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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



705
Septuagint, Tobit, 4.4


nanRemember, my son, that she faced many dangers for you while you were yet unborn. When she dies bury her beside me in the same grave.


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1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1-1.14, 1.16-1.20, 2.1-2.9, 2.14, 3.1-3.7, 3.11-3.15, 4.3, 4.5-4.21, 5.3, 5.18, 6.14-6.15, 8.5-8.8, 8.15-8.17, 11.11-11.15, 11.18-11.19, 12.6-12.22, 13.1-13.18, 14.2-14.15 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali 1.2. who in the days of Shalmaneser, king of the Assyrians, was taken into captivity from Thisbe, which is to the south of Kedesh Naphtali in Galilee above Asher. 1.3. I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life, and I performed many acts of charity to my brethren and countrymen who went with me into the land of the Assyrians, to Nineveh. 1.4. Now when I was in my own country, in the land of Israel, while I was still a young man, the whole tribe of Naphtali my forefather deserted the house of Jerusalem. This was the place which had been chosen from among all the tribes of Israel, where all the tribes should sacrifice and where the temple of the dwelling of the Most High was consecrated and established for all generations for ever. 1.5. All the tribes that joined in apostasy used to sacrifice to the calf Baal, and so did the house of Naphtali my forefather. 1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it 1.12. because I remembered God with all my heart. 1.13. Then the Most High gave me favor and good appearance in the sight of Shalmaneser, and I was his buyer of provisions. 1.14. So I used to go into Media, and once at Rages in Media I left ten talents of silver in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias. 1.17. I would give my bread to the hungry and my clothing to the naked; and if I saw any one of my people dead and thrown out behind the wall of Nineveh, I would bury him. 1.18. And if Sennacherib the king put to death any who came fleeing from Judea, I buried them secretly. For in his anger he put many to death. When the bodies were sought by the king, they were not found. 1.19. Then one of the men of Nineveh went and informed the king about me, that I was burying them; so I hid myself. When I learned that I was being searched for, to be put to death, I left home in fear. 2.1. When I arrived home and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of the seven weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I sat down to eat. 2.2. Upon seeing the abundance of food I said to my son, "Go and bring whatever poor man of our brethren you may find who is mindful of the Lord, and I will wait for you. 2.3. But he came back and said, "Father, one of our people has been strangled and thrown into the market place. 2.4. So before I tasted anything I sprang up and removed the body to a place of shelter until sunset. 2.5. And when I returned I washed myself and ate my food in sorrow. 2.6. Then I remembered the prophecy of Amos, how he said, "Your feasts shall be turned into mourning, and all your festivities into lamentation." And I wept. 2.7. When the sun had set I went and dug a grave and buried the body. 2.8. And my neighbors laughed at me and said, "He is no longer afraid that he will be put to death for doing this; he once ran away, and here he is burying the dead again! 2.9. On the same night I returned from burying him, and because I was defiled I slept by the wall of the courtyard, and my face was uncovered. 2.14. And she said, "It was given to me as a gift in addition to my wages." But I did not believe her, and told her to return it to the owners; and I blushed for her. Then she replied to me, "Where are your charities and your righteous deeds? You seem to know everything! 3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying 3.3. Remember me and look favorably upon me; do not punish me for my sins and for my unwitting offences and those which my fathers committed before thee. 3.4. For they disobeyed thy commandments, and thou gavest us over to plunder, captivity, and death; thou madest us a byword of reproach in all the nations among which we have been dispersed. 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me. 3.7. On the same day, at Ecbatana in Media, it also happened that Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, was reproached by her fathers maids 3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 3.12. And now, O Lord, I have turned my eyes and my face toward thee. 3.13. Command that I be released from the earth and that I hear reproach no more. 3.14. Thou knowest, O Lord, that I am innocent of any sin with man 3.15. and that I did not stain my name or the name of my father in the land of my captivity. I am my fathers only child, and he has no child to be his heir, no near kinsman or kinsmans son for whom I should keep myself as wife. Already seven husbands of mine are dead. Why should I live? But if it be not pleasing to thee to take my life, command that respect be shown to me and pity be taken upon me, and that I hear reproach no more. 4.3. So he called him and said, "My son, when I die, bury me, and do not neglect your mother. Honor her all the days of your life; do what is pleasing to her, and do not grieve her. 4.5. Remember the Lord our God all your days, my son, and refuse to sin or to transgress his commandments. Live uprightly all the days of your life, and do not walk in the ways of wrongdoing. 4.6. For if you do what is true, your ways will prosper through your deeds. 4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land. 4.13. So now, my son, love your brethren, and in your heart do not disdain your brethren and the sons and daughters of your people by refusing to take a wife for yourself from among them. For in pride there is ruin and great confusion; and in shiftlessness there is loss and great want, because shiftlessness is the mother of famine. 4.14. Do not hold over till the next day the wages of any man who works for you, but pay him at once; and if you serve God you will receive payment. "Watch yourself, my son, in everything you do, and be disciplined in all your conduct. 4.15. And what you hate, do not do to any one. Do not drink wine to excess or let drunkenness go with you on your way. 4.16. Give of your bread to the hungry, and of your clothing to the naked. Give all your surplus to charity, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you made it. 4.18. Seek advice from every wise man, and do not despise any useful counsel. 4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind. 4.21. Do not be afraid, my son, because we have become poor. You have great wealth if you fear God and refrain from every sin and do what is pleasing in his sight. 5.3. Then Tobit gave him the receipt, and said to him, "Find a man to go with you and I will pay him wages as long as I live; and go and get the money. 6.14. Now I am the only son my father has, and I am afraid that if I go in I will die as those before me did, for a demon is in love with her, and he harms no one except those who approach her. So now I fear that I may die and bring the lives of my father and mother to the grave in sorrow on my account. And they have no other son to bury them. 6.15. But the angel said to him, "Do you not remember the words with which your father commanded you to take a wife from among your own people? Now listen to me, brother, for she will become your wife; and do not worry about the demon, for this very night she will be given to you in marriage. 8.5. And Tobias began to pray, "Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers,and blessed be thy holy and glorious name for ever. Let the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee. 8.6. Thou madest Adam and gavest him Eve his wife as a helper and support.From them the race of mankind has sprung.Thou didst say, `It is not good that the man should be alone;let us make a helper for him like himself. 8.7. And now, O Lord, I am not taking this sister of mine because of lust, but with sincerity. Grant that I may find mercy and may grow old together with her. 8.8. And she said with him, "Amen. 8.15. Then Raguel blessed God and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, with every pure and holy blessing.Let thy saints and all thy creatures bless thee;let all thy angels and thy chosen people bless thee for ever. 8.16. Blessed art thou, because thou hast made me glad. It has not happened to me as I expected;but thou hast treated us according to thy great mercy. 8.17. Blessed art thou, because thou hast had compassion on two only children. Show them mercy, O Lord;and bring their lives to fulfilment in health and happiness and mercy. 11.11. and took hold of his father, and he sprinkled the gall upon his fathers eyes, saying, "Be of good cheer, father. 11.13. and the white films scaled off from the corners of his eyes. 11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels. 11.15. For thou hast afflicted me, but thou hast had mercy upon me; here I see my son Tobias!" And his son went in rejoicing, and he reported to his father the great things that had happened to him in Media. 11.18. Ahikar and his nephew Nadab came 11.19. and Tobias marriage was celebrated for seven days with great festivity. 12.6. Then the angel called the two of them privately and said to them: "Praise God and give thanks to him; exalt him and give thanks to him in the presence of all the living for what he has done for you. It is good to praise God and to exalt his name, worthily declaring the works of God. Do not be slow to give him thanks. 