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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



705
Septuagint, Tobit, 2.9


nanOn the same night I returned from burying him, and because I was defiled I slept by the wall of the courtyard, and my face was uncovered.


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1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.7-1.10, 1.18-1.20, 2.1-2.8, 2.10-2.12, 3.1, 3.10-3.11, 4.3-4.5, 4.10, 5.18, 6.15, 8.4-8.8, 11.17-11.18, 12.6-12.10, 14.2, 14.10, 14.12 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.18. And if Sennacherib the king put to death any who came fleeing from Judea, I buried them secretly. For in his anger he put many to death. When the bodies were sought by the king, they were not found. 1.19. Then one of the men of Nineveh went and informed the king about me, that I was burying them; so I hid myself. When I learned that I was being searched for, to be put to death, I left home in fear. 2.1. When I arrived home and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of the seven weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I sat down to eat. 2.2. Upon seeing the abundance of food I said to my son, "Go and bring whatever poor man of our brethren you may find who is mindful of the Lord, and I will wait for you. 2.3. But he came back and said, "Father, one of our people has been strangled and thrown into the market place. 2.4. So before I tasted anything I sprang up and removed the body to a place of shelter until sunset. 2.5. And when I returned I washed myself and ate my food in sorrow. 2.6. Then I remembered the prophecy of Amos, how he said, "Your feasts shall be turned into mourning, and all your festivities into lamentation." And I wept. 2.7. When the sun had set I went and dug a grave and buried the body. 2.8. And my neighbors laughed at me and said, "He is no longer afraid that he will be put to death for doing this; he once ran away, and here he is burying the dead again! 2.10. I did not know that there were sparrows on the wall and their fresh droppings fell into my open eyes and white films formed on my eyes. I went to physicians, but they did not help me. Ahikar, however, took care of me until he went to Elymais. 3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying 3.10. When she heard these things she was deeply grieved, even to the thought of hanging herself. But she said, "I am the only child of my father; if I do this, it will be a disgrace to him, and I shall bring his old age down in sorrow to the grave. 3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 4.3. So he called him and said, "My son, when I die, bury me, and do not neglect your mother. Honor her all the days of your life; do what is pleasing to her, and do not grieve her. 4.4. Remember, my son, that she faced many dangers for you while you were yet unborn. When she dies bury her beside me in the same grave. 4.5. Remember the Lord our God all your days, my son, and refuse to sin or to transgress his commandments. Live uprightly all the days of your life, and do not walk in the ways of wrongdoing. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 6.15. But the angel said to him, "Do you not remember the words with which your father commanded you to take a wife from among your own people? Now listen to me, brother, for she will become your wife; and do not worry about the demon, for this very night she will be given to you in marriage. 8.4. When the door was shut and the two were alone, Tobias got up from the bed and said, "Sister, get up, and let us pray that the Lord may have mercy upon us. 8.5. And Tobias began to pray, "Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers,and blessed be thy holy and glorious name for ever. Let the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee. 8.6. Thou madest Adam and gavest him Eve his wife as a helper and support.From them the race of mankind has sprung.Thou didst say, `It is not good that the man should be alone;let us make a helper for him like himself. 8.7. And now, O Lord, I am not taking this sister of mine because of lust, but with sincerity. Grant that I may find mercy and may grow old together with her. 8.8. And she said with him, "Amen. 11.18. Ahikar and his nephew Nadab came 12.6. Then the angel called the two of them privately and said to them: "Praise God and give thanks to him; exalt him and give thanks to him in the presence of all the living for what he has done for you. It is good to praise God and to exalt his name, worthily declaring the works of God. Do not be slow to give him thanks. 12.7. It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. Do good, and evil will not overtake you. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives. 14.2. He was fifty-eight years old when he lost his sight, and after eight years he regained it. He gave alms, and he continued to fear the Lord God and to praise him. 14.10. Bury me properly, and your mother with me. And do not live in Nineveh any longer. See, my son, what Nadab did to Ahikar who had reared him, how he brought him from light into darkness, and with what he repaid him. But Ahikar was saved, and the other received repayment as he himself went down into the darkness. Ahikar gave alms and escaped the deathtrap which Nadab had set for him; but Nadab fell into the trap and perished. 14.12. And when Anna died he buried her with his father. Then Tobias returned with his wife and his sons to Ecbatana, to Raguel his father-in-law.
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 25.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.2. וְהָיוּ הַכְּרֻבִים פֹּרְשֵׂי כְנָפַיִם לְמַעְלָה סֹכְכִים בְּכַנְפֵיהֶם עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וּפְנֵיהֶם אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו אֶל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת יִהְיוּ פְּנֵי הַכְּרֻבִים׃ 25.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ־לִי תְּרוּמָה מֵאֵת כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִדְּבֶנּוּ לִבּוֹ תִּקְחוּ אֶת־תְּרוּמָתִי׃ 25.2. ’Speak unto the children of Israel, that they take for Me an offering; of every man whose heart maketh him willing ye shall take My offering."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 34.30, 35.19, 47.30, 49.5-49.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

35.19. וַתָּמָת רָחֵל וַתִּקָּבֵר בְּדֶרֶךְ אֶפְרָתָה הִוא בֵּית לָחֶם׃ 49.5. שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי אַחִים כְּלֵי חָמָס מְכֵרֹתֵיהֶם׃ 49.6. בְּסֹדָם אַל־תָּבֹא נַפְשִׁי בִּקְהָלָם אַל־תֵּחַד כְּבֹדִי כִּי בְאַפָּם הָרְגוּ אִישׁ וּבִרְצֹנָם עִקְּרוּ־שׁוֹר׃ 49.7. אָרוּר אַפָּם כִּי עָז וְעֶבְרָתָם כִּי קָשָׁתָה אֲחַלְּקֵם בְּיַעֲקֹב וַאֲפִיצֵם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 34.30. And Jacob said to Simeon and Levi: ‘Ye have troubled me, to make me odious unto the inhabitants of the land, even unto the Canaanites and the Perizzites; and, I being few in number, they will gather themselves together against me and smite me; and I shall be destroyed, I and my house.’" 35.19. And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath—the same is Beth-lehem." 47.30. But when I sleep with my fathers, thou shalt carry me out of Egypt, and bury me in their burying-place.’ And he said: ‘I will do as thou hast said.’" 49.5. Simeon and Levi are brethren; Weapons of violence their kinship." 49.6. Let my soul not come into their council; Unto their assembly let my glory not be not united; For in their anger they slew men, And in their self-will they houghed oxen." 49.7. Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce, And their wrath, for it was cruel; I will divide them in Jacob, And scatter them in Israel"
