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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



691
Septuagint, Judith, 15.12-15.13


nanThen all the women of Israel gathered to see her, and blessed her, and some of them performed a dance for her; and she took branches in her hands and gave them to the women who were with her;


nanand they crowned themselves with olive wreaths, she and those who were with her; and she went before all the people in the dance, leading all the women, while all the men of Israel followed, bearing their arms and wearing garlands and with songs on their lips.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

43 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 8.5, 11.14 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.5. And Tobias began to pray, "Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers,and blessed be thy holy and glorious name for ever. Let the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee. 11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.5, 12.3, 20.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.5. כִּי־אִם־כֹּה תַעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם מִזְבְּחֹתֵיהֶם תִּתֹּצוּ וּמַצֵּבֹתָם תְּשַׁבֵּרוּ וַאֲשֵׁירֵהֶם תְּגַדֵּעוּן וּפְסִילֵיהֶם תִּשְׂרְפוּן בָּאֵשׁ׃ 12.3. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּנָּקֵשׁ אַחֲרֵיהֶם אַחֲרֵי הִשָּׁמְדָם מִפָּנֶיךָ וּפֶן־תִּדְרֹשׁ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר אֵיכָה יַעַבְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה־כֵּן גַּם־אָנִי׃ 12.3. וְנִתַּצְתֶּם אֶת־מִזְבּחֹתָם וְשִׁבַּרְתֶּם אֶת־מַצֵּבֹתָם וַאֲשֵׁרֵיהֶם תִּשְׂרְפוּן בָּאֵשׁ וּפְסִילֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם תְּגַדֵּעוּן וְאִבַּדְתֶּם אֶת־שְׁמָם מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא׃ 20.4. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הַהֹלֵךְ עִמָּכֶם לְהִלָּחֵם לָכֶם עִם־אֹיְבֵיכֶם לְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֶתְכֶם׃ 7.5. But thus shall ye deal with them: ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and hew down their Asherim, and burn their graven images with fire." 12.3. And ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and burn their Asherim with fire; and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods; and ye shall destroy their name out of that place." 20.4. for the LORD your God is He that goeth with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.12, 4.31, 9.29, 9.33, 12.27, 12.44, 15.1-15.18, 15.20-15.21, 18.10, 19.16, 19.18, 20.17, 28.3, 32.6, 32.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.12. וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־אֶהְיֶה עִמָּךְ וְזֶה־לְּךָ הָאוֹת כִּי אָנֹכִי שְׁלַחְתִּיךָ בְּהוֹצִיאֲךָ אֶת־הָעָם מִמִּצְרַיִם תַּעַבְדוּן אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים עַל הָהָר הַזֶּה׃ 4.31. וַיַּאֲמֵן הָעָם וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ כִּי־פָקַד יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי רָאָה אֶת־עָנְיָם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ׃ 9.29. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מֹשֶׁה כְּצֵאתִי אֶת־הָעִיר אֶפְרֹשׂ אֶת־כַּפַּי אֶל־יְהוָה הַקֹּלוֹת יֶחְדָּלוּן וְהַבָּרָד לֹא יִהְיֶה־עוֹד לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי לַיהוָה הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.33. וַיֵּצֵא מֹשֶׁה מֵעִם פַּרְעֹה אֶת־הָעִיר וַיִּפְרֹשׂ כַּפָּיו אֶל־יְהוָה וַיַּחְדְּלוּ הַקֹּלוֹת וְהַבָּרָד וּמָטָר לֹא־נִתַּךְ אָרְצָה׃ 12.27. וַאֲמַרְתֶּם זֶבַח־פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה אֲשֶׁר פָּסַח עַל־בָּתֵּי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּמִצְרַיִם בְּנָגְפּוֹ אֶת־מִצְרַיִם וְאֶת־בָּתֵּינוּ הִצִּיל וַיִּקֹּד הָעָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ׃ 