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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



691
Septuagint, Judith, 6.5


nanBut you, Achior, you Ammonite hireling, who have said these words on the day of your iniquity, you shall not see my face again from this day until I take revenge on this race that came out of Egypt.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

29 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.16, 28.64, 33.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.16. וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־כָּל־הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא־תָחֹס עֵינְךָ עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא תַעֲבֹד אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם כִּי־מוֹקֵשׁ הוּא לָךְ׃ 28.64. וֶהֱפִיצְךָ יְהוָה בְּכָל־הָעַמִּים מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ וְעָבַדְתָּ שָּׁם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַאֲבֹתֶיךָ עֵץ וָאָבֶן׃ 33.17. בְּכוֹר שׁוֹרוֹ הָדָר לוֹ וְקַרְנֵי רְאֵם קַרְנָיו בָּהֶם עַמִּים יְנַגַּח יַחְדָּו אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ וְהֵם רִבְבוֹת אֶפְרַיִם וְהֵם אַלְפֵי מְנַשֶּׁה׃ 7.16. And thou shalt consume all the peoples that the LORD thy God shall deliver unto thee; thine eye shall not pity them; neither shalt thou serve their gods; for that will be a snare unto thee." 28.64. And the LORD shall scatter thee among all peoples, from the one end of the earth even unto the other end of the earth; and there thou shalt serve other gods, which thou hast not known, thou nor thy fathers, even wood and stone." 33.17. His firstling bullock, majesty is his; And his horns are the horns of the wild-ox; With them he shall gore the peoples all of them, even the ends of the earth; And they are the ten thousands of Ephraim, And they are the thousands of Manasseh."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 5.2, 7.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.2. וַיִּפְגְּעוּ אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן נִצָּבִים לִקְרָאתָם בְּצֵאתָם מֵאֵת פַּרְעֹה׃ 5.2. וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה מִי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ לְשַׁלַּח אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יָדַעְתִּי אֶת־יְהוָה וְגַם אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא אֲשַׁלֵּחַ׃ 7.13. וַיֶּחֱזַק לֵב פַּרְעֹה וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֲלֵהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה׃ 5.2. And Pharaoh said: ‘Who is the LORD, that I should hearken unto His voice to let Israel go? I know not the LORD, and moreover I will not let Israel go.’" 7.13. And Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had spoken."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 21.1, 34.25, 34.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.1. וַיהוָה פָּקַד אֶת־שָׂרָה כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמָר וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה לְשָׂרָה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר׃ 21.1. וַתֹּאמֶר לְאַבְרָהָם גָּרֵשׁ הָאָמָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־בְּנָהּ כִּי לֹא יִירַשׁ בֶּן־הָאָמָה הַזֹּאת עִם־בְּנִי עִם־יִצְחָק׃ 34.25. וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיוֹתָם כֹּאֲבִים וַיִּקְחוּ שְׁנֵי־בְנֵי־יַעֲקֹב שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי אֲחֵי דִינָה אִישׁ חַרְבּוֹ וַיָּבֹאוּ עַל־הָעִיר בֶּטַח וַיַּהַרְגוּ כָּל־זָכָר׃ 34.27. בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב בָּאוּ עַל־הַחֲלָלִים וַיָּבֹזּוּ הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר טִמְּאוּ אֲחוֹתָם׃ 21.1. And the LORD remembered Sarah as He had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as He had spoken." 34.25. And it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain, that two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brethren, took each man his sword, and came upon the city unawares, and slew all the males." 34.27. The sons of Jacob came upon the slain, and spoiled the city, because they had defiled their sister."
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 5.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.9. אֶפְרַיִם לְשַׁמָּה תִהְיֶה בְּיוֹם תּוֹכֵחָה בְּשִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הוֹדַעְתִּי נֶאֱמָנָה׃ 5.9. Ephraim shall be desolate in the day of rebuke; Among the tribes of Israel do I make known that which shall surely be. ."
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 30.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.4. מִי עָלָה־שָׁמַיִם וַיֵּרַד מִי אָסַף־רוּחַ בְּחָפְנָיו מִי צָרַר־מַיִם בַּשִּׂמְלָה מִי הֵקִים כָּל־אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ מַה־שְּׁמוֹ וּמַה־שֶּׁם־בְּנוֹ כִּי תֵדָע׃ 30.4. Who hath ascended up into heaven, and descended? Who hath gathered the wind in his fists? Who hath bound the waters in his garment? Who hath established all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and what is his son’s name, if thou knowest?"
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.10. The adversaries of the Lord shall be broken in pieces; out of heaven shall he thunder upon them: the Lord shall judge the ends of the earth; and he shall give strength to his king, and exalt the horn of his anointed."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 19.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.3. וְיָסְפָה פְּלֵיטַת בֵּית־יְהוּדָה הַנִּשְׁאָרָה שֹׁרֶשׁ לְמָטָּה וְעָשָׂה פְרִי לְמָעְלָה׃ 19.3. וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו כֹּה אָמַר חִזְקִיָּהוּ יוֹם־צָרָה וְתוֹכֵחָה וּנְאָצָה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי בָאוּ בָנִים עַד־מַשְׁבֵּר וְכֹחַ אַיִן לְלֵדָה׃ 19.3. And they said unto him: ‘Thus saith Hezekiah: This day is a day of trouble, and of rebuke, and of contumely; for the children are come to the birth, and there is not strength to bring forth."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 42.10, 43.6, 47.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

43.6. אֹמַר לַצָּפוֹן תֵּנִי וּלְתֵימָן אַל־תִּכְלָאִי הָבִיאִי בָנַי מֵרָחוֹק וּבְנוֹתַי מִקְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃ 47.1. וַתִּבְטְחִי בְרָעָתֵךְ אָמַרְתְּ אֵין רֹאָנִי חָכְמָתֵךְ וְדַעְתֵּךְ הִיא שׁוֹבְבָתֶךְ וַתֹּאמְרִי בְלִבֵּךְ אֲנִי וְאַפְסִי עוֹד׃ 47.1. רְדִי וּשְׁבִי עַל־עָפָר בְּתוּלַת בַּת־בָּבֶל שְׁבִי־לָאָרֶץ אֵין־כִּסֵּא בַּת־כַּשְׂדִּים כִּי לֹא תוֹסִיפִי יִקְרְאוּ־לָךְ רַכָּה וַעֲנֻגָּה׃ 42.10. Sing unto the LORD a new song, And His praise from the end of the earth; Ye that go down to the sea, and all that is therein, The isles, and the inhabitants thereof." 43.6. I will say to the north: ‘Give up’, And to the south: ‘Keep not back, bring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth;" 47.1. Come down, and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon, Sit on the ground without a throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans; For thou shalt no more be called Tender and delicate.