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.8-1.22, 2.9-2.10, 23.8-23.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.8. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הֲשַׂמְתָּ לִבְּךָ עַל־עַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב כִּי אֵין כָּמֹהוּ בָּאָרֶץ אִישׁ תָּם וְיָשָׁר יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים וְסָר מֵרָע׃ 1.9. וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר הַחִנָּם יָרֵא אִיּוֹב אֱלֹהִים׃ 1.11. וְאוּלָם שְׁלַח־נָא יָדְךָ וְגַע בְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אִם־לֹא עַל־פָּנֶיךָ יְבָרֲכֶךָּ׃ 1.12. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הִנֵּה כָל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ בְּיָדֶךָ רַק אֵלָיו אַל־תִּשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ וַיֵּצֵא הַשָּׂטָן מֵעִם פְּנֵי יְהוָה׃ 1.13. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וּבָנָיו וּבְנֹתָיו אֹכְלִים וְשֹׁתִים יַיִן בְּבֵית אֲחִיהֶם הַבְּכוֹר׃ 1.14. וּמַלְאָךְ בָּא אֶל־אִיּוֹב וַיֹּאמַר הַבָּקָר הָיוּ חֹרְשׁוֹת וְהָאֲתֹנוֹת רֹעוֹת עַל־יְדֵיהֶם׃ 1.15. וַתִּפֹּל שְׁבָא וַתִּקָּחֵם וְאֶת־הַנְּעָרִים הִכּוּ לְפִי־חָרֶב וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק־אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ׃ 1.16. עוֹד זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר אֵשׁ אֱלֹהִים נָפְלָה מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַתִּבְעַר בַּצֹּאן וּבַנְּעָרִים וַתֹּאכְלֵם וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק־אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ׃ 1.17. עוֹד זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר כַּשְׂדִּים שָׂמוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה רָאשִׁים וַיִּפְשְׁטוּ עַל־הַגְּמַלִּים וַיִּקָּחוּם וְאֶת־הַנְּעָרִים הִכּוּ לְפִי־חָרֶב וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק־אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ׃ 1.18. עַד זֶה מְדַבֵּר וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר בָּנֶיךָ וּבְנוֹתֶיךָ אֹכְלִים וְשֹׁתִים יַיִן בְּבֵית אֲחִיהֶם הַבְּכוֹר׃ 1.19. וְהִנֵּה רוּחַ גְּדוֹלָה בָּאָה מֵעֵבֶר הַמִּדְבָּר וַיִּגַּע בְּאַרְבַּע פִּנּוֹת הַבַּיִת וַיִּפֹּל עַל־הַנְּעָרִים וַיָּמוּתוּ וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק־אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ׃ 1.21. וַיֹּאמֶר עָרֹם יצתי [יָצָאתִי] מִבֶּטֶן אִמִּי וְעָרֹם אָשׁוּב שָׁמָה יְהוָה נָתַן וַיהוָה לָקָח יְהִי שֵׁם יְהוָה מְבֹרָךְ׃ 1.22. בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־חָטָא אִיּוֹב וְלֹא־נָתַן תִּפְלָה לֵאלֹהִים׃ 2.9. וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ עֹדְךָ מַחֲזִיק בְּתֻמָּתֶךָ בָּרֵךְ אֱלֹהִים וָמֻת׃ 23.8. הֵן קֶדֶם אֶהֱלֹךְ וְאֵינֶנּוּ וְאָחוֹר וְלֹא־אָבִין לוֹ׃ 1.8. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Hast thou considered My servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a whole-hearted and an upright man, one that feareth God, and shunneth evil?’" 1.9. Then Satan answered the LORD, and said: ‘Doth Job fear God for nought?" 1.10. Hast not Thou made a hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath, on every side? Thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his possessions are increased in the land." 1.11. But put forth Thy hand now, and touch all that he hath, surely he will blaspheme Thee to Thy face.’" 1.12. And the LORD said unto Satan: ‘Behold, all that he hath is in thy power; only upon himself put not forth thy hand.’ So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD." 1.13. And it fell on a day when his sons and his daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house," 1.14. that there came a messenger unto Job, and said: ‘The oxen were plowing, and the asses feeding beside them;" 1.15. and the Sabeans made a raid, and took them away; yea, they have slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’" 1.16. While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said: ‘A fire of God is fallen from heaven, and hath burned up the sheep, and the servants, and consumed them; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’" 1.17. While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said: ‘The Chaldeans set themselves in three bands, and fell upon the camels, and have taken them away, yea, and slain the servants with the edge of the sword; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’" 1.18. While he was yet speaking, there came also another, and said: ‘Thy sons and thy daughters were eating and drinking wine in their eldest brother’s house;" 1.19. And, behold, there came a great wind from across the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house, and it fell upon the young people, and they are dead; and I only am escaped alone to tell thee.’" 1.20. Then Job arose, and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground, and worshipped;" 1.21. And he said; Naked came I out of my mother’s womb, And naked shall I return thither; The LORD gave, and the LORD hath taken away; Blessed be the name of the LORD." 1.22. For all this Job sinned not, nor ascribed aught unseemly to God." 2.9. Then said his wife unto him: ‘Dost thou still hold fast thine integrity? blaspheme God, and die.’" 2.10. But he said unto her: ‘Thou speakest as one of the impious women speaketh. What? shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?’ For all this did not Job sin with his lips." 23.8. Behold, I go forward, but He is not there, And backward, but I cannot perceive Him;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.12-16.13, 21.1-21.4, 21.11-21.12, 22.3-22.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.12. וְלָקַח מְלֹא־הַמַּחְתָּה גַּחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וּמְלֹא חָפְנָיו קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים דַּקָּה וְהֵבִיא מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת׃ 16.13. וְנָתַן אֶת־הַקְּטֹרֶת עַל־הָאֵשׁ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְכִסָּה עֲנַן הַקְּטֹרֶת אֶת־הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵדוּת וְלֹא יָמוּת׃ 21.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא־יִטַּמָּא בְּעַמָּיו׃ 21.1. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל מֵאֶחָיו אֲ‍שֶׁר־יוּצַק עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ שֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה וּמִלֵּא אֶת־יָדוֹ לִלְבֹּשׁ אֶת־הַבְּגָדִים אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ לֹא יִפְרָע וּבְגָדָיו לֹא יִפְרֹם׃ 21.2. כִּי אִם־לִשְׁאֵרוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו לְאִמּוֹ וּלְאָבִיו וְלִבְנוֹ וּלְבִתּוֹ וּלְאָחִיו׃ 21.2. אוֹ־גִבֵּן אוֹ־דַק אוֹ תְּבַלֻּל בְּעֵינוֹ אוֹ גָרָב אוֹ יַלֶּפֶת אוֹ מְרוֹחַ אָשֶׁךְ׃ 21.3. וְלַאֲחֹתוֹ הַבְּתוּלָה הַקְּרוֹבָה אֵלָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הָיְתָה לְאִישׁ לָהּ יִטַּמָּא׃ 21.4. לֹא יִטַּמָּא בַּעַל בְּעַמָּיו לְהֵחַלּוֹ׃ 21.11. וְעַל כָּל־נַפְשֹׁת מֵת לֹא יָבֹא לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא יִטַּמָּא׃ 21.12. וּמִן־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא יֵצֵא וְלֹא יְחַלֵּל אֵת מִקְדַּשׁ אֱלֹהָיו כִּי נֵזֶר שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.3. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יֵאָכֵל לֹא־תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד־בֹּקֶר אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.3. אֱמֹר אֲלֵהֶם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם כָּל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרַב מִכָּל־זַרְעֲכֶם אֶל־הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה וְטֻמְאָתוֹ עָלָיו וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִלְּפָנַי אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.4. אִישׁ אִישׁ מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן וְהוּא צָרוּעַ אוֹ זָב בַּקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא יֹאכַל עַד אֲשֶׁר יִטְהָר וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בְּכָל־טְמֵא־נֶפֶשׁ אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֵּצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע׃ 22.5. אוֹ־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִגַּע בְּכָל־שֶׁרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא־לוֹ אוֹ בְאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא־לוֹ לְכֹל טֻמְאָתוֹ׃ 22.6. נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע־בּוֹ וְטָמְאָה עַד־הָעָרֶב וְלֹא יֹאכַל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים כִּי אִם־רָחַץ בְּשָׂרוֹ בַּמָּיִם׃ 22.7. וּבָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יֹאכַל מִן־הַקֳּדָשִׁים כִּי לַחְמוֹ הוּא׃ 22.8. נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה לֹא יֹאכַל לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.9. וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא וּמֵתוּ בוֹ כִּי יְחַלְּלֻהוּ אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃ 16.12. And he shall take a censer full of coals of fire from off the altar before the LORD, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the veil." 16.13. And he shall put the incense upon the fire before the LORD, that the cloud of the incense may cover the ark-cover that is upon the testimony, that he die not." 21.1. And the LORD said unto Moses: Speak unto the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto them: There shall none defile himself for the dead among his people;" 21.2. except for his kin, that is near unto him, for his mother, and for his father, and for his son, and for his daughter, and for his brother;" 21.3. and for his sister a virgin, that is near unto him, that hath had no husband, for her may he defile himself." 21.4. He shall not defile himself, being a chief man among his people, to profane himself." 21.11. neither shall he go in to any dead body, nor defile himself for his father, or for his mother;" 21.12. neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for the consecration of the anointing oil of his God is upon him: I am the LORD." 22.3. Say unto them: Whosoever he be of all your seed throughout your generations, that approacheth unto the holy things, which the children of Israel hallow unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from before Me: I am the LORD." 22.4. What man soever of the seed of Aaron is a leper, or hath an issue, he shall not eat of the holy things, until he be clean. And whoso toucheth any one that is unclean by the dead; or from whomsoever the flow of seed goeth out;" 22.5. or whosoever toucheth any swarming thing, whereby he may be made unclean, or a man of whom he may take uncleanness, whatsoever uncleanness he hath;" 22.6. the soul that toucheth any such shall be unclean until the even, and shall not eat of the holy things, unless he bathe his flesh in water." 22.7. And when the sun is down, he shall be clean; and afterward he may eat of the holy things, because it is his bread." 22.8. That which dieth of itself, or is torn of beasts, he shall not eat to defile himself therewith: I am the LORD." 22.9. They shall therefore keep My charge, lest they bear sin for it, and die therein, if they profane it: I am the LORD who sanctify them."
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.2-5.3, 6.6-6.12, 6.22-6.27, 17.11-17.13, 19.11-19.22, 31.19-31.20, 31.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.2. וְאַתְּ כִּי שָׂטִית תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ וְכִי נִטְמֵאת וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ בָּךְ אֶת־שְׁכָבְתּוֹ מִבַּלְעֲדֵי אִישֵׁךְ׃ 5.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִישַׁלְּחוּ מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה כָּל־צָרוּעַ וְכָל־זָב וְכֹל טָמֵא לָנָפֶשׁ׃ 5.3. מִזָּכָר עַד־נְקֵבָה תְּשַׁלֵּחוּ אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה תְּשַׁלְּחוּם וְלֹא יְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־מַחֲנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 5.3. אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲבֹר עָלָיו רוּחַ קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהֶעֱמִיד אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְעָשָׂה לָהּ הַכֹּהֵן אֵת כָּל־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 6.6. כָּל־יְמֵי הַזִּירוֹ לַיהוָה עַל־נֶפֶשׁ מֵת לֹא יָבֹא׃ 6.7. לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לְאָחִיו וּלְאַחֹתוֹ לֹא־יִטַּמָּא לָהֶם בְּמֹתָם כִּי נֵזֶר אֱלֹהָיו עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ׃ 6.8. כֹּל יְמֵי נִזְרוֹ קָדֹשׁ הוּא לַיהוָה׃ 6.9. וְכִי־יָמוּת מֵת עָלָיו בְּפֶתַע פִּתְאֹם וְטִמֵּא רֹאשׁ נִזְרוֹ וְגִלַּח רֹאשׁוֹ בְּיוֹם טָהֳרָתוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יְגַלְּחֶנּוּ׃ 6.11. וְעָשָׂה הַכֹּהֵן אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְאֶחָד לְעֹלָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו מֵאֲשֶׁר חָטָא עַל־הַנָּפֶשׁ וְקִדַּשׁ אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא׃ 6.12. וְהִזִּיר לַיהוָה אֶת־יְמֵי נִזְרוֹ וְהֵבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְאָשָׁם וְהַיָּמִים הָרִאשֹׁנִים יִפְּלוּ כִּי טָמֵא נִזְרוֹ׃ 6.22. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 6.23. דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶל־בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר כֹּה תְבָרֲכוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָמוֹר לָהֶם׃ 6.24. יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃ 6.25. יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃ 6.26. יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃ 6.27. וְשָׂמוּ אֶת־שְׁמִי עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲנִי אֲבָרֲכֵם׃ 17.11. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן קַח אֶת־הַמַּחְתָּה וְתֶן־עָלֶיהָ אֵשׁ מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְשִׂים קְטֹרֶת וְהוֹלֵךְ מְהֵרָה אֶל־הָעֵדָה וְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם כִּי־יָצָא הַקֶּצֶף מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה הֵחֵל הַנָּגֶף׃ 17.12. וַיִּקַּח אַהֲרֹן כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר מֹשֶׁה וַיָּרָץ אֶל־תּוֹך הַקָּהָל וְהִנֵּה הֵחֵל הַנֶּגֶף בָּעָם וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־הַקְּטֹרֶת וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־הָעָם׃ 17.13. וַיַּעֲמֹד בֵּין־הַמֵּתִים וּבֵין הַחַיִּים וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה׃ 19.11. הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.12. הוּא יִתְחַטָּא־בוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יִטְהָר וְאִם־לֹא יִתְחַטָּא בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי לֹא יִטְהָר׃ 19.13. כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃ 19.14. זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה אָדָם כִּי־יָמוּת בְּאֹהֶל כָּל־הַבָּא אֶל־הָאֹהֶל וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּאֹהֶל יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.15. וְכֹל כְּלִי פָתוּחַ אֲשֶׁר אֵין־צָמִיד פָּתִיל עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא׃ 19.16. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה בַּחֲלַל־חֶרֶב אוֹ בְמֵת אוֹ־בְעֶצֶם אָדָם אוֹ בְקָבֶר יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.17. וְלָקְחוּ לַטָּמֵא מֵעֲפַר שְׂרֵפַת הַחַטָּאת וְנָתַן עָלָיו מַיִם חַיִּים אֶל־כֶּלִי׃ 19.18. וְלָקַח אֵזוֹב וְטָבַל בַּמַּיִם אִישׁ טָהוֹר וְהִזָּה עַל־הָאֹהֶל וְעַל־כָּל־הַכֵּלִים וְעַל־הַנְּפָשׁוֹת אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ־שָׁם וְעַל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בַּעֶצֶם אוֹ בֶחָלָל אוֹ בַמֵּת אוֹ בַקָּבֶר׃ 19.19. וְהִזָּה הַטָּהֹר עַל־הַטָּמֵא בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְחִטְּאוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר בָּעָרֶב׃ 19.21. וְהָיְתָה לָּהֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם וּמַזֵּה מֵי־הַנִּדָּה יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵי הַנִּדָּה יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 19.22. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַטָּמֵא יִטְמָא וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ הַנֹּגַעַת תִּטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 31.19. וְאַתֶּם חֲנוּ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כֹּל הֹרֵג נֶפֶשׁ וְכֹל נֹגֵעַ בֶּחָלָל תִּתְחַטְּאוּ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי אַתֶּם וּשְׁבִיכֶם׃ 31.24. וְכִבַּסְתֶּם בִּגְדֵיכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וּטְהַרְתֶּם וְאַחַר תָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 5.2. ’Command the children of Israel, that they put out of the camp every leper, and every one that hath an issue, and whosoever is unclean by the dead;" 5.3. both male and female shall ye put out, without the camp shall ye put them; that they defile not their camp, in the midst whereof I dwell.’" 6.6. All the days that he consecrateth himself unto the LORD he shall not come near to a dead body." 6.7. He shall not make himself unclean for his father, or for his mother, for his brother, or for his sister, when they die; because his consecration unto God is upon his head." 6.8. All the days of his Naziriteship he is holy unto the LORD." 6.9. And if any man die very suddenly beside him, and he defile his consecrated head, then he shall shave his head in the day of his cleansing, on the seventh day shall he shave it." 6.10. And on the eighth day he shall bring two turtledoves, or two young pigeons, to the priest, to the door of the tent of meeting." 6.11. And the priest shall prepare one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering, and make atonement for him, for that he sinned by reason of the dead; and he shall hallow his head that same day." 6.12. And he shall consecrate unto the LORD the days of his Naziriteship, and shall bring a he-lamb of the first year for a guilt-offering; but the former days shall be void, because his consecration was defiled. ." 6.22. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 6.23. ’Speak unto Aaron and unto his sons, saying: On this wise ye shall bless the children of Israel; ye shall say unto them:" 6.24. The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;" 6.25. The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;" 6.26. The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace." 6.27. So shall they put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them.’" 17.11. And Moses said unto Aaron: ‘Take thy fire-pan, and put fire therein from off the altar, and lay incense thereon, and carry it quickly unto the congregation, and make atonement for them; for there is wrath gone out from the LORD: the plague is begun.’" 17.12. And Aaron took as Moses spoke, and ran into the midst of the assembly; and, behold, the plague was begun among the people; and he put on the incense, and made atonement for the people." 17.13. And he stood between the dead and the living; and the plague was stayed." 19.11. He that toucheth the dead, even any man’s dead body, shall be unclean seven days;" 19.12. the same shall purify himself therewith on the third day and on the seventh day, and he shall be clean; but if he purify not himself the third day and the seventh day, he shall not be clean." 19.13. Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him." 19.14. This is the law: when a man dieth in a tent, every one that cometh into the tent, and every thing that is in the tent, shall be unclean seven days." 19.15. And every open vessel, which hath no covering close-bound upon it, is unclean." 19.16. And whosoever in the open field toucheth one that is slain with a sword, or one that dieth of himself, or a bone of a man, or a grave, shall be unclean seven days." 19.17. And for the unclean they shall take of the ashes of the burning of the purification from sin, and running water shall be put thereto in a vessel." 19.18. And a clean person shall take hyssop, and dip it in the water, and sprinkle it upon the tent, and upon all the vessels, and upon the persons that were there, and upon him that touched the bone, or the slain, or the dead, or the grave." 19.19. And the clean person shall sprinkle upon the unclean on the third day, and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall purify him; and he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and shall be clean at even." 19.20. But the man that shall be unclean, and shall not purify himself, that soul shall be cut off from the midst of the assembly, because he hath defiled the sanctuary of the LORD; the water of sprinkling hath not been dashed against him: he is unclean." 19.21. And it shall be a perpetual statute unto them; and he that sprinkleth the water of sprinkling shall wash his clothes; and he that toucheth the water of sprinkling shall be unclean until even." 19.22. And whatsoever the unclean person toucheth shall be unclean; and the soul that toucheth him shall be unclean until even." 31.19. And encamp ye without the camp seven days; whosoever hath killed any person, and whosoever hath touched any slain, purify yourselves on the third day and on the seventh day, ye and your captives." 31.20. And as to every garment, and all that is made of skin, and all work of goats’hair, and all things made of wood, ye shall purify.’" 31.24. And ye shall wash your clothes on the seventh day, and ye shall be clean, and afterward ye may come into the camp.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 11.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.4. לֹא־יוֹעִיל הוֹן בְּיוֹם עֶבְרָה וּצְדָקָה תַּצִּיל מִמָּוֶת׃ 11.4. Riches profit not in the day of wrath; But righteousness delivereth from death."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 8.38 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.38. כָּל־תְּפִלָּה כָל־תְּחִנָּה אֲשֶׁר תִהְיֶה לְכָל־הָאָדָם לְכֹל עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יֵדְעוּן אִישׁ נֶגַע לְבָבוֹ וּפָרַשׂ כַּפָּיו אֶל־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה׃ 8.38. what prayer and supplication soever be made by any man of all Thy people Israel, who shall know every man the plague of his own heart, and spread forth his hands toward this house;"
9. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 8.10 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

8.10. And I will turn your feasts into mourning, And all your songs into lamentation; And I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, And baldness upon every head; And I will make it as the mourning for an only son, And the end thereof as a bitter day."
10. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.1. וַתָּשַׁר דְּבוֹרָה וּבָרָק בֶּן־אֲבִינֹעַם בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֵאמֹר׃ 5.1. רֹכְבֵי אֲתֹנוֹת צְחֹרוֹת יֹשְׁבֵי עַל־מִדִּין וְהֹלְכֵי עַל־דֶּרֶךְ שִׂיחוּ׃ 5.1. Then sang Devora and Baraq the son of Avino῾am on that day, saying,"
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.25-44.27 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.25. וְאֶל־מֵת אָדָם לֹא יָבוֹא לְטָמְאָה כִּי אִם־לְאָב וּלְאֵם וּלְבֵן וּלְבַת לְאָח וּלְאָחוֹת אֲשֶׁר־לֹא־הָיְתָה לְאִישׁ יִטַּמָּאוּ׃ 44.26. וְאַחֲרֵי טָהֳרָתוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים יִסְפְּרוּ־לוֹ׃ 44.27. וּבְיוֹם בֹּאוֹ אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֶל־הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית לְשָׁרֵת בַּקֹּדֶשׁ יַקְרִיב חַטָּאתוֹ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 44.25. And they shall come near no dead person to defile themselves; but for father, or for mother, or for son, or for daughter, for brother, or for sister that hath had no husband, they may defile themselves." 44.26. And after he is cleansed, they shall reckon unto him seven days." 44.27. And in the day that he goeth into the sanctuary, into the inner court, to minister in the sanctuary, he shall offer his sin-offering, saith the Lord GOD."
12. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.7-1.10, 1.18-1.20, 2.1-2.12, 3.1, 3.10-3.11, 4.3-4.5, 4.10, 5.18, 6.15, 8.4-8.8, 11.17-11.18, 12.6-12.10, 14.2, 14.10, 14.12 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.18. And if Sennacherib the king put to death any who came fleeing from Judea, I buried them secretly. For in his anger he put many to death. When the bodies were sought by the king, they were not found. 1.19. Then one of the men of Nineveh went and informed the king about me, that I was burying them; so I hid myself. When I learned that I was being searched for, to be put to death, I left home in fear. 2.1. When I arrived home and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of the seven weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I sat down to eat. 2.2. Upon seeing the abundance of food I said to my son, "Go and bring whatever poor man of our brethren you may find who is mindful of the Lord, and I will wait for you. 2.3. But he came back and said, "Father, one of our people has been strangled and thrown into the market place. 2.4. So before I tasted anything I sprang up and removed the body to a place of shelter until sunset. 2.5. And when I returned I washed myself and ate my food in sorrow. 2.6. Then I remembered the prophecy of Amos, how he said, "Your feasts shall be turned into mourning, and all your festivities into lamentation." And I wept. 2.7. When the sun had set I went and dug a grave and buried the body. 2.8. And my neighbors laughed at me and said, "He is no longer afraid that he will be put to death for doing this; he once ran away, and here he is burying the dead again! 2.9. On the same night I returned from burying him, and because I was defiled I slept by the wall of the courtyard, and my face was uncovered. 2.10. I did not know that there were sparrows on the wall and their fresh droppings fell into my open eyes and white films formed on my eyes. I went to physicians, but they did not help me. Ahikar, however, took care of me until he went to Elymais. 3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying 3.10. When she heard these things she was deeply grieved, even to the thought of hanging herself. But she said, "I am the only child of my father; if I do this, it will be a disgrace to him, and I shall bring his old age down in sorrow to the grave. 3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 4.3. So he called him and said, "My son, when I die, bury me, and do not neglect your mother. Honor her all the days of your life; do what is pleasing to her, and do not grieve her. 4.4. Remember, my son, that she faced many dangers for you while you were yet unborn. When she dies bury her beside me in the same grave. 4.5. Remember the Lord our God all your days, my son, and refuse to sin or to transgress his commandments. Live uprightly all the days of your life, and do not walk in the ways of wrongdoing. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 6.15. But the angel said to him, "Do you not remember the words with which your father commanded you to take a wife from among your own people? Now listen to me, brother, for she will become your wife; and do not worry about the demon, for this very night she will be given to you in marriage. 8.4. When the door was shut and the two were alone, Tobias got up from the bed and said, "Sister, get up, and let us pray that the Lord may have mercy upon us. 8.5. And Tobias began to pray, "Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers,and blessed be thy holy and glorious name for ever. Let the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee. 8.6. Thou madest Adam and gavest him Eve his wife as a helper and support.From them the race of mankind has sprung.Thou didst say, `It is not good that the man should be alone;let us make a helper for him like himself. 8.7. And now, O Lord, I am not taking this sister of mine because of lust, but with sincerity. Grant that I may find mercy and may grow old together with her. 8.8. And she said with him, "Amen. 11.18. Ahikar and his nephew Nadab came 12.6. Then the angel called the two of them privately and said to them: "Praise God and give thanks to him; exalt him and give thanks to him in the presence of all the living for what he has done for you. It is good to praise God and to exalt his name, worthily declaring the works of God. Do not be slow to give him thanks. 12.7. It is good to guard the secret of a king, but gloriously to reveal the works of God. Do good, and evil will not overtake you. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 12.9. For almsgiving delivers from death, and it will purge away every sin. Those who perform deeds of charity and of righteousness will have fulness of life; 12.10. but those who commit sin are the enemies of their own lives. 14.2. He was fifty-eight years old when he lost his sight, and after eight years he regained it. He gave alms, and he continued to fear the Lord God and to praise him. 14.10. Bury me properly, and your mother with me. And do not live in Nineveh any longer. See, my son, what Nadab did to Ahikar who had reared him, how he brought him from light into darkness, and with what he repaid him. But Ahikar was saved, and the other received repayment as he himself went down into the darkness. Ahikar gave alms and escaped the deathtrap which Nadab had set for him; but Nadab fell into the trap and perished. 14.12. And when Anna died he buried her with his father. Then Tobias returned with his wife and his sons to Ecbatana, to Raguel his father-in-law.
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 5.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 6.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.11. וְדָנִיֵּאל כְּדִי יְדַע דִּי־רְשִׁים כְּתָבָא עַל לְבַיְתֵהּ וְכַוִּין פְּתִיחָן לֵהּ בְּעִלִּיתֵהּ נֶגֶד יְרוּשְׁלֶם וְזִמְנִין תְּלָתָה בְיוֹמָא הוּא בָּרֵךְ עַל־בִּרְכוֹהִי וּמְצַלֵּא וּמוֹדֵא קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־הֲוָא עָבֵד מִן־קַדְמַת דְּנָה׃ 6.11. And when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house—now his windows were open in his upper chamber toward Jerusalem—and he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime."
15. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 4.30-4.33, 7.40-7.42 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.30. When he saw that the army was strong, he prayed, saying, "Blessed art thou, O Savior of Israel, who didst crush the attack of the mighty warrior by the hand of thy servant David, and didst give the camp of the Philistines into the hands of Jonathan, the son of Saul, and of the man who carried his armor. 4.31. So do thou hem in this army by the hand of thy people Israel, and let them be ashamed of their troops and their cavalry. 4.32. Fill them with cowardice; melt the boldness of their strength; let them tremble in their destruction. 4.33. Strike them down with the sword of those who love thee, and let all who know thy name praise thee with hymns. 7.40. And Judas encamped in Adasa with three thousand men. Then Judas prayed and said 7.41. When the messengers from the king spoke blasphemy, thy angel went forth and struck down one hundred and eighty-five thousand of the Assyrians. 7.42. So also crush this army before us today; let the rest learn that Nicanor has spoken wickedly against the sanctuary, and judge him according to this wickedness.
16. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 12.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.38. Then Judas assembled his army and went to the city of Adullam. As the seventh day was coming on, they purified themselves according to the custom, and they kept the sabbath there.'
17. Septuagint, Judith, 8.5, 12.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

8.5. She set up a tent for herself on the roof of her house, and girded sackcloth about her loins and wore the garments of her widowhood. 12.7. So Holofernes commanded his guards not to hinder her. And she remained in the camp for three days, and went out each night to the valley of Bethulia, and bathed at the spring in the camp.
18. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.591-3.593 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.591. But when from Italy shall come a man 3.592. A spoiler, then, Laodicea, thou 3.593. Beautiful city of the Carian
19. Ignatius, To Polycarp, 5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.119-2.161 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.122. 3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren. 2.123. They think that oil is a defilement; and if anyone of them be anointed without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the use of them all. 2.124. 4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own; and they go in to such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. 2.125. For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take their weapons with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly, there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other necessaries for them. 2.126. But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their masters. Nor do they allow of the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to pieces or worn out by time. 2.127. Nor do they either buy or sell anything to one another; but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives from him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for himself; and although there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please. 2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple 2.131. but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their [white] garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening; 2.132. then they return home to supper, after the same manner; and if there be any strangers there, they sit down with them. Nor is there ever any clamor or disturbance to pollute their house, but they give every one leave to speak in their turn; 2.133. which silence thus kept in their house appears to foreigners like some tremendous mystery; the cause of which is that perpetual sobriety they exercise, and the same settled measure of meat and drink that is allotted to them, and that such as is abundantly sufficient for them. 2.134. 6. And truly, as for other things, they do nothing but according to the injunctions of their curators; only these two things are done among them at everyone’s own free will, which are to assist those that want it, and to show mercy; for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succor to such as deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to bestow food on those that are in distress; but they cannot give any thing to their kindred without the curators. 2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without [swearing by] God is already condemned. 2.136. They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body; and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers. 2.137. 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144. for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator [Moses], whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.146. They also think it a good thing to obey their elders, and the major part. Accordingly, if ten of them be sitting together, no one of them will speak while the other nine are against it. 2.147. They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their labors on the seventh day; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon. 2.148. Nay, on theother days they dig a small pit, a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them when they are first admitted among them); and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the Divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit 2.149. after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose; and although this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a rule with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to them. 2.151. They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet; nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They condemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; 2.152. and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legislator, or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could they not be made to do either of them, no, nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; 2.153. but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again. 2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.155. but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinions of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never-ceasing punishments. 2.156. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods; and to the souls of the wicked, the region of the ungodly, in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected; 2.157. whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death; and whereby the vehement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that although they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. 2.158. These are the Divine doctrines of the Essenes about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste of their philosophy. 2.159. 12. There are also those among them who undertake to foretell things to come, by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purifications, and being perpetually conversant in the discourses of the prophets; and it is but seldom that they miss in their predictions. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes.
21. Mishnah, Oholot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. If [lying over the hatch] there were vessels made of dung, vessels of stone, or vessels of [unbaked] earth, everything [in the upper story] remains clean. If it was a vessel known to be clean for holy things or for [the water of] purification, everything remains clean, since everyone is trusted with [regard to matters of] purification. For clean vessels and earthenware vessels that are [known to be] clean protect with the walls of ‘tents'."
22. New Testament, John, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.6. Now there were six water pots of stone set there after the Jews' manner of purifying, containing two or three metretes apiece.
23. New Testament, Mark, 7.1-7.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.1. Then the Pharisees, and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem. 7.2. Now when they saw some of his disciples eating bread with defiled, that is, unwashed, hands, they found fault. 7.3. (For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, don't eat unless they wash their hands and forearms, holding to the tradition of the elders. 7.4. They don't eat when they come from the marketplace, unless they bathe themselves, and there are many other things, which they have received to hold to: washings of cups, pitchers, bronze vessels, and couches.) 7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands? 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' 7.8. For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things. 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this. 7.14. He called all the multitude to himself, and said to them, "Hear me, all of you, and understand. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 7.16. If anyone has ears to hear, let him hear! 7.17. When he had entered into a house away from the multitude, his disciples asked him about the parable. 7.18. He said to them, "Are you thus without understanding also? Don't you perceive that whatever goes into the man from outside can't defile him 7.19. because it doesn't go into his heart, but into his stomach, then into the latrine, thus making all foods clean? 7.20. He said, "That which proceeds out of the man, that defiles the man. 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts 7.22. covetings, wickedness, deceit, lustful desires, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, and foolishness. 7.23. All these evil things come from within, and defile the man.
24. Tosefta, Demai, 2.2-2.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

25. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 3.11 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

26. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