12.7. It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. Do good, and evil will not overtake you. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives. 12.11. I will not conceal anything from you. I have said, `It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. 12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you. 12.13. When you did not hesitate to rise and leave your dinner in order to go and lay out the dead, your good deed was not hidden from me, but I was with you. 12.14. So now God sent me to heal you and your daughter-in-law Sarah. 12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One. 12.16. They were both alarmed; and they fell upon their faces, for they were afraid. 12.17. But he said to them, "Do not be afraid; you will be safe. But praise God for ever. 12.18. For I did not come as a favor on my part, but by the will of our God. Therefore praise him for ever. 12.19. All these days I merely appeared to you and did not eat or drink, but you were seeing a vision. 12.20. And now give thanks to God, for I am ascending to him who sent me. Write in a book everything that has happened. 12.21. Then they stood up; but they saw him no more. 12.22. So they confessed the great and wonderful works of God, and acknowledged that the angel of the Lord had appeared to them. 13.1. Then Tobit wrote a prayer of rejoicing, and said:"Blessed is God who lives for ever,and blessed is his kingdom. 13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand. 13.3. Acknowledge him before the nations, O sons of Israel;for he has scattered us among them. 13.4. Make his greatness known there,and exalt him in the presence of all the living;because he is our Lord and God,he is our Father for ever. 13.5. He will afflict us for our iniquities;and again he will show mercy,and will gather us from all the nations among whom you have been scattered. 13.6. If you turn to him with all your heart and with all your soul,to do what is true before him,then he will turn to you and will not hide his face from you. But see what he will do with you;give thanks to him with your full voice. Praise the Lord of righteousness,and exalt the King of the ages. I give him thanks in the land of my captivity,and I show his power and majesty to a nation of sinners. Turn back, you sinners, and do right before him;who knows if he will accept you and have mercy on you? 13.7. I exalt my God;my soul exalts the King of heaven,and will rejoice in his majesty. 13.8. Let all men speak,and give him thanks in Jerusalem. 13.9. O Jerusalem, the holy city,he will afflict you for the deeds of your sons,but again he will show mercy to the sons of the righteous. 13.10. Give thanks worthily to the Lord,and praise the King of the ages,that his tent may be raised for you again with joy. May he cheer those within you who are captives,and love those within you who are distressed,to all generations for ever. 13.11. Many nations will come from afar to the name of the Lord God,bearing gifts in their hands, gifts for the King of heaven. Generations of generations will give you joyful praise. 13.12. Cursed are all who hate you;blessed for ever will be all who love you. 13.13. Rejoice and be glad for the sons of the righteous;for they will be gathered together,and will praise the Lord of the righteous. 13.14. How blessed are those who love you!They will rejoice in your peace. Blessed are those who grieved over all your afflictions;for they will rejoice for you upon seeing all your glory,and they will be made glad for ever. 13.15. Let my soul praise God the great King. 13.16. For Jerusalem will be built with sapphires and emeralds,her walls with precious stones,and her towers and battlements with pure gold. 13.17. The streets of Jerusalem will be paved with beryl and ruby and stones of Ophir; 13.18. all her lanes will cry `Hallelujah! and will give praise,saying, `Blessed is God, who has exalted you for ever. 14.2. He was fifty-eight years old when he lost his sight, and after eight years he regained it. He gave alms, and he continued to fear the Lord God and to praise him. 14.3. When he had grown very old he called his son and grandsons, and said to him, "My son, take your sons; behold, I have grown old and am about to depart this life. 14.4. Go to Media, my son, for I fully believe what Jonah the prophet said about Nineveh, that it will be overthrown. But in Media there will be peace for a time. Our brethren will be scattered over the earth from the good land, and Jerusalem will be desolate. The house of God in it will be burned down and will be in ruins for a time. 14.5. But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it. 14.6. Then all the Gentiles will turn to fear the Lord God in truth, and will bury their idols. 14.7. All the Gentiles will praise the Lord, and his people will give thanks to God, and the Lord will exalt his people. And all who love the Lord God in truth and righteousness will rejoice, showing mercy to our brethren. 14.8. So now, my son, leave Nineveh, because what the prophet Jonah said will surely happen. 14.9. But keep the law and the commandments, and be merciful and just, so that it may be well with you. 14.10. Bury me properly, and your mother with me. And do not live in Nineveh any longer. See, my son, what Nadab did to Ahikar who had reared him, how he brought him from light into darkness, and with what he repaid him. But Ahikar was saved, and the other received repayment as he himself went down into the darkness. Ahikar gave alms and escaped the deathtrap which Nadab had set for him; but Nadab fell into the trap and perished. 14.11. So now, my children, consider what almsgiving accomplishes and how righteousness delivers." As he said this he died in his bed. He was a hundred and fifty-eight years old; and Tobias gave him a magnificent funeral. 14.12. And when Anna died he buried her with his father. Then Tobias returned with his wife and his sons to Ecbatana, to Raguel his father-in-law. 14.15. But before he died he heard of the destruction of Nineveh, which Nebuchadnezzar and Ahasuerus had captured. Before his death he rejoiced over Nineveh.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 15.12, 21.23, 26.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.12. כִּי־יִמָּכֵר לְךָ אָחִיךָ הָעִבְרִי אוֹ הָעִבְרִיָּה וַעֲבָדְךָ שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת תְּשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ חָפְשִׁי מֵעִמָּךְ׃ 21.23. לֹא־תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ עַל־הָעֵץ כִּי־קָבוֹר תִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי־קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־אַדְמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 26.14. לֹא־אָכַלְתִּי בְאֹנִי מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא־בִעַרְתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ בְּטָמֵא וְלֹא־נָתַתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ לְמֵת שָׁמַעְתִּי בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי עָשִׂיתִי כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי׃ 15.12. If thy brother, a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, he shall serve thee six years; and in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee." 21.23. his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt surely bury him the same day; for he that is hanged is a reproach unto God; that thou defile not thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance." 26.14. I have not eaten thereof in my mourning, neither have I put away thereof, being unclean, nor given thereof for the dead; I have hearkened to the voice of the LORD my God, I have done according to all that Thou hast commanded me."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 15.15, 18.11, 23.1-23.4, 23.8-23.20, 24.1, 25.10, 47.30, 49.29-49.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.15. וְאַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶל־אֲבֹתֶיךָ בְּשָׁלוֹם תִּקָּבֵר בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה׃ 18.11. וְאַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה זְקֵנִים בָּאִים בַּיָּמִים חָדַל לִהְיוֹת לְשָׂרָה אֹרַח כַּנָּשִׁים׃ 23.1. וַיִּהְיוּ חַיֵּי שָׂרָה מֵאָה שָׁנָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי שָׂרָה׃ 23.1. וְעֶפְרוֹן יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי־חֵת וַיַּעַן עֶפְרוֹן הַחִתִּי אֶת־אַבְרָהָם בְּאָזְנֵי בְנֵי־חֵת לְכֹל בָּאֵי שַׁעַר־עִירוֹ לֵאמֹר׃ 23.2. וַיָּקָם הַשָּׂדֶה וְהַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם לַאֲחֻזַּת־קָבֶר מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־חֵת׃ 23.2. וַתָּמָת שָׂרָה בְּקִרְיַת אַרְבַּע הִוא חֶבְרוֹן בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וַיָּבֹא אַבְרָהָם לִסְפֹּד לְשָׂרָה וְלִבְכֹּתָהּ׃ 23.3. וַיָּקָם אַבְרָהָם מֵעַל פְּנֵי מֵתוֹ וַיְדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי־חֵת לֵאמֹר׃ 23.4. גֵּר־וְתוֹשָׁב אָנֹכִי עִמָּכֶם תְּנוּ לִי אֲחֻזַּת־קֶבֶר עִמָּכֶם וְאֶקְבְּרָה מֵתִי מִלְּפָנָי׃ 23.8. וַיְדַבֵּר אִתָּם לֵאמֹר אִם־יֵשׁ אֶת־נַפְשְׁכֶם לִקְבֹּר אֶת־מֵתִי מִלְּפָנַי שְׁמָעוּנִי וּפִגְעוּ־לִי בְּעֶפְרוֹן בֶּן־צֹחַר׃ 23.9. וְיִתֶּן־לִי אֶת־מְעָרַת הַמַּכְפֵּלָה אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אֲשֶׁר בִּקְצֵה שָׂדֵהוּ בְּכֶסֶף מָלֵא יִתְּנֶנָּה לִי בְּתוֹכְכֶם לַאֲחֻזַּת־קָבֶר׃ 23.11. לֹא־אֲדֹנִי שְׁמָעֵנִי הַשָּׂדֶה נָתַתִּי לָךְ וְהַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ לְךָ נְתַתִּיהָ לְעֵינֵי בְנֵי־עַמִּי נְתַתִּיהָ לָּךְ קְבֹר מֵתֶךָ׃ 23.12. וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אַבְרָהָם לִפְנֵי עַם הָאָרֶץ׃ 23.13. וַיְדַבֵּר אֶל־עֶפְרוֹן בְּאָזְנֵי עַם־הָאָרֶץ לֵאמֹר אַךְ אִם־אַתָּה לוּ שְׁמָעֵנִי נָתַתִּי כֶּסֶף הַשָּׂדֶה קַח מִמֶּנִּי