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 12.12, 21.4, 39.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.12. עַל־כָּל־שְׁפָיִם בַּמִּדְבָּר בָּאוּ שֹׁדְדִים כִּי חֶרֶב לַיהוָה אֹכְלָה מִקְצֵה־אֶרֶץ וְעַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ אֵין שָׁלוֹם לְכָל־בָּשָׂר׃ 21.4. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִנְנִי מֵסֵב אֶת־כְּלֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה אֲשֶׁר בְּיֶדְכֶם אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם נִלְחָמִים בָּם אֶת־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְאֶת־הַכַּשְׂדִּים הַצָּרִים עֲלֵיכֶם מִחוּץ לַחוֹמָה וְאָסַפְתִּי אוֹתָם אֶל־תּוֹךְ הָעִיר הַזֹּאת׃ 39.8. וְאֶת־בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶת־בֵּית הָעָם שָׂרְפוּ הַכַּשְׂדִּים בָּאֵשׁ וְאֶת־חֹמוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם נָתָצוּ׃ 12.12. Upon all the high hills in the wilderness spoilers are come; for the sword of the LORD devoureth from the one end of the land even to the other end of the land, no flesh hath peace." 21.4. Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Behold, I will turn back the weapons of war that are in your hands, wherewith ye fight against the king of Babylon, and against the Chaldeans, that besiege you without the walls, and I will gather them into the midst of this city." 39.8. And the Chaldeans burned the king’s house, and the house of the people, with fire, and broke down the walls of Jerusalem."
10. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 24.2-24.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר יָשְׁבוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם מֵעוֹלָם תֶּרַח אֲבִי אַבְרָהָם וַאֲבִי נָחוֹר וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃ 24.2. כִּי תַעַזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהֵי נֵכָר וְשָׁב וְהֵרַע לָכֶם וְכִלָּה אֶתְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר־הֵיטִיב לָכֶם׃ 24.3. וָאֶקַּח אֶת־אֲבִיכֶם אֶת־אַבְרָהָם מֵעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר וָאוֹלֵךְ אוֹתוֹ בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וארב [וָאַרְבֶּה] אֶת־זַרְעוֹ וָאֶתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־יִצְחָק׃ 24.3. וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֹתוֹ בִּגְבוּל נַחֲלָתוֹ בְּתִמְנַת־סֶרַח אֲשֶׁר בְּהַר־אֶפְרָיִם מִצְּפוֹן לְהַר־גָּעַשׁ׃ 24.2. And Joshua said unto all the people: ‘Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Your fathers dwelt of old time beyond the River, even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nahor; and they served other gods." 24.3. And I took your father Abraham from beyond the River, and led him throughout all the land of Canaan, and multiplied his seed, and gave him Isaac."
11. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 4.22, 5.30 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.22. וְהִנֵּה בָרָק רֹדֵף אֶת־סִיסְרָא וַתֵּצֵא יָעֵל לִקְרָאתוֹ וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ לֵךְ וְאַרְאֶךָּ אֶת־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה מְבַקֵּשׁ וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ וְהִנֵּה סִיסְרָא נֹפֵל מֵת וְהַיָּתֵד בְּרַקָּתוֹ׃ 4.22. And, behold, as Baraq pursued Sisera, Ya᾽el came out to meet him, and said to him, Come, and I will show thee the man whom thou seekest. And when he came into her tent, behold, Sisera lay dead, and the peg in his temple." 5.30. Have they not found booty? have they not divided the prey; to every man a damsel or two; to Sisera a booty of divers colours, a plunder of many coloured needlework, dyed double worked garments for the necks of the spoilers."