12.44. וְכָל־עֶבֶד אִישׁ מִקְנַת־כָּסֶף וּמַלְתָּה אֹתוֹ אָז יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃ 15.1. אָז יָשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃ 15.1. נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ כִּסָּמוֹ יָם צָלֲלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים׃ 15.2. עָזִּי וְזִמְרָת יָהּ וַיְהִי־לִי לִישׁוּעָה זֶה אֵלִי וְאַנְוֵהוּ אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי וַאֲרֹמְמֶנְהוּ׃ 15.2. וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַתֹּף בְּיָדָהּ וַתֵּצֶאןָ כָל־הַנָּשִׁים אַחֲרֶיהָ בְּתֻפִּים וּבִמְחֹלֹת׃ 15.3. יְהוָה אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה יְהוָה שְׁמוֹ׃ 15.4. מַרְכְּבֹת פַּרְעֹה וְחֵילוֹ יָרָה בַיָּם וּמִבְחַר שָׁלִשָׁיו טֻבְּעוּ בְיַם־סוּף׃ 15.5. תְּהֹמֹת יְכַסְיֻמוּ יָרְדוּ בִמְצוֹלֹת כְּמוֹ־אָבֶן׃ 15.6. יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה נֶאְדָּרִי בַּכֹּחַ יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב׃ 15.7. וּבְרֹב גְּאוֹנְךָ תַּהֲרֹס קָמֶיךָ תְּשַׁלַּח חֲרֹנְךָ יֹאכְלֵמוֹ כַּקַּשׁ׃ 15.8. וּבְרוּחַ אַפֶּיךָ נֶעֶרְמוּ מַיִם נִצְּבוּ כְמוֹ־נֵד נֹזְלִים קָפְאוּ תְהֹמֹת בְּלֶב־יָם׃ 15.9. אָמַר אוֹיֵב אֶרְדֹּף אַשִּׂיג אֲחַלֵּק שָׁלָל תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ נַפְשִׁי אָרִיק חַרְבִּי תּוֹרִישֵׁמוֹ יָדִי׃ 15.11. מִי־כָמֹכָה בָּאֵלִם יְהוָה מִי כָּמֹכָה נֶאְדָּר בַּקֹּדֶשׁ נוֹרָא תְהִלֹּת עֹשֵׂה פֶלֶא׃ 15.12. נָטִיתָ יְמִינְךָ תִּבְלָעֵמוֹ אָרֶץ׃ 15.13. נָחִיתָ בְחַסְדְּךָ עַם־זוּ גָּאָלְתָּ נֵהַלְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ אֶל־נְוֵה קָדְשֶׁךָ׃ 15.14. שָׁמְעוּ עַמִּים יִרְגָּזוּן חִיל אָחַז יֹשְׁבֵי פְּלָשֶׁת׃ 15.15. אָז נִבְהֲלוּ אַלּוּפֵי אֱדוֹם אֵילֵי מוֹאָב יֹאחֲזֵמוֹ רָעַד נָמֹגוּ כֹּל יֹשְׁבֵי כְנָעַן׃ 15.16. תִּפֹּל עֲלֵיהֶם אֵימָתָה וָפַחַד בִּגְדֹל זְרוֹעֲךָ יִדְּמוּ כָּאָבֶן עַד־יַעֲבֹר עַמְּךָ יְהוָה עַד־יַעֲבֹר עַם־זוּ קָנִיתָ׃ 15.17. תְּבִאֵמוֹ וְתִטָּעֵמוֹ בְּהַר נַחֲלָתְךָ מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ פָּעַלְתָּ יְהוָה מִקְּדָשׁ אֲדֹנָי כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ׃ 15.18. יְהוָה יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 15.21. וַתַּעַן לָהֶם מִרְיָם שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃ 19.16. וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיֹת הַבֹּקֶר וַיְהִי קֹלֹת וּבְרָקִים וְעָנָן כָּבֵד עַל־הָהָר וְקֹל שֹׁפָר חָזָק מְאֹד וַיֶּחֱרַד כָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר בַּמַּחֲנֶה׃ 19.18. וְהַר סִינַי עָשַׁן כֻּלּוֹ מִפְּנֵי אֲשֶׁר יָרַד עָלָיו יְהוָה בָּאֵשׁ וַיַּעַל עֲשָׁנוֹ כְּעֶשֶׁן הַכִּבְשָׁן וַיֶּחֱרַד כָּל־הָהָר מְאֹד׃ 20.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃ 28.3. וְאַתָּה תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־חַכְמֵי־לֵב אֲשֶׁר מִלֵּאתִיו רוּחַ חָכְמָה וְעָשׂוּ אֶת־בִּגְדֵי אַהֲרֹן לְקַדְּשׁוֹ לְכַהֲנוֹ־לִי׃ 28.3. וְנָתַתָּ אֶל־חֹשֶׁן הַמִּשְׁפָּט אֶת־הָאוּרִים וְאֶת־הַתֻּמִּים וְהָיוּ עַל־לֵב אַהֲרֹן בְּבֹאוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־מִשְׁפַּט בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־לִבּוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה תָּמִיד׃ 32.6. וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ מִמָּחֳרָת וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיַּגִּשׁוּ שְׁלָמִים וַיֵּשֶׁב הָעָם לֶאֱכֹל וְשָׁתוֹ וַיָּקֻמוּ לְצַחֵק׃ 32.19. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר קָרַב אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיַּרְא אֶת־הָעֵגֶל וּמְחֹלֹת וַיִּחַר־אַף מֹשֶׁה וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ מידו [מִיָּדָיו] אֶת־הַלֻּחֹת וַיְשַׁבֵּר אֹתָם תַּחַת הָהָר׃ 3.12. And He said: ‘Certainly I will be with thee; and this shall be the token unto thee, that I have sent thee: when thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain.’" 4.31. And the people believed; and when they heard that the LORD had remembered the children of Israel, and that He had seen their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped." 9.29. And Moses said unto him: ‘As soon as I am gone out of the city, I will spread forth my hands unto the LORD; the thunders shall cease, neither shall there be any more hail; that thou mayest know that the earth is the LORD’s." 9.33. And Moses went out of the city from Pharaoh, and spread forth his hands unto the LORD; and the thunders and hail ceased, and the rain was not poured upon the earth." 12.27. that ye shall say: It is the sacrifice of the LORD’s passover, for that He passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, when He smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses.’ And the people bowed the head and worshipped." 12.44. but every man’s servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof." 15.1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea." 15.2. The LORD is my strength and song, And He is become my salvation; This is my God, and I will glorify Him; My father’s God, and I will exalt Him." 15.3. The LORD is a man of war, The LORD is His name." 15.4. Pharaoh’s chariots and his host hath He cast into the sea, And his chosen captains are sunk in the Red Sea." 15.5. The deeps cover them— They went down into the depths like a stone." 15.6. Thy right hand, O LORD, glorious in power, Thy right hand, O LORD, dasheth in pieces the enemy." 15.7. And in the greatness of Thine excellency Thou overthrowest them that rise up against Thee; Thou sendest forth Thy wrath, it consumeth them as stubble." 15.8. And with the blast of Thy nostrils the waters were piled up— The floods stood upright as a heap; The deeps were congealed in the heart of the sea." 15.9. The enemy said: ‘I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; My lust shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.’" 15.10. Thou didst blow with Thy wind, the sea covered them; They sank as lead in the mighty waters." 15.11. Who is like unto Thee, O LORD, among the mighty? Who is like unto Thee, glorious in holiness, Fearful in praises, doing wonders?" 15.12. Thou stretchedst out Thy right hand— The earth swallowed them." 15.13. Thou in Thy love hast led the people that Thou hast redeemed; Thou hast guided them in Thy strength to Thy holy habitation." 15.14. The peoples have heard, they tremble; Pangs have taken hold on the inhabitants of Philistia." 15.15. Then were the chiefs of Edom affrighted; The mighty men of Moab, trembling taketh hold upon them; All the inhabitants of Canaan are melted away." 15.16. Terror and dread falleth upon them; By the greatness of Thine arm they are as still as a stone; Till Thy people pass over, O LORD, Till the people pass over that Thou hast gotten." 15.17. Thou bringest them in, and plantest them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, The place, O LORD, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, The sanctuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established." 15.18. The LORD shall reign for ever and ever." 15.20. And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; and all the women went out after her with timbrels and with dances." 15.21. And Miriam sang unto them: Sing ye to the LORD, for He is highly exalted: The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea." 18.10. And Jethro said: ‘Blessed be the LORD, who hath delivered you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh; who hath delivered the people from under the hand of the Egyptians." 19.16. And it came to pass on the third day, when it was morning, that there were thunders and lightnings and a thick cloud upon the mount, and the voice of a horn exceeding loud; and all the people that were in the camp trembled." 