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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



705
Septuagint, Tobit, 1.17-1.20


nanI would give my bread to the hungry and my clothing to the naked; and if I saw any one of my people dead and thrown out behind the wall of Nineveh, I would bury him.


nanAnd if Sennacherib the king put to death any who came fleeing from Judea, I buried them secretly. For in his anger he put many to death. When the bodies were sought by the king, they were not found.


nanThen one of the men of Nineveh went and informed the king about me, that I was burying them; so I hid myself. When I learned that I was being searched for, to be put to death, I left home in fear.


nanThen all my property was confiscated and nothing was left to me except my wife Anna and my son Tobias.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

22 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1-1.14, 1.16, 1.18-1.22, 2.1-2.8, 2.11, 2.14, 3.1-3.7, 3.11, 3.16, 4.3-4.21, 6.14, 8.3, 11.14, 12.12-12.13, 13.3-13.6, 13.8-13.17, 14.2, 14.5-14.7, 14.9-14.10 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali 1.2. who in the days of Shalmaneser, king of the Assyrians, was taken into captivity from Thisbe, which is to the south of Kedesh Naphtali in Galilee above Asher. 1.3. I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life, and I performed many acts of charity to my brethren and countrymen who went with me into the land of the Assyrians, to Nineveh. 1.4. Now when I was in my own country, in the land of Israel, while I was still a young man, the whole tribe of Naphtali my forefather deserted the house of Jerusalem. This was the place which had been chosen from among all the tribes of Israel, where all the tribes should sacrifice and where the temple of the dwelling of the Most High was consecrated and established for all generations for ever. 1.5. All the tribes that joined in apostasy used to sacrifice to the calf Baal, and so did the house of Naphtali my forefather. 1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it 1.12. because I remembered God with all my heart. 1.13. Then the Most High gave me favor and good appearance in the sight of Shalmaneser, and I was his buyer of provisions. 1.14. So I used to go into Media, and once at Rages in Media I left ten talents of silver in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias. 1.18. And if Sennacherib the king put to death any who came fleeing from Judea, I buried them secretly. For in his anger he put many to death. When the bodies were sought by the king, they were not found. 1.19. Then one of the men of Nineveh went and informed the king about me, that I was burying them; so I hid myself. When I learned that I was being searched for, to be put to death, I left home in fear. 1.21. But not fifty days passed before two of Sennacheribs sons killed him, and they fled to the mountains of Ararat. Then Esarhaddon, his son, reigned in his place; and he appointed Ahikar, the son of my brother Anael, over all the accounts of his kingdom and over the entire administration. 1.22. Ahikar interceded for me, and I returned to Nineveh. Now Ahikar was cupbearer, keeper of the signet, and in charge of administration of the accounts, for Esarhaddon had appointed him second to himself. He was my nephew. 2.1. When I arrived home and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of the seven weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I sat down to eat. 2.2. Upon seeing the abundance of food I said to my son, "Go and bring whatever poor man of our brethren you may find who is mindful of the Lord, and I will wait for you. 2.3. But he came back and said, "Father, one of our people has been strangled and thrown into the market place. 2.4. So before I tasted anything I sprang up and removed the body to a place of shelter until sunset. 2.5. And when I returned I washed myself and ate my food in sorrow. 2.6. Then I remembered the prophecy of Amos, how he said, "Your feasts shall be turned into mourning, and all your festivities into lamentation." And I wept. 2.7. When the sun had set I went and dug a grave and buried the body. 2.8. And my neighbors laughed at me and said, "He is no longer afraid that he will be put to death for doing this; he once ran away, and here he is burying the dead again! 2.14. And she said, "It was given to me as a gift in addition to my wages." But I did not believe her, and told her to return it to the owners; and I blushed for her. Then she replied to me, "Where are your charities and your righteous deeds? You seem to know everything! 3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying 3.3. Remember me and look favorably upon me; do not punish me for my sins and for my unwitting offences and those which my fathers committed before thee. 3.4. For they disobeyed thy commandments, and thou gavest us over to plunder, captivity, and death; thou madest us a byword of reproach in all the nations among which we have been dispersed. 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me. 3.7. On the same day, at Ecbatana in Media, it also happened that Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, was reproached by her fathers maids 3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 3.16. The prayer of both was heard in the presence of the glory of the great God. 4.3. So he called him and said, "My son, when I die, bury me, and do not neglect your mother. Honor her all the days of your life; do what is pleasing to her, and do not grieve her. 4.4. Remember, my son, that she faced many dangers for you while you were yet unborn. When she dies bury her beside me in the same grave. 