12. Homer, Iliad, 21.218-21.220 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

21.218. /for ever do the very gods give thee aid. If so be the son of Cronos hath granted thee to slay all the men of Troy, forth out of my stream at least do thou drive them, and work thy direful work on the plain. Lo, full are my lovely streams with dead men, nor can I anywise avail to pour my waters forth into the bright sea 21.219. /for ever do the very gods give thee aid. If so be the son of Cronos hath granted thee to slay all the men of Troy, forth out of my stream at least do thou drive them, and work thy direful work on the plain. Lo, full are my lovely streams with dead men, nor can I anywise avail to pour my waters forth into the bright sea 21.220. /being choked with dead, while thou ever slayest ruthlessly. Nay, come, let be; amazement holds me, thou leader of hosts. Then swift-footed Achilles answered him, saying:Thus shall it be, Scamander, nurtured of Zeus, even as thou biddest. Howbeit the proud Trojan will I not cease to slay
13. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 602-604, 606-609, 601 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

601. σπεύσω πάλιν μολόντα δέξασθαι·—τί γὰρ 601. Shall hasten, as he comes back, to receive: for —
14. Aeschylus, Persians, 231-245, 230 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

230. εὖτʼ ἂν εἰς οἴκους μόλωμεν. κεῖνα δʼ ἐκμαθεῖν θέλω 230. where Chorus
15. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 16.5 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.5. וַתִּגְבְּהֶינָה וַתַּעֲשֶׂינָה תוֹעֵבָה לְפָנָי וָאָסִיר אֶתְהֶן כַּאֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי׃ 16.5. לֹא־חָסָה עָלַיִךְ עַיִן לַעֲשׂוֹת לָךְ אַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה לְחֻמְלָה עָלָיִךְ וַתֻּשְׁלְכִי אֶל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה בְּגֹעַל נַפְשֵׁךְ בְּיוֹם הֻלֶּדֶת אֹתָךְ׃ 16.5. No eye pitied thee, to do any of these unto thee, to have compassion upon thee; but thou wast cast out in the open field in the loathsomeness of thy person, in the day that thou wast born."
16. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 2.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.10. And when Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, heard of it, it grieved them exceedingly, for that there was come a man to seek the welfare of the children of Israel."
17. Herodotus, Histories, 1.56-1.58, 4.1, 4.5-4.13, 4.204, 6.9 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.56. When he heard these verses, Croesus was pleased with them above all, for he thought that a mule would never be king of the Medes instead of a man, and therefore that he and his posterity would never lose his empire. Then he sought very carefully to discover who the mightiest of the Greeks were, whom he should make his friends. ,He found by inquiry that the chief peoples were the Lacedaemonians among those of Doric, and the Athenians among those of Ionic stock. These races, Ionian and Dorian, were the foremost in ancient time, the first a Pelasgian and the second a Hellenic people. The Pelasgian race has never yet left its home; the Hellenic has wandered often and far. ,For in the days of king Deucalion it inhabited the land of Phthia, then the country called Histiaean, under Ossa and Olympus, in the time of Dorus son of Hellen; driven from this Histiaean country by the Cadmeans, it settled about Pindus in the territory called Macedonian; from there again it migrated to Dryopia, and at last came from Dryopia into the Peloponnese, where it took the name of Dorian. 1.57. What language the Pelasgians spoke I cannot say definitely. But if one may judge by those that still remain of the Pelasgians who live above the Tyrrheni in the city of Creston —who were once neighbors of the people now called Dorians, and at that time inhabited the country which now is called Thessalian— ,and of the Pelasgians who inhabited Placia and Scylace on the Hellespont, who came to live among the Athenians, and by other towns too which were once Pelasgian and afterwards took a different name: if, as I said, one may judge by these, the Pelasgians spoke a language which was not Greek. ,If, then, all the Pelasgian stock spoke so, then the Attic nation, being of Pelasgian blood, must have changed its language too at the time when it became part of the Hellenes. For the people of Creston and Placia have a language of their own in common, which is not the language of their neighbors; and it is plain that they still preserve the manner of speech which they brought with them in their migration into the places where they live. 1.58. But the Hellenic stock, it seems clear to me, has always had the same language since its beginning; yet being, when separated from the Pelasgians, few in number, they have grown from a small beginning to comprise a multitude of nations, chiefly because the Pelasgians and many other foreign peoples united themselves with them. Before that, I think, the Pelasgic stock nowhere increased much in number while it was of foreign speech. 4.1. After taking Babylon, Darius himself marched against the Scythians. For since Asia was bursting with men and vast revenues were coming in, Darius desired to punish the Scythians for the wrong they had begun when they invaded Media first and defeated those who opposed them in battle. ,For the Scythians, as I have said before, ruled upper Asia for twenty-eight years; they invaded Asia in their pursuit of the Cimmerians, and ended the power of the Medes, who were the rulers of Asia before the Scythians came. ,But when the Scythians had been away from their homes for twenty-eight years and returned to their country after so long an absence, as much trouble as their Median war awaited them. They found themselves opposed by a great force; for the Scythian women, when their husbands were away for so long, turned to their slaves. 4.5. The Scythians say that their nation is the youngest in the world, and that it came into being in this way. A man whose name was Targitaüs appeared in this country, which was then desolate. They say that his parents were Zeus and a daughter of the Borysthenes river (I do not believe the story, but it is told). ,Such was Targitaüs' lineage; and he had three sons: Lipoxaïs, Arpoxaïs, and Colaxaïs, youngest of the three. ,In the time of their rule (the story goes) certain implements—namely, a plough, a yoke, a sword, and a flask, all of gold—fell down from the sky into Scythia . The eldest of them, seeing these, approached them meaning to take them; but the gold began to burn as he neared, and he stopped. ,Then the second approached, and the gold did as before. When these two had been driven back by the burning gold, the youngest brother approached and the burning stopped, and he took the gold to his own house. In view of this, the elder brothers agreed to give all the royal power to the youngest. 4.6. Lipoxaïs, it is said, was the father of the Scythian clan called Auchatae; Arpoxaïs, the second brother, of those called Katiari and Traspians; the youngest, who was king, of those called Paralatae. ,All these together bear the name of Skoloti, after their king; “Scythians” is the name given them by Greeks. This, then, is the Scythians' account of their origin 4.7. and they say that neither more nor less than a thousand years in all passed from the time of their first king Targitaüs to the entry of Darius into their country. The kings guard this sacred gold very closely, and every year offer solemn sacrifices of propitiation to it. ,Whoever falls asleep at this festival in the open air, having the sacred gold with him, is said by the Scythians not to live out the year; for which reason (they say) as much land as he can ride round in one day is given to him. Because of the great size of the country, the lordships that Colaxaïs established for his sons were three, one of which, where they keep the gold, was the greatest. ,Above and north of the neighbors of their country no one (they say) can see or travel further, because of showers of feathers; for earth and sky are full of feathers, and these hinder sight. 