וְאֶקְבְּרָה אֶת־מֵתִי שָׁמָּה׃ 23.14. וַיַּעַן עֶפְרוֹן אֶת־אַבְרָהָם לֵאמֹר לוֹ׃ 23.15. אֲדֹנִי שְׁמָעֵנִי אֶרֶץ אַרְבַּע מֵאֹת שֶׁקֶל־כֶּסֶף בֵּינִי וּבֵינְךָ מַה־הִוא וְאֶת־מֵתְךָ קְבֹר׃ 23.16. וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָהָם אֶל־עֶפְרוֹן וַיִּשְׁקֹל אַבְרָהָם לְעֶפְרֹן אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּאָזְנֵי בְנֵי־חֵת אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שֶׁקֶל כֶּסֶף עֹבֵר לַסֹּחֵר׃ 23.17. וַיָּקָם שְׂדֵה עֶפְרוֹן אֲשֶׁר בַּמַּכְפֵּלָה אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי מַמְרֵא הַשָּׂדֶה וְהַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־גְּבֻלוֹ סָבִיב׃ 23.18. לְאַבְרָהָם לְמִקְנָה לְעֵינֵי בְנֵי־חֵת בְּכֹל בָּאֵי שַׁעַר־עִירוֹ׃ 23.19. וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן קָבַר אַבְרָהָם אֶת־שָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־מְעָרַת שְׂדֵה הַמַּכְפֵּלָה עַל־פְּנֵי מַמְרֵא הִוא חֶבְרוֹן בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן׃ 24.1. וְאַבְרָהָם זָקֵן בָּא בַּיָּמִים וַיהוָה בֵּרַךְ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם בַּכֹּל׃ 24.1. וַיִּקַּח הָעֶבֶד עֲשָׂרָה גְמַלִּים מִגְּמַלֵּי אֲדֹנָיו וַיֵּלֶךְ וְכָל־טוּב אֲדֹנָיו בְּיָדוֹ וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל־אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם אֶל־עִיר נָחוֹר׃ 49.29. וַיְצַו אוֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי נֶאֱסָף אֶל־עַמִּי קִבְרוּ אֹתִי אֶל־אֲבֹתָי אֶל־הַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׂדֵה עֶפְרוֹן הַחִתִּי׃ 49.31. שָׁמָּה קָבְרוּ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וְאֵת שָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ שָׁמָּה קָבְרוּ אֶת־יִצְחָק וְאֵת רִבְקָה אִשְׁתּוֹ וְשָׁמָּה קָבַרְתִּי אֶת־לֵאָה׃ 15.15. But thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age." 18.11. Now Abraham and Sarah were old, and well stricken in age; it had ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women.—" 23.1. And the life of Sarah was a hundred and seven and twenty years; these were the years of the life of Sarah." 23.2. And Sarah died in Kiriatharba—the same is Hebron—in the land of Canaan; and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her." 23.3. And Abraham rose up from before his dead, and spoke unto the children of Heth, saying:" 23.4. ’I am a stranger and a sojourner with you: give me a possession of a burying-place with you, that I may bury my dead out of my sight.’" 23.8. And he spoke with them, saying: ‘If it be your mind that I should bury my dead out of my sight, hear me, and entreat for me to Ephron the son of Zohar," 23.9. that he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he hath, which is in the end of his field; for the full price let him give it to me in the midst of you for a possession of a burying-place.’" 23.10. Now Ephron was sitting in the midst of the children of Heth; and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the hearing of the children of Heth, even of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying:" 23.11. ’Nay, my lord, hear me: the field give I thee, and the cave that is therein, I give it thee; in the presence of the sons of my people give I it thee; bury thy dead.’" 23.12. And Abraham bowed down before the people of the land." 23.13. And he spoke unto Ephron in the hearing of the people of the land, saying: ‘But if thou wilt, I pray thee, hear me: I will give the price of the field; take it of me, and I will bury my dead there.’" 23.14. And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him:" 23.15. ’My lord, hearken unto me: a piece of land worth four hundred shekels of silver, what is that betwixt me and thee? bury therefore thy dead.’" 23.16. And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver, which he had named in the hearing of the children of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant." 23.17. So the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field, and the cave which was therein, and all the trees that were in the field, that were in all the border thereof round about, were made sure" 23.18. unto Abraham for a possession in the presence of the children of Heth, before all that went in at the gate of his city." 23.19. And after this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre—the same is Hebron—in the land of Canaan." 23.20. And the field, and the cave that is therein, were made sure unto Abraham for a possession of a burying-place by the children of Heth." 24.1. And Abraham was old, well stricken in age; and the LORD had blessed Abraham in all things." 25.10. the field which Abraham purchased of the children of Heth; there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife." 47.30. But when I sleep with my fathers, thou shalt carry me out of Egypt, and bury me in their burying-place.’ And he said: ‘I will do as thou hast said.’" 49.29. And be charged them, and said unto them: ‘I am to be gathered unto my people; bury me with my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite," 49.30. in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is before Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite for a possession of a burying-place." 49.31. There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah."
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 42.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

42.17. וַיָּמָת אִיּוֹב זָקֵן וּשְׂבַע יָמִים׃ 42.17. So Job died, being old and full of days."
5. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 7.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.8. אַל־תִּשְׂמְחִי אֹיַבְתִּי לִי כִּי נָפַלְתִּי קָמְתִּי כִּי־אֵשֵׁב בַּחֹשֶׁךְ יְהוָה אוֹר לִי׃ 7.8. Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy; Though I am fallen, I shall arise; Though I sit in darkness, the LORD is a light unto me."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 27.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.13. וְרָאִיתָה אֹתָהּ וְנֶאֱסַפְתָּ אֶל־עַמֶּיךָ גַּם־אָתָּה כַּאֲשֶׁר נֶאֱסַף אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ׃ 27.13. And when thou hast seen it, thou also shalt be gathered unto thy people, as Aaron thy brother was gathered;"
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 11.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.4. לֹא־יוֹעִיל הוֹן בְּיוֹם עֶבְרָה וּצְדָקָה תַּצִּיל מִמָּוֶת׃ 11.4. Riches profit not in the day of wrath; But righteousness delivereth from death."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 34.26, 35.24, 38.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

35.24. שָׁפְטֵנִי כְצִדְקְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי וְאַל־יִשְׂמְחוּ־לִי׃ 38.16. כִּי־לְךָ יְהוָה הוֹחָלְתִּי אַתָּה תַעֲנֶה אֲדֹנָי אֱלֹהָי׃ 35.24. Judge me, O LORD my God, according to Thy righteousness; And let them not rejoice over me." 38.16. For in Thee, O LORD, do I hope; Thou wilt answer, O Lord my God."
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.1. וְאֶת־נָתָן הַנָּבִיא וּבְנָיָהוּ וְאֶת־הַגִּבּוֹרִים וְאֶת־שְׁלֹמֹה אָחִיו לֹא קָרָא׃ 1.1. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד זָקֵן בָּא בַּיָּמִים וַיְכַסֻּהוּ בַּבְּגָדִים וְלֹא יִחַם לוֹ׃ 1.1. Now King David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he could get no heat."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 12.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.3. הִנְנִי עֲנוּ בִי נֶגֶד יְהוָה וְנֶגֶד מְשִׁיחוֹ אֶת־שׁוֹר מִי לָקַחְתִּי וַחֲמוֹר מִי לָקַחְתִּי וְאֶת־מִי עָשַׁקְתִּי אֶת־מִי רַצּוֹתִי וּמִיַּד־מִי לָקַחְתִּי כֹפֶר וְאַעְלִים עֵינַי בּוֹ וְאָשִׁיב לָכֶם׃ 12.3. Behold, here I am: answer me before the Lord, and before his anointed: whose ox have I taken? or whose ass have I taken? or whom have I defrauded? whom have I oppressed? or of whose hand have I received any bribe with which to blind my eyes? and I will restore it you."
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 9.35-9.37 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.35. וַיֵּלְכוּ לְקָבְרָהּ וְלֹא־מָצְאוּ בָהּ כִּי אִם־הַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת וְהָרַגְלַיִם וְכַפּוֹת הַיָּדָיִם׃ 9.36. וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וַיַּגִּידוּ לוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר דְּבַר־יְהוָה הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיַד־עַבְדּוֹ אֵלִיָּהוּ הַתִּשְׁבִּי לֵאמֹר בְּחֵלֶק יִזְרְעֶאל יֹאכְלוּ הַכְּלָבִים אֶת־בְּשַׂר אִיזָבֶל׃ 9.37. והית [וְהָיְתָה] נִבְלַת אִיזֶבֶל כְּדֹמֶן עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה בְּחֵלֶק יִזְרְעֶאל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֹאמְרוּ זֹאת אִיזָבֶל׃ 9.35. And they went to bury her; but they found no more of her than the skull, and the feet, and the palms of her hands." 9.36. Wherefore they came back, and told him. And he said: ‘This is the word of the LORD, which He spoke by His servant Elijah the Tishbite, saying: In the portion of Jezreel shall the dogs eat the flesh of Jezebel;" 9.37. and the carcass of Jezebel shall be as dung upon the face of the field in the portion of Jezreel; so that they shall not say: This is Jezebel.’"
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 21.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.14. וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֶת־עַצְמוֹת־שָׁאוּל וִיהוֹנָתָן־בְּנוֹ בְּאֶרֶץ בִּנְיָמִן בְּצֵלָע בְּקֶבֶר קִישׁ אָבִיו וַיַּעֲשׂוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֵּעָתֵר אֱלֹהִים לָאָרֶץ אַחֲרֵי־כֵן׃ 21.14. And the bones of Sha᾽ul and Yehonatan his son they buried in the country of Binyamin in Żela, in the tomb of Qish his father: and they performed all that the king commanded. And after that God was entreated for the land."
