Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



705
Septuagint, Tobit, 1.11-1.14


nanbut I kept myself from eating it


nanbecause I remembered God with all my heart.


nanThen the Most High gave me favor and good appearance in the sight of Shalmaneser, and I was his buyer of provisions.


nanSo I used to go into Media, and once at Rages in Media I left ten talents of silver in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

33 results
1. Septuagint, Baruch, 2, 1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1-1.10, 1.12-1.14, 1.16-1.22, 2.11, 3.1-3.16, 4.3-4.4, 8.5-8.8, 8.15-8.17, 11.14, 13.2-13.18, 14.9 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali 1.2. who in the days of Shalmaneser, king of the Assyrians, was taken into captivity from Thisbe, which is to the south of Kedesh Naphtali in Galilee above Asher. 1.3. I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life, and I performed many acts of charity to my brethren and countrymen who went with me into the land of the Assyrians, to Nineveh. 1.4. Now when I was in my own country, in the land of Israel, while I was still a young man, the whole tribe of Naphtali my forefather deserted the house of Jerusalem. This was the place which had been chosen from among all the tribes of Israel, where all the tribes should sacrifice and where the temple of the dwelling of the Most High was consecrated and established for all generations for ever. 1.5. All the tribes that joined in apostasy used to sacrifice to the calf Baal, and so did the house of Naphtali my forefather. 1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.12. because I remembered God with all my heart. 1.13. Then the Most High gave me favor and good appearance in the sight of Shalmaneser, and I was his buyer of provisions. 1.14. So I used to go into Media, and once at Rages in Media I left ten talents of silver in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias. 1.17. I would give my bread to the hungry and my clothing to the naked; and if I saw any one of my people dead and thrown out behind the wall of Nineveh, I would bury him. 1.18. And if Sennacherib the king put to death any who came fleeing from Judea, I buried them secretly. For in his anger he put many to death. When the bodies were sought by the king, they were not found. 1.19. Then one of the men of Nineveh went and informed the king about me, that I was burying them; so I hid myself. When I learned that I was being searched for, to be put to death, I left home in fear. 1.21. But not fifty days passed before two of Sennacheribs sons killed him, and they fled to the mountains of Ararat. Then Esarhaddon, his son, reigned in his place; and he appointed Ahikar, the son of my brother Anael, over all the accounts of his kingdom and over the entire administration. 1.22. Ahikar interceded for me, and I returned to Nineveh. Now Ahikar was cupbearer, keeper of the signet, and in charge of administration of the accounts, for Esarhaddon had appointed him second to himself. He was my nephew. 3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying 3.3. Remember me and look favorably upon me; do not punish me for my sins and for my unwitting offences and those which my fathers committed before thee. 3.4. For they disobeyed thy commandments, and thou gavest us over to plunder, captivity, and death; thou madest us a byword of reproach in all the nations among which we have been dispersed. 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me. 3.7. On the same day, at Ecbatana in Media, it also happened that Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, was reproached by her fathers maids 3.8. because she had been given to seven husbands, and the evil demon Asmodeus had slain each of them before he had been with her as his wife. So the maids said to her, "Do you not know that you strangle your husbands? You already have had seven and have had no benefit from any of them. 3.9. Why do you beat us? If they are dead, go with them! May we never see a son or daughter of yours! 3.10. When she heard these things she was deeply grieved, even to the thought of hanging herself. But she said, "I am the only child of my father; if I do this, it will be a disgrace to him, and I shall bring his old age down in sorrow to the grave. 3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 3.12. And now, O Lord, I have turned my eyes and my face toward thee. 3.13. Command that I be released from the earth and that I hear reproach no more. 3.14. Thou knowest, O Lord, that I am innocent of any sin with man 3.15. and that I did not stain my name or the name of my father in the land of my captivity. I am my fathers only child, and he has no child to be his heir, no near kinsman or kinsmans son for whom I should keep myself as wife. Already seven husbands of mine are dead. Why should I live? But if it be not pleasing to thee to take my life, command that respect be shown to me and pity be taken upon me, and that I hear reproach no more. 3.16. The prayer of both was heard in the presence of the glory of the great God. 4.3. So he called him and said, "My son, when I die, bury me, and do not neglect your mother. Honor her all the days of your life; do what is pleasing to her, and do not grieve her. 4.4. Remember, my son, that she faced many dangers for you while you were yet unborn. When she dies bury her beside me in the same grave. 8.5. And Tobias began to pray, "Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers,and blessed be thy holy and glorious name for ever. Let the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee. 8.6. Thou madest Adam and gavest him Eve his wife as a helper and support.From them the race of mankind has sprung.Thou didst say, `It is not good that the man should be alone;let us make a helper for him like himself. 8.7. And now, O Lord, I am not taking this sister of mine because of lust, but with sincerity. Grant that I may find mercy and may grow old together with her. 8.8. And she said with him, "Amen. 8.15. Then Raguel blessed God and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, with every pure and holy blessing.Let thy saints and all thy creatures bless thee;let all thy angels and thy chosen people bless thee for ever. 8.16. Blessed art thou, because thou hast made me glad. It has not happened to me as I expected;but thou hast treated us according to thy great mercy. 8.17. Blessed art thou, because thou hast had compassion on two only children. Show them mercy, O Lord;and bring their lives to fulfilment in health and happiness and mercy. 11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels. 13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand. 13.3. Acknowledge him before the nations, O sons of Israel;for he has scattered us among them. 13.4. Make his greatness known there,and exalt him in the presence of all the living;because he is our Lord and God,he is our Father for ever. 13.5. He will afflict us for our iniquities;and again he will show mercy,and will gather us from all the nations among whom you have been scattered. 13.6. If you turn to him with all your heart and with all your soul,to do what is true before him,then he will turn to you and will not hide his face from you. But see what he will do with you;give thanks to him with your full voice. Praise the Lord of righteousness,and exalt the King of the ages. I give him thanks in the land of my captivity,and I show his power and majesty to a nation of sinners. Turn back, you sinners, and do right before him;who knows if he will accept you and have mercy on you? 13.7. I exalt my God;my soul exalts the King of heaven,and will rejoice in his majesty. 13.8. Let all men speak,and give him thanks in Jerusalem. 13.9. O Jerusalem, the holy city,he will afflict you for the deeds of your sons,but again he will show mercy to the sons of the righteous. 13.10. Give thanks worthily to the Lord,and praise the King of the ages,that his tent may be raised for you again with joy. May he cheer those within you who are captives,and love those within you who are distressed,to all generations for ever. 13.11. Many nations will come from afar to the name of the Lord God,bearing gifts in their hands, gifts for the King of heaven. Generations of generations will give you joyful praise. 13.12. Cursed are all who hate you;blessed for ever will be all who love you. 13.13. Rejoice and be glad for the sons of the righteous;for they will be gathered together,and will praise the Lord of the righteous. 13.14. How blessed are those who love you!They will rejoice in your peace. Blessed are those who grieved over all your afflictions;for they will rejoice for you upon seeing all your glory,and they will be made glad for ever. 13.15. Let my soul praise God the great King. 13.16. For Jerusalem will be built with sapphires and emeralds,her walls with precious stones,and her towers and battlements with pure gold. 13.17. The streets of Jerusalem will be paved with beryl and ruby and stones of Ophir; 13.18. all her lanes will cry `Hallelujah! and will give praise,saying, `Blessed is God, who has exalted you for ever. 14.9. But keep the law and the commandments, and be merciful and just, so that it may be well with you.