4.8. This is what the Scythians say about themselves and the country north of them. But the story told by the Greeks who live in Pontus is as follows. Heracles, driving the cattle of Geryones, came to this land, which was then desolate, but is now inhabited by the Scythians. ,Geryones lived west of the Pontus, settled in the island called by the Greeks Erythea, on the shore of Ocean near Gadira, outside the pillars of Heracles. As for Ocean, the Greeks say that it flows around the whole world from where the sun rises, but they cannot prove that this is so. ,Heracles came from there to the country now called Scythia, where, encountering wintry and frosty weather, he drew his lion's skin over him and fell asleep, and while he slept his mares, which were grazing yoked to the chariot, were spirited away by divine fortune. 4.9. When Heracles awoke, he searched for them, visiting every part of the country, until at last he came to the land called the Woodland, and there he found in a cave a creature of double form that was half maiden and half serpent; above the buttocks she was a woman, below them a snake. ,When he saw her he was astonished, and asked her if she had seen his mares straying; she said that she had them, and would not return them to him before he had intercourse with her; Heracles did, in hope of this reward. ,But though he was anxious to take the horses and go, she delayed returning them, so that she might have Heracles with her for as long as possible; at last she gave them back, telling him, “These mares came, and I kept them safe here for you, and you have paid me for keeping them, for I have three sons by you. ,Now tell me what I am to do when they are grown up: shall I keep them here (since I am queen of this country), or shall I send them away to you?” Thus she inquired, and then (it is said) Heracles answered: ,“When you see the boys are grown up, do as follows and you will do rightly: whichever of them you see bending this bow and wearing this belt so, make him an inhabitant of this land; but whoever falls short of these accomplishments that I require, send him away out of the country. Do so and you shall yourself have comfort, and my will shall be done.” 4.10. So he drew one of his bows (for until then Heracles always carried two), and showed her the belt, and gave her the bow and the belt, that had a golden vessel on the end of its clasp; and, having given them, he departed. But when the sons born to her were grown men, she gave them names, calling one of them Agathyrsus and the next Gelonus and the youngest Scythes; furthermore, remembering the instructions, she did as she was told. ,Two of her sons, Agathyrsus and Gelonus, were cast out by their mother and left the country, unable to fulfill the requirements set; but Scythes, the youngest, fulfilled them and so stayed in the land. ,From Scythes son of Heracles comes the whole line of the kings of Scythia ; and it is because of the vessel that the Scythians carry vessels on their belts to this day. This alone his mother did for Scythes. This is what the Greek dwellers in Pontus say. 4.11. There is yet another story, to which account I myself especially incline. It is to this effect. The nomadic Scythians inhabiting Asia, when hard pressed in war by the Massagetae, fled across the Araxes river to the Cimmerian country (for the country which the Scythians now inhabit is said to have belonged to the Cimmerians before),,and the Cimmerians, at the advance of the Scythians, deliberated as men threatened by a great force should. Opinions were divided; both were strongly held, but that of the princes was the more honorable; for the people believed that their part was to withdraw and that there was no need to risk their lives for the dust of the earth; but the princes were for fighting to defend their country against the attackers. ,Neither side could persuade the other, neither the people the princes nor the princes the people; the one party planned to depart without fighting and leave the country to their enemies, but the princes were determined to lie dead in their own country and not to flee with the people, for they considered how happy their situation had been and what ills were likely to come upon them if they fled from their native land. ,Having made up their minds, the princes separated into two equal bands and fought with each other until they were all killed by each other's hands; then the Cimmerian people buried them by the Tyras river, where their tombs are still to be seen, and having buried them left the land; and the Scythians came and took possession of the country left empty. 4.12. And to this day there are Cimmerian walls in Scythia, and a Cimmerian ferry, and there is a country Cimmeria and a strait named Cimmerian. ,Furthermore, it is evident that the Cimmerians in their flight from the Scythians into Asia also made a colony on the peninsula where the Greek city of Sinope has since been founded; and it is clear that the Scythians pursued them and invaded Media, missing their way; ,for the Cimmerians always fled along the coast, and the Scythians pursued with the Caucasus on their right until they came into the Median land, turning inland on their way. That is the other story current among Greeks and foreigners alike. 4.13. There is also a story related in a poem by Aristeas son of Caüstrobius, a man of Proconnesus . This Aristeas, possessed by Phoebus, visited the Issedones; beyond these (he said) live the one-eyed Arimaspians, beyond whom are the griffins that guard gold, and beyond these again the Hyperboreans, whose territory reaches to the sea. ,Except for the Hyperboreans, all these nations (and first the Arimaspians) are always at war with their neighbors; the Issedones were pushed from their lands by the Arimaspians, and the Scythians by the Issedones, and the Cimmerians, living by the southern sea, were hard pressed by the Scythians and left their country. Thus Aristeas' story does not agree with the Scythian account about this country. 4.204. This Persian force advanced as far as Euhesperidae in Libya and no farther. As for the Barcaeans whom they had taken for slaves, they carried them from Egypt into banishment and brought them to the king, and Darius gave them a town of Bactria to live in. They gave this town the name Barce, and it remained an inhabited place in Bactria until my own lifetime. 6.9. These were the Ionian ships; the ships of the foreigners were six hundred. When these, too, reached the Milesian shore, and all their land power was present, the Persian generals, learning the number of the Ionian ships, feared they would be too weak to overcome the Greeks. If they did not have mastery of the sea, they would not be able to take Miletus, and would be in danger of some evil treatment by Darius. ,With this in mind, they gathered the tyrants of the Ionians who had been deposed from their governments by Aristagoras of Miletus and had fled to the Medes, and who now were with the army that was led against Miletus. They gathered as many of these men as were with them and said to them: ,“Men of Ionia, let each one of you now show that he has done good service to the king's house; let each one of you try to separate your own countrymen from the rest of the allied power. Set this promise before them: they will suffer no harm for their rebellion, neither their temples nor their houses will be burnt, nor will they in any way be treated more violently than before. ,But if they will not do so and are set on fighting, then utter a threat that will restrain them: if they are defeated in battle, they will be enslaved; we will make eunuchs of their boys, and carry their maidens captive to Bactra, and hand over their land to others.”