4.5. Remember the Lord our God all your days, my son, and refuse to sin or to transgress his commandments. Live uprightly all the days of your life, and do not walk in the ways of wrongdoing. 4.6. For if you do what is true, your ways will prosper through your deeds. 4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land. 4.13. So now, my son, love your brethren, and in your heart do not disdain your brethren and the sons and daughters of your people by refusing to take a wife for yourself from among them. For in pride there is ruin and great confusion; and in shiftlessness there is loss and great want, because shiftlessness is the mother of famine. 4.14. Do not hold over till the next day the wages of any man who works for you, but pay him at once; and if you serve God you will receive payment. "Watch yourself, my son, in everything you do, and be disciplined in all your conduct. 4.15. And what you hate, do not do to any one. Do not drink wine to excess or let drunkenness go with you on your way. 4.16. Give of your bread to the hungry, and of your clothing to the naked. Give all your surplus to charity, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you made it. 4.18. Seek advice from every wise man, and do not despise any useful counsel. 4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind. 4.21. Do not be afraid, my son, because we have become poor. You have great wealth if you fear God and refrain from every sin and do what is pleasing in his sight. 6.14. Now I am the only son my father has, and I am afraid that if I go in I will die as those before me did, for a demon is in love with her, and he harms no one except those who approach her. So now I fear that I may die and bring the lives of my father and mother to the grave in sorrow on my account. And they have no other son to bury them. 8.3. And when the demon smelled the odor he fled to the remotest parts of Egypt, and the angel bound him. 11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels. 12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you. 12.13. When you did not hesitate to rise and leave your dinner in order to go and lay out the dead, your good deed was not hidden from me, but I was with you. 13.3. Acknowledge him before the nations, O sons of Israel;for he has scattered us among them. 13.4. Make his greatness known there,and exalt him in the presence of all the living;because he is our Lord and God,he is our Father for ever. 13.5. He will afflict us for our iniquities;and again he will show mercy,and will gather us from all the nations among whom you have been scattered. 13.6. If you turn to him with all your heart and with all your soul,to do what is true before him,then he will turn to you and will not hide his face from you. But see what he will do with you;give thanks to him with your full voice. Praise the Lord of righteousness,and exalt the King of the ages. I give him thanks in the land of my captivity,and I show his power and majesty to a nation of sinners. Turn back, you sinners, and do right before him;who knows if he will accept you and have mercy on you? 13.8. Let all men speak,and give him thanks in Jerusalem. 13.9. O Jerusalem, the holy city,he will afflict you for the deeds of your sons,but again he will show mercy to the sons of the righteous. 13.10. Give thanks worthily to the Lord,and praise the King of the ages,that his tent may be raised for you again with joy. May he cheer those within you who are captives,and love those within you who are distressed,to all generations for ever. 13.11. Many nations will come from afar to the name of the Lord God,bearing gifts in their hands, gifts for the King of heaven. Generations of generations will give you joyful praise. 13.12. Cursed are all who hate you;blessed for ever will be all who love you. 13.13. Rejoice and be glad for the sons of the righteous;for they will be gathered together,and will praise the Lord of the righteous. 13.14. How blessed are those who love you!They will rejoice in your peace. Blessed are those who grieved over all your afflictions;for they will rejoice for you upon seeing all your glory,and they will be made glad for ever. 13.15. Let my soul praise God the great King. 13.16. For Jerusalem will be built with sapphires and emeralds,her walls with precious stones,and her towers and battlements with pure gold. 13.17. The streets of Jerusalem will be paved with beryl and ruby and stones of Ophir; 14.2. He was fifty-eight years old when he lost his sight, and after eight years he regained it. He gave alms, and he continued to fear the Lord God and to praise him. 14.5. But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it. 14.6. Then all the Gentiles will turn to fear the Lord God in truth, and will bury their idols. 14.7. All the Gentiles will praise the Lord, and his people will give thanks to God, and the Lord will exalt his people. And all who love the Lord God in truth and righteousness will rejoice, showing mercy to our brethren. 