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.13, 8.10, 11.14, 14.22-14.29, 26.12-26.13, 32.3, 32.39, 32.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.13. וַאֲהֵבְךָ וּבֵרַכְךָ וְהִרְבֶּךָ וּבֵרַךְ פְּרִי־בִטְנְךָ וּפְרִי־אַדְמָתֶךָ דְּגָנְךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ שְׁגַר־אֲלָפֶיךָ וְעַשְׁתְּרֹת צֹאנֶךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ לָתֶת לָךְ׃ 11.14. וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר־אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ יוֹרֶה וּמַלְקוֹשׁ וְאָסַפְתָּ דְגָנֶךָ וְתִירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ׃ 14.22. עַשֵּׂר תְּעַשֵּׂר אֵת כָּל־תְּבוּאַת זַרְעֶךָ הַיֹּצֵא הַשָּׂדֶה שָׁנָה שָׁנָה׃ 14.23. וְאָכַלְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם מַעְשַׂר דְּגָנְךָ תִּירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ וּבְכֹרֹת בְּקָרְךָ וְצֹאנֶךָ לְמַעַן תִּלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 14.24. וְכִי־יִרְבֶּה מִמְּךָ הַדֶּרֶךְ כִּי לֹא תוּכַל שְׂאֵתוֹ כִּי־יִרְחַק מִמְּךָ הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָשׂוּם שְׁמוֹ שָׁם כִּי יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 14.25. וְנָתַתָּה בַּכָּסֶף וְצַרְתָּ הַכֶּסֶף בְּיָדְךָ וְהָלַכְתָּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ׃ 14.26. וְנָתַתָּה הַכֶּסֶף בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תְּאַוֶּה נַפְשְׁךָ בַּבָּקָר וּבַצֹּאן וּבַיַּיִן וּבַשֵּׁכָר וּבְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁאָלְךָ נַפְשֶׁךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ שָּׁם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְשָׂמַחְתָּ אַתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ׃ 14.27. וְהַלֵּוִי אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לֹא תַעַזְבֶנּוּ כִּי אֵין לוֹ חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה עִמָּךְ׃ 14.28. מִקְצֵה שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים תּוֹצִיא אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂר תְּבוּאָתְךָ בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִוא וְהִנַּחְתָּ בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃ 14.29. וּבָא הַלֵּוִי כִּי אֵין־לוֹ חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה עִמָּךְ וְהַגֵּר וְהַיָּתוֹם וְהָאַלְמָנָה אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְאָכְלוּ וְשָׂבֵעוּ לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־מַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה׃ 26.12. כִּי תְכַלֶּה לַעְשֵׂר אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂר תְּבוּאָתְךָ בַּשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁלִישִׁת שְׁנַת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְנָתַתָּה לַלֵּוִי לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה וְאָכְלוּ בִשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְשָׂבֵעוּ׃ 26.13. וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בִּעַרְתִּי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִן־הַבַּיִת וְגַם נְתַתִּיו לַלֵּוִי וְלַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה כְּכָל־מִצְוָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי לֹא־עָבַרְתִּי מִמִּצְוֺתֶיךָ וְלֹא שָׁכָחְתִּי׃ 32.3. אֵיכָה יִרְדֹּף אֶחָד אֶלֶף וּשְׁנַיִם יָנִיסוּ רְבָבָה אִם־לֹא כִּי־צוּרָם מְכָרָם וַיהוָה הִסְגִּירָם׃ 32.3. כִּי שֵׁם יְהוָה אֶקְרָא הָבוּ גֹדֶל לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃ 32.39. רְאוּ עַתָּה כִּי אֲנִי אֲנִי הוּא וְאֵין אֱלֹהִים עִמָּדִי אֲנִי אָמִית וַאֲחַיֶּה מָחַצְתִּי וַאֲנִי אֶרְפָּא וְאֵין מִיָּדִי מַצִּיל׃ 32.43. הַרְנִינוּ גוֹיִם עַמּוֹ כִּי דַם־עֲבָדָיו יִקּוֹם וְנָקָם יָשִׁיב לְצָרָיו וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ׃ 7.13. and He will love thee, and bless thee, and multiply thee; He will also bless the fruit of thy body and the fruit of thy land, thy corn and thy wine and thine oil, the increase of thy kine and the young of thy flock, in the land which He swore unto thy fathers to give thee." 8.10. And thou shalt eat and be satisfied, and bless the LORD thy God for the good land which He hath given thee." 11.14. that I will give the rain of your land in its season, the former rain and the latter rain, that thou mayest gather in thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil." 14.22. Thou shalt surely tithe all the increase of thy seed, that which is brought forth in the field year by year." 14.23. And thou shalt eat before the LORD thy God, in the place which He shall choose to cause His name to dwell there, the tithe of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the firstlings of thy herd and of thy flock; that thou mayest learn to fear the LORD thy God always." 14.24. And if the way be too long for thee, so that thou art not able to carry it, because the place is too far from thee, which the LORD thy God shall choose to set His name there, when the LORD thy God shall bless thee;" 14.25. then shalt thou turn it into money, and bind up the money in thy hand, and shalt go unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose." 14.26. And thou shalt bestow the money for whatsoever thy soul desireth, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul asketh of thee; and thou shalt eat there before the LORD thy God, and thou shalt rejoice, thou and thy household." 14.27. And the Levite that is within thy gates, thou shalt not forsake him; for he hath no portion nor inheritance with thee." 14.28. At the end of every three years, even in the same year, thou shalt bring forth all the tithe of thine increase, and shall lay it up within thy gates." 14.29. And the Levite, because he hath no portion nor inheritance with thee, and the stranger, and the fatherless, and the widow, that are within thy gates, shall come, and shall eat and be satisfied; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hand which thou doest." 26.12. When thou hast made an end of tithing all the tithe of thine increase in the third year, which is the year of tithing, and hast given it unto the Levite, to the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be satisfied," 26.13. then thou shalt say before the LORD thy God: ‘I have put away the hallowed things out of my house, and also have given them unto the Levite, and unto the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, according to all Thy commandment which Thou hast commanded me; I have not transgressed any of Thy commandments, neither have I forgotten them." 32.3. For I will proclaim the name of the LORD; Ascribe ye greatness unto our God." 32.39. See now that I, even I, am He, And there is no god with Me; I kill, and I make alive; I have wounded, and I heal; And there is none that can deliver out of My hand." 32.43. Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; For He doth avenge the blood of His servants, And doth render vengeance to His adversaries, And doth make expiation for the land of His people."
4. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.9. וַתִּיטַב הַנַּעֲרָה בְעֵינָיו וַתִּשָּׂא חֶסֶד לְפָנָיו וַיְבַהֵל אֶת־תַּמְרוּקֶיהָ וְאֶת־מָנוֹתֶהָ לָתֵת לָהּ וְאֵת שֶׁבַע הַנְּעָרוֹת הָרְאֻיוֹת לָתֶת־לָהּ מִבֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיְשַׁנֶּהָ וְאֶת־נַעֲרוֹתֶיהָ לְטוֹב בֵּית הַנָּשִׁים׃ 2.9. And the maiden pleased him, and she obtained kindness of him; and he speedily gave her her ointments, with her portions, and the seven maidens, who were meet to be given her out of the king’s house; and he advanced her and her maidens to the best place in the house of the women."
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.3-1.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.3. וַיְהִי מִקְנֵהוּ שִׁבְעַת אַלְפֵי־צֹאן וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אַלְפֵי גְמַלִּים וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת צֶמֶד־בָּקָר וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אֲתוֹנוֹת וַעֲבֻדָּה רַבָּה מְאֹד וַיְהִי הָאִישׁ הַהוּא גָּדוֹל מִכָּל־בְּנֵי־קֶדֶם׃ 1.4. וְהָלְכוּ בָנָיו וְעָשׂוּ מִשְׁתֶּה בֵּית אִישׁ יוֹמוֹ וְשָׁלְחוּ וְקָרְאוּ לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת אחיתיהם [אַחְיוֹתֵיהֶם] לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת עִמָּהֶם׃ 1.3. His possessions also were seven thousand sheep, and three thousand camels, and five hundred yoke of oxen, and five hundred she-asses, and a very great household; so that this man was the greatest of all the children of the east." 1.4. And his sons used to go and hold a feast in the house of each one upon his day; and they would send and invite their three sisters to eat and to drink with them."
6. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 4.3, 4.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.3. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה קַח־נָא אֶת־נַפְשִׁי מִמֶּנִּי כִּי טוֹב מוֹתִי מֵחַיָּי׃ 4.8. וַיְהִי כִּזְרֹחַ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וַיְמַן אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ קָדִים חֲרִישִׁית וַתַּךְ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ עַל־רֹאשׁ יוֹנָה וַיִּתְעַלָּף וַיִּשְׁאַל אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ לָמוּת וַיֹּאמֶר טוֹב מוֹתִי מֵחַיָּי׃ 4.3. Therefore now, O LORD, take, I beseech Thee, my life from me; for it is better for me to die than to live.’" 4.8. And it came to pass, when the sun arose, that God prepared a vehement east wind; and the sun beat upon the head of Jonah, that he fainted, and requested for himself that he might die, and said: ‘It is better for me to die than to live.’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 24.6-24.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.6. וְשַׂמְתָּ אוֹתָם שְׁתַּיִם מַעֲרָכוֹת שֵׁשׁ הַמַּעֲרָכֶת עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן הַטָּהֹר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 24.7. וְנָתַתָּ עַל־הַמַּעֲרֶכֶת לְבֹנָה זַכָּה וְהָיְתָה לַלֶּחֶם לְאַזְכָּרָה אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 24.6. And thou shalt set them in two rows, six in a row, upon the pure table before the LORD." 24.7. And thou shalt put pure frankincense with each row, that it may be to the bread for a memorial-part, even an offering made by fire unto the LORD."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15.39, 36.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.39. וְהָיָה לָכֶם לְצִיצִת וּרְאִיתֶם אֹתוֹ וּזְכַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָתֻרוּ אַחֲרֵי לְבַבְכֶם וְאַחֲרֵי עֵינֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם זֹנִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם׃ 36.7. וְלֹא־תִסֹּב נַחֲלָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמַּטֶּה אֶל־מַטֶּה כִּי אִישׁ בְּנַחֲלַת מַטֵּה אֲבֹתָיו יִדְבְּקוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 15.39. And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye go not about after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go astray;" 36.7. So shall no inheritance of the children of Israel remove from tribe to tribe; for the children of Israel shall cleave every one to the inheritance of the tribe of his fathers."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 104.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

