious.The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat if this section is read aloud, people bwill come to act out of fearand keep the mitzvot due to the fear of punishment rather than love of God, bthereforethe iTosefta bteaches usthat this is not a concern.,It is further taught: bThe incident of Amnon and Tamar,alluded to in the second inunin the mnemonic mentioned above, bis read and translated.Additionally, bthe incident of Absalom is read and translated,alluded to in the ishinof the mnemonic, the third letter of his name. The Gemara comments: This bis obvious.The Gemara explains: bLest you saythat bone should be concerned for the honor of David, thereforethe iTosefta bteaches usthat this section is read and translated.,The iToseftacontinues: bThe incident of the concubine [ ipilegesh /i] in Gibeah is read and translated.The Gemara comments: This bis obvious.The Gemara explains: bLest you saythat bone should be concerned for the honor ofthe tribe of bBenjamin, thereforethe iTosefta bteaches usthat this section is read and translated.,The iToseftacontinues: The section of: b“Make known [ ihoda /i] to Jerusalem her abominations”(Ezekiel 16:2) bis read and translated.The Gemara comments: This bis obvious.The Gemara answers: This is needed bto excludethe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer,who held that this chapter may not be read as a ihaftara /i, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: There was ban incident with regard to a certain man who was readingthe ihaftara bin the presence of Rabbi Eliezer,and he read the section of: b“Make known to Jerusalem her abominations.”Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to him: Before you examine the abominations of Jerusalem, go and examine the abominations of yourown bmother.The Gemara relates that bthey examined hislineage band found him to have a stain of illegitimacy.His mother had engaged in illicit sexual relations, and therefore he was of questionable lineage.,The iToseftaalso states: bAnd thesesections are bread but are not translated.The acrostic composed of the letters ireish /i, iayin /i, ibet /i, idalet /i, inun /iis ba mnemonicfor the sections included in this category, as the Gemara will explain. The iToseftastates that bthe incident of Reuben is read but not translated.The name Reuben begins with a ireish /i, the first letter of the mnemonic. And there was ban incident involving Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel, who went tothe village of bKavul, and the sexton of the synagogue was reading: “And it came to pass, while Israel dweltin that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah, his father’s concubine; and Israel heard of it” (Genesis 35:22). Rabbi Ḥanina bsaid to the translator: Stop, translate only the endof the verse. bAnd the Sages praised himfor this.,The iToseftacontinues: bThe secondnarrative of the bincident of theGolden bCalf is read but not translated. iEgel /i, the Hebrew word for calf, begins with an iayin /i, the second letter in the mnemonic. The Gemara explains: bWhat is the secondnarrative of the bincident of theGolden bCalf?Aaron’s account of what had taken place, bfrom “And Moses saidto Aaron” (Exodus 32:21) buntil “And Moses saw”(Exodus 32:25).,With regard to Aaron’s account, the Gemara cites that which bis taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: A person should always be careful inthe way he formulates bhis responses,as sometimes the explanation that a person provides for his actions is worse than the original action itself, bas,for example, bbased on Aaron’s response to Moses, the skeptics renouncedtheir religious beliefs. bIt is statedin Aaron’s response: b“And I cast it into the fire and this calf came forth”(Exodus 32:24). This formulation implies that the calf came from the fire by itself, suggesting that it had divine power and substance.,We learned in the mishna: The verses constituting bthe Priestly Benediction [ ibirkat kohanim /i]are bread but not translated.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? The Gemara explains that it is bbecause it is written:“May the Lord blift upHis countece to you” (Numbers 6:26). Listeners may understand this to mean that God shows unfair favoritism to the Jewish people.,We also learned in the mishna: bThe incident of David and Amnon is neither read nor translated.David’s name begins with a idalet /i, the next letter in the mnemonic; inun /i, the last letter of the mnemonic, is the third letter in Amnon’s name. The Gemara asks: bDidn’t you sayin the iToseftathat bthe incident of Amnon and Tamar isboth bread and translated?The Gemara explains that bthisis bnot difficult. Thisstatement of the mishna applies bwhereAmnon’s name bis written: Amnon, son of David. Thatstatement of the iToseftaapplies bwhere it is writtensimply as bAmnon. /b,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll of the verses that are written in the Torah in a coarse manner are read in a refined manner. For example,the term b“shall lie with her[iyishgalena /i]”(Deuteronomy 28:30) is read as though it said iyishkavena /i,which is a more refined term. The term b“with hemorrhoids [ ibafolim /i]”(Deuteronomy 28:27) is read ibateḥorim /i.The term b“doves’ dung [ iḥiryonim /i]”(II Kings 6:25) is read idivyonim /i.The phrase b“to eat their own excrement [ iḥoreihem /i] and drink their own urine [ imeimei shineihem /i]”(II Kings 18:27) is read with more delicate terms: bTo eat their own excrement [ itzo’atam /i] and drink their own urine [ imeimei ragleihem /i]. /b,The term b“into latrines [ ilemoḥra’ot /i]”(II Kings 10:27) is read as the more refined ilemotza’ot /i. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: iLemoḥara’ot /iis read bas it is written because it isused here as an expression of bcontempt for idol worship,and it is therefore permissible to use an indelicate term.,Similarly, bRav Naḥman said: All mockeryand obscenity bis forbidden except for mockery of idol worship, which is permitted, as it is written: “Bel bows down, Nevo stoops”(Isaiah 46:1). The prophet mocks these idols by describing them as crouching in order to defecate. Additionally, bit is written: “They stoop, they bow down together; they could not deliver the burden”(Isaiah 46:2). bRabbi Yannai said:This principle that one is permitted to mock idol worship is derived bfrom here: “The inhabitants of Samaria shall be in dread for the calves of Beth-aven; for its people shall mourn over it, and its priests shall tremble for it, for its glory, because it is departed from it”(Hosea 10:5). bDo not readit is as b“its glory [ ikevodo /i],” ratherread it as bits burden [ ikeveido /i],meaning that it is unable to restrain itself from defecating., bRav Huna bar Manoaḥ said in the name of Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Ika: It is permitted for a Jew to say to a gentile: Take your idol and put it in your ishin tav /i,i.e., ishet /i, buttocks. bRav Ashi said: One whose reputation is tarnished,i.e., he is known as a philanderer, bit is permitted to humiliate himby calling him igimmel sin /i,an acronym for igirta sarya /i, son of a putrid harlot. bOne whose reputation is commendable, it is permitted topublicly bpraise him, and one who praises him, blessings will rest upon his head. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong bResidents of a town who sold the town square,which was at times used for public prayer and therefore attained a certain degree of sanctity, may use the proceeds of the sale only to purchase something of a greater degree of sanctity. They may therefore bpurchase a synagogue with the proceedsof the sale. If they sold ba synagogue, they may purchase an arkin which to house sacred scrolls. If they sold ban ark, they may purchase wrapping clothsfor the sacred scrolls. If they sold bwrapping cloths, /b
25. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

49a. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ארבעה עשר שחל להיות בשבת מבערין את הכל מלפני השבת דברי ר"מ וחכמים אומרים בזמנו ר"א בר צדוק אומר תרומה מלפני השבת וחולין בזמנן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא ר"א בר צדוק אומר פעם אחת שבת אבא ביבנה וחל ארבעה עשר להיות בשבת ובא זונין ממונה של ר"ג ואמר הגיע עת לבער את החמץ והלכתי אחר אבא וביערנו את החמץ:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ההולך לשחוט את פסחו ולמול את בנו ולאכול סעודת אירוסין בבית חמיו ונזכר שיש לו חמץ בתוך ביתו אם יכול לחזור ולבער ולחזור למצותו יחזור ויבער ואם לאו מבטלו בלבו,להציל מן הנכרים ומן הנהר ומן הלסטים ומן הדליקה ומן המפולת יבטל בלבו ולשבות שביתת הרשות יחזור מיד,וכן מי שיצא מירושלים ונזכר שיש בידו בשר קדש אם עבר צופים שורפו במקומו ואם לאו חוזר ושורפו לפני הבירה מעצי המערכה,ועד כמה הן חוזרין ר"מ אומר זה וזה בכביצה ר' יהודה אומר זה וזה בכזית וחכמים אומרים בשר קדש בכזית וחמץ בכביצה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורמינהו ההולך לאכול סעודת אירוסין בבית חמיו ולשבות שביתת הרשות יחזור מיד,א"ר יוחנן לא קשיא הא ר' יהודה הא רבי יוסי דתניא סעודת אירוסין רשות דברי ר' יהודה רבי יוסי אומר מצוה,והשתא דאמר רב חסדא מחלוקת בסעודה שניה אבל בסעודה ראשונה דברי הכל מצוה אפילו תימא הא והא ר' יהודה ולא קשיא הא בסעודה ראשונה הא בסעודה שניה,תניא אמר רבי יהודה אני לא שמעתי אלא סעודת אירוסין אבל לא סבלונות אמר לו ר' יוסי אני שמעתי סעודת אירוסין וסבלונות,תניא רבי שמעון אומר כל סעודה שאינה של מצוה אין תלמיד חכם רשאי להנות ממנה,כגון מאי א"ר יוחנן כגון בת כהן לישראל ובת תלמיד חכם לעם הארץ דא"ר יוחנן בת כהן לישראל אין זווגן עולה יפה,מאי היא אמר רב חסדא או אלמנה או גרושה או זרע אין לה במתניתא תנא קוברה או קוברתו או מביאתו לידי עניות,איני והא א"ר יוחנן הרוצה שיתעשר ידבק בזרעו של אהרן כל שכן שתורה וכהונה מעשרתן לא קשיא הא בת"ח הא בעם הארץ,ר' יהושע נסיב כהנתא חלש אמר לא ניחא ליה לאהרן דאדבק בזרעיה דהוי ליה חתנא כי אנא,רב אידי בר אבין נסיב כהנתא נפקו מיניה תרי בני סמיכי רב ששת בריה דרב אידי ור' יהושע בריה דרב אידי אמר ר"פ אי לא נסיבנא כהנתא לא איעתרי,אמר רב כהנא אי לא נסיבנא כהנתא לא גלאי אמרו ליה והא למקום תורה גלית לא גלאי כדגלי אינשי,אמר רבי יצחק כל הנהנה מסעודת הרשות לסוף גולה שנא' (עמוס ו, ד) ואוכלים כרים מצאן ועגלים מתוך מרבק וכתיב לכן עתה יגלו בראש גולים:,ת"ר כל ת"ח המרבה סעודתו בכל מקום סוף מחריב את ביתו ומאלמן את אשתו ומייתם את גוזליו