18. Anon., Jubilees, 30.1-30.6, 30.11-30.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

30.1. And in the first year of the sixth week he went up to Salem, to the east of Shechem, in peace, in the fourth month. 30.2. And there they carried off Dinah, the daughter of Jacob, into the house of Shechem, the son of Hamor, the Hivite, the prince of the land, and he lay with her and defiled her 30.3. and she was a little girl, a child of twelve years. brAnd he besought his father and her brothers that she might be given to him to wife. 30.4. And Jacob and his sons were wroth because of the men of Shechem; for they had defiled Dinah, their sister, and they spake to them with evil intent and dealt deceitfully with them and beguiled them. 30.5. And Simeon and Levi came unexpectedly to Shechem and executed judgment on all the men of Shechem, and slew all the men whom they found in it, and left not a single one remaining in it: 30.6. they slew all in torments because they had dishonoured their sister Dinah. 30.11. And if there is any man who wisheth in Israel to give his daughter or his sister to any man who is of the seed of the Gentiles he shall surely die, and they shall stone him with stones; for he hath wrought shame in Israel; 30.12. and they shall burn the woman with fire, because she hath dishonoured the name of the house of her father, and she shall be rooted out of Israel. 30.13. And let not an adulteress and no uncleanness be found in Israel throughout all the days of the generations of the earth; for Israel is holy unto the Lord 30.14. and every man who hath defiled (it) shall surely die: they shall stone him with stones.
19. Anon., Testament of Levi, 5.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.3. Then the angel brought me down to the earth, and gave me a shield and a sword, and said to me: Execute vengeance on Shechem because of Dinah, thy sister, and I will be with thee because the Lord hath sent me.
20. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

21. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.3. He advanced to the ends of the earth, and plundered many nations. When the earth became quiet before him, he was exalted, and his heart was lifted up.
22. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 5.20, 6.16, 6.27, 7.8, 13.21, 14.19, 15.15-15.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.20. Therefore the place itself shared in the misfortunes that befell the nation and afterward participated in its benefits; and what was forsaken in the wrath of the Almighty was restored again in all its glory when the great Lord became reconciled. 6.16. Therefore he never withdraws his mercy from us. Though he disciplines us with calamities, he does not forsake his own people.' 6.27. Therefore, by manfully giving up my life now, I will show myself worthy of my old age' 7.8. He replied in the language of his fathers, and said to them, 'No.'Therefore he in turn underwent tortures as the first brother had done.' 13.21. But Rhodocus, a man from the ranks of the Jews, gave secret information to the enemy; he was sought for, caught, and put in prison.' 14.19. Therefore he sent Posidonius and Theodotus and Mattathias to give and receive pledges of friendship. 15.15. Jeremiah stretched out his right hand and gave to Judas a golden sword, and as he gave it he addressed him thus:' 15.16. Take this holy sword, a gift from God, with which you will strike down your adversaries.'
23. Septuagint, Judith, 1.12, 2.1, 2.4-2.5, 3.8, 4.7, 5.3, 5.6-5.21, 7.14, 7.28, 7.30, 8.1, 8.12, 8.16-8.19, 8.27, 8.29, 8.35-8.36, 9.2, 9.14, 10.1-10.7, 10.12, 10.18, 11.10, 11.22, 12.2, 12.12, 13.6, 13.8-13.9, 14.5-14.6, 14.8, 14.11, 14.18, 15.4-15.5, 15.7, 16.4-16.5, 16.17-16.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

1.12. Then Nebuchadnezzar was very angry with this whole region, and swore by his throne and kingdom that he would surely take revenge on the whole territory of Cilicia and Damascus and Syria, that he would kill them by the sword, and also all the inhabitants of the land of Moab, and the people of Ammon, and all Judea, and every one in Egypt, as far as the coasts of the two seas. 2.1. In the eighteenth year, on the twenty-second day of the first month, there was talk in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar king of the Assyrians about carrying out his revenge on the whole region, just as he said. 2.4. When he had finished setting forth his plan, Nebuchadnezzar king of the Assyrians called Holofernes, the chief general of his army, second only to himself, and said to him 2.5. Thus says the Great King, the lord of the whole earth: When you leave my presence, take with you men confident in their strength, to the number of one hundred and twenty thousand foot soldiers and twelve thousand cavalry. 3.8. And he demolished all their shrines and cut down their sacred groves; for it had been given to him to destroy all the gods of the land, so that all nations should worship Nebuchadnezzar only, and all their tongues and tribes should call upon him as god. 4.7. ordering them to seize the passes up into the hills, since by them Judea could be invaded, and it was easy to stop any who tried to enter, for the approach was narrow, only wide enough for two men at the most. 5.3. and said to them, "Tell me, you Canaanites, what people is this that lives in the hill country? What cities do they inhabit? How large is their army, and in what does their power or strength consist? Who rules over them as king, leading their army? 5.6. This people is descended from the Chaldeans. 5.7. At one time they lived in Mesopotamia, because they would not follow the gods of their fathers who were in Chaldea. 5.8. For they had left the ways of their ancestors, and they worshiped the God of heaven, the God they had come to know; hence they drove them out from the presence of their gods; and they fled to Mesopotamia, and lived there for a long time. 5.9. Then their God commanded them to leave the place where they were living and go to the land of Canaan. There they settled, and prospered, with much gold and silver and very many cattle. 5.10. When a famine spread over Canaan they went down to Egypt and lived there as long as they had food; and there they became a great multitude -- so great that they could not be counted. 5.11. So the king of Egypt became hostile to them; he took advantage of them and set them to making bricks, and humbled them and made slaves of them. 5.12. Then they cried out to their God, and he afflicted the whole land of Egypt with incurable plagues; and so the Egyptians drove them out of their sight. 