104.15. וְיַיִן יְשַׂמַּח לְבַב־אֱנוֹשׁ לְהַצְהִיל פָּנִים מִשָּׁמֶן וְלֶחֶם לְבַב־אֱנוֹשׁ יִסְעָד׃ 104.15. And wine that maketh glad the heart of man, Making the face brighter than oil, And bread that stayeth man's heart."
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 7.48 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.48. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹה אֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים אֲשֶׁר בֵּית יְהוָה אֵת מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב וְאֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים זָהָב׃ 7.48. And Solomon made all the vessels that were in the house of the LORD: the golden altar, and the table whereupon the showbread was, of gold;"
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 25.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.18. וַתְּמַהֵר אבוגיל [אֲבִיגַיִל] וַתִּקַּח מָאתַיִם לֶחֶם וּשְׁנַיִם נִבְלֵי־יַיִן וְחָמֵשׁ צֹאן עשוות [עֲשׂוּיֹת] וְחָמֵשׁ סְאִים קָלִי וּמֵאָה צִמֻּקִים וּמָאתַיִם דְּבֵלִים וַתָּשֶׂם עַל־הַחֲמֹרִים׃ 25.18. Then Avigayil made haste, and took two hundred loaves, and two bottles of wine, and five sheep ready prepared, and five measures of parched corn, and a hundred clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes of figs, and laid them on asses."
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.15-1.16, 64.4-64.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.15. וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי־תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ׃ 1.16. רַחֲצוּ הִזַּכּוּ הָסִירוּ רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם מִנֶּגֶד עֵינָי חִדְלוּ הָרֵעַ׃ 64.4. פָּגַעְתָּ אֶת־שָׂשׂ וְעֹשֵׂה צֶדֶק בִּדְרָכֶיךָ יִזְכְּרוּךָ הֵן־אַתָּה קָצַפְתָּ וַנֶּחֱטָא בָּהֶם עוֹלָם וְנִוָּשֵׁעַ׃ 64.5. וַנְּהִי כַטָּמֵא כֻּלָּנוּ וּכְבֶגֶד עִדִּים כָּל־צִדְקֹתֵינוּ וַנָּבֶל כֶּעָלֶה כֻּלָּנוּ וַעֲוֺנֵנוּ כָּרוּחַ יִשָּׂאֻנוּ׃ 1.15. And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear; Your hands are full of blood." 1.16. Wash you, make you clean, Put away the evil of your doings From before Mine eyes, Cease to do evil;" 64.4. Thou didst take away him that joyfully worked righteousness, those that remembered Thee in Thy ways— Behold, Thou wast wroth, and we sinned— Upon them have we stayed of old, that we might be saved." 64.5. And we are all become as one that is unclean, and all our righteousnesses are as a polluted garment; and we all do fade as a leaf, and our iniquities, like the wind, take us away."
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 31.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