ותלמודו משתכח ממנו ומחלוקות רבות באות עליו ודבריו אינם נשמעים ומחלל שם שמים ושם רבו ושם אביו וגורם שם רע לו ולבניו ולבני בניו עד סוף כל הדורות,מאי היא אמר אביי קרו ליה בר מחים תנורי רבא אמר בר מרקיד בי כובי רב פפא אמר בר מלחיך פינכי רב שמעיה אמר בר מך רבע:,ת"ר לעולם ימכור אדם כל מה שיש לו וישא בת ת"ח שאם מת או גולה מובטח לו שבניו ת"ח ואל ישא בת ע"ה שאם מת או גולה בניו ע"ה,ת"ר לעולם ימכור אדם כל מה שיש לו וישא בת ת"ח וישיא בתו לת"ח משל לענבי הגפן בענבי הגפן דבר נאה ומתקבל ולא ישא בת עם הארץ משל לענבי הגפן בענבי הסנה דבר כעור 49a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bthe fourteenthof Nisan bthat occurs on Shabbat, one removes allleaven from his possession, whether it is iterumaor non-sacred food, bbefore Shabbat,except for that which will be eaten during the first part of Shabbat. In that case, one cannot remove leaven from his possession on the fourteenth of Nisan itself as he does in other years. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say:One may remove the leaven bat itsusual btimeon the fourteenth of Nisan by throwing it away or declaring it ownerless. bRabbi Eliezer bar Tzadok says: iTeruma /ishould be removed bbefore Shabbat,as only a few people are permitted to eat it and therefore one can presume that it will remain uneaten during Shabbat. However, bnon-sacredfoods should be removed bat theirusual btime,on the fourteenth of Nisan itself., strongGEMARA: /strong bIt was taughtin the iToseftathat bRabbi Eliezer bar Tzadok says: One time my father,Rabbi Tzadok, bspent Shabbat in Yavne, and the fourteenthof Nisan boccurred onthat bShabbat. Zonin,who was bthe appointee of Rabban Gamliel, came and said: The time has come to remove leavened bread; and I went with my father and we removed the leavened bread.This story serves as anecdotal evidence that leaven is removed at the usual time on the fourteenth of Nisan, even on Shabbat., strongMISHNA: /strong bOne who is travelingon the eve of Passover bto slaughter his Paschal lamb, to circumcise his son, or to eat a betrothal feast in his father-in-law’s house, and he remembers that he has leavened bread in his house, if he is able to returnto his house band removethe leaven and afterward breturn to the mitzvatoward which he was traveling, bhe should returnhome band removehis leaven. bBut ifthere is not enough time for him to go home and remove the leaven, and still complete the mitzva that he already began, bhe should nullify it in his heart,as by Torah law this is sufficient.,If one was traveling bto saveJews from an attack by bgentiles, from aflooding briver, from bandits, from a fire, or from a collapsedbuilding, he should not even attempt to return, and instead bhe should nullifythe leaven bin his heart.This applies even if he could remove his leaven and still return to his previous activity. If he went bto establish his Shabbatresidence in order to adjust his Shabbat limit for an boptionalpurpose, rather than in order to fulfill a commandment, bhe should return immediatelyto remove his leaven., bAnd so too,the same ihalakhaapplies to bone who left Jerusalem and remembered that there was consecrated meat in his hand.Meat that is taken out of Jerusalem becomes disqualified, and one is required to burn it in proximity to the Temple. bIf he passedthe area of Mount bScopus[iTzofim /i],beyond which one cannot see Jerusalem, bhe burnsthe meat bat the sitewhere bheis located; band ifhe has bnottraveled that far, bhe must return and burn it before the Temple with wood from the arrangementon the altar, which was designated for burning consecrated items that were disqualified.,The mishna asks: For bhow muchleaven or consecrated meat is one required bto return? Rabbi Meir says:In both bthiscase band thatcase, one must return for ban egg-bulk. Rabbi Yehuda says:In both bthiscase band thatcase, one must return for ban olive-bulk. And the Rabbis saythat the amount depends on the case: With regard to bconsecrated meat,he is required to return if he has ban olive-bulk, butin a case where he remembers that he has bleavened bread,he required to return only bfor an egg-bulk. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara braises a contradictionbetween this mishna and another source. It was taught in a ibaraita /i: bOne who is traveling to eat a betrothal feast in his father-in-law’s house or to establish his Shabbatresidence for an boptionalpurpose, bmust return immediatelyto remove his leaven. This contradicts the mishna, which states that one who is going to a betrothal feast may nullify the leaven without returning for it, because the meal is considered a mitzva., bRabbi Yoḥa said:This is bnot difficult,as there is a tannaitic dispute with regard to the issue. bThissource, the ibaraita /i, is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,while bthatsource, the mishna, is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yosei. As it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA betrothal feast is optional;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says:It is a bmitzva. /b, bAnd now that Rav Ḥisda said: The