19.18. Now mount Sinai was altogether on smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire; and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly." 20.17. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.’" 28.3. And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise-hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they make Aaron’s garments to sanctify him, that he may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 32.6. And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to make merry." 32.19. And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf and the dancing; and Moses’anger waxed hot, and he cast the tables out of his hands, and broke them beneath the mount."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.7, 17.12-17.13, 24.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.7. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָאתִי מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה עַד־רֶמֶשׂ וְעַד־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם כִּי נִחַמְתִּי כִּי עֲשִׂיתִם׃ 17.12. וּבֶן־שְׁמֹנַת יָמִים יִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם יְלִיד בָּיִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּסֶף מִכֹּל בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִזַּרְעֲךָ הוּא׃ 17.13. הִמּוֹל יִמּוֹל יְלִיד בֵּיתְךָ וּמִקְנַת כַּסְפֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה בְרִיתִי בִּבְשַׂרְכֶם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם׃ 24.27. וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲדֹנִי אַבְרָהָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־עָזַב חַסְדּוֹ וַאֲמִתּוֹ מֵעִם אֲדֹנִי אָנֹכִי בַּדֶּרֶךְ נָחַנִי יְהוָה בֵּית אֲחֵי אֲדֹנִי׃ 6.7. And the LORD said: ‘I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air; for it repenteth Me that I have made them.’" 17.12. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any foreigner, that is not of thy seed." 17.13. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised; and My covet shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covet." 24.27. And he said: ‘Blessed be the LORD, the God of my master Abraham, who hath not forsaken His mercy and His truth toward my master; as for me, the LORD hath led me in the way to the house of my master’s brethren.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2, 1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 3.6, 3.8, 3.10, 4.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.6. וַיִּגַּע הַדָּבָר אֶל־מֶלֶך נִינְוֵה וַיָּקָם מִכִּסְאוֹ וַיַּעֲבֵר אַדַּרְתּוֹ מֵעָלָיו וַיְכַס שַׂק וַיֵּשֶׁב עַל־הָאֵפֶר׃ 3.8. וְיִתְכַּסּוּ שַׂקִּים הָאָדָם וְהַבְּהֵמָה וְיִקְרְאוּ אֶל־אֱלֹהִים בְּחָזְקָה וְיָשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ מִדַּרְכּוֹ הָרָעָה וּמִן־הֶחָמָס אֲשֶׁר בְּכַפֵּיהֶם׃ 4.11. וַאֲנִי לֹא אָחוּס עַל־נִינְוֵה הָעִיר הַגְּדוֹלָה אֲשֶׁר יֶשׁ־בָּהּ הַרְבֵּה מִשְׁתֵּים־עֶשְׂרֵה רִבּוֹ אָדָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדַע בֵּין־יְמִינוֹ לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ וּבְהֵמָה רַבָּה׃ 3.6. And the tidings reached the king of Nineveh, and he arose from his throne, and laid his robe from him, and covered him with sackcloth, and sat in ashes." 3.8. but let them be covered with sackcloth, both man and beast, and let them cry mightily unto God; yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands." 3.10. And God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, which He said He would do unto them; and He did it not." 4.11. and should not I have pity on Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than sixscore thousand persons that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand, and also much cattle?’"