31.12. וּבָאוּ וְרִנְּנוּ בִמְרוֹם־צִיּוֹן וְנָהֲרוּ אֶל־טוּב יְהוָה עַל־דָּגָן וְעַל־תִּירֹשׁ וְעַל־יִצְהָר וְעַל־בְּנֵי־צֹאן וּבָקָר וְהָיְתָה נַפְשָׁם כְּגַן רָוֶה וְלֹא־יוֹסִיפוּ לְדַאֲבָה עוֹד׃ 31.12. And they shall come and sing in the height of Zion, And shall flow unto the goodness of the LORD, To the corn, and to the wine, and to the oil, And to the young of the flock and of the herd; And their soul shall be as a watered garden, And they shall not pine any more at all."
14. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 4.9-4.15 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.9. וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ חִטִּין וּשְׂעֹרִים וּפוֹל וַעֲדָשִׁים וְדֹחַן וְכֻסְּמִים וְנָתַתָּה אוֹתָם בִּכְלִי אֶחָד וְעָשִׂיתָ אוֹתָם לְךָ לְלָחֶם מִסְפַּר הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה שׁוֹכֵב עַל־צִדְּךָ שְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת וְתִשְׁעִים יוֹם תֹּאכֲלֶנּוּ׃ 4.11. וּמַיִם בִּמְשׂוּרָה תִשְׁתֶּה שִׁשִּׁית הַהִין מֵעֵת עַד־עֵת תִּשְׁתֶּה׃ 4.12. וְעֻגַת שְׂעֹרִים תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה וְהִיא בְּגֶלְלֵי צֵאַת הָאָדָם תְּעֻגֶנָה לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 4.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה כָּכָה יֹאכְלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־לַחְמָם טָמֵא בַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר אַדִּיחֵם שָׁם׃ 4.14. וָאֹמַר אֲהָהּ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנֵּה נַפְשִׁי לֹא מְטֻמָּאָה וּנְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה לֹא־אָכַלְתִּי מִנְּעוּרַי וְעַד־עַתָּה וְלֹא־בָא בְּפִי בְּשַׂר פִּגּוּל׃ 4.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי רְאֵה נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־צפועי [צְפִיעֵי] הַבָּקָר תַּחַת גֶּלְלֵי הָאָדָם וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־לַחְמְךָ עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 4.9. Take thou also unto thee wheat, and barley, and beans, and lentils, and millet, and spelt, and put them in one vessel, and make thee bread thereof; according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon thy side, even three hundred and ninety days, shalt thou eat thereof." 4.10. And thy food which thou shalt eat shall be by weight, twenty shekels a day; from time to time shalt thou eat it." 4.11. Thou shalt drink also water by measure, the sixth part of a hin; from time to time shalt thou drink." 4.12. And thou shalt eat it as barley cakes, and thou shalt bake it in their sight with dung that cometh out of man.’" 4.13. And the LORD said: ‘Even thus shall the children of Israel eat their bread unclean, among the nations whither I will drive them.’" 4.14. Then said I: ‘Ah Lord GOD! behold, my soul hath not been polluted; for from my youth up even till now have I not eaten of that which dieth of itself, or is torn of beasts; neither came there abhorred flesh into my mouth.’" 4.15. Then He said unto me: ‘See, I have given thee cow’s dung for man’s dung, and thou shalt prepare thy bread thereon.’"
15. Euripides, Trojan Women, 893, 892 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

17. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

18. Herodotus, Histories, 9.82 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.82. This other story is also told. When Xerxes fled from Hellas, he left to Mardonius his own establishment. Pausanias, seeing Mardonius' establishment with its display of gold and silver and gaily colored tapestry, ordered the bakers and the cooks to prepare a dinner such as they were accustomed to do for Mardonius. ,They did his bidding, but Pausanias, when he saw golden and silver couches richly covered, and tables of gold and silver, and all the magnificent service of the banquet, was amazed at the splendor before him, and for a joke commanded his own servants to prepare a dinner in Laconian fashion. When that meal, so different from the other, was ready, Pausanias burst out laughing and sent for the generals of the Greeks. ,When these had assembled, Pausanias pointed to the manner in which each dinner was served and said: “Men of Hellas, I have brought you here because I desired to show you the foolishness of the leader of the Medes who, with such provisions for life as you see, came here to take away from us our possessions which are so pitiful.” In this way, it is said, Pausanias spoke to the generals of the Greeks.
19. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1-1.14, 1.16-1.22, 2.11, 3.1-3.16, 4.3-4.4, 8.5-8.8, 8.15-8.17, 11.14, 13.2-13.18, 14.9 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali 1.2. who in the days of Shalmaneser, king of the Assyrians, was taken into captivity from Thisbe, which is to the south of Kedesh Naphtali in Galilee above Asher. 1.3. I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life, and I performed many acts of charity to my brethren and countrymen who went with me into the land of the Assyrians, to Nineveh. 1.4. Now when I was in my own country, in the land of Israel, while I was still a young man, the whole tribe of Naphtali my forefather deserted the house of Jerusalem. This was the place which had been chosen from among all the tribes of Israel, where all the tribes should sacrifice and where the temple of the dwelling of the Most High was consecrated and established for all generations for ever. 1.5. All the tribes that joined in apostasy used to sacrifice to the calf Baal, and so did the house of Naphtali my forefather. 1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias. 1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it 1.12. because I remembered God with all my heart. 1.13. Then the Most High gave me favor and good appearance in the sight of Shalmaneser, and I was his buyer of provisions. 1.14. So I used to go into Media, and once at Rages in Media I left ten talents of silver in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias. 1.17. I would give my bread to the hungry and my clothing to the naked; and if I saw any one of my people dead and thrown out behind the wall of Nineveh, I would bury him. 1.18. And if Sennacherib the king put to death any who came fleeing from Judea, I buried them secretly. For in his anger he put many to death. When the bodies were sought by the king, they were not found. 1.19. Then one of the men of Nineveh went and informed the king about me, that I was burying them; so I hid myself. When I learned that I was being searched for, to be put to death, I left home in fear. 1.21. But not fifty days passed before two of Sennacheribs sons killed him, and they fled to the mountains of Ararat. Then Esarhaddon, his son, reigned in his place; and he appointed Ahikar, the son of my brother Anael, over all the accounts of his kingdom and over the entire administration. 1.22. Ahikar interceded for me, and I returned to Nineveh. Now Ahikar was cupbearer, keeper of the signet, and in charge of administration of the accounts, for Esarhaddon had appointed him second to himself. He was my nephew. 3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying 3.3. Remember me and look favorably upon me; do not punish me for my sins and for my unwitting offences and those which my fathers committed before thee. 3.4. For they disobeyed thy commandments, and thou gavest us over to plunder, captivity, and death; thou madest us a byword of reproach in all the nations among which we have been dispersed. 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me. 3.7. On the same day, at Ecbatana in Media, it also happened that Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, was reproached by her fathers maids 3.8. because she had been given to seven husbands, and the evil demon Asmodeus had slain each of them before he had been with her as his wife. So the maids said to her, "Do you not know that you strangle your husbands? You already have had seven and have had no benefit from any of them. 3.9. Why do you beat us? If they are dead, go with them! May we never see a son or daughter of yours! 3.10. When she heard these things she was deeply grieved, even to the thought of hanging herself. But she said, "I am the only child of my father; if I do this, it will be a disgrace to him, and I shall bring his old age down in sorrow to the grave. 3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 3.12. And now, O Lord, I have turned my eyes and my face toward thee. 3.13. Command that I be released from the earth and that I hear reproach no more. 3.14. Thou knowest, O Lord, that I am innocent of any sin with man 3.15. and that I did not stain my name or the name of my father in the land of my captivity. I am my fathers only child, and he has no child to be his heir, no near kinsman or kinsmans son for whom I should keep myself as wife. Already seven husbands of mine are dead. Why should I live? But if it be not pleasing to thee to take my life, command that respect be shown to me and pity be taken upon me, and that I hear reproach no more. 3.16. The prayer of both was heard in the presence of the glory of the great God. 4.3. So he called him and said, "My son, when I die, bury me, and do not neglect your mother. Honor her all the days of your life; do what is pleasing to her, and do not grieve her. 4.4. Remember, my son, that she faced many dangers for you while you were yet unborn. When she dies bury her beside me in the same grave. 8.5. And Tobias began to pray, "Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers,and blessed be thy holy and glorious name for ever. Let the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee. 8.6. Thou madest Adam and gavest him Eve his wife as a helper and support.From them the race of mankind has sprung.Thou didst say, `It is not good that the man should be alone;let us make a helper for him like himself. 8.7. And now, O Lord, I am not taking this sister of mine because of lust, but with sincerity. Grant that I may find mercy and may grow old together with her. 8.8. And she said with him, "Amen. 8.15. Then Raguel blessed God and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, with every pure and holy blessing.Let thy saints and all thy creatures bless thee;let all thy angels and thy chosen people bless thee for ever. 8.16. Blessed art thou, because thou hast made me glad. It has not happened to me as I expected;but thou hast treated us according to thy great mercy. 8.17. Blessed art thou, because thou hast had compassion on two only children. Show them mercy, O Lord;and bring their lives to fulfilment in health and happiness and mercy. 11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels. 13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand. 13.3. Acknowledge him before the nations, O sons of Israel;for he has scattered us among them. 13.4. Make his greatness known there,and exalt him in the presence of all the living;because he is our Lord and God,he is our Father for ever. 13.5. He will afflict us for our iniquities;and again he will show mercy,and will gather us from all the nations among whom you have been scattered. 13.6. If you turn to him with all your heart and with all your soul,to do what is true before him,then he will turn to you and will not hide his face from you. But see what he will do with you;give thanks to him with your full voice. Praise the Lord of righteousness,and exalt the King of the ages. I give him thanks in the land of my captivity,and I show his power and majesty to a nation of sinners. Turn back, you sinners, and do right before him;who knows if he will accept you and have mercy on you? 13.7. I exalt my God;my soul exalts the King of heaven,and will rejoice in his majesty. 13.8. Let all men speak,and give him thanks in Jerusalem. 13.9. O Jerusalem, the holy city,he will afflict you for the deeds of your sons,but again he will show mercy to the sons of the righteous. 13.10. Give thanks worthily to the Lord,and praise the King of the ages,that his tent may be raised for you again with joy. May he cheer those within you who are captives,and love those within you who are distressed,to all generations for ever. 13.11. Many nations will come from afar to the name of the Lord God,bearing gifts in their hands, gifts for the King of heaven. Generations of generations will give you joyful praise. 13.12. Cursed are all who hate you;blessed for ever will be all who love you. 13.13. Rejoice and be glad for the sons of the righteous;for they will be gathered together,and will praise the Lord of the righteous. 13.14. How blessed are those who love you!They will rejoice in your peace. Blessed are those who grieved over all your afflictions;for they will rejoice for you upon seeing all your glory,and they will be made glad for ever. 13.15. Let my soul praise God the great King. 13.16. For Jerusalem will be built with sapphires and emeralds,her walls with precious stones,and her towers and battlements with pure gold. 13.17. The streets of Jerusalem will be paved with beryl and ruby and stones of Ophir; 13.18. all her lanes will cry `Hallelujah! and will give praise,saying, `Blessed is God, who has exalted you for ever. 14.9. But keep the law and the commandments, and be merciful and just, so that it may be well with you.
20. Anon., Jubilees, 22.16-22.17, 22.20-22.21, 50.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