14.9. But keep the law and the commandments, and be merciful and just, so that it may be well with you. 14.10. Bury me properly, and your mother with me. And do not live in Nineveh any longer. See, my son, what Nadab did to Ahikar who had reared him, how he brought him from light into darkness, and with what he repaid him. But Ahikar was saved, and the other received repayment as he himself went down into the darkness. Ahikar gave alms and escaped the deathtrap which Nadab had set for him; but Nadab fell into the trap and perished.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.10, 14.22-14.29, 21.23, 26.12-26.13, 28.26, 32.3, 32.39, 32.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.22. עַשֵּׂר תְּעַשֵּׂר אֵת כָּל־תְּבוּאַת זַרְעֶךָ הַיֹּצֵא הַשָּׂדֶה שָׁנָה שָׁנָה׃ 14.23. וְאָכַלְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם מַעְשַׂר דְּגָנְךָ תִּירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ וּבְכֹרֹת בְּקָרְךָ וְצֹאנֶךָ לְמַעַן תִּלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 14.24. וְכִי־יִרְבֶּה מִמְּךָ הַדֶּרֶךְ כִּי לֹא תוּכַל שְׂאֵתוֹ כִּי־יִרְחַק מִמְּךָ הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָשׂוּם שְׁמוֹ שָׁם כִּי יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 14.25. וְנָתַתָּה בַּכָּסֶף וְצַרְתָּ הַכֶּסֶף בְּיָדְךָ וְהָלַכְתָּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ׃ 14.26. וְנָתַתָּה הַכֶּסֶף בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תְּאַוֶּה נַפְשְׁךָ בַּבָּקָר וּבַצֹּאן וּבַיַּיִן וּבַשֵּׁכָר וּבְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁאָלְךָ נַפְשֶׁךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ שָּׁם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְשָׂמַחְתָּ אַתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ׃ 14.27. וְהַלֵּוִי אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לֹא תַעַזְבֶנּוּ כִּי אֵין לוֹ חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה עִמָּךְ׃ 14.28. מִקְצֵה שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים תּוֹצִיא אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂר תְּבוּאָתְךָ בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִוא וְהִנַּחְתָּ בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 14.29. וּבָא הַלֵּוִי כִּי אֵין־לוֹ חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה עִמָּךְ וְהַגֵּר וְהַיָּתוֹם וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְאָכְלוּ וְשָׂבֵעוּ לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־מַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה׃ 21.23. לֹא־תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ עַל־הָעֵץ כִּי־קָבוֹר תִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי־קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־אַדְמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 26.12. כִּי תְכַלֶּה לַעְשֵׂר אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂר תְּבוּאָתְךָ בַּשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁלִישִׁת שְׁנַת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְנָתַתָּה לַלֵּוִי לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה וְאָכְלוּ בִשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְשָׂבֵעוּ׃ 26.13. וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בִּעַרְתִּי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִן־הַבַּיִת וְגַם נְתַתִּיו לַלֵּוִי וְלַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה כְּכָל־מִצְוָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי לֹא־עָבַרְתִּי מִמִּצְוֺתֶיךָ וְלֹא שָׁכָחְתִּי׃ 28.26. וְהָיְתָה נִבְלָתְךָ לְמַאֲכָל לְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְבֶהֱמַת הָאָרֶץ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃ 32.3. אֵיכָה יִרְדֹּף אֶחָד אֶלֶף וּשְׁנַיִם יָנִיסוּ רְבָבָה אִם־לֹא כִּי־צוּרָם מְכָרָם וַיהוָה הִסְגִּירָם׃ 32.3. כִּי שֵׁם יְהוָה אֶקְרָא הָבוּ גֹדֶל לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 32.39. רְאוּ עַתָּה כִּי אֲנִי אֲנִי הוּא וְאֵין אֱלֹהִים עִמָּדִי אֲנִי אָמִית וַאֲחַיֶּה מָחַצְתִּי וַאֲנִי אֶרְפָּא וְאֵין מִיָּדִי מַצִּיל׃ 32.43. הַרְנִינוּ גוֹיִם עַמּוֹ כִּי דַם־עֲבָדָיו יִקּוֹם וְנָקָם יָשִׁיב לְצָרָיו וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ׃ 8.10. And thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and bless the LORD thy God for the good land which He hath given thee." 14.22. Thou shalt surely tithe all the increase of thy seed, that which is brought forth in the field year by year." 14.23. And thou shalt eat before the LORD thy God, in the place which He shall choose to cause His name to dwell there, the tithe of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the firstlings of thy herd and of thy flock; that thou mayest learn to fear the LORD thy God always." 14.24. And if the way be too long for thee, so that thou art not able to carry it, because the place is too far from thee, which the LORD thy God shall choose to set His name there, when the LORD thy God shall bless thee;" 14.25. then shalt thou turn it into money, and bind up the money in thy hand, and shalt go unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose." 14.26. And thou shalt bestow the money for whatsoever thy soul desireth, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul asketh of thee; and thou shalt eat there before the LORD thy God, and thou shalt rejoice, thou and thy household." 14.27. And the Levite that is within thy gates, thou shalt not forsake him; for he hath no portion nor inheritance with thee." 14.28. At the end of every three years, even in the same year, thou shalt bring forth all the tithe of thine increase, and shall lay it up within thy gates." 