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 22.10, 23.40 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.10. There shall no acommon man eat of the holy thing; a tet of a priest, or a hired servant, shall not eat of the holy thing." 23.40. And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days."
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 14.15, 19.11-19.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

14.15. וְהֵמַתָּה אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד וְאָמְרוּ הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־שָׁמְעוּ אֶת־שִׁמְעֲךָ לֵאמֹר׃ 19.11. הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת לְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם וְטָמֵא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.12. הוּא יִתְחַטָּא־בוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי יִטְהָר וְאִם־לֹא יִתְחַטָּא בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי לֹא יִטְהָר׃ 19.13. כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃ 19.14. זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה אָדָם כִּי־יָמוּת בְּאֹהֶל כָּל־הַבָּא אֶל־הָאֹהֶל וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּאֹהֶל יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.15. וְכֹל כְּלִי פָתוּחַ אֲשֶׁר אֵין־צָמִיד פָּתִיל עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא׃ 19.16. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה בַּחֲלַל־חֶרֶב אוֹ בְמֵת אוֹ־בְעֶצֶם אָדָם אוֹ בְקָבֶר יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 19.17. וְלָקְחוּ לַטָּמֵא מֵעֲפַר שְׂרֵפַת הַחַטָּאת וְנָתַן עָלָיו מַיִם חַיִּים אֶל־כֶּלִי׃ 19.18. וְלָקַח אֵזוֹב וְטָבַל בַּמַּיִם אִישׁ טָהוֹר וְהִזָּה עַל־הָאֹהֶל וְעַל־כָּל־הַכֵּלִים וְעַל־הַנְּפָשׁוֹת אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ־שָׁם וְעַל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בַּעֶצֶם אוֹ בֶחָלָל אוֹ בַמֵּת אוֹ בַקָּבֶר׃ 19.19. וְהִזָּה הַטָּהֹר עַל־הַטָּמֵא בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְחִטְּאוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר בָּעָרֶב׃ 19.21. וְהָיְתָה לָּהֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם וּמַזֵּה מֵי־הַנִּדָּה יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְהַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵי הַנִּדָּה יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 19.22. וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע־בּוֹ הַטָּמֵא יִטְמָא וְהַנֶּפֶשׁ הַנֹּגַעַת תִּטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 14.15. now if Thou shalt kill this people as one man, then the nations which have heard the fame of Thee will speak, saying:" 19.11. He that toucheth the dead, even any man’s dead body, shall be unclean seven days;" 19.12. the same shall purify himself therewith on the third day and on the seventh day, and he shall be clean; but if he purify not himself the third day and the seventh day, he shall not be clean." 19.13. Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him." 19.14. This is the law: when a man dieth in a tent, every one that cometh into the tent, and every thing that is in the tent, shall be unclean seven days." 19.15. And every open vessel, which hath no covering close-bound upon it, is unclean." 19.16. And whosoever in the open field toucheth one that is slain with a sword, or one that dieth of himself, or a bone of a man, or a grave, shall be unclean seven days." 19.17. And for the unclean they shall take of the ashes of the burning of the purification from sin, and running water shall be put thereto in a vessel." 19.18. And a clean person shall take hyssop, and dip it in the water, and sprinkle it upon the tent, and upon all the vessels, and upon the persons that were there, and upon him that touched the bone, or the slain, or the dead, or the grave." 19.19. And the clean person shall sprinkle upon the unclean on the third day, and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall purify him; and he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and shall be clean at even." 19.20. But the man that shall be unclean, and shall not purify himself, that soul shall be cut off from the midst of the assembly, because he hath defiled the sanctuary of the LORD; the water of sprinkling hath not been dashed against him: he is unclean." 19.21. And it shall be a perpetual statute unto them; and he that sprinkleth the water of sprinkling shall wash his clothes; and he that toucheth the water of sprinkling shall be unclean until even." 19.22. And whatsoever the unclean person toucheth shall be unclean; and the soul that toucheth him shall be unclean until even."