22.16. May nations serve thee, And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed. 22.17. Be strong in the presence of men, And exercise authority over all the seed of Seth. Then thy ways and the ways of thy sons will be justified, So that they shall become a holy nation. 22.20. And may He strengthen thee, And bless thee. And mayest thou inherit the whole earth, brAnd may He renew His covet with thee, That thou mayest be to Him a nation for His inheritance for all the ages 22.21. And that He may be to thee and to thy seed a God in truth and righteousness throughout all the days of the earth. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. brSix days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God.
21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 48.14-48.17, 51.13-51.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.5-1.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.5. וַיְמַן לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ מִפַּת־בַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמִיֵּין מִשְׁתָּיו וּלְגַדְּלָם שָׁנִים שָׁלוֹשׁ וּמִקְצָתָם יַעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.6. וַיְהִי בָהֶם מִבְּנֵי יְהוּדָה דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.7. וַיָּשֶׂם לָהֶם שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים שֵׁמוֹת וַיָּשֶׂם לְדָנִיֵּאל בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וְלַחֲנַנְיָה שַׁדְרַךְ וּלְמִישָׁאֵל מֵישַׁךְ וְלַעֲזַרְיָה עֲבֵד נְגוֹ׃ 1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 1.9. וַיִּתֵּן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־דָּנִיֵּאל לְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל אֶל־הַמֶּלְצַר אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים עַל־דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.12. נַס־נָא אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה וְיִתְּנוּ־לָנוּ מִן־הַזֵּרֹעִים וְנֹאכְלָה וּמַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה׃ 1.13. וְיֵרָאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ מַרְאֵינוּ וּמַרְאֵה הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה עֲשֵׂה עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ׃ 1.14. וַיִּשְׁמַע לָהֶם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְנַסֵּם יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה׃ 1.15. וּמִקְצָת יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה נִרְאָה מַרְאֵיהֶם טוֹב וּבְרִיאֵי בָּשָׂר מִן־כָּל־הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.16. וַיְהִי הַמֶּלְצַר נֹשֵׂא אֶת־פַּתְבָּגָם וְיֵין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם וְנֹתֵן לָהֶם זֵרְעֹנִים׃ 1.5. And the king appointed for them a daily portion of the king’s food, and of the wine which he drank, and that they should be nourished three years; that at the end thereof they might stand before the king." 1.6. Now among these were, of the children of Judah, Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah." 1.7. And the chief of the officers gave names unto them: unto Daniel he gave the name of Belteshazzar; and to Haiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego." 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself." 1.9. And God granted Daniel mercy and compassion in the sight of the chief of the officers." 1.10. And the chief of the officers said unto Daniel: ‘I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your food and your drink; for why should he see your faces sad in comparison with the youths that are of your own age? so would ye endanger my head with the king.’" 1.11. Then said Daniel to the steward, whom the chief of the officers had appointed over Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah:" 1.12. ’Try thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink." 1.13. Then let our counteces be looked upon before thee, and the countece of the youths that eat of the king’s food; and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.’" 1.14. So he hearkened unto them in this matter, and tried them ten days." 1.15. And at the end of ten days their counteces appeared fairer, and they were fatter in flesh, than all the youths that did eat of the king’s food." 1.16. So the steward took away their food, and the wine that they should drink, and gave them pulse."
23. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.62-1.63 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.62. But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food. 1.63. They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covet; and they did die.
24. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 5.27, 6.18-6.31, 7.1-7.42 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.27. But Judas Maccabeus, with about nine others, got away to the wilderness, and kept himself and his companions alive in the mountains as wild animals do; they continued to live on what grew wild, so that they might not share in the defilement.' 6.18. Eleazar, one of the scribes in high position, a man now advanced in age and of noble presence, was being forced to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh.' 6.19. But he, welcoming death with honor rather than life with pollution, went up to the the rack of his own accord, spitting out the flesh,' 6.20. as men ought to go who have the courage to refuse things that it is not right to taste, even for the natural love of life.' 6.21. Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,' 6.22. o that by doing this he might be saved from death, and be treated kindly on account of his old friendship with them.' 6.23. But making a high resolve, worthy of his years and the dignity of his old age and the gray hairs which he had reached with distinction and his excellent life even from childhood, and moreover according to the holy God-given law, he declared himself quickly, telling them to send him to Hades.' 6.24. Such pretense is not worthy of our time of life, he said, 'lest many of the young should suppose that Eleazar in his ninetieth year has gone over to an alien religion,' 6.25. and through my pretense, for the sake of living a brief moment longer, they should be led astray because of me, while I defile and disgrace my old age.' 6.26. For even if for the present I should avoid the punishment of men, yet whether I live or die I shall not escape the hands of the Almighty.' 6.27. Therefore, by manfully giving up my life now, I will show myself worthy of my old age' 6.28. and leave to the young a noble example of how to die a good death willingly and nobly for the revered and holy laws.'When he had said this, he went at once to the rack.' 6.29. And those who a little before had acted toward him with good will now changed to ill will, because the words he had uttered were in their opinion sheer madness.' 6.30. When he was about to die under the blows, he groaned aloud and said: 'It is clear to the Lord in his holy knowledge that, though I might have been saved from death, I am enduring terrible sufferings in my body under this beating, but in my soul I am glad to suffer these things because I fear him.' 6.31. So in this way he died, leaving in his death an example of nobility and a memorial of courage, not only to the young but to the great body of his nation.' 7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.' 7.2. One of them, acting as their spokesman, said, 'What do you intend to ask and learn from us? For we are ready to die rather than transgress the laws of our fathers.' 7.3. The king fell into a rage, and gave orders that pans and caldrons be heated.' 7.4. These were heated immediately, and he commanded that the tongue of their spokesman be cut out and that they scalp him and cut off his hands and feet, while the rest of the brothers and the mother looked on.' 7.5. When he was utterly helpless, the king ordered them to take him to the fire, still breathing, and to fry him in a pan. The smoke from the pan spread widely, but the brothers and their mother encouraged one another to die nobly, saying,' 7.6. The Lord God is watching over us and in truth has compassion on us, as Moses declared in his song which bore witness against the people to their faces, when he said, `And he will have compassion on his servants.'' 7.7. After the first brother had died in this way, they brought forward the second for their sport. They tore off the skin of his head with the hair, and asked him, 'Will you eat rather than have your body punished limb by limb?' 7.8. He replied in the language of his fathers, and said to them, 'No.'Therefore he in turn underwent tortures as the first brother had done.' 7.9. And when he was at his last breath, he said, 'You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.' 7.10. After him, the third was the victim of their sport. When it was demanded, he quickly put out his tongue and courageously stretched forth his hands,' 7.11. and said nobly, 'I got these from Heaven, and because of his laws I disdain them, and from him I hope to get them back again.' 7.12. As a result the king himself and those with him were astonished at the young man's spirit, for he regarded his sufferings as nothing.' 7.13. When he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way.' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 7.15. Next they brought forward the fifth and maltreated him. 7.16. But he looked at the king, and said, 'Because you have authority among men, mortal though you are, you do what you please. But do not think that God has forsaken our people.' 7.17. Keep on, and see how his mighty power will torture you and your descendants!' 7.18. After him they brought forward the sixth. And when he was about to die, he said, 'Do not deceive yourself in vain. For we are suffering these things on our own account, because of our sins against our own God. Therefore astounding things have happened.' 7.19. But do not think that you will go unpunished for having tried to fight against God!' 7.20. The mother was especially admirable and worthy of honorable memory. Though she saw her seven sons perish within a single day, she bore it with good courage because of her hope in the Lord.' 7.21. She encouraged each of them in the language of their fathers. Filled with a noble spirit, she fired her woman's reasoning with a man's courage, and said to them,' 7.22. I do not know how you came into being in my womb. It was not I who gave you life and breath, nor I who set in order the elements within each of you.' 7.23. Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.' 7.24. Antiochus felt that he was being treated with contempt, and he was suspicious of her reproachful tone. The youngest brother being still alive, Antiochus not only appealed to him in words, but promised with oaths that he would make him rich and enviable if he would turn from the ways of his fathers, and that he would take him for his friend and entrust him with public affairs.' 7.25. Since the young man would not listen to him at all, the king called the mother to him and urged her to advise the youth to save himself.' 7.26. After much urging on his part, she undertook to persuade her son.' 7.27. But, leaning close to him, she spoke in their native tongue as follows, deriding the cruel tyrant: 'My son, have pity on me. I carried you nine months in my womb, and nursed you for three years, and have reared you and brought you up to this point in your life, and have taken care of you.' 7.28. I beseech you, my child, to look at the heaven and the earth and see everything that is in them, and recognize that God did not make them out of things that existed. Thus also mankind comes into being.' 7.29. Do not fear this butcher, but prove worthy of your brothers. Accept death, so that in God's mercy I may get you back again with your brothers.' 7.30. While she was still speaking, the young man said, 'What are you waiting for? I will not obey the king's command, but I obey the command of the law that was given to our fathers through Moses.' 7.31. But you, who have contrived all sorts of evil against the Hebrews, will certainly not escape the hands of God.' 7.32. For we are suffering because of our own sins. 7.33. And if our living Lord is angry for a little while, to rebuke and discipline us, he will again be reconciled with his own servants.' 7.34. But you, unholy wretch, you most defiled of all men, do not be elated in vain and puffed up by uncertain hopes, when you raise your hand against the children of heaven.' 7.35. You have not yet escaped the judgment of the almighty, all-seeing God.' 7.36. For our brothers after enduring a brief suffering have drunk of everflowing life under God's covet; but you, by the judgment of God, will receive just punishment for your arrogance.' 7.37. I, like my brothers, give up body and life for the laws of our fathers, appealing to God to show mercy soon to our nation and by afflictions and plagues to make you confess that he alone is God,' 7.38. and through me and my brothers to bring to an end the wrath of the Almighty which has justly fallen on our whole nation.' 7.39. The king fell into a rage, and handled him worse than the others, being exasperated at his scorn.' 7.40. So he died in his integrity, putting his whole trust in the Lord.' 7.41. Last of all, the mother died, after her sons.' 7.42. Let this be enough, then, about the eating of sacrifices and the extreme tortures.'
25. Septuagint, Judith, 9.10, 10.5, 10.7, 10.14, 10.19, 10.23, 11.13, 12.1-12.4, 12.15, 12.17-12.20, 13.10, 16.9, 16.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