14.29. And the Levite, because he hath no portion nor inheritance with thee, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, that are within thy gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hand which thou doest." 21.23. his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt surely bury him the same day; for he that is hanged is a reproach unto God; that thou defile not thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance." 26.12. When thou hast made an end of tithing all the tithe of thine increase in the third year, which is the year of tithing, and hast given it unto the Levite, to the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be satisfied," 26.13. then thou shalt say before the LORD thy God: ‘I have put away the hallowed things out of my house, and also have given them unto the Levite, and unto the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, according to all Thy commandment which Thou hast commanded me; I have not transgressed any of Thy commandments, neither have I forgotten them." 28.26. And thy carcasses shall be food unto all fowls of the air, and unto the beasts of the earth, and there shall be none to frighten them away." 32.3. For I will proclaim the name of the LORD; Ascribe ye greatness unto our God." 32.39. See now that I, even I, am He, And there is no god with Me; I kill, and I make alive; I have wounded, and I heal; And there is none that can deliver out of My hand." 32.43. Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; For He doth avenge the blood of His servants, And doth render vengeance to His adversaries, And doth make expiation for the land of His people."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.3-1.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. וַיְהִי מִקְנֵהוּ שִׁבְעַת אַלְפֵי־צֹאן וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אַלְפֵי גְמַלִּים וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת צֶמֶד־בָּקָר וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אֲתוֹנוֹת וַעֲבֻדָּה רַבָּה מְאֹד וַיְהִי הָאִישׁ הַהוּא גָּדוֹל מִכָּל־בְּנֵי־קֶדֶם׃ 1.4. וְהָלְכוּ בָנָיו וְעָשׂוּ מִשְׁתֶּה בֵּית אִישׁ יוֹמוֹ וְשָׁלְחוּ וְקָרְאוּ לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת אחיתיהם [אַחְיוֹתֵיהֶם] לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת עִמָּהֶם׃ 1.3. His possessions also were seven thousand sheep, and three thousand camels, and five hundred yoke of oxen, and five hundred she-asses, and a very great household; so that this man was the greatest of all the children of the east." 1.4. And his sons used to go and hold a feast in the house of each one upon his day; and they would send and invite their three sisters to eat and to drink with them."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 7.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.8. אַל־תִּשְׂמְחִי אֹיַבְתִּי לִי כִּי נָפַלְתִּי קָמְתִּי כִּי־אֵשֵׁב בַּחֹשֶׁךְ יְהוָה אוֹר לִי׃ 7.8. Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy; Though I am fallen, I shall arise; Though I sit in darkness, the LORD is a light unto me."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 31.19-31.24, 36.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.19. וְאַתֶּם חֲנוּ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כֹּל הֹרֵג נֶפֶשׁ וְכֹל נֹגֵעַ בֶּחָלָל תִּתְחַטְּאוּ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי אַתֶּם וּשְׁבִיכֶם׃ 31.21. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־אַנְשֵׁי הַצָּבָא הַבָּאִים לַמִּלְחָמָה זֹאת חֻקַּת הַתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃ 31.22. אַךְ אֶת־הַזָּהָב וְאֶת־הַכָּסֶף אֶת־הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֶת־הַבַּרְזֶל אֶת־הַבְּדִיל וְאֶת־הָעֹפָרֶת׃ 31.23. כָּל־דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־יָבֹא בָאֵשׁ תַּעֲבִירוּ בָאֵשׁ וְטָהֵר אַךְ בְּמֵי נִדָּה יִתְחַטָּא וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָבֹא בָּאֵשׁ תַּעֲבִירוּ בַמָּיִם׃ 31.24. וְכִבַּסְתֶּם בִּגְדֵיכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וּטְהַרְתֶּם וְאַחַר תָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 36.7. וְלֹא־תִסֹּב נַחֲלָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמַּטֶּה אֶל־מַטֶּה כִּי אִישׁ בְּנַחֲלַת מַטֵּה אֲבֹתָיו יִדְבְּקוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 31.19. And encamp ye without the camp seven days; whosoever hath killed any person, and whosoever hath touched any slain, purify yourselves on the third day and on the seventh day, ye and your captives." 31.20. And as to every garment, and all that is made of skin, and all work of goats’hair, and all things made of wood, ye shall purify.’" 31.21. And Eleazar the priest said unto the men of war that went to the battle: ‘This is the statute of the law which the LORD hath commanded Moses:" 31.22. Howbeit the gold, and the silver, the brass, the iron, the tin, and the lead," 31.23. every thing that may abide the fire, ye shall make to go through the fire, and it shall be clean; nevertheless it shall be purified with the water of sprinkling; and all that abideth not the fire ye shall make to go through the water." 31.24. And ye shall wash your clothes on the seventh day, and ye shall be clean, and afterward ye may come into the camp.’" 36.7. So shall no inheritance of the children of Israel remove from tribe to tribe; for the children of Israel shall cleave every one to the inheritance of the tribe of his fathers."