disputebetween Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei applies to bthe secondbetrothal feast, where the groom takes part in an additional meal with the bride’s family, bbut everyone agrees that the firstbetrothal bfeast is a mitzva,the contradiction between the mishna and the ibaraitacan be resolved differently. bEven if you say that thismishna and bthat ibaraitaare both in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,it is bnot difficult. Thismishna, which relates to the meal as a mitzva, is referring to bthe first meal. That ibaraita /i, which assumes that the meal is not a mitzva, is referring to bthe second meal. /b, bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said: I heard onlythat there is a mitzva with regard to a bbetrothal feastitself, bbut notwith regard to the feast of the bgifts [ isivlonot /i],when the groom would present gifts to the bride. While a festive meal was eaten on this occasion, it was not considered to be a mitzva. bRabbi Yosei said to him: I heardthat both ba betrothal feast andthe feast of the bgiftsare considered mitzvot.,Having discussed whether a betrothal feast is a mitzva, the Gemara addresses a related issue. bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon says: A Torah scholar may notderive bbenefit frompartaking in bany feast that is not a mitzva. /b,The Gemara asks: bIn what casedoes this statement apply? bRabbi Yoḥa said: In a casewhere bthe daughter of a priestmarries ban Israelite,or where bthe daughter of a Torah scholarmarries ban ignoramus.Although a wedding feast is generally a mitzva, it is not in this case, bas Rabbi Yoḥa said:When bthe daughter of a priestmarries ban Israelite their union will not be auspicious,as it is disgraceful for the priesthood when the daughter of a priest marries an Israelite.,The Gemara asks: bWhat ismeant by bthisstatement that their union will be inauspicious? bRav Ḥisda said:The inauspicious nature of such a marriage can be identified based on the verse describing the return of a daughter of a priest to her father’s house after marrying a non-priest. The verse is understood as mentioning that the marriage will result in one of three possibilities: she will beither be a widow, a divorcee, or without children(see Leviticus 22:13). bIt was taught in a ibaraita /i:Either her husband bwill bury her or she will bury him,because one of them will die young, bor she will cause him to become poor. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥahimself bsay: One who wishes to become wealthy should cling to the descendants of Aaron,and ball the more soshould the merit of the bTorahand the bpriesthood cause them to become wealthy.The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as bthiscase, where he becomes wealthy, brefers to a Torah scholarwho marries a woman of priestly lineage. In that case their union will be a successful one. bThatcase, where their union will not be auspicious, refers to ban ignoramuswho marries a woman of priestly lineage.,The Gemara relates that bRabbi Yehoshua married a daughter of a priestand bbecame ill. He said:Apparently, bit is not satisfactory to Aaronthe priest bthat I cling to his descendants, so that he has a son-in-law like me. /b,The Gemara also relates that bRav Idi bar Avin married a daughter of a priest. Two sonswho were bordainedto decide halakhic matters bcame from him,namely bRav Sheshet, son of Rav Idi, and Rabbi Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi.Similarly, bRav Pappa said: Had I not married a daughter of a priest, I would not have become wealthy. /b,On the other hand, bRav Kahana,who was not a priest, bsaid: Had I not married a daughter of a priest, I would not have been exiled,as Rav Kahana was forced to flee from Babylonia to Eretz Yisrael. bThey said to him: But you were exiled to a place of Torah,which is not a punishment at all. He answered: bI was not exiled as people aregenerally bexiled,i.e., I did not emigrate of my own free will; rather, I was forced to flee from the authorities., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who benefits frompartaking in ban optional feast,which is not a mitzva, bwill ultimately be exiled, as it is stated: “And eat the lambs of the flock and the calves out of the midst of the stall”(Amos 6:4), band it is written: “Therefore now they shall go into exile at the head of the exiles;and the revelry of those who stretched themselves out shall pass away” (Amos 6:7).,The Gemara continues discussing a Torah scholar who benefits from optional feasts. bThe Sages taught: Any Torah scholar who feasts excessively everywheredegrades himself and brings suffering upon himself. He will bultimately destroy his house, widow his wife, orphan his chicks,i.e., his children, band his studies will be forgotten. Much dispute will come upon him, his words will not be heeded, and he will desecrate God’s name and the name of his master and the name of his father. And he will cause a bad name for himself, his children, and his descendants throughout future generations. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is thisbad reputation that he causes to himself and his descendants? bAbaye said:His son bis called the son[ibar/b] bof the one who heats ovens,since this person continually heated ovens in order to prepare food for feasts. bRava said:His son will be called bthe son of the one who dancesin binns [ ibei kuvei /i],as he seems to be invited to every feast to entertain the guests. bRav Pappa said:His son will be called bthe son of the one who licks bowls [ ipinkhei /i]. Rav Shemaya said:His son will be called bthe son of the one who foldshis garment band crouches,i.e., falls asleep drunk.,On the topic of proper marriage partners, the Gemara cites the following discussion. bThe Sages taught: One should alwaysbe willing to bsell all he hasin order to bmarry the daughter of a Torah scholar, as if he dies orif he bis exiledand he cannot raise his children, bhe can be assured that his sons will be Torah scholars,since their mother will ensure that they are well educated. bAnd one should not marry the daughter of an ignoramus, as if he dies or is exiled, his sons will be ignoramuses. /b,Furthermore, bthe Sages taught: One should alwaysbe willing to bsell all he hasin order to bmarry the daughter of a Torah scholar andin order to bmarry off his daughter to a Torah scholar.This type of marriage can be bcompared to grapes of a vinethat become intertwined bwith grapes of a vine, somethingwhich is bbeautiful and acceptableto God and man. bAnd one should not marry the daughter of an ignoramus.This type of marriage can be bcompared to grapes of a vinethat have become intertwined bwith berries of a bramble,which is bsomething unseemly /b
26. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

22b. ועד כמה עד ארבעין שנין איני והא רבה אורי בשוין,ומכות פרושין וכו' ת"ר שבעה פרושין הן פרוש שיכמי פרוש נקפי פרוש קיזאי פרוש מדוכיא פרוש מה חובתי ואעשנה פרוש מאהבה פרוש מיראה,פרוש שיכמי זה העושה מעשה שכם פרוש נקפי זה המנקיף את רגליו פרוש קיזאי א"ר נחמן בר יצחק זה המקיז דם לכתלים פרוש מדוכיא אמר רבה בר שילא דמשפע כי מדוכיא,פרוש מה חובתי ואעשנה הא מעליותא היא אלא דאמר מה חובתי תו ואעשנה,פרוש מאהבה פרוש מיראה אמרו ליה אביי ורבא לתנא לא תיתני פרוש מאהבה פרוש מיראה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ובמצות אפי' שלא לשמה שמתוך שלא לשמה בא לשמה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק דמטמרא מטמרא ודמגליא מגליא בי דינא רבה ליתפרע מהני דחפו גונדי אמר לה ינאי מלכא לדביתיה אל תתיראי מן הפרושין ולא ממי שאינן פרושין אלא מן הצבועין שדומין לפרושין שמעשיהן כמעשה זמרי ומבקשין שכר כפנחס, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ר"ש אומר אין זכות תולה במים המרים ואם אתה אומר הזכות תולה במים המאררין מדהה אתה את המים בפני כל הנשים השותות ומוציא אתה שם רע על הטהורות ששתו שאומרים טמאות הן אלא שתלתה להן זכות רבי אומר הזכות תולה במים המאררים ואינה יולדת ואינה משבחת אלא מתנוונה והולכת לסוף היא מתה באותה מיתה,נטמאת מנחתה עד שלא קדשה בכלי הרי היא ככל המנחות ותפדה ואם משקדשה בכלי הרי היא ככל המנחות ותשרף ואלו שמנחותיהן נשרפות 22b. bAnd until whenis it considered too premature for a scholar to issue halakhic rulings? It is buntil forty years.The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabba issue rulings,even though he lived for only forty years? The Gemara answers: It is permitted for a scholar who has not studied for so long to issue rulings bwhenhis knowledge reaches the level of the foremost scholar in his city and bthey are equals. /b,§ It states in the mishna: bAnd those who injurethemselves out of false babstinence [ iperushin /i]are people who erode the world. bThe Sages taught: There are sevenpseudo- brighteouspeople who erode the world: The brighteous of Shechem,the self- bflagellating righteous,the bbloodletting righteous,the bpestle /b-like brighteous,the brighteouswho say: Tell me bwhat my obligationis band I will perform it,those who are brighteous due to love,and those who are brighteous due to fear. /b,The Gemara explains: The brighteous of Shechem [ ishikhmi /i]; this isone bwho performsactions comparable to the bactionof the people of bShechem,who agreed to circumcise themselves for personal gain (see Genesis, chapter 34); so too, he behaves righteously only in order to be honored. The self- bflagellating righteous; this isone bwho injures his feet,as he walks slowly, dragging his feet on the ground in an attempt to appear humble, and injures his feet in the process. The bbloodletting righteous; Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saysthat bthis isone bwho lets bloodby banging his head bagainst the wallsbecause he walks with his eyes shut, ostensibly out of modesty. The bpestle /b-like brighteous; Rabba bar Sheila saysthat this is one bwhowalks bbent over likethe bpestleof a mortar.,With regard to the brighteousone who says: Tell me bwhat my obligationis band I will perform it,the Gemara asks: bIsn’t this virtuousbehavior, as he desires to be aware of his obligations? bRather,this is referring to one bwho says:Tell me bwhat further obligationsare incumbent bupon me and I will perform them,indicating that he fulfills all of his mitzvot perfectly and therefore seeks additional obligations.,The ibaraitaalso includes in the list of pseudo-righteous people those who are brighteous due to loveand those who are brighteous due to fear,i.e., one who performs mitzvot due to love of their reward or due to fear of punishment. bAbaye and Rava said to the itanna /iwho transmitted this ibaraita /i: bDo not teachin the ibaraita /i: Those who are brighteous due to loveand those who are brighteous due to fear, as Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: A person should always engage in Torahstudy band inperformance of bthe mitzvot even ifhe does bnotdo so bfor their own sake, as throughperforming them bnot for their own sake,one bcomesto perform them bfor their own sake. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:That bwhich is hidden is hidden, andthat bwhich is revealed is revealed,but in Heaven everything is known, and bthe great courtin Heaven bwill exact payment from those who wear the cloakof the righteous but are in fact unworthy. The Gemara relates: bKing Yannai said to his wifebefore he died: bDo not be afraid of the Pharisees [ iperushin /i], and neithershould you fear bfrom those who are not Pharisees,i.e., the Sadducees; brather,beware bof the hypocrites who appear like Pharisees, as their actions are like the act ofthe wicked bZimri and they requesta breward likethat of the righteous bPinehas(see Numbers, chapter 25)., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Shimon says: Merit does not delaythe punishment bof the bitter waterof a isota /i, band if you saythat bmerit does delaythe punishment bof the water that causes the curse,as stated earlier by the Rabbis (20a), byou weaken [ imadhe /i]the power of bthebitter bwater before all the women who drinkthe water, who will no longer be afraid of it, as they will rely on their merit to save them. bAnd you defame the untainted women who drankthe water and survived, baspeople bsay: They are defiled butit is their bmerit that delayedthe punishment bfor them. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Merit delaysthe punishment bof the water that causes the curse, buta woman whose punishment is delayed bdoes not give birth and does not flourish; rather, she progressively deteriorates. Ultimately she dies by the same deathas a isotawho dies immediately.,§ If bthe meal-offeringof the isota bis rendered impure before it has been sanctified in theservice bvessel, itsstatus bis likethat of ball theother bmeal-offeringsthat are rendered impure before being sanctified in a service vessel, band it is redeemed. But ifit is rendered impure bafter it has been sanctified in theservice bvessel, itsstatus bis likethat of ball theother bmeal-offeringsthat are rendered impure after being sanctified in a service vessel, band it is burned. And these arethe isotawomen bwhose meal-offerings are burnedif they have already been sanctified in a service vessel:
27. Anon., 4 Ezra, 10.20-10.24

10.20. Do not say that, but let yourself be persuaded because of the troubles of Zion, and be consoled because of the sorrow of Jerusalem. 10.21. For you see that our sanctuary has been laid waste, our altar thrown down, our temple destroyed; 10.22. our harp has been laid low, our song has been silenced, and our rejoicing has been ended; the light of our lampstand has been put out, the ark of our covet has been plundered, our holy things have been polluted, and the name by which we are called has been profaned; our free men have suffered abuse, our priests have been burned to death, our Levites have gone into captivity, our virgins have been defiled, and our wives have been ravished; our righteous men have been carried off, our little ones have been cast out, our young men have been enslaved and our strong men made powerless. 10.23. And, what is more than all, the seal of Zion -- for she has now lost the seal of her glory, and has been given over into the hands of those that hate us. 10.24. Therefore shake off your great sadness and lay aside your many sorrows, so that the Mighty One may be merciful to you again, and the Most High may give you rest, a relief from your troubles.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 325; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
afterlife, resurrection Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 509
afterlife, reward Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 509, 572
age/era, present Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 572
alien/foreigner, jewish attitudes toward Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
angels of the divine presence, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89, 98, 99
assyria Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
aḥiqar, as a jewish relative of tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
aḥiqar, textual forms Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
aḥiqar, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
aḥiqar, versions, aramaic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
aḥiqar, versions, syriac Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