9.10. By the deceit of my lips strike down the slave with the prince and the prince with his servant; crush their arrogance by the hand of a woman. 10.5. And she gave her maid a bottle of wine and a flask of oil, and filled a bag with parched grain and a cake of dried fruit and fine bread; and she wrapped up all her vessels and gave them to her to carry. 10.7. When they saw her, and noted how her face was altered and her clothing changed, they greatly admired her beauty, and said to her 10.14. When the men heard her words, and observed her face -- she was in their eyes marvelously beautiful -- they said to her 10.19. And they marveled at her beauty, and admired the Israelites, judging them by her, and every one said to his neighbor, "Who can despise these people, who have women like this among them? Surely not a man of them had better be left alive, for if we let them go they will be able to ensnare the whole world! 10.23. And when Judith came into the presence of Holofernes and his servants, they all marveled at the beauty of her face; and she prostrated herself and made obeisance to him, and his slaves raised her up. 11.13. They have decided to consume the first fruits of the grain and the tithes of the wine and oil, which they had consecrated and set aside for the priests who minister in the presence of our God at Jerusalem -- although it is not lawful for any of the people so much as to touch these things with their hands. 12.1. Then he commanded them to bring her in where his silver dishes were kept, and ordered them to set a table for her with some of his own food and to serve her with his own wine. 12.2. But Judith said, "I cannot eat it, lest it be an offense; but I will be provided from the things I have brought with me. 12.3. Holofernes said to her, "If your supply runs out, where can we get more like it for you? For none of your people is here with us. 12.4. Judith replied, "As your soul lives, my lord, your servant will not use up the things I have with me before the Lord carries out by my hand what he has determined to do. 12.15. So she got up and arrayed herself in all her woman's finery, and her maid went and spread on the ground for her before Holofernes the soft fleeces which she had received from Bagoas for her daily use, so that she might recline on them when she ate. 12.17. So Holofernes said to her. "Drink now, and be merry with us! 12.18. Judith said, "I will drink now, my lord, because my life means more to me today than in all the days since I was born. 12.19. Then she took and ate and drank before him what her maid had prepared. 12.20. And Holofernes was greatly pleased with her, and drank a great quantity of wine, much more than he had ever drunk in any one day since he was born. 13.10. who placed it in her food bag. Then the two of them went out together, as they were accustomed to go for prayer; and they passed through the camp and circled around the valley and went up the mountain to Bethulia and came to its gates. 16.9. Her sandal ravished his eyes, her beauty captivated his mind, and the sword severed his neck. 16.19. Judith also dedicated to God all the vessels of Holofernes, which the people had given her; and the canopy which she took for herself from his bedchamber she gave as a votive offering to the Lord.
26. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 3.4-3.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.4. but because they worshiped God and conducted themselves by his law, they kept their separateness with respect to foods. For this reason they appeared hateful to some; 3.5. but since they adorned their style of life with the good deeds of upright people, they were established in good repute among all men. 3.6. Nevertheless those of other races paid no heed to their good service to their nation, which was common talk among all; 3.7. instead they gossiped about the differences in worship and foods, alleging that these people were loyal neither to the king nor to his authorities, but were hostile and greatly opposed to his government. So they attached no ordinary reproach to them.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 68 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

68. And the women also share in this feast, the greater part of whom, though old, are virgins in respect of their purity (not indeed through necessity, as some of the priestesses among the Greeks are, who have been compelled to preserve their chastity more than they would have done of their own accord), but out of an admiration for and love of wisdom, with which they are desirous to pass their lives, on account of which they are indifferent to the pleasures of the body, desiring not a mortal but an immortal offspring, which the soul that is attached to God is alone able to produce by itself and from itself, the Father having sown in it rays of light appreciable only by the intellect, by means of which it will be able to perceive the doctrines of wisdom. IX.
28. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 10.190-10.194 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.191. He replied, that he was ready to serve them in what they desired, but he suspected that they would be discovered by the king, from their meagre bodies, and the alteration of their counteces, because it could not be avoided but their bodies and colors must be changed with their diet, especially while they would be clearly discovered by the finer appearance of the other children, who would fare better, and thus they should bring him into danger, and occasion him to be punished; 10.192. yet did they persuade Arioch, who was thus fearful, to give them what food they desired for ten days, by way of trial; and in case the habit of their bodies were not altered, to go on in the same way, as expecting that they should not be hurt thereby afterwards; but if he saw them look meagre, and worse than the rest, he should reduce them to their former diet. 10.193. Now when it appeared that they were so far from becoming worse by the use of this food, that they grew plumper and fuller in body than the rest, insomuch that he thought those who fed on what came from the king’s table seemed less plump and full, while those that were with Daniel looked as if they had lived in plenty, and in all sorts of luxury. Arioch, from that time, securely took himself what the king sent every day from his supper, according to custom, to the children, but gave them the forementioned diet 10.194. while they had their souls in some measure more pure, and less burdened, and so fitter for learning, and had their bodies in better tune for hard labor; for they neither had the former oppressed and heavy with variety of meats, nor were the other effeminate on the same account; so they readily understood all the learning that was among the Hebrews, and among the Chaldeans, as especially did Daniel, who being already sufficiently skillful in wisdom, was very busy about the interpretation of dreams; and God manifested himself to him.
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.123, 2.143 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.123. They think that oil is a defilement; and if anyone of them be anointed without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the use of them all. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish;
30. Josephus Flavius, Life, 14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

31. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. The following articles of non-Jews are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them: 1. milk which a non-Jew milked without an israelite watching him, 2. their bread and oil (Rabbi and his court permitted the oil) 3. stewed and pickled things into which they are accustomed to put wine or vinegar, 4. pickled herring which had been minced, 5. brine in which there is no kalbith-fish floating, 6. helek, 7. pieces of asa foetida 8. and sal-conditum. Behold these are prohibited but the prohibition does not extend to deriving benefit from them."
32. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 7.1, 8.5

33. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 129-170, 128

128. It is worth while to mention briefly the information which he gave in reply to our questions. For I suppose that most people feel a curiosity with regard to some of the enactments in the law


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 333
abraham Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (2022) 139
adelphos, ἀδελφός/ἐξάδελφος, senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
angels of the divine presence, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
assyria Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
assyrian, court Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
assyrian, king Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
assyrians Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
aḥiqar, as a jewish relative of tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
aḥiqar, textual forms Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
aḥiqar, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73, 87, 145
aḥiqar, versions, arabic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
aḥiqar, versions, syriac Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
aḥiqar, versions, wisdom (maxims, proverbs) of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
bildungsroman, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
blindness and healing, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73, 145
book of judith, and greek writings Gera, Judith (2014) 333, 369
bribery Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
burial of death, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
burial of death, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
cheese Gera, Judith (2014) 333
children Gera, Judith (2014) 369
climax Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
commensality Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 71
conversion Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
daniel, figure of Gera, Judith (2014) 369
david, and abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 333
deceit Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
dedications, temple Gera, Judith (2014) 369
deuteronomistic, deuteronomy, book of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
diet Gera, Judith (2014) 369
dietary laws biblical Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
disgrace, sarah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
disgrace, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
ecbatana Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
elephantine, account, papyrus, text, version of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
elijah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
endogamy Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
esarhaddon (sacherdonos/sarchedonos or archedonassar) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
essenes Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 215
esther, in lxx / additions Gera, Judith (2014) 369
exile, in assyria Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87
exiles, assyrian Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 124
faith, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
faith, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
faith, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73, 145
faithfulness, fidelity to the law, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
faithfulness, fidelity to the law, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
family, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73, 87
father-son relationship, in aḥiqar (adoptive son) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
father-son relationship, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
first night of marriage Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
food, impurity of among jews Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
food, impurity of of out-groups Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
food, purity of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87
food Gera, Judith (2014) 333, 369
food laws Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 215
frechette, christopher g. Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 124
furnishings, dishes and equipmentnan Gera, Judith (2014) 369
galilee Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
gentiles, impurity of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
gentiles Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 215; Gera, Judith (2014) 333, 369; Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 172
gold, and silver Gera, Judith (2014) 369
good works, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73
hannah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 369
holophernes, death and decapitation Gera, Judith (2014) 333
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 369
invocation of death, elijah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
invocation of death, jonah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
invocation of death, sarah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
invocation of death, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
irony, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
israel, ancient Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
jerusalem, annual pilgrimage Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
jerusalem, first fruits Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
jerusalem, new jerusalem Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73, 87
jerusalem Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
jew Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87
job, arabic setting Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
job, book of, author Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
job, eastern sheik Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
job, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
jonah, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
jonah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
judaism Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
judas maccabeus Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 215
judith, beautiful and seductive Gera, Judith (2014) 333
judith, complex character Gera, Judith (2014) 369
judith, eloquence and irony Gera, Judith (2014) 369
judith, piety and asceticism Gera, Judith (2014) 333
kings of israel and judah, david Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 124
kinship, marriage Marcar, Divine Regeneration and Ethnic Identity in 1 Peter: Mapping Metaphors of Family, Race, and Nation (2022) 139
kosher food Gera, Judith (2014) 333, 369
lamentation, protest, rebellion Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
language and style, book of judith, wordplay Gera, Judith (2014) 369
literary genres, novel or roman/romance Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
literary genres, short story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
lord, and lord Gera, Judith (2014) 369
marriage, endogamic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
meals, joint Gera, Judith (2014) 369
media Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
misfortune, sarah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
misfortune, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73
misfortune Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73
nadin (nadab, haman) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
narrative, edifying, didactic Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
narrative, happy ending Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
narrative, legendary Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
narrative, popular Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
nebuchadnezzar, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 369
nephtali Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
nineveh, locus of deportation Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
nostos, νόστος, return home, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
odysseus, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
oil, olive Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 172
oil lamps Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 172
oil press(es) Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 172
old age, old man, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
olive oil Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 71
pain, suffering, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
pain, suffering, sarah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71
pain, suffering, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73
pietas, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
pietas, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87
poor Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 145
prayer, supplication, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
prayer, supplication, sarah Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73
prayer, supplication, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73, 145
prophets Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
psalms, book of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
purity Gera, Judith (2014) 333
questions Gera, Judith (2014) 369
qumran community Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 172
qumran library Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 172
rages Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
raguel Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
reproaches Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
retribution, traditional doctrine Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73
righteousness, rectitude, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73, 145
ritual bathing/washing Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 172
rome, romans Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 215
sabbath Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
sack, judiths food Gera, Judith (2014) 333
sandals Gera, Judith (2014) 333
sarah, death Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
sarah, prayer of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
sarah, suffering Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
sargon ii Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
second temple judaism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
seleucids Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 215
seminal emissions Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
sennacherib (king) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87, 145
sexual encounters Gera, Judith (2014) 369
sexual relations abstinence from Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
sexual relations in second temple judaism Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
shalmaneser v (king) Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
sin, disobedience Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73, 145
spartans Gera, Judith (2014) 369
structuralist, analysis, function, narrative Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
temple (in jerusalem) Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 215
temple in jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 333
therapeutae Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
thought, purity of Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
tobiah, marriage Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
tobiah, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
tobit, author x Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87
tobit, friends Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87, 145
tobit, story Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73, 87, 145
tobit Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 124; Gera, Judith (2014) 369; Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73
tolerated defilements Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
trauma Allen and Doedens, Turmoil, Trauma and Tenacity in Early Jewish Literature (2022) 124
trials, provocations, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
vegetables Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 71
victory song, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 333
virgins among jews Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
vulgate judith Gera, Judith (2014) 333
washing after genital emissions Blidstein, Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature (2017) 47
wealth, prosperity, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
wealth, prosperity, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 87
wealth, prosperity, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 87, 145
wife, job Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
wife, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73, 87, 145
wine' Rosenblum, The Jewish Dietary Laws in the Ancient World (2016) 71
wine Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 215
wine and drunkenness Gera, Judith (2014) 333, 369
wise man, aḥiqar Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
wise man, tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 145
yhwh, in tobit Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73
yhwh, justice of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73
yhwh, mercy, providence Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 71, 73, 145
ἐλεημοσύνη (elemosyna), senses of Toloni, The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis (2022) 73