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 8.2, 14.16, 16.6, 23.33, 29.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.2. עָבַר קָצִיר כָּלָה קָיִץ וַאֲנַחְנוּ לוֹא נוֹשָׁעְנוּ׃ 8.2. וּשְׁטָחוּם לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְלַיָּרֵחַ וּלְכֹל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר אֲהֵבוּם וַאֲשֶׁר עֲבָדוּם וַאֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ אַחֲרֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר דְּרָשׁוּם וַאֲשֶׁר הִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לָהֶם לֹא יֵאָסְפוּ וְלֹא יִקָּבֵרוּ לְדֹמֶן עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה יִהְיוּ׃ 14.16. וְהָעָם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה נִבְּאִים לָהֶם יִהְיוּ מֻשְׁלָכִים בְּחֻצוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם מִפְּנֵי הָרָעָב וְהַחֶרֶב וְאֵין מְקַבֵּר לָהֵמָּה הֵמָּה נְשֵׁיהֶם וּבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנֹתֵיהֶם וְשָׁפַכְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת־רָעָתָם׃ 16.6. וּמֵתוּ גְדֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים בָּאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לֹא יִקָּבֵרוּ וְלֹא־יִסְפְּדוּ לָהֶם וְלֹא יִתְגֹּדַד וְלֹא יִקָּרֵחַ לָהֶם׃ 23.33. וְכִי־יִשְׁאָלְךָ הָעָם הַזֶּה אוֹ־הַנָּבִיא אוֹ־כֹהֵן לֵאמֹר מַה־מַשָּׂא יְהוָה וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם אֶת־מַה־מַשָּׂא וְנָטַשְׁתִּי אֶתְכֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 29.5. בְּנוּ בָתִּים וְשֵׁבוּ וְנִטְעוּ גַנּוֹת וְאִכְלוּ אֶת־פִּרְיָן׃ 8.2. and they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon, and all the host of heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have served, and after whom they have walked, and whom they have sought, and whom they have worshipped; they shall not be gathered, nor be buried, they shall be for dung upon the face of the earth." 14.16. and the people to whom they prophesy shall be cast out in the streets of Jerusalem because of the famine and the sword; and they shall have none to bury them, them, their wives, nor their sons, nor their daughters; for I will pour their evil upon them.’" 16.6. Both the great and the small shall die in this land; they shall not be buried; neither shall men lament for them, nor cut themselves, nor make themselves bald for them;" 23.33. And when this people, or the prophet, or a priest, shall ask thee, saying: ‘What is the burden of the LORD?’ then shalt thou say unto them: ‘What burden! I will cast you off, saith the LORD.’" 29.5. Build ye houses, and dwell in them, and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them;"
14. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 13.1, 23.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.1. וְכֹל עָרֵי סִיחוֹן מֶלֶךְ הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר מָלַךְ בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן עַד־גְּבוּל בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃ 13.1. וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ זָקֵן בָּא בַּיָּמִים וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו אַתָּה זָקַנְתָּה בָּאתָ בַיָּמִים וְהָאָרֶץ נִשְׁאֲרָה הַרְבֵּה־מְאֹד לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 23.2. וַיִּקְרָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לִזְקֵנָיו וּלְרָאשָׁיו וּלְשֹׁפְטָיו וּלְשֹׁטְרָיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי בָּאתִי בַּיָּמִים׃ 13.1. Now Joshua was old and well stricken in years; and the LORD said unto him: ‘Thou art old and well stricken in years, and there remaineth yet very much land to be possessed." 23.2. that Joshua called for all Israel, for their elders and for their heads, and for their judges and for their officers, and said unto them: ‘I am old and well stricken in years."
15. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 2.10, 13.2-13.20, 16.31 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

13.2. וַיְהִי בַעֲלוֹת הַלַּהַב מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וַיַּעַל מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה בְּלַהַב הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמָנוֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ רֹאִים וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם אָרְצָה׃ 13.2. וַיְהִי אִישׁ אֶחָד מִצָּרְעָה מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת הַדָּנִי וּשְׁמוֹ מָנוֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלָדָה׃ 13.3. וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הִנֵּה־נָא אַתְּ־עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלַדְתְּ וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן׃ 13.4. וְעַתָּה הִשָּׁמְרִי נָא וְאַל־תִּשְׁתִּי יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר וְאַל־תֹּאכְלִי כָּל־טָמֵא׃ 13.5. כִּי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וּמוֹרָה לֹא־יַעֲלֶה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן־הַבָּטֶן וְהוּא יָחֵל לְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃ 13.6. וַתָּבֹא הָאִשָּׁה וַתֹּאמֶר לְאִישָׁהּ לֵאמֹר אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים בָּא אֵלַי וּמַרְאֵהוּ כְּמַרְאֵה מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים נוֹרָא מְאֹד וְלֹא שְׁאִלְתִּיהוּ אֵי־מִזֶּה הוּא וְאֶת־שְׁמוֹ לֹא־הִגִּיד לִי׃ 13.7. וַיֹּאמֶר לִי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וְעַתָּה אַל־תִּשְׁתִּי יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר וְאַל־תֹּאכְלִי כָּל־טֻמְאָה כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן־הַבֶּטֶן עַד־יוֹם מוֹתוֹ׃ 13.8. וַיֶּעְתַּר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר בִּי אֲדוֹנָי אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַחְתָּ יָבוֹא־נָא עוֹד אֵלֵינוּ וְיוֹרֵנוּ מַה־נַּעֲשֶׂה לַנַּעַר הַיּוּלָּד׃ 13.9. וַיִּשְׁמַע הָאֱלֹהִים בְּקוֹל מָנוֹחַ וַיָּבֹא מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים עוֹד אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה וְהִיא יוֹשֶׁבֶת בַּשָּׂדֶה וּמָנוֹחַ אִישָׁהּ אֵין עִמָּהּ׃ 13.11. וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ מָנוֹחַ אַחֲרֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ וַיָּבֹא אֶל־הָאִישׁ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הַאַתָּה הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתָּ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר אָנִי׃ 13.12. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ עַתָּה יָבֹא דְבָרֶיךָ מַה־יִּהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט־הַנַּעַר וּמַעֲשֵׂהוּ׃ 13.13. וַיֹּאמֶר מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶל־מָנוֹחַ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־אָמַרְתִּי אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה תִּשָּׁמֵר׃ 13.14. מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא מִגֶּפֶן הַיַּיִן לֹא תֹאכַל וְיַיִן וְשֵׁכָר אַל־תֵּשְׁתְּ וְכָל־טֻמְאָה אַל־תֹּאכַל כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־צִוִּיתִיהָ תִּשְׁמֹר׃ 13.15. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה נַעְצְרָה־נָּא אוֹתָךְ וְנַעֲשֶׂה לְפָנֶיךָ גְּדִי עִזִּים׃ 13.16. וַיֹּאמֶר מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶל־מָנוֹחַ אִם־תַּעְצְרֵנִי לֹא־אֹכַל בְּלַחְמֶךָ וְאִם־תַּעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה לַיהוָה תַּעֲלֶנָּה כִּי לֹא־יָדַע מָנוֹחַ כִּי־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הוּא׃ 13.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מִי שְׁמֶךָ כִּי־יָבֹא דבריך [דְבָרְךָ] וְכִבַּדְנוּךָ׃ 13.18. וַיֹּאמֶר לּוֹ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה לָמָּה זֶּה תִּשְׁאַל לִשְׁמִי וְהוּא־פֶלִאי׃ 13.19. וַיִּקַּח מָנוֹחַ אֶת־גְּדִי הָעִזִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה וַיַּעַל עַל־הַצּוּר לַיהוָה וּמַפְלִא לַעֲשׂוֹת וּמָנוֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ רֹאִים׃ 16.31. וַיֵּרְדוּ אֶחָיו וְכָל־בֵּית אָבִיהוּ וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֹתוֹ וַיַּעֲלוּ וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אוֹתוֹ בֵּין צָרְעָה וּבֵין אֶשְׁתָּאֹל בְּקֶבֶר מָנוֹחַ אָבִיו וְהוּא שָׁפַט אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃ 2.10. And also all that generation were gathered to their fathers: and there arose another generation after them, which knew not the Lord, nor yet the work which he had done for Yisra᾽el." 13.2. And there was a certain man of Żor῾a, of the family of the Dani, whose name was Manoaĥ; and his wife was barren, and bore not." 13.3. And the angel of the Lord appeared to the woman, and said to her, Behold now, thou art barren, and bearest not: but thou shalt conceive, and bear a son." 13.4. Now therefore beware, I pray thee, and drink neither wine nor strong drink, and eat no unclean thing:" 13.5. for, lo, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and no razor shall come on his head: for the child shall be a Nazir to God from the womb: and he shall begin to deliver Yisra᾽el out of the hand of the Pelishtim." 13.6. Then the woman came and told her husband, saying, A man of God came to me, and his appearance was like the appearance of an angel of God, very terrible: but I asked him not from where he was, neither did he tell me his name:" 13.7. but he said to me, Behold, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and now drink no wine nor strong drink, neither eat any unclean thing: for the child shall be a Nazir to God from the womb to the day of his death." 13.8. Then Manoaĥ entreated the Lord, and said, O my Lord, let the man of God whom Thou didst send come again to us, and teach us what we shall do to the child that shall be born." 13.9. And God hearkened to the voice of Manoaĥ; and the angel of God came again to the woman as she sat in the field: but Manoaĥ her husband was not with her." 13.10. And the woman made haste, and ran, and told her husband, and said to him, Behold, the man has appeared to me, that came to me the other day." 13.11. And Manoaĥ arose, and went after his wife, and came to the man, and said to him, Art thou the man that didst speak to the woman? And he said, I am." 13.12. And Manoaĥ said, Now let thy words come to pass. What shall be the rule for the child, and what shall be done with him?" 13.13. And the angel of the Lord said to Manoaĥ, of all that I said to the woman let her take heed." 13.14. She may not eat of anything that comes of the vine, neither let her drink wine or strong drink, nor eat any unclean thing: all that I commanded her let her observe." 13.15. And Manoaĥ said to the angel of the Lord, I pray thee, let us detain thee, until we shall have made ready a kid for thee." 13.16. And the angel of the Lord said to Manoaĥ, Though thou detain me, I will not eat of thy bread: and if thou wilt offer a burnt offering, thou must offer it to the Lord. For Manoaĥ knew not that he was an angel of the Lord." 13.17. And Manoaĥ said to the angel of the Lord, What is thy name, that when thy sayings come to pass we may do thee honour?" 13.18. And the angel of the Lord said to him, Why askest thou thus after my name, seeing it is hidden?" 13.19. So Manoaĥ took the kid with the meal offering, and offered it upon the rock to the Lord: and the angel did wondrously, and Manoaĥ and his wife looked on." 13.20. For it came to pass, when the flame went up toward heaven from off the altar, that the angel of the Lord ascended in the flame of the altar. And Manoaĥ and his wife looked on it, and fell on their faces to the ground." 16.31. Then his brethren and all the house of his father came down, and took him, and brought him up, and buried him between Żor῾a and Eshta᾽ol in the buryingplace of Manoaĥ his father. And he judged Yisra᾽el for twenty years."