5.13. Then God dried up the Red Sea before them 5.14. and he led them by the way of Sinai and Kadesh-barnea, and drove out all the people of the wilderness. 5.15. So they lived in the land of the Amorites, and by their might destroyed all the inhabitants of Heshbon; and crossing over the Jordan they took possession of all the hill country. 5.16. And they drove out before them the Canaanites and the Perizzites and the Jebusites and the Shechemites and all the Gergesites, and lived there a long time. 5.17. As long as they did not sin against their God they prospered, for the God who hates iniquity is with them. 5.18. But when they departed from the way which he had appointed for them, they were utterly defeated in many battles and were led away captive to a foreign country; the temple of their God was razed to the ground, and their cities were captured by their enemies. 5.19. But now they have returned to their God, and have come back from the places to which they were scattered, and have occupied Jerusalem, where their sanctuary is, and have settled in the hill country, because it was uninhabited. 5.20. Now therefore, my master and lord, if there is any unwitting error in this people and they sin against their God and we find out their offense, then we will go up and defeat them. 5.21. But if there is no transgression in their nation, then let my lord pass them by; for their Lord will defend them, and their God will protect them, and we shall be put to shame before the whole world. 7.14. They and their wives and children will waste away with famine, and before the sword reaches them they will be strewn about in the streets where they live. 7.28. We call to witness against you heaven and earth and our God, the Lord of our fathers, who punishes us according to our sins and the sins of our fathers. Let him not do this day the things which we have described! 7.30. And Uzziah said to them, "Have courage, my brothers! Let us hold out for five more days; by that time the Lord our God will restore to us his mercy, for he will not forsake us utterly. 8.1. At that time Judith heard about these things: she was the daughter of Merari the son of Ox, son of Joseph, son of Oziel, son of Elkiah, son of Aias, son of Gideon, son of Raphaim, son of Ahitub, son of Elijah, son of Hilkiah, son of Eliab, son of Nathanael, son of Salamiel, son of Sarasadai, son of Israel. 8.12. Who are you, that have put God to the test this day, and are setting yourselves up in the place of God among the sons of men? 8.16. Do not try to bind the purposes of the Lord our God; for God is not like man, to be threatened, nor like a human being, to be won over by pleading. 8.17. Therefore, while we wait for his deliverance, let us call upon him to help us, and he will hear our voice, if it pleases him. 8.18. For never in our generation, nor in these present days, has there been any tribe or family or people or city of ours which worshiped gods made with hands, as was done in days gone by -- 8.19. and that was why our fathers were handed over to the sword, and to be plundered, and so they suffered a great catastrophe before our enemies. 8.27. For he has not tried us with fire, as he did them, to search their hearts, nor has he taken revenge upon us; but the Lord scourges those who draw near to him, in order to admonish them. 8.29. Today is not the first time your wisdom has been shown, but from the beginning of your life all the people have recognized your understanding, for your heart's disposition is right. 8.35. Uzziah and the rulers said to her, "Go in peace, and may the Lord God go before you, to take revenge upon our enemies. 8.36. So they returned from the tent and went to their posts. 9.2. O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done' -- yet they did it. 9.14. And cause thy whole nation and every tribe to know and understand that thou art God, the God of all power and might, and that there is no other who protects the people of Israel but thou alone! 10.1. When Judith had ceased crying out to the God of Israel, and had ended all these words 10.2. she rose from where she lay prostrate and called her maid and went down into the house where she lived on sabbaths and on her feast days; 10.3. and she removed the sackcloth which she had been wearing, and took off her widow's garments, and bathed her body with water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and combed her hair and put on a tiara, and arrayed herself in her gayest apparel, which she used to wear while her husband Manasseh was living. 10.4. And she put sandals on her feet, and put on her anklets and bracelets and rings, and her earrings and all her ornaments, and made herself very beautiful, to entice the eyes of all men who might see her. 10.5. And she gave her maid a bottle of wine and a flask of oil, and filled a bag with parched grain and a cake of dried fruit and fine bread; and she wrapped up all her vessels and gave them to her to carry. 10.6. Then they went out to the city gate of Bethulia, and found Uzziah standing there with the elders of the city, Chabris and Charmis. 10.7. When they saw her, and noted how her face was altered and her clothing changed, they greatly admired her beauty, and said to her 10.12. and took her into custody, and asked her, "To what people do you belong, and where are you coming from, and where are you going?" She replied, "I am a daughter of the Hebrews, but I am fleeing from them, for they are about to be handed over to you to be devoured. 10.18. There was great excitement in the whole camp, for her arrival was reported from tent to tent, and they came and stood around her as she waited outside the tent of Holofernes while they told him about her. 11.10. Therefore, my lord and master, do not disregard what he said, but keep it in your mind, for it is true: our nation cannot be punished, nor can the sword prevail against them, unless they sin against their God. 11.22. And Holofernes said to her, "God has done well to send you before the people, to lend strength to our hands and to bring destruction upon those who have slighted my lord. 12.2. But Judith said, "I cannot eat it, lest it be an offense; but I will be provided from the things I have brought with me. 12.12. For it will be a disgrace if we let such a woman go without enjoying her company, for if we do not embrace her she will laugh at us. 13.6. She went up to the post at the end of the bed, above Holofernes' head, and took down his sword that hung there. 