bildungsroman, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89
blindness and healing, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89
blindness and healing, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89
codex sinaiticus Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 169
conversion/proselytes, by many nations Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
darkness, sheol Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 509
darkness Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89
death, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
death, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
death, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89, 147
demons Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 300
disease, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
disease, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
disgrace, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89, 99
disgrace, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
drug, for exorcism, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
egypt Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
egyptian Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
elam (elymais) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
elephantine, account, papyrus, text, version of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
endogamy Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
eschatology/eschatological, judgement Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 509
eschatology/eschatological, punishment/destruction Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 572
exile Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 300
eye Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89, 147
fabula, motif Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89
faith, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89, 98
faithfulness, fidelity to the law, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
faithfulness, fidelity to the law, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
family, in job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89
family, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
father-son relationship, in aḥiqar (adoptive son) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
father-son relationship, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
gabael Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
genealogy, rabbinic approaches to, in tobit Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 135
god, great one Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 572
god Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 169
good works, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
good works, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99, 147
hades Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 169
hananiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
heavens, windows/gates of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 572
hope/hopelessness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 572
humor(ous) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 169
identity as hybrid and malleable, in jewish perception Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
innocent suffering of the just man, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
innocent suffering of the just man, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98, 99
innocent suffering of the just man, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
intermediaries, divine, azariah, angel in disguise Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
irony, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
isaac Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
israel Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
jacob Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and ethnicity in post-biblical texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and intermarriage in post-biblical texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, in diaspora Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, in tobit Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
job, book of, author Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89
job, book of, reader Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
job, friends Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89, 98, 99
job, ignorance Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
job, sons Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
job, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89, 98
jonah, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98, 99, 147
josephus, significance of depiction of hasmoneans Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 135
journey, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
journey, in aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
journey, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98, 147
lamentation, protest, rebellion Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