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 34.26, 35.24, 38.16, 79.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

35.24. שָׁפְטֵנִי כְצִדְקְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי וְאַל־יִשְׂמְחוּ־לִי׃ 38.16. כִּי־לְךָ יְהוָה הוֹחָלְתִּי אַתָּה תַעֲנֶה אֲדֹנָי אֱלֹהָי׃ 79.2. נָתְנוּ אֶת־נִבְלַת עֲבָדֶיךָ מַאֲכָל לְעוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּשַׂר חֲסִידֶיךָ לְחַיְתוֹ־אָרֶץ׃ 35.24. Judge me, O LORD my God, according to Thy righteousness; And let them not rejoice over me." 38.16. For in Thee, O LORD, do I hope; Thou wilt answer, O Lord my God." 79.2. They have given the dead bodies of Thy servants to be food unto the fowls of the heaven, The flesh of Thy saints unto the beasts of the earth."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 9.35-9.37 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.35. וַיֵּלְכוּ לְקָבְרָהּ וְלֹא־מָצְאוּ בָהּ כִּי אִם־הַגֻּלְגֹּלֶת וְהָרַגְלַיִם וְכַפּוֹת הַיָּדָיִם׃ 9.36. וַיָּשֻׁבוּ וַיַּגִּידוּ לוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר דְּבַר־יְהוָה הוּא אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר בְּיַד־עַבְדּוֹ אֵלִיָּהוּ הַתִּשְׁבִּי לֵאמֹר בְּחֵלֶק יִזְרְעֶאל יֹאכְלוּ הַכְּלָבִים אֶת־בְּשַׂר אִיזָבֶל׃ 9.37. והית [וְהָיְתָה] נִבְלַת אִיזֶבֶל כְּדֹמֶן עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה בְּחֵלֶק יִזְרְעֶאל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֹאמְרוּ זֹאת אִיזָבֶל׃ 9.35. And they went to bury her; but they found no more of her than the skull, and the feet, and the palms of her hands." 9.36. Wherefore they came back, and told him. And he said: ‘This is the word of the LORD, which He spoke by His servant Elijah the Tishbite, saying: In the portion of Jezreel shall the dogs eat the flesh of Jezebel;" 9.37. and the carcass of Jezebel shall be as dung upon the face of the field in the portion of Jezreel; so that they shall not say: This is Jezebel.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 8.2, 14.16, 16.6, 23.33, 29.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.2. עָבַר קָצִיר כָּלָה קָיִץ וַאֲנַחְנוּ לוֹא נוֹשָׁעְנוּ׃ 8.2. וּשְׁטָחוּם לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְלַיָּרֵחַ וּלְכֹל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר אֲהֵבוּם וַאֲשֶׁר עֲבָדוּם וַאֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ אַחֲרֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר דְּרָשׁוּם וַאֲשֶׁר הִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לָהֶם לֹא יֵאָסְפוּ וְלֹא יִקָּבֵרוּ לְדֹמֶן עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה יִהְיוּ׃ 14.16. וְהָעָם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה נִבְּאִים לָהֶם יִהְיוּ מֻשְׁלָכִים בְּחֻצוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם מִפְּנֵי הָרָעָב וְהַחֶרֶב וְאֵין מְקַבֵּר לָהֵמָּה הֵמָּה נְשֵׁיהֶם וּבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנֹתֵיהֶם וְשָׁפַכְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת־רָעָתָם׃ 16.6. וּמֵתוּ גְדֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים בָּאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לֹא יִקָּבֵרוּ וְלֹא־יִסְפְּדוּ לָהֶם וְלֹא יִתְגֹּדַד וְלֹא יִקָּרֵחַ לָהֶם׃ 23.33. וְכִי־יִשְׁאָלְךָ הָעָם הַזֶּה אוֹ־הַנָּבִיא אוֹ־כֹהֵן לֵאמֹר מַה־מַשָּׂא יְהוָה וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם אֶת־מַה־מַשָּׂא וְנָטַשְׁתִּי אֶתְכֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 29.5. בְּנוּ בָתִּים וְשֵׁבוּ וְנִטְעוּ גַנּוֹת וְאִכְלוּ אֶת־פִּרְיָן׃ 8.2. and they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon, and all the host of heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have served, and after whom they have walked, and whom they have sought, and whom they have worshipped; they shall not be gathered, nor be buried, they shall be for dung upon the face of the earth." 14.16. and the people to whom they prophesy shall be cast out in the streets of Jerusalem because of the famine and the sword; and they shall have none to bury them, them, their wives, nor their sons, nor their daughters; for I will pour their evil upon them.’" 16.6. Both the great and the small shall die in this land; they shall not be buried; neither shall men lament for them, nor cut themselves, nor make themselves bald for them;" 23.33. And when this people, or the prophet, or a priest, shall ask thee, saying: ‘What is the burden of the LORD?’ then shalt thou say unto them: ‘What burden! I will cast you off, saith the LORD.’" 29.5. Build ye houses, and dwell in them, and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them;"
11. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1-1.14, 1.16-1.22, 2.1-2.8, 2.11, 2.14, 3.1-3.7, 3.11, 3.16, 4.3-4.21, 6.14, 8.3, 11.14, 12.12-12.13, 13.3-13.6, 13.8-13.17, 14.2, 14.5-14.7, 14.9-14.10 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali 1.2. who in the days of Shalmaneser, king of the Assyrians, was taken into captivity from Thisbe, which is to the south of Kedesh Naphtali in Galilee above Asher. 1.3. I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life, and I performed many acts of charity to my brethren and countrymen who went with me into the land of the Assyrians, to Nineveh. 1.4. Now when I was in my own country, in the land of Israel, while I was still a young man, the whole tribe of Naphtali my forefather deserted the house of Jerusalem. This was the place which had been chosen from among all the tribes of Israel, where all the tribes should sacrifice and where the temple of the dwelling of the Most High was consecrated and established for all generations for ever. 1.5. All the tribes that joined in apostasy used to sacrifice to the calf Baal, and so did the house of Naphtali my forefather. 1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it 1.12. because I remembered God with all my heart. 1.13. Then the Most High gave me favor and good appearance in the sight of Shalmaneser, and I was his buyer of provisions. 1.14. So I used to go into Media, and once at Rages in Media I left ten talents of silver in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias. 1.17. I would give my bread to the hungry and my clothing to the naked; and if I saw any one of my people dead and thrown out behind the wall of Nineveh, I would bury him. 1.18. And if Sennacherib the king put to death any who came fleeing from Judea, I buried them secretly. For in his anger he put many to death. When the bodies were sought by the king, they were not found. 