13.8. And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed it from his body. 13.9. Then she tumbled his body off the bed and pulled down the canopy from the posts; after a moment she went out, and gave Holofernes' head to her maid 14.5. But before you do all this, bring Achior the Ammonite to me, and let him see and recognize the man who despised the house of Israel and sent him to us as if to his death. 14.6. So they summoned Achior from the house of Uzziah. And when he came and saw the head of Holofernes in the hand of one of the men at the gathering of the people, he fell down on his face and his spirit failed him. 14.8. Now tell me what you have done during these days." Then Judith described to him in the presence of the people all that she had done, from the day she left until the moment of her speaking to them. 14.11. As soon as it was dawn they hung the head of Holofernes on the wall, and every man took his weapons, and they went out in companies to the passes in the mountains. 14.18. The slaves have tricked us! One Hebrew woman has brought disgrace upon the house of King Nebuchadnezzar! For look, here is Holofernes lying on the ground, and his head is not on him! 15.4. And Uzziah sent men to Betomasthaim and Bebai and Choba and Kola, and to all the frontiers of Israel, to tell what had taken place and to urge all to rush out upon their enemies to destroy them. 15.5. And when the Israelites heard it, with one accord they fell upon the enemy, and cut them down as far as Choba. Those in Jerusalem and all the hill country also came, for they were told what had happened in the camp of the enemy; and those in Gilead and in Galilee outflanked them with great slaughter, even beyond Damascus and its borders. 15.7. And the Israelites, when they returned from the slaughter, took possession of what remained, and the villages and towns in the hill country and in the plain got a great amount of booty, for there was a vast quantity of it. 16.4. The Assyrian came down from the mountains of the north; he came with myriads of his warriors; their multitude blocked up the valleys, their cavalry covered the hills. 16.5. He boasted that he would burn up my territory, and kill my young men with the sword, and dash my infants to the ground and seize my children as prey, and take my virgins as booty. 16.17. Woe to the nations that rise up against my people! The Lord Almighty will take vengeance on them in the day of judgment; fire and worms he will give to their flesh; they shall weep in pain for ever. 16.18. When they arrived at Jerusalem they worshiped God. As soon as the people were purified, they offered their burnt offerings, their freewill offerings, and their gifts.
24. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.22. and they did not know the secret purposes of God,nor hope for the wages of holiness,nor discern the prize for blameless souls;
25. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.2. Lord, Lord, king of the heavens, and sovereign of all creation, holy among the holy ones, the only ruler, almighty, give attention to us who are suffering grievously from an impious and profane man, puffed up in his audacity and power. 2.2. Speedily let your mercies overtake us, and put praises in the mouth of those who are downcast and broken in spirit, and give us peace.
26. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.152, 1.337-1.338 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.152. Now Terah hating Chaldea, on account of his mourning for Haran, they all removed to Haran of Mesopotamia, where Terah died, and was buried, when he had lived to be two hundred and five years old; for the life of man was already, by degrees, diminished, and became shorter than before, till the birth of Moses; after whom the term of human life was one hundred and twenty years, God determining it to the length that Moses happened to live. 1.337. 1. Hereupon Jacob came to the place, till this day called Tents (Succoth;) from whence he went to Shechem, which is a city of the Canaanites. Now as the Shechemites were keeping a festival Dina, who was the only daughter of Jacob, went into the city to see the finery of the women of that country. But when Shechem, the son of Hamor the king, saw her, he defiled her by violence; and being greatly in love with her, desired of his father that he would procure the damsel to him for a wife. 1.338. To which desire he condescended, and came to Jacob, desiring him to give leave that his son Shechem might, according to law, marry Dina. But Jacob, not knowing how to deny the desire of one of such great dignity, and yet not thinking it lawful to marry his daughter to a stranger, entreated him to give him leave to have a consultation about what he desired him to do.
27. New Testament, Acts, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.2. He said, "Brothers and fathers, listen. The God of glory appeared to our father Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, before he lived in Haran
28. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 31.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 8.10, 23.13



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Gera, Judith (2014) 205
achilles Gera, Judith (2014) 144
achior, conversion Gera, Judith (2014) 415
achior, talks to holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 205, 415
achior Gera, Judith (2014) 58, 205, 220; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
aeschylus Gera, Judith (2014) 57, 58
agamemnon Gera, Judith (2014) 58
ahiqar Gera, Judith (2014) 58
akinakes, holophernes sword Gera, Judith (2014) 305
alexander the great Gera, Judith (2014) 57, 144
ammon and ammonites Gera, Judith (2014) 220
angel of god Gera, Judith (2014) 305
apocrypha Gera, Judith (2014) 80
aramaic Gera, Judith (2014) 58
army, assyrian Gera, Judith (2014) 144
assyrians, biblical and historical Gera, Judith (2014) 205
assyrians, court tales Gera, Judith (2014) 58
atossa Gera, Judith (2014) 57
babylon and babylonians Gera, Judith (2014) 205
barak Gera, Judith (2014) 415
beheadings and decapitations Gera, Judith (2014) 57
bethulia, city gates Gera, Judith (2014) 57
book of judith, and greek writings Gera, Judith (2014) 57, 58
book of judith, author Gera, Judith (2014) 415
book of judith, irony and humor Gera, Judith (2014) 58
book of judith, original language Gera, Judith (2014) 80