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 24.17 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.17. הֵאָנֵק דֹּם מֵתִים אֵבֶל לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה פְאֵרְךָ חֲבוֹשׁ עָלֶיךָ וּנְעָלֶיךָ תָּשִׂים בְּרַגְלֶיךָ וְלֹא תַעְטֶה עַל־שָׂפָם וְלֶחֶם אֲנָשִׁים לֹא תֹאכֵל׃ 24.17. Sigh in silence; make no mourning for the dead, bind thy headtire upon thee, and put thy shoes upon thy feet, and cover not thine upper lip, and eat not the bread of men.’"
17. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1-1.14, 1.16-1.20, 2.1-2.9, 2.14, 3.1-3.7, 3.11-3.15, 4.3-4.21, 5.3, 5.18, 6.14-6.15, 8.5-8.8, 8.15-8.17, 11.11-11.15, 11.18-11.19, 12.6-12.22, 13.1-13.18, 14.2-14.15 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali 1.2. who in the days of Shalmaneser, king of the Assyrians, was taken into captivity from Thisbe, which is to the south of Kedesh Naphtali in Galilee above Asher. 1.3. I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life, and I performed many acts of charity to my brethren and countrymen who went with me into the land of the Assyrians, to Nineveh. 1.4. Now when I was in my own country, in the land of Israel, while I was still a young man, the whole tribe of Naphtali my forefather deserted the house of Jerusalem. This was the place which had been chosen from among all the tribes of Israel, where all the tribes should sacrifice and where the temple of the dwelling of the Most High was consecrated and established for all generations for ever. 1.5. All the tribes that joined in apostasy used to sacrifice to the calf Baal, and so did the house of Naphtali my forefather. 1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it 1.12. because I remembered God with all my heart. 1.13. Then the Most High gave me favor and good appearance in the sight of Shalmaneser, and I was his buyer of provisions. 1.14. So I used to go into Media, and once at Rages in Media I left ten talents of silver in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias. 1.17. I would give my bread to the hungry and my clothing to the naked; and if I saw any one of my people dead and thrown out behind the wall of Nineveh, I would bury him. 1.18. And if Sennacherib the king put to death any who came fleeing from Judea, I buried them secretly. For in his anger he put many to death. When the bodies were sought by the king, they were not found. 1.19. Then one of the men of Nineveh went and informed the king about me, that I was burying them; so I hid myself. When I learned that I was being searched for, to be put to death, I left home in fear. 2.1. When I arrived home and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of the seven weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I sat down to eat. 2.2. Upon seeing the abundance of food I said to my son, "Go and bring whatever poor man of our brethren you may find who is mindful of the Lord, and I will wait for you. 2.3. But he came back and said, "Father, one of our people has been strangled and thrown into the market place. 2.4. So before I tasted anything I sprang up and removed the body to a place of shelter until sunset. 2.5. And when I returned I washed myself and ate my food in sorrow. 2.6. Then I remembered the prophecy of Amos, how he said, "Your feasts shall be turned into mourning, and all your festivities into lamentation." And I wept. 2.7. When the sun had set I went and dug a grave and buried the body. 2.8. And my neighbors laughed at me and said, "He is no longer afraid that he will be put to death for doing this; he once ran away, and here he is burying the dead again! 2.9. On the same night I returned from burying him, and because I was defiled I slept by the wall of the courtyard, and my face was uncovered. 2.14. And she said, "It was given to me as a gift in addition to my wages." But I did not believe her, and told her to return it to the owners; and I blushed for her. Then she replied to me, "Where are your charities and your righteous deeds? You seem to know everything! 3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying 3.3. Remember me and look favorably upon me; do not punish me for my sins and for my unwitting offences and those which my fathers committed before thee. 3.4. For they disobeyed thy commandments, and thou gavest us over to plunder, captivity, and death; thou madest us a byword of reproach in all the nations among which we have been dispersed. 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me. 3.7. On the same day, at Ecbatana in Media, it also happened that Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, was reproached by her fathers maids 3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 3.12. And now, O Lord, I have turned my eyes and my face toward thee. 3.13. Command that I be released from the earth and that I hear reproach no more. 3.14. Thou knowest, O Lord, that I am innocent of any sin with man 3.15. and that I did not stain my name or the name of my father in the land of my captivity. I am my fathers only child, and he has no child to be his heir, no near kinsman or kinsmans son for whom I should keep myself as wife. Already seven husbands of mine are dead. Why should I live? But if it be not pleasing to thee to take my life, command that respect be shown to me and pity be taken upon me, and that I hear reproach no more. 4.3. So he called him and said, "My son, when I die, bury me, and do not neglect your mother. Honor her all the days of your life; do what is pleasing to her, and do not grieve her. 4.4. Remember, my son, that she faced many dangers for you while you were yet unborn. When she dies bury her beside me in the same grave. 4.5. Remember the Lord our God all your days, my son, and refuse to sin or to transgress his commandments. Live uprightly all the days of your life, and do not walk in the ways of wrongdoing. 4.6. For if you do what is true, your ways will prosper through your deeds. 4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land. 4.13. So now, my son, love your brethren, and in your heart do not disdain your brethren and the sons and daughters of your people by refusing to take a wife for yourself from among them. For in pride there is ruin and great confusion; and in shiftlessness there is loss and great want, because shiftlessness is the mother of famine. 4.14. Do not hold over till the next day the wages of any man who works for you, but pay him at once; and if you serve God you will receive payment. "Watch yourself, my son, in everything you do, and be disciplined in all your conduct. 4.15. And what you hate, do not do to any one. Do not drink wine to excess or let drunkenness go with you on your way. 4.16. Give of your bread to the hungry, and of your clothing to the naked. Give all your surplus to charity, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you made it. 4.18. Seek advice from every wise man, and do not despise any useful counsel. 4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind. 4.21. Do not be afraid, my son, because we have become poor. You have great wealth if you fear God and refrain from every sin and do what is pleasing in his sight. 5.3. Then Tobit gave him the receipt, and said to him, "Find a man to go with you and I will pay him wages as long as I live; and go and get the money. 6.14. Now I am the only son my father has, and I am afraid that if I go in I will die as those before me did, for a demon is in love with her, and he harms no one except those who approach her. So now I fear that I may die and bring the lives of my father and mother to the grave in sorrow on my account. And they have no other son to bury them. 6.15. But the angel said to him, "Do you not remember the words with which your father commanded you to take a wife from among your own people? Now listen to me, brother, for she will become your wife; and do not worry about the demon, for this very night she will be given to you in marriage. 8.5. And Tobias began to pray, "Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers,and blessed be thy holy and glorious name for ever. Let the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee. 8.6. Thou madest Adam and gavest him Eve his wife as a helper and support.From them the race of mankind has sprung.Thou didst say, `It is not good that the man should be alone;let us make a helper for him like himself. 8.7. And now, O Lord, I am not taking this sister of mine because of lust, but with sincerity. Grant that I may find mercy and may grow old together with her. 8.8. And she said with him, "Amen. 8.15. Then Raguel blessed God and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, with every pure and holy blessing.Let thy saints and all thy creatures bless thee;let all thy angels and thy chosen people bless thee for ever. 8.16. Blessed art thou, because thou hast made me glad. It has not happened to me as I expected;but thou hast treated us according to thy great mercy. 8.17. Blessed art thou, because thou hast had compassion on two only children. Show them mercy, O Lord;and bring their lives to fulfilment in health and happiness and mercy. 11.11. and took hold of his father, and he sprinkled the gall upon his fathers eyes, saying, "Be of good cheer, father. 11.13. and the white films scaled off from the corners of his eyes. 11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels. 11.15. For thou hast afflicted me, but thou hast had mercy upon me; here I see my son Tobias!" And his son went in rejoicing, and he reported to his father the great things that had happened to him in Media. 11.18. Ahikar and his nephew Nadab came 11.19. and Tobias marriage was celebrated for seven days with great festivity. 