1.19. Then one of the men of Nineveh went and informed the king about me, that I was burying them; so I hid myself. When I learned that I was being searched for, to be put to death, I left home in fear. 1.21. But not fifty days passed before two of Sennacheribs sons killed him, and they fled to the mountains of Ararat. Then Esarhaddon, his son, reigned in his place; and he appointed Ahikar, the son of my brother Anael, over all the accounts of his kingdom and over the entire administration. 1.22. Ahikar interceded for me, and I returned to Nineveh. Now Ahikar was cupbearer, keeper of the signet, and in charge of administration of the accounts, for Esarhaddon had appointed him second to himself. He was my nephew. 2.1. When I arrived home and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of the seven weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I sat down to eat. 2.2. Upon seeing the abundance of food I said to my son, "Go and bring whatever poor man of our brethren you may find who is mindful of the Lord, and I will wait for you. 2.3. But he came back and said, "Father, one of our people has been strangled and thrown into the market place. 2.4. So before I tasted anything I sprang up and removed the body to a place of shelter until sunset. 2.5. And when I returned I washed myself and ate my food in sorrow. 2.6. Then I remembered the prophecy of Amos, how he said, "Your feasts shall be turned into mourning, and all your festivities into lamentation." And I wept. 2.7. When the sun had set I went and dug a grave and buried the body. 2.8. And my neighbors laughed at me and said, "He is no longer afraid that he will be put to death for doing this; he once ran away, and here he is burying the dead again! 2.14. And she said, "It was given to me as a gift in addition to my wages." But I did not believe her, and told her to return it to the owners; and I blushed for her. Then she replied to me, "Where are your charities and your righteous deeds? You seem to know everything! 3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying 3.3. Remember me and look favorably upon me; do not punish me for my sins and for my unwitting offences and those which my fathers committed before thee. 3.4. For they disobeyed thy commandments, and thou gavest us over to plunder, captivity, and death; thou madest us a byword of reproach in all the nations among which we have been dispersed. 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me. 3.7. On the same day, at Ecbatana in Media, it also happened that Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, was reproached by her fathers maids 3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 3.16. The prayer of both was heard in the presence of the glory of the great God. 4.3. So he called him and said, "My son, when I die, bury me, and do not neglect your mother. Honor her all the days of your life; do what is pleasing to her, and do not grieve her. 4.4. Remember, my son, that she faced many dangers for you while you were yet unborn. When she dies bury her beside me in the same grave. 4.5. Remember the Lord our God all your days, my son, and refuse to sin or to transgress his commandments. Live uprightly all the days of your life, and do not walk in the ways of wrongdoing. 4.6. For if you do what is true, your ways will prosper through your deeds. 4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land. 4.13. So now, my son, love your brethren, and in your heart do not disdain your brethren and the sons and daughters of your people by refusing to take a wife for yourself from among them. For in pride there is ruin and great confusion; and in shiftlessness there is loss and great want, because shiftlessness is the mother of famine. 4.14. Do not hold over till the next day the wages of any man who works for you, but pay him at once; and if you serve God you will receive payment. "Watch yourself, my son, in everything you do, and be disciplined in all your conduct. 4.15. And what you hate, do not do to any one. Do not drink wine to excess or let drunkenness go with you on your way. 4.16. Give of your bread to the hungry, and of your clothing to the naked. Give all your surplus to charity, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you made it. 4.18. Seek advice from every wise man, and do not despise any useful counsel. 4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind. 4.21. Do not be afraid, my son, because we have become poor. You have great wealth if you fear God and refrain from every sin and do what is pleasing in his sight. 6.14. Now I am the only son my father has, and I am afraid that if I go in I will die as those before me did, for a demon is in love with her, and he harms no one except those who approach her. So now I fear that I may die and bring the lives of my father and mother to the grave in sorrow on my account. And they have no other son to bury them. 8.3. And when the demon smelled the odor he fled to the remotest parts of Egypt, and the angel bound him. 11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels. 12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you. 12.13. When you did not hesitate to rise and leave your dinner in order to go and lay out the dead, your good deed was not hidden from me, but I was with you. 13.3. Acknowledge him before the nations, O sons of Israel;for he has scattered us among them. 13.4. Make his greatness known there,and exalt him in the presence of all the living;because he is our Lord and God,he is our Father for ever. 13.5. He will afflict us for our iniquities;and again he will show mercy,and will gather us from all the nations among whom you have been scattered. 13.6. If you turn to him with all your heart and with all your soul,to do what is true before him,then he will turn to you and will not hide his face from you. But see what he will do with you;give thanks to him with your full voice. Praise the Lord of righteousness,and exalt the King of the ages. I give him thanks in the land of my captivity,and I show his power and majesty to a nation of sinners. Turn back, you sinners, and do right before him;who knows if he will accept you and have mercy on you? 13.8. Let all men speak,and give him thanks in Jerusalem. 13.9. O Jerusalem, the holy city,he will afflict you for the deeds of your sons,but again he will show mercy to the sons of the righteous. 