65b. הוא אמר אפלת בגו עשר והיא אמרה לא אפלית א"ר אמי אף בזו היא נאמנת דאם איתא דהפילה נפשה בעקרתה לא מחזקה,הפילה וחזרה והפילה וחזרה והפילה הוחזקה לנפלים הוא אמר אפילה תרי והיא אמרה תלת אמר רבי יצחק בן אלעזר עובדא הוה בי מדרשא ואמרו היא מהימנא דאם איתא דלא אפלה נפשה בניפלי לא מחזקה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האיש מצווה על פריה ורביה אבל לא האשה רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומר על שניהם הוא אומר (בראשית א, כח) ויברך אותם אלהים ויאמר להם [אלהים] פרו ורבו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא הני מילי אמר ר' אילעא משום ר' אלעזר בר' שמעון אמר קרא (בראשית א, כח) ומלאו את הארץ וכבשוה איש דרכו לכבש ואין אשה דרכה לכבש,אדרבה וכבשוה תרתי משמע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק וכבשה כתיב רב יוסף אמר מהכא (בראשית לה, יא) אני אל שדי פרה ורבה ולא קאמר פרו ורבו,ואמר רבי אילעא משום ר' אלעזר בר' שמעון כשם שמצוה על אדם לומר דבר הנשמע כך מצוה על אדם שלא לומר דבר שאינו נשמע רבי אבא אומר חובה שנאמר (משלי ט, ח) אל תוכח לץ פן ישנאך הוכח לחכם ויאהבך,וא"ר אילעא משום רבי אלעזר בר' שמעון מותר לו לאדם לשנות בדבר השלום שנאמר (בראשית נ, טז) אביך צוה וגו כה תאמרו ליוסף אנא שא נא וגו',ר' נתן אומר מצוה שנאמר (שמואל א טז, ב) ויאמר שמואל איך אלך ושמע שאול והרגני וגו',דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא גדול השלום שאף הקדוש ברוך הוא שינה בו דמעיקרא כתיב (בראשית יח, יב) ואדוני זקן ולבסוף כתיב ואני זקנתי:,רבי יוחנן בן ברוקה אומר: אתמר רבי יוחנן ור' יהושע בן לוי חד אמר הלכה כרבי יוחנן בן ברוקה וחד אמר אין הלכה כרבי יוחנן בן ברוקה,תסתיים דרבי יוחנן הוא דאמר אין הלכה דיתיב ר' אבהו וקאמר משמיה דרבי יוחנן הלכה ואהדרינהו רבי אמי ורבי אסי לאפייהו,ואיכא דאמרי רבי חייא בר אבא אמר ואהדרינהו רבי אמי ורבי אסי לאפייהו אמר רב פפא בשלמא למאן דאמר רבי אבהו אמרה משום כבוד בי קיסר לא אמרו ליה ולא מידי אלא למאן דאמר רבי חייא בר אבא אמרה לימרו ליה לא אמר רבי יוחנן הכי,מאי הוה עלה ת"ש דאמר ר' אחא בר חנינא אמר ר' אבהו אמר ר' אסי עובדא הוה קמיה דרבי יוחנן בכנישתא דקיסרי ואמר יוציא ויתן כתובה ואי ס"ד לא מפקדה כתובה מאי עבידתה,דלמא בבאה מחמת טענה,כי ההיא דאתאי לקמיה דר' אמי אמרה ליה הב לי כתובה אמר לה זיל לא מיפקדת אמרה ליה מסיבו דילה מאי תיהוי עלה דהך אתתא אמר כי הא ודאי כפינן,ההיא דאתאי לקמיה דרב נחמן אמר לה לא מיפקדת אמרה ליה לא בעיא הך אתתא חוטרא לידה ומרה לקבורה אמר כי הא ודאי כפינן,יהודה וחזקיה תאומים היו אחד נגמרה צורתו לסוף תשעה ואחד נגמרה צורתו לתחלת שבעה יהודית דביתהו דר' חייא הוה לה צער לידה שנאי מנא ואתיא לקמיה דר' חייא ואמרה אתתא מפקדא אפריה ורביה אמר לה לא אזלא אשתיא סמא דעקרתא,לסוף איגלאי מילתא אמר לה איכו ילדת לי חדא כרסא אחריתא דאמר מר יהודה וחזקיה אחי פזי וטוי 65b. The Gemara addresses another case in which the court forces a man to divorce his wife who has not had children after ten years. If bhe said: You miscarried withinthe btenyears of our marriage, and since less than ten years have elapsed since that time he should not have to divorce her, band she said: I did not miscarry, Rabbi Ami said: Even in thiscase bshe is believed, because if it is so that she miscarried shewould bnot establish herself as barrenthrough denying his claim.,If bshe miscarried, andthen bmiscarried again, and miscarried again, she has been established tobe a woman who is prone to bmiscarriages,and her husband must divorce her so that he can have children with another woman. If bhe said she miscarried twice, and she saidit occurred bthreetimes, bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Elazar said: There was an incidentof this kind that was adjudicated in bthe study hall and they saidthat bshe is believed, because if it is so thatshe had bnot miscarrieda third time bshewould bnot establish herselfas one who is prone to bmiscarriages. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong bA man is commanded with regard tothe mitzva to be bfruitful and multiply, but not a woman. Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka saysthat a woman is also commanded, as the verse bstates with regard to both of them: “And God blessed them, and God said to them: Be fruitful and multiply”(Genesis 1:28)., strongGEMARA: /strong bFrom where are these mattersderived, that a woman is not obligated in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply? bRabbi Ile’a said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: The verse states:“Be fruitful and multiply, band fill the land and conquer it”(Genesis 1:28). bIt is the manner of a man to conquer and it is not the manner of a woman to conquer.Consequently, it is evident that the entire command, including the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply, was given only to men and not to women.,The Gemara raises a difficulty. bOn the contrary,the plural term: b“And conquer it [ ivekhivshuha /i],” indicatesthat the btwoof them are included. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is writtenin the Torah without the letter ivav /i, so that it can be read: bAnd conquer it [ ivekhivsha /i],in the singular. bRav Yosef said:The proof is bfrom here:“And God said to him: bI am God Almighty, be fruitful and multiply [ iperei urvei /i]”(Genesis 35:11), which is in singular, band it does not state: Be fruitful and multiply [ iperu urvu /i]in the plural.,The Gemara cites other statements made by Rabbi Ile’a in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon. bAnd Rabbi Ile’a said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: Just as it is a mitzva for a person to say that which will be heeded, so is it a mitzva for a person not to say that which will not be heeded.One should not rebuke those who will be unreceptive to his message. bRabbi Abba says:It is bobligatoryfor him to refrain from speaking, bas it is stated: “Do not reprove a scorner lest he hate you; reprove a wise man and he will love you”(Proverbs 9:8)., bAnd Rabbi Ile’afurther bsaid in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: It is permitted for a person to departfrom the truth bin a matterthat will bring bpeace, as it is stated: “Your father commandedbefore he died, saying: bSo you shall say to Joseph: Please pardonyour brothers’ crime, etc.” (Genesis 50:16–17). Jacob never issued this command, but his sons falsely attributed this statement to him in order to preserve peace between them and Joseph., bRabbi Natan says:It is ba mitzvato depart from the truth in order to preserve peace, bas it is stated: “And Samuel said: How can I go, and Saul will hear and kill me”(I Samuel 16:2). God responded in the next verse that Samuel should say he went to sacrifice an offering, indicating that God commands one to lie in order to preserve peace.,It was btaughtin bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael: Great is peace, as even the Holy One, Blessed be He, departedfrom the truth for bit. As, initially it is writtenthat Sarah said of Abraham: b“And my lord is old”(Genesis 18:12), band in the end it is writtenthat God told Abraham that Sarah said: b“And I am old”(Genesis 18:13). God adjusted Sarah’s words in order to spare Abraham hurt feelings that might lead Abraham and Sarah to quarrel.,§ It is taught in the mishna that bRabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka saysthat women are also included in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. bIt was statedthat two iamora’im /i, bRabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,disagreed concerning this matter. bOne saidthat the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, and one saidthat the ihalakhais not in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka. /b,The Gemara comments: bConclude that it was Rabbi Yoḥa who saidthat the ihalakhais notin accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, bas Rabbi Abbahu sat and said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥathat the ihalakha /iis in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, band Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi,who were sitting across from him, bturned their facesas an indication that they disagreed with this report of Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion, but did not want to explicitly contradict Rabbi Abbahu’s statement out of respect for him., bAnd some saya different version of the incident, that it was bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abbawho bsaidthis statement, band Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi turned their faces. Rav Pappa said: Granted, according to the one who saidthat bRabbi Abbahu said it,it makes sense that bdue to the honor of Caesar’s court,where Rabbi Abbahu maintained close ties, Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi bdid not say anything to himand merely hinted at their disagreement. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said it, let them say to him explicitly: Rabbi Yoḥa did not say this.In any event, it is clear that according to Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, Rabbi Yoḥa disagreed with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka.,The Gemara asks: bWhatconclusion bwasreached baboutthis issue? The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhear, as Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina saidthat bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Asi said: There was an incidentthat came bbefore Rabbi Yoḥa in the synagogue of Caesareainvolving a woman who wanted a divorce from her husband after ten years of childless marriage, band he saidthat the husband bmust divorceher band giveher the payment for her bmarriage contract. If it enters your mindto say bthat she is not commandedto be fruitful and multiply, bwhat ispayment for ba marriage contract doinghere? Why does she have a right to demand to be divorced and to receive the payment for her marriage contract?,The Gemara responds: bPerhapsthat was bina case when bshe cameto demand a divorce bdue toanother bclaim,i.e., she wanted children for a reason other than the fulfillment of the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply. Since this claim has merit, her husband must divorce her and pay her marriage contract.,This is blikethe case of ba certainwoman bwho came before Rabbi Amiand requested a divorce due to her husband’s inability to father children. bShe said to him /b: bGive methe payment for my bmarriage contract. He said to her: Goaway, as byou are not commandedto be fruitful and multiply and have no right to demand a divorce. bShe said to him: In her old age, what will be with this woman,i.e., if I have no children, who will take care of me when I grow old? Rabbi Ami bsaid:In a situation bsuch as this, we certainly forcethe husband to divorce and her and pay her marriage contract.,The Gemara relates a similar incident: bA certainwoman bcame before Rav Naḥmanand requested a divorce due to her husband’s inability to father children. bHe said to her: You are not commandedto be fruitful and multiply. bShe said to him: Does this woman not require a staff for her hand and a hoe forher bburial?In other words, the woman said that she wanted children so that they could care for her in her old age and bury her when she would die. Rav Naḥman bsaid:In a case bsuch as this, we certainly forcethe husband to divorce her.,The Gemara relates that Rabbi Ḥiyya’s sons, bYehuda and Ḥizkiyya, were twins,but boneof them bwas fully developed after ninemonths of pregcy band one was fully developed at the beginning of the seventhmonth, and they were born two months apart. bYehudit, the wife of Rabbi Ḥiyya, hadacute bbirthing painfrom these unusual deliveries. She bchanged her clothesto prevent Rabbi Ḥiyya from recognizing her band came before Rabbi Ḥiyyato ask him a halakhic question. bShe said: Is a woman commandedto be bfruitful and multiply? He said to her: No. She went and drank an infertility potion. /b, bEventually the matter was revealed,and Rabbi Ḥiyya found out about what Yehudit had done. bHe said to her: If only you had given birth to one more belly for me,i.e., another set of twins. bAs the Master said: Yehuda and Ḥizkiyyawere twin bbrothersand became prominent Torah scholars, and bPazi and Tavi,Rabbi Ḥiyya’s daughters
27. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 10.4

28. Pseudo-Tertullian, To His Wife, 2.8



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Gera, Judith (2014) 303
aaronic blessing Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 234
adelphos, ἀδελφός/ἐξάδελφος, senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
aramaic forms of book of tobit, qumran (4q196-199) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129
aseneth Gera, Judith (2014) 303
asmodeus Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
aḥiqar, as a jewish relative of tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 129
aḥiqar, as an assyrian wise man Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
aḥiqar, sources Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
aḥiqar, textual forms Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128, 151
aḥiqar, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 151
aḥiqar, versions, aramaic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
aḥiqar, versions, syriac Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128, 151
aḥiqar, versions, wisdom (maxims, proverbs) of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128, 151
blindness and healing, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 128, 129
burial Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 234
burial of death, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
burial of death, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128, 151
codex, reginensis Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129
daniel, influence on judith Gera, Judith (2014) 303
darkness Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
death, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
dinah Gera, Judith (2014) 303
disease, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128
disgrace, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
elam (elymais) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129
esarhaddon (sacherdonos/sarchedonos or archedonassar) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
essenes Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
exemplary figures Gera, Judith (2014) 303
exhortation, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
exhortation, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
exile, in assyria Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
eye Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 128
fabula, theme Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 128, 151
family, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129
father-son relationship, in aḥiqar (adoptive son) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128
food, purity of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
god Gera, Judith (2014) 303
greek forms of book of tobit, long Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128, 129
greek forms of book of tobit, short Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128, 129
handwashing Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
hannah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 129, 151
hannah (tobits wife) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 110
heavens Gera, Judith (2014) 303
high priesthood Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
innocent suffering of the just man, in ancient near eastern poems Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
innocent suffering of the just man, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
jacob Gera, Judith (2014) 303
jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 303
jew Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
jewish, post-biblical Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128
jonah, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129, 151
jonah, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
josephus Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
journey, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129
judas maccabeusnan, prays Gera, Judith (2014) 303
judith, prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 303
kēnūtāʾ (syriac), senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
language and style, book of judith, awkward and difficult Gera, Judith (2014) 303
language and style, book of judith, direct speech Gera, Judith (2014) 303
latin forms of book of tobit, vetus latina (long) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128, 129
latin forms of book of tobit, vulgate (short) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128
levi Gera, Judith (2014) 303
marriage Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 234
media Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129, 151
mesopotamia Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129
misfortune, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 129
misfortune Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 129
nadin (nadab, haman) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128, 151
narrative, edifying, didactic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
narrative, level, critical Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128
near east, ancient, world Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
nineveh, locus of deportation Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129
nostos, νόστος, return home, tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129
nostos, νόστος, return home, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 128
only child Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
pain, suffering, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
pain, suffering, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 128
penchansky, david Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 110
pentateuch, pentecost, sacred banquet of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
persia Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129
philo Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
pietas, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 128
prayers and praying, timing and location Gera, Judith (2014) 303
prayers and praying Gera, Judith (2014) 303
priests, and their influence Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 170
rape Gera, Judith (2014) 303
raphael (angel) Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 110
righteousness, rectitude, ahiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
righteousness, rectitude, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 128, 151
ritual bathing/washing Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 170
ritual baths (miqvaot) Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
ritual purity, maintained beyond the temple Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
roofs, biblical, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 303
rooms, upper Gera, Judith (2014) 303
sacrifices, incense Gera, Judith (2014) 303
sacrifices Gera, Judith (2014) 303
samaritans Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
sarah, married to tobiah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129, 151
sarah, suffering Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
sarah, tobias wife Gera, Judith (2014) 303
sennacherib (king) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
shechem, city and people Gera, Judith (2014) 303
sheol, ṣidqāʾ/ṣedaqtāʾ (aramaic), senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
simeon, and levi Gera, Judith (2014) 303
simeon, attacks shechem Gera, Judith (2014) 303
sin, disobedience Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
solomon Gera, Judith (2014) 303
son of hamor Gera, Judith (2014) 303
sons of aaron Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 170
stone vessels Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
susa Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129
synagogues' Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
syriac, language Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
talmud, babylonian Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
temple in jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 303
testament of job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
therapaeutae Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism in the Study of Ancient Judaism (2009) 169
tobiah, marriage Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129, 151
tobiah, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 128, 151
tobias Gera, Judith (2014) 303
tobit, author x Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 128, 151
tobit, friends Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 129
tobit, rewrites and integrations Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
tobit, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 128, 129
tobit Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 110; Gera, Judith (2014) 303; Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
traditional, wisdom Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128
trials, provocations, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
wealth, prosperity, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
wife, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
wife, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151
wisdom, literature Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72
wisdom, traditional Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 128
wise man, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 72, 151
worship, occasional Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 234
zeal and zealots Gera, Judith (2014) 303
ṣedāqâ, senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 151