laos Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
letters/epistles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 325
life / afterlife, earthly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 509
lights, of heaven Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 572
lights Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 509
lineage and genealogy as identity marker, mocked in tobit Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
media Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98, 99, 147
misfortune, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
misfortune, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
misfortune Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
mockery/irony/parody, by tobit Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
nadin (nadab, haman) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
narrative, narrator Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
narrative, reader Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98, 99
narrative, supernatural Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
narrative, theological Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89
nathan Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
noah Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138
nostos, νόστος, return home, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
nostos, νόστος, return home, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
novel, ancient Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 169
pain, suffering, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89, 98, 99
pain, suffering, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89, 99
persia Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 325
pharaoh Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
pietas, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
pietas, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
pietas, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99, 147
prayer, jewish Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 169
rages Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99, 147
raguel Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 169
raphael, angel Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
raphael, expert guide Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
raphael, hired Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
rehabilitation of the just man Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
relative of tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98, 99
resurrection Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 325
righteousness, rectitude, ahiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
righteousness, rectitude, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
sarah, in tobit Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 169
sargon ii, śāṭān, tempter Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
seal Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89
semitisms Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 325
sennacherib (king) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
septuagint/septuagintism Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 325
septuagint Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 169
shame Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 572
shelemiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
sheol Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 509
structuralist, analysis, function, narrative Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89
symbolism Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 325
tablets, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 572
temporal language Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 300
temporality, approaches to Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 300
time, ruptures of Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 300
tobiah, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
tobit, author x Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98, 99
tobit, narrator Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98
tobit, reader Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 98, 99
tobit, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89, 98, 99
tobit Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 138; Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
tomb Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 325
tragic(ally) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 169
trials, provocations, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
wealth, prosperity, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89
wealth/prosperity' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 509
wife, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
wife, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99
wife, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 99, 147
wise man, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 147
šālôm Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 89