13.10. Give thanks worthily to the Lord,and praise the King of the ages,that his tent may be raised for you again with joy. May he cheer those within you who are captives,and love those within you who are distressed,to all generations for ever. 13.11. Many nations will come from afar to the name of the Lord God,bearing gifts in their hands, gifts for the King of heaven. Generations of generations will give you joyful praise. 13.12. Cursed are all who hate you;blessed for ever will be all who love you. 13.13. Rejoice and be glad for the sons of the righteous;for they will be gathered together,and will praise the Lord of the righteous. 13.14. How blessed are those who love you!They will rejoice in your peace. Blessed are those who grieved over all your afflictions;for they will rejoice for you upon seeing all your glory,and they will be made glad for ever. 13.15. Let my soul praise God the great King. 13.16. For Jerusalem will be built with sapphires and emeralds,her walls with precious stones,and her towers and battlements with pure gold. 13.17. The streets of Jerusalem will be paved with beryl and ruby and stones of Ophir; 14.2. He was fifty-eight years old when he lost his sight, and after eight years he regained it. He gave alms, and he continued to fear the Lord God and to praise him. 14.5. But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it. 14.6. Then all the Gentiles will turn to fear the Lord God in truth, and will bury their idols. 14.7. All the Gentiles will praise the Lord, and his people will give thanks to God, and the Lord will exalt his people. And all who love the Lord God in truth and righteousness will rejoice, showing mercy to our brethren. 14.9. But keep the law and the commandments, and be merciful and just, so that it may be well with you. 14.10. Bury me properly, and your mother with me. And do not live in Nineveh any longer. See, my son, what Nadab did to Ahikar who had reared him, how he brought him from light into darkness, and with what he repaid him. But Ahikar was saved, and the other received repayment as he himself went down into the darkness. Ahikar gave alms and escaped the deathtrap which Nadab had set for him; but Nadab fell into the trap and perished.
12. Anon., 1 Enoch, 103.12, 108.9 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

103.12. They have had dominion over us that hated us and smote us; And to those that hated us we have bowed our necks But they pitied us not.
13. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 23.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14. Septuagint, Judith, 1.1, 13.8, 16.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

1.1. In the twelfth year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, who ruled over the Assyrians in the great city of Nineveh, in the days of Arphaxad, who ruled over the Medes in Ecbatana -- 13.8. And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed it from his body. 16.9. Her sandal ravished his eyes, her beauty captivated his mind, and the sword severed his neck.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 68 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

68. And the women also share in this feast, the greater part of whom, though old, are virgins in respect of their purity (not indeed through necessity, as some of the priestesses among the Greeks are, who have been compelled to preserve their chastity more than they would have done of their own accord), but out of an admiration for and love of wisdom, with which they are desirous to pass their lives, on account of which they are indifferent to the pleasures of the body, desiring not a mortal but an immortal offspring, which the soul that is attached to God is alone able to produce by itself and from itself, the Father having sown in it rays of light appreciable only by the intellect, by means of which it will be able to perceive the doctrines of wisdom. IX.
16. Anon., Testament of Abraham, 1.1-1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 39.2, 40.7 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.465, 4.314-4.317, 5.545 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.465. It was then common to see cities filled with dead bodies, still lying unburied, and those of old men, mixed with infants, all dead, and scattered about together; women also lay amongst them, without any covering for their nakedness: you might then see the whole province full of inexpressible calamities, while the dread of still more barbarous practices which were threatened was everywhere greater than what had been already perpetrated. 4.314. 2. But the rage of the Idumeans was not satiated by these slaughters; but they now betook themselves to the city, and plundered every house, and slew everyone they met; 4.315. and for the other multitude, they esteemed it needless to go on with killing them, but they sought for the high priests, and the generality went with the greatest zeal against them; 4.316. and as soon as they caught them they slew them, and then standing upon their dead bodies, in way of jest, upbraided Aus with his kindness to the people, and Jesus with his speech made to them from the wall. 4.317. Nay, they proceeded to that degree of impiety, as to cast away their dead bodies without burial, although the Jews used to take so much care of the burial of men, that they took down those that were condemned and crucified, and buried them before the going down of the sun. 5.545. She also made great lamentation privately to the maidservants that were about her, and said, That this was all the advantage she had of bringing so extraordinary a person as this son into the world; that she should not be able even to bury that son of hers, by whom she expected to have been buried herself.
19. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.211 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.211. 30. However, there are other things which our legislator ordained for us beforehand, which of necessity we ought to do in common to all men; as to afford fire, and water, and food to such as want it; to show them the roads; nor to let any one lie unburied. He also would have us treat those that are esteemed our enemies with moderation:
20. New Testament, Apocalypse, 11.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.9. From among the peoples, tribes, languages, and nations people will look at their dead bodies for three and a half days, and will not allow their dead bodies to be laid in a tomb.