canaan/canaanites Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
canaan and canaanites Gera, Judith (2014) 205
chaldeans Gera, Judith (2014) 205
cilicia Gera, Judith (2014) 137
clytemnestra Gera, Judith (2014) 58
coastal cities and people, submissive Gera, Judith (2014) 144
corpses Gera, Judith (2014) 144
councils and conferences Gera, Judith (2014) 137, 205, 220
court tales Gera, Judith (2014) 58
creation Gera, Judith (2014) 144, 205
crush/ shatter enemy Gera, Judith (2014) 144
day of death/ evil / judgment Gera, Judith (2014) 144
deborah, and judith Gera, Judith (2014) 415
deborah, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 415
dinah Gera, Judith (2014) 305; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
earth, edges of Gera, Judith (2014) 144
egypt Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
egypt and egyptians Gera, Judith (2014) 205
ephraim, mercenaries of Gera, Judith (2014) 220
ethnography Gera, Judith (2014) 205
ethnos/ethne, in judith Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
eunuchs Gera, Judith (2014) 58
exile, captivity, and return, exodus, story of Gera, Judith (2014) 205
exile, captivity, and return Gera, Judith (2014) 144
faces Gera, Judith (2014) 58, 415
five-day moratorium Gera, Judith (2014) 57
genos/gene/gens/genus, in judith Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
gentiles, as contrast with jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
god, and abraham Gera, Judith (2014) 205
god, defends and shields Gera, Judith (2014) 415
god, glory Gera, Judith (2014) 144
god, might Gera, Judith (2014) 144
god, vengeful and warrior Gera, Judith (2014) 305
god Gera, Judith (2014) 305
gods, foreign Gera, Judith (2014) 205
gold, objects Gera, Judith (2014) 305
haran Gera, Judith (2014) 205
hebrews/israelites, and egypt Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
helen Gera, Judith (2014) 57
hera Gera, Judith (2014) 57
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 205
hezekiah Gera, Judith (2014) 144
historical surveys, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 205
holofernes Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
holophernes, angry and tyrannical Gera, Judith (2014) 220
holophernes, death and decapitation Gera, Judith (2014) 57, 305
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 144
homer Gera, Judith (2014) 57
idolatry, denounced in jewish texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
idolatry, in judith Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
ii maccabees Gera, Judith (2014) 80
iii maccabees Gera, Judith (2014) 80
israel Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
jacob Gera, Judith (2014) 305; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
jael, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 415
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and ethnicity in post-biblical texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, in judith Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
joseph Gera, Judith (2014) 144
josephus Gera, Judith (2014) 415
judas maccabeus Gera, Judith (2014) 305
judith, deceives and lies Gera, Judith (2014) 58
judith, eloquence and irony Gera, Judith (2014) 58
judith, prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 305
judith, sent by god? Gera, Judith (2014) 220
judith Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
knowledge / foreknowledge Gera, Judith (2014) 415
language and style, book of judith, awkward and difficult Gera, Judith (2014) 137, 220, 305
language and style, book of judith, future forms Gera, Judith (2014) 144
language and style, book of judith, genitive absolute Gera, Judith (2014) 80
language and style, book of judith, imperatives Gera, Judith (2014) 144
language and style, book of judith, key words and internal echoes Gera, Judith (2014) 305
language and style, book of judith, mistranslation of hebrew? Gera, Judith (2014) 137
language and style, book of judith, participles Gera, Judith (2014) 80
language and style, book of judith, particles and connectives Gera, Judith (2014) 80
language and style, book of judith, septuagint influence Gera, Judith (2014) 220
language and style, book of judith, syntax Gera, Judith (2014) 80
language and style Gera, Judith (2014) 80
levi Gera, Judith (2014) 305
lindos chronicle Gera, Judith (2014) 57
lineage and genealogy as identity marker, of judith Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
maid, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 415
medieval hebrew tales of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 415
mesopotamia Gera, Judith (2014) 205
moab and moabites Gera, Judith (2014) 220
mythic origins as identity marker, of jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
nature, overturned Gera, Judith (2014) 144
nebuchadnezzar, historical Gera, Judith (2014) 144
nebuchadnezzar of judith, as rival of god Gera, Judith (2014) 137
nebuchadnezzar of judith, vengeful Gera, Judith (2014) 137, 144, 305
nebuchadnezzar of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 58, 137, 144
nebuzaradan Gera, Judith (2014) 144
oedipus rex Gera, Judith (2014) 58
persian traces in judith Gera, Judith (2014) 144
pharaoh Gera, Judith (2014) 220
pollution and defilement Gera, Judith (2014) 305
prayers and praying Gera, Judith (2014) 305
questions Gera, Judith (2014) 57, 205, 220
rabshakeh Gera, Judith (2014) 144
rape Gera, Judith (2014) 305
rivers and streams Gera, Judith (2014) 144
samuel Gera, Judith (2014) 144
sennacherib Gera, Judith (2014) 58, 144
septuagint Gera, Judith (2014) 80
shame and disgrace, and ridicule Gera, Judith (2014) 57
shame and disgrace Gera, Judith (2014) 57
shechem, city and people Gera, Judith (2014) 305
simeon, and levi Gera, Judith (2014) 305
simeon, attacks shechem Gera, Judith (2014) 137, 305
sinai, single man Gera, Judith (2014) 57
sisera, mother of Gera, Judith (2014) 415
sisera, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 415
sisera, of l.a.b. Gera, Judith (2014) 415
son of hamor Gera, Judith (2014) 305
spitamenes Gera, Judith (2014) 57
swords Gera, Judith (2014) 305
terah Gera, Judith (2014) 205
tobiah Gera, Judith (2014) 220
ur Gera, Judith (2014) 205
war, attitudes towards Gera, Judith (2014) 144
water shortage Gera, Judith (2014) 57
wine and drunkenness Gera, Judith (2014) 220
worship/ritual/cult as identity markers, for jews' Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 140
xanthus Gera, Judith (2014) 144
zeus Gera, Judith (2014) 57