12.6. Then the angel called the two of them privately and said to them: "Praise God and give thanks to him; exalt him and give thanks to him in the presence of all the living for what he has done for you. It is good to praise God and to exalt his name, worthily declaring the works of God. Do not be slow to give him thanks. 12.7. It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. Do good, and evil will not overtake you. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives. 12.11. I will not conceal anything from you. I have said, `It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. 12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you. 12.13. When you did not hesitate to rise and leave your dinner in order to go and lay out the dead, your good deed was not hidden from me, but I was with you. 12.14. So now God sent me to heal you and your daughter-in-law Sarah. 12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One. 12.16. They were both alarmed; and they fell upon their faces, for they were afraid. 12.17. But he said to them, "Do not be afraid; you will be safe. But praise God for ever. 12.18. For I did not come as a favor on my part, but by the will of our God. Therefore praise him for ever. 12.19. All these days I merely appeared to you and did not eat or drink, but you were seeing a vision. 12.20. And now give thanks to God, for I am ascending to him who sent me. Write in a book everything that has happened. 12.21. Then they stood up; but they saw him no more. 12.22. So they confessed the great and wonderful works of God, and acknowledged that the angel of the Lord had appeared to them. 13.1. Then Tobit wrote a prayer of rejoicing, and said:"Blessed is God who lives for ever,and blessed is his kingdom. 13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand. 13.3. Acknowledge him before the nations, O sons of Israel;for he has scattered us among them. 13.4. Make his greatness known there,and exalt him in the presence of all the living;because he is our Lord and God,he is our Father for ever. 13.5. He will afflict us for our iniquities;and again he will show mercy,and will gather us from all the nations among whom you have been scattered. 13.6. If you turn to him with all your heart and with all your soul,to do what is true before him,then he will turn to you and will not hide his face from you. But see what he will do with you;give thanks to him with your full voice. Praise the Lord of righteousness,and exalt the King of the ages. I give him thanks in the land of my captivity,and I show his power and majesty to a nation of sinners. Turn back, you sinners, and do right before him;who knows if he will accept you and have mercy on you? 13.7. I exalt my God;my soul exalts the King of heaven,and will rejoice in his majesty. 13.8. Let all men speak,and give him thanks in Jerusalem. 13.9. O Jerusalem, the holy city,he will afflict you for the deeds of your sons,but again he will show mercy to the sons of the righteous. 13.10. Give thanks worthily to the Lord,and praise the King of the ages,that his tent may be raised for you again with joy. May he cheer those within you who are captives,and love those within you who are distressed,to all generations for ever. 13.11. Many nations will come from afar to the name of the Lord God,bearing gifts in their hands, gifts for the King of heaven. Generations of generations will give you joyful praise. 13.12. Cursed are all who hate you;blessed for ever will be all who love you. 13.13. Rejoice and be glad for the sons of the righteous;for they will be gathered together,and will praise the Lord of the righteous. 13.14. How blessed are those who love you!They will rejoice in your peace. Blessed are those who grieved over all your afflictions;for they will rejoice for you upon seeing all your glory,and they will be made glad for ever. 13.15. Let my soul praise God the great King. 13.16. For Jerusalem will be built with sapphires and emeralds,her walls with precious stones,and her towers and battlements with pure gold. 13.17. The streets of Jerusalem will be paved with beryl and ruby and stones of Ophir; 13.18. all her lanes will cry `Hallelujah! and will give praise,saying, `Blessed is God, who has exalted you for ever. 14.2. He was fifty-eight years old when he lost his sight, and after eight years he regained it. He gave alms, and he continued to fear the Lord God and to praise him. 14.3. When he had grown very old he called his son and grandsons, and said to him, "My son, take your sons; behold, I have grown old and am about to depart this life. 14.4. Go to Media, my son, for I fully believe what Jonah the prophet said about Nineveh, that it will be overthrown. But in Media there will be peace for a time. Our brethren will be scattered over the earth from the good land, and Jerusalem will be desolate. The house of God in it will be burned down and will be in ruins for a time. 14.5. But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it. 14.6. Then all the Gentiles will turn to fear the Lord God in truth, and will bury their idols. 14.7. All the Gentiles will praise the Lord, and his people will give thanks to God, and the Lord will exalt his people. And all who love the Lord God in truth and righteousness will rejoice, showing mercy to our brethren. 14.8. So now, my son, leave Nineveh, because what the prophet Jonah said will surely happen. 14.9. But keep the law and the commandments, and be merciful and just, so that it may be well with you. 14.10. Bury me properly, and your mother with me. And do not live in Nineveh any longer. See, my son, what Nadab did to Ahikar who had reared him, how he brought him from light into darkness, and with what he repaid him. But Ahikar was saved, and the other received repayment as he himself went down into the darkness. Ahikar gave alms and escaped the deathtrap which Nadab had set for him; but Nadab fell into the trap and perished. 14.11. So now, my children, consider what almsgiving accomplishes and how righteousness delivers." As he said this he died in his bed. He was a hundred and fifty-eight years old; and Tobias gave him a magnificent funeral. 14.12. And when Anna died he buried her with his father. Then Tobias returned with his wife and his sons to Ecbatana, to Raguel his father-in-law. 14.14. He died in Ecbatana of Media at the age of a hundred and twenty-seven years. 14.15. But before he died he heard of the destruction of Nineveh, which Nebuchadnezzar and Ahasuerus had captured. Before his death he rejoiced over Nineveh.
18. Anon., 1 Enoch, 103.12, 108.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

103.12. They have had dominion over us that hated us and smote us; And to those that hated us we have bowed our necks But they pitied us not.
19. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.18. Eleazar, one of the scribes in high position, a man now advanced in age and of noble presence, was being forced to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh.'
20. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 23.3, 30.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

30.18. Good things poured out upon a mouth that is closed are like offerings of food placed upon a grave.
21. Septuagint, Judith, 8.2, 8.5-8.6, 8.10, 13.8, 16.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

8.2. Her husband Manasseh, who belonged to her tribe and family, had died during the barley harvest. 8.5. She set up a tent for herself on the roof of her house, and girded sackcloth about her loins and wore the garments of her widowhood. 8.6. She fasted all the days of her widowhood, except the day before the sabbath and the sabbath itself, the day before the new moon and the day of the new moon, and the feasts and days of rejoicing of the house of Israel. 8.10. she sent her maid, who was in charge of all she possessed, to summon Chabris and Charmis, the elders of her city. 13.8. And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed it from his body. 16.9. Her sandal ravished his eyes, her beauty captivated his mind, and the sword severed his neck.
22. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 30.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

23. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 9.3, 29.6, 37.5, 40.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.465, 4.314-4.317, 5.545 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.465. It was then common to see cities filled with dead bodies, still lying unburied, and those of old men, mixed with infants, all dead, and scattered about together; women also lay amongst them, without any covering for their nakedness: you might then see the whole province full of inexpressible calamities, while the dread of still more barbarous practices which were threatened was everywhere greater than what had been already perpetrated. 4.314. 2. But the rage of the Idumeans was not satiated by these slaughters; but they now betook themselves to the city, and plundered every house, and slew everyone they met; 4.315. and for the other multitude, they esteemed it needless to go on with killing them, but they sought for the high priests, and the generality went with the greatest zeal against them; 4.316. and as soon as they caught them they slew them, and then standing upon their dead bodies, in way of jest, upbraided Aus with his kindness to the people, and Jesus with his speech made to them from the wall. 4.317. Nay, they proceeded to that degree of impiety, as to cast away their dead bodies without burial, although the Jews used to take so much care of the burial of men, that they took down those that were condemned and crucified, and buried them before the going down of the sun. 5.545. She also made great lamentation privately to the maidservants that were about her, and said, That this was all the advantage she had of bringing so extraordinary a person as this son into the world; that she should not be able even to bury that son of hers, by whom she expected to have been buried herself.
25. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.4. But if any widow has children or grandchildren, let them learn first to show piety towards their own family, and to repay their parents, for this is acceptable in the sight of God.
26. New Testament, Apocalypse, 11.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.9. From among the peoples, tribes, languages, and nations people will look at their dead bodies for three and a half days, and will not allow their dead bodies to be laid in a tomb.
27. New Testament, Luke, 9.59 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.59. He said to another, "Follow me!"But he said, "Lord, allow me first to go and bury my father.
28. New Testament, Matthew, 8.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.21. Another of his disciples said to him, "Lord, allow me first to go and bury my father.
29. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

65b. הוא אמר אפלת בגו עשר והיא אמרה לא אפלית א"ר אמי אף בזו היא נאמנת דאם איתא דהפילה נפשה בעקרתה לא מחזקה,הפילה וחזרה והפילה וחזרה והפילה הוחזקה לנפלים הוא אמר אפילה תרי והיא אמרה תלת אמר רבי יצחק בן אלעזר עובדא הוה בי מדרשא ואמרו היא מהימנא דאם איתא דלא אפלה נפשה בניפלי לא מחזקה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האיש מצווה על פריה ורביה אבל לא האשה רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומר על שניהם הוא אומר (בראשית א, כח) ויברך אותם אלהים ויאמר להם [אלהים] פרו ורבו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא הני מילי אמר ר' אילעא משום ר' אלעזר בר' שמעון אמר קרא (בראשית א, כח) ומלאו את הארץ וכבשוה איש דרכו לכבש ואין אשה דרכה לכבש,אדרבה וכבשוה תרתי משמע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק וכבשה כתיב רב יוסף אמר מהכא (בראשית לה, יא) אני אל שדי פרה ורבה ולא קאמר פרו ורבו,ואמר רבי אילעא משום ר' אלעזר בר' שמעון כשם שמצוה על אדם לומר דבר הנשמע כך מצוה על אדם שלא לומר דבר שאינו נשמע רבי אבא אומר חובה שנאמר (משלי ט, ח) אל תוכח לץ פן ישנאך הוכח לחכם ויאהבך,וא"ר אילעא משום רבי אלעזר בר' שמעון מותר לו לאדם לשנות בדבר השלום שנאמר (בראשית נ, טז) אביך צוה וגו כה תאמרו ליוסף אנא שא נא וגו',ר' נתן אומר מצוה שנאמר (שמואל א טז, ב) ויאמר שמואל איך אלך ושמע שאול והרגני וגו',דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא גדול השלום שאף הקדוש ברוך הוא שינה בו דמעיקרא כתיב (בראשית יח, יב) ואדוני זקן ולבסוף כתיב ואני זקנתי:,רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומר: אתמר רבי יוחנן ור' יהושע בן לוי חד אמר הלכה כרבי יוחנן בן ברוקה וחד אמר אין הלכה כרבי יוחנן בן ברוקה,תסתיים דרבי יוחנן הוא דאמר אין הלכה דיתיב ר' אבהו וקאמר משמיה דרבי יוחנן הלכה ואהדרינהו רבי אמי ורבי אסי לאפייהו,ואיכא דאמרי רבי חייא בר אבא אמר ואהדרינהו רבי אמי ורבי אסי לאפייהו אמר רב פפא בשלמא למאן דאמר רבי אבהו אמרה משום כבוד בי קיסר לא אמרו ליה ולא מידי אלא למאן דאמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמרה לימרו ליה לא אמר רבי יוחנן הכי,מאי הוה עלה ת"ש דאמר ר' אחא בר חנינא אמר ר' אבהו אמר ר' אסי עובדא הוה קמיה דרבי יוחנן בכנישתא דקיסרי ואמר יוציא ויתן כתובה ואי ס"ד לא מפקדה כתובה מאי עבידתה,דלמא בבאה מחמת טענה,כי ההיא דאתאי לקמיה דר' אמי אמרה ליה הב לי כתובה אמר לה זיל לא מיפקדת אמרה ליה מסיבו דילה מאי תיהוי עלה דהך אתתא אמר כי הא ודאי כפינן,ההיא דאתאי לקמיה דרב נחמן אמר לה לא מיפקדת אמרה ליה לא בעיא הך אתתא חוטרא לידה ומרה לקבורה אמר כי הא ודאי כפינן,יהודה וחזקיה תאומים היו אחד נגמרה צורתו לסוף תשעה ואחד נגמרה צורתו לתחלת שבעה יהודית דביתהו דר' חייא הוה לה צער לידה שנאי מנא ואתיא לקמיה דר' חייא ואמרה אתתא מפקדא אפריה ורביה אמר לה לא אזלא אשתיא סמא דעקרתא,לסוף איגלאי מילתא אמר לה איכו ילדת לי חדא כרסא אחריתא דאמר מר יהודה וחזקיה אחי פזי וטוי 65b. The Gemara addresses another case in which the court forces a man to divorce his wife who has not had children after ten years. If bhe said: You miscarried withinthe btenyears of our marriage, and since less than ten years have elapsed since that time he should not have to divorce her, band she said: I did not miscarry, Rabbi Ami said: Even in thiscase bshe is believed, because if it is so that she miscarried shewould bnot establish herself as barrenthrough denying his claim.,If bshe miscarried, andthen bmiscarried again, and miscarried again, she has been established tobe a woman who is prone to bmiscarriages,and her husband must divorce her so that he can have children with another woman. If bhe said she miscarried twice, and she saidit occurred bthreetimes, bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Elazar said: There was an incidentof this kind that was adjudicated in bthe study hall and they saidthat bshe is believed, because if it is so thatshe had bnot miscarrieda third time bshewould bnot establish herselfas one who is prone to bmiscarriages. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bA man is commanded with regard tothe mitzva to be bfruitful and multiply, but not a woman. Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka saysthat a woman is also commanded, as the verse bstates with regard to both of them: “And God blessed them, and God said to them: Be fruitful and multiply”(Genesis 1:28)., strongGEMARA: /strong bFrom where are these mattersderived, that a woman is not obligated in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply? bRabbi Ile’a said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: The verse states:“Be fruitful and multiply, band fill the land and conquer it”(Genesis 1:28). bIt is the manner of a man to conquer and it is not the manner of a woman to conquer.Consequently, it is evident that the entire command, including the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, was given only to men and not to women.,The Gemara raises a difficulty. bOn the contrary,the plural term: b“And conquer it [ ivekhivshuha /i],” indicatesthat the btwoof them are included. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is writtenin the Torah without the letter ivav /i, so that it can be read: bAnd conquer it [ ivekhivsha /i],in the singular. bRav Yosef said:The proof is bfrom here:“And God said to him: bI am God Almighty, be fruitful and multiply [ iperei urvei /i]”(Genesis 35:11), which is in singular, band it does not state: Be fruitful and multiply [ iperu urvu /i]in the plural.,The Gemara cites other statements made by Rabbi Ile’a in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bAnd Rabbi Ile’a said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: Just as it is a mitzva for a person to say that which will be heeded, so is it a mitzva for a person not to say that which will not be heeded.One should not rebuke those who will be unreceptive to his message. bRabbi Abba says:It is bobligatoryfor him to refrain from speaking, bas it is stated: “Do not reprove a scorner lest he hate you; reprove a wise man and he will love you”(Proverbs 9:8)., bAnd Rabbi Ile’afurther bsaid in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: It is permitted for a person to departfrom the truth bin a matterthat will bring bpeace, as it is stated: “Your father commandedbefore he died, saying: bSo you shall say to Joseph: Please pardonyour brothers’ crime, etc.” (Genesis 50:16–17). Jacob never issued this command, but his sons falsely attributed this statement to him in order to preserve peace between them and Joseph., bRabbi Natan says:It is ba mitzvato depart from the truth in order to preserve peace, bas it is stated: “And Samuel said: How can I go, and Saul will hear and kill me”(I Samuel 16:2). God responded in the next verse that Samuel should say he went to sacrifice an offering, indicating that God commands one to lie in order to preserve peace.,It was btaughtin bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael: Great is peace, as even the Holy One, Blessed be He, departedfrom the truth for bit. As, initially it is writtenthat Sarah said of Abraham: b“And my lord is old”(Genesis 18:12), band in the end it is writtenthat God told Abraham that Sarah said: b“And I am old”(Genesis 18:13). God adjusted Sarah’s words in order to spare Abraham hurt feelings that might lead Abraham and Sarah to quarrel.,§ It is taught in the mishna that bRabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka saysthat women are also included in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. bIt was statedthat two iamora’im /i, bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,disagreed concerning this matter. bOne saidthat the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, and one saidthat the ihalakhais not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka. /b,The Gemara comments: bConclude that it was Rabbi Yoḥa who saidthat the ihalakhais notin accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, bas Rabbi Abbahu sat and said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥathat the ihalakha /iis in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, band Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi,who were sitting across from him, bturned their facesas an indication that they disagreed with this report of Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion, but did not want to explicitly contradict Rabbi Abbahu’s statement out of respect for him., bAnd some saya different version of the incident, that it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho bsaidthis statement, band Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi turned their faces. Rav Pappa said: Granted, according to the one who saidthat bRabbi Abbahu said it,it makes sense that bdue to the honor of Caesar’s court,where Rabbi Abbahu maintained close ties, Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi bdid not say anything to himand merely hinted at their disagreement. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said it, let them say to him explicitly: Rabbi Yoḥa did not say this.In any event, it is clear that according to Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, Rabbi Yoḥa disagreed with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka.,The Gemara asks: bWhatconclusion bwasreached baboutthis issue? The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhear, as Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina saidthat bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Asi said: There was an incidentthat came bbefore Rabbi Yoḥa in the synagogue of Caesareainvolving a woman who wanted a divorce from her husband after ten years of childless marriage, band he saidthat the husband bmust divorceher band giveher the payment for her bmarriage contract. If it enters your mindto say bthat she is not commandedto be fruitful and multiply, bwhat ispayment for ba marriage contract doinghere? Why does she have a right to demand to be divorced and to receive the payment for her marriage contract?,The Gemara responds: bPerhapsthat was bina case when bshe cameto demand a divorce bdue toanother bclaim,i.e., she wanted children for a reason other than the fulfillment of the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Since this claim has merit, her husband must divorce her and pay her marriage contract.,This is blikethe case of ba certainwoman bwho came before Rabbi Amiand requested a divorce due to her husband’s inability to father children. bShe said to him /b: bGive methe payment for my bmarriage contract. He said to her: Goaway, as byou are not commandedto be fruitful and multiply and have no right to demand a divorce. bShe said to him: In her old age, what will be with this woman,i.e., if I have no children, who will take care of me when I grow old? Rabbi Ami bsaid:In a situation bsuch as this, we certainly forcethe husband to divorce and her and pay her marriage contract.,The Gemara relates a similar incident: bA certainwoman bcame before Rav Naḥmanand requested a divorce due to her husband’s inability to father children. bHe said to her: You are not commandedto be fruitful and multiply. bShe said to him: Does this woman not require a staff for her hand and a hoe forher bburial?In other words, the woman said that she wanted children so that they could care for her in her old age and bury her when she would die. Rav Naḥman bsaid:In a case bsuch as this, we certainly forcethe husband to divorce her.,The Gemara relates that Rabbi Ḥiyya’s sons, bYehuda and Ḥizkiyya, were twins,but boneof them bwas fully developed after ninemonths of pregcy band one was fully developed at the beginning of the seventhmonth, and they were born two months apart. bYehudit, the wife of Rabbi Ḥiyya, hadacute bbirthing painfrom these unusual deliveries. She bchanged her clothesto prevent Rabbi Ḥiyya from recognizing her band came before Rabbi Ḥiyyato ask him a halakhic question. bShe said: Is a woman commandedto be bfruitful and multiply? He said to her: No. She went and drank an infertility potion. /b, bEventually the matter was revealed,and Rabbi Ḥiyya found out about what Yehudit had done. bHe said to her: If only you had given birth to one more belly for me,i.e., another set of twins. bAs the Master said: Yehuda and Ḥizkiyyawere twin bbrothersand became prominent Torah scholars, and bPazi and Tavi,Rabbi Ḥiyya’s daughters
30. Anon., Semahot, 13.8



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
abraham, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 149
adelphos, ἀδελφός/ἐξάδελφος, senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124
angels of the divine presence, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
angels of the divine presence, wife of manoach Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