21. New Testament, Luke, 9.59 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.59. He said to another, "Follow me!"But he said, "Lord, allow me first to go and bury my father.
22. New Testament, Matthew, 8.21, 23.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.21. Another of his disciples said to him, "Lord, allow me first to go and bury my father. 23.27. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you are like whitened tombs, which outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham/abram Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
adelphos, ἀδελφός/ἐξάδελφος, senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
angels of the divine presence, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
assyria Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
assyrian, court Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
assyrian, king Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
assyrians Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
aḥiqar, as a jewish relative of tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
aḥiqar, sources Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
aḥiqar, textual forms Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
aḥiqar, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87, 144, 145
aḥiqar, versions, arabic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
aḥiqar, versions, syriac Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
aḥiqar, versions, wisdom (maxims, proverbs) of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144, 145
bible, texts and exegesis relating to egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
birds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
blindness and healing, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
body, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
body Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
bone Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 394
burial, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
burial Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
burial of death, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144, 145
burial of death, judaism Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
burial of death, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144, 145
cairo genizah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
city Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 167
comedy Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166
creativity (creative) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166
dead sea scrolls Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
death, in tobit Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166, 167
death, of patriarchs Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166
death Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 394
demon, demonology Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
deuteronomistic, deuteronomy, book of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
diaspora Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 167
dust Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
egyptians, depictions in hebrew bible, lxx, and ancient jewish writings Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
elephantine, account, papyrus, text, version of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
endogamy Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 144
esarhaddon (sacherdonos/sarchedonos or archedonassar) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
exile, in assyria Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87
exiles, assyrian Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
fabula, motif Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
fabula, theme Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
faith, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
faith, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
faithfulness, fidelity to the law, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
faithfulness, fidelity to the law, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
family, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 144
family/families Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 167
father-son relationship, in aḥiqar (adoptive son) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
father-son relationship, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
fiction Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 167
fire Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
first night of marriage Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
food, purity of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87
frechette, christopher g. Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
funny Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166
galilee Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
genesis, book of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
geography/geographical Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 167
god, presence of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
god Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166
good works, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 144
grateful dead, the Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
hannah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
head, beheading Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
heaven, third Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 394
historical(ly) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 167
humor(ous) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166, 167
hyperbole Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166
idumaeans Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
irony (literary, dramatic) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166, 167
israel, ancient Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 144
israel, biblical, people Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
jerusalem, annual pilgrimage Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
jerusalem, destruction of Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 167
jerusalem, first fruits Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
jerusalem, in tobit Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
jerusalem, new jerusalem Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
jerusalem, second temple Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
jerusalem Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370; Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
jew Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87
jewish, tradition Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
jewish community, temple Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 167
job, arabic setting Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
job, book of, author Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
job, eastern sheik Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
job, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
jonah, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
judaism Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
judith Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166, 167
kings of assyria, sennacherib Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
literary genres, novel or roman/romance Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
literary genres, short story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
macatangay, francis m. Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
marriage, endogamic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 144
marriage, traditional value Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
media Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
mercy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
mesopotamia Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
miriam Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
misfortune, sarah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
misfortune, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
misfortune Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
moon Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
moses Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
murder Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
mēt miṣwāʾ Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
nadin (nadab, haman) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144, 145
narrative, folkloristic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
narrative, happy ending Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
narrative, legendary Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
narrative, narrator Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
narrative, popular Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
narrative, supernatural Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
nebuchadnezzar Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 167
neck Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
nephtali Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
nineveh, locus of deportation Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
nineveh Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
nostos, νόστος, return home, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
odysseus, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
old age, old man, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
pain, suffering, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
pain, suffering, sarah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
pain, suffering, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
palestine (eretz israel, holy land) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
parody (parodic) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166
patriarchal, traditions, stories Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
petitions / prayers, by the oppressed Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
pietas, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144, 145
pietas, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87, 144
pious Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166, 167
poor Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 144, 145
prayer, supplication, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
prayer, supplication, sarah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
prayer, supplication, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 145
prayers, of deliverance Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
qumran, extra-biblical texts Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
qumran Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
rage Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
rages Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
retribution, traditional doctrine Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
righteousness, rectitude, ahiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
righteousness, rectitude, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 144, 145
sarai/sarah (matriarch) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
sargon ii Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
satire Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166
scribal practice Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
sennacherib (king) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87, 145
shalmaneser v (king) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
shalmeneser Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
shame Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
sin, disobedience Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
suffering of the righteous Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
sun Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
sweat Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
sword' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 370
syria (assyria, syriac) Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 167
temples, destruction of Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 167
temples, in jerusalem Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 167
testament, of abraham Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166, 167
therapeutae Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
tobiads, tobit, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
tobiah, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
tobit, author x Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87
tobit, friends Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
tobit, narrator Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144
tobit, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87, 144, 145
tobit Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121; Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
tomb Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
trauma Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 121
vision, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
washing, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 976
wealth, prosperity, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144, 145
wealth, prosperity, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
wealth, prosperity, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87, 145
weapons Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 394
wife, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
wise man, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
wise man, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
women, jewish Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 99
wordplay Johnson Dupertuis and Shea, Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction: Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives (2018) 166
yhwh, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
yhwh, mercy, providence Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 144, 145
ἐλεημοσύνη (elemosyna), senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 144