antiochus iv epiphanes Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 101
aramaic forms of book of tobit, qumran (4q196-199) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124
assyria Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146
assyrian, court Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131, 145
assyrian, king Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
assyrians Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 146
aḥiqar, as a jewish relative of tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124
aḥiqar, literary genre Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131, 149
aḥiqar, sources Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 150, 151
aḥiqar, textual forms Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131, 145, 150, 151
aḥiqar, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 124, 145, 150, 151
aḥiqar, versions, arabic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
aḥiqar, versions, aramaic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146, 150, 151
aḥiqar, versions, syriac Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131, 145, 151
aḥiqar, versions, wisdom (maxims, proverbs) of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131
aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131, 145, 151
bildungsroman, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 149
blindness and healing, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 149
body, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
body Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
book of judith, chronology Gera, Judith (2014) 474
book of judith, irony and humor Gera, Judith (2014) 474
burial, abel, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
burial, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
burial Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
burial of death, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 149, 151
burial of death, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 146, 149, 150, 151
cain Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
cave Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
children Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
codex, corbeiensis Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124
codex, monacensis Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124
codex, reginensis Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124
codex, regius Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124
collection, pauls Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 243
darkness Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
death, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146, 149
death, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131, 149, 151
desecration (second temple) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 101
deselaers, paul Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 101
diaspora, eastern Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131
diaspora Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 101
drama Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
egypt Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146
elam (elymais) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146
elephantine, account, papyrus, text, version of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 146
esarhaddon (sacherdonos/sarchedonos or archedonassar) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
exhortation, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131, 146, 149, 151
exhortation, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131, 146, 149, 151
exile, in assyria Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146
exiles, assyrian Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
fabula, motif Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 150
fabula, theme Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 150, 151
faith, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
faith, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
faithfulness, fidelity to the law, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
family, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124, 131
fasting Gera, Judith (2014) 474; Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131
father-son relationship, in aḥiqar (adoptive son) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 146
father-son relationship, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 146
food, eating and drinking Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131
fragrances Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
frechette, christopher g. Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
gabael Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146, 149
good works, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
greek forms of book of tobit, long Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124, 131
greek forms of book of tobit, short Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124, 131
halakhah Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 101
hannah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124, 151
hasmoneans Gera, Judith (2014) 474
head, beheading Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
heaven, third Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
hospitality Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146
idumaeans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
inheritance, ancient near eastern Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 149, 150
inheritance, moral and religious Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131
invocation of death, sarah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
invocation of death, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
israel, ancient Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
iv maccabees, machpelah, cave of Gera, Judith (2014) 474
jerusalem Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
jewish, people, community Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131
jonah, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 150, 151
judith, death and burial Gera, Judith (2014) 474
judith, piety and asceticism Gera, Judith (2014) 474
judith, seclusion Gera, Judith (2014) 474
kings of assyria, sennacherib Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
kēnūtāʾ (syriac), senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
lamentation, protest, rebellion Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146
latin forms of book of tobit, vetus latina (long) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124
linen Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
literary genres, short story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
macatangay, francis m. Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
maid, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 474
manasseh, judiths husband, family tomb Gera, Judith (2014) 474
manoach Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
media Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146, 150, 151
mercy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
michael Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
misfortune, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146
misfortune, sarah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
misfortune, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 146
misfortune Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 146
moses Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 101
mourning Gera, Judith (2014) 474
murder Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
mēt miṣwāʾ Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 150
nadin (nadab, haman) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131, 145, 149, 150, 151
narrative, edifying, didactic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
narrative, level, linguistic, literary, lexical Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
near east, ancient, world Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 149
neck Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
nephtali Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
nineveh, city of wickedness Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124
nineveh, locus of deportation Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 146
odysseus, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
oil, fragrance, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
oil, paradise, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
old age, old man, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 149
only child Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
original textual form, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124
pain, suffering, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 149
pain, suffering, sarah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
pain, suffering, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 149
palestine Gera, Judith (2014) 474
persia Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146
petitions / prayers, by the oppressed Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
pharaoh Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146
pietas, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
pietas, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 131, 146
pompey Gera, Judith (2014) 474
poor Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 146
prayer, supplication, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
prayer, supplication, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
prayer Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 101
prayers, of deliverance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
rage Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
rages Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146, 150
raphael, angel Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
raphael, expert guide Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
raphael, moral role of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 150
reproaches Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
retribution, traditional doctrine Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
righteousness, rectitude, ahiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 124, 146, 151
righteousness, rectitude, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 124, 131, 145, 146, 149, 151
roofs, biblical, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 474
sackcloth Gera, Judith (2014) 474
sarah, abrahams wife Gera, Judith (2014) 474
sarah, married to tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
sargon ii Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
sennacherib (king) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 146, 149
shalmaneser v (king) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
shame Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
shelamzion Gera, Judith (2014) 474
sheol, ṣidqāʾ/ṣedaqtāʾ (aramaic), senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
sin, disobedience Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 145, 149
spices Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
structuralist, analysis, function, narrative Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146
suffering of the righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
sword' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
syriac, language Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
talmud, babylonian Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
teaching, doctrine, religious and moral Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
tobiah, marriage Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
tobiah, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 124, 131, 149, 150, 151
tobit, author x Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 150, 151
tobit, formation, history of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
tobit, friends Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
tobit, rewrites and integrations Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
tobit, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 124, 131, 145, 146, 150
tobit Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 101, 121; Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
tomb Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 977
traditional, wisdom Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 149
trauma Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
tribulation Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
wealth, prosperity, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
wealth, prosperity, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
wife, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 146
wife, manoach Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
wife, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 146, 149, 151
wise man, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 146, 149, 150, 151
wise man, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145, 146, 149, 150
xeravits, géza g. Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 101
yhwh, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75
yhwh, mercy, providence Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 75, 145
ṣedāqâ, senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151