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.1, 1.22, 31.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. בְּנִי אִם־יְפַתּוּךָ חַטָּאִים אַל־תֹּבֵא׃ 1.1. מִשְׁלֵי שְׁלֹמֹה בֶן־דָּוִד מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 1.22. עַד־מָתַי פְּתָיִם תְּאֵהֲבוּ פֶתִי וְלֵצִים לָצוֹן חָמְדוּ לָהֶם וּכְסִילִים יִשְׂנְאוּ־דָעַת׃ 31.31. תְּנוּ־לָהּ מִפְּרִי יָדֶיהָ וִיהַלְלוּהָ בַשְּׁעָרִים מַעֲשֶׂיהָ׃ 1.1. The proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel;" 1.22. ’How long, ye thoughtless, will ye love thoughtlessness? And how long will scorners delight them in scorning, And fools hate knowledge?" 31.31. Give her of the fruit of her hands; And let her works praise her in the gates."
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 18.32, 40.4, 96.1-96.2, 98.1, 106.30, 128.6, 134.1-134.2, 141.2, 149.1, 150.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.32. כִּי מִי אֱלוֹהַּ מִבַּלְעֲדֵי יְהוָה וּמִי צוּר זוּלָתִי אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃ 40.4. וַיִּתֵּן בְּפִי שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ יִרְאוּ רַבִּים וְיִירָאוּ וְיִבְטְחוּ בַּיהוָה׃ 96.1. אִמְרוּ בַגּוֹיִם יְהוָה מָלָךְ אַף־תִּכּוֹן תֵּבֵל בַּל־תִּמּוֹט יָדִין עַמִּים בְּמֵישָׁרִים׃ 96.1. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 96.2. שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה בָּרֲכוּ שְׁמוֹ בַּשְּׂרוּ מִיּוֹם־לְיוֹם יְשׁוּעָתוֹ׃ 98.1. מִזְמוֹר שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ כִּי־נִפְלָאוֹת עָשָׂה הוֹשִׁיעָה־לּוֹ יְמִינוֹ וּזְרוֹעַ קָדְשׁוֹ׃ 128.6. וּרְאֵה־בָנִים לְבָנֶיךָ שָׁלוֹם עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 134.1. שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת הִנֵּה בָּרֲכוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כָּל־עַבְדֵי יְהוָה הָעֹמְדִים בְּבֵית־יְהוָה בַּלֵּילוֹת׃ 134.2. שְׂאוּ־יְדֵכֶם קֹדֶשׁ וּבָרֲכוּ אֶת־יְהוָה׃ 141.2. תִּכּוֹן תְּפִלָּתִי קְטֹרֶת לְפָנֶיךָ מַשְׂאַת כַּפַּי מִנְחַת־עָרֶב׃ 149.1. הַלְלוּ יָהּ שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה שִׁיר חָדָשׁ תְּהִלָּתוֹ בִּקְהַל חֲסִידִים׃ 150.4. הַלְלוּהוּ בְתֹף וּמָחוֹל הַלְלוּהוּ בְּמִנִּים וְעוּגָב׃ 18.32. For who is God, save the LORD? And who is a Rock, except our God?" 40.4. And He hath put a new song in my mouth, even praise unto our God; many shall see, and fear, and shall trust in the LORD." 96.1. O sing unto the LORD a new song; Sing unto the LORD, all the earth." 96.2. Sing unto the LORD, bless His name; Proclaim His salvation from day to day." 98.1. A Psalm. O sing unto the LORD a new song; For He hath done marvellous things; His right hand, and His holy arm, hath wrought salvation for Him." 106.30. Then stood up Phinehas, and wrought judgment, And so the plague was stayed." 128.6. And see thy children's children. Peace be upon Israel!" 134.1. A Song of Ascents. Behold, bless ye the LORD, all ye servants of the LORD, That stand in the house of the LORD in the night seasons." 134.2. Lift up your hands to the sanctuary, And bless ye the LORD." 141.2. Let my prayer be set forth as incense before Thee, The lifting up of my hands as the evening sacrifice." 149.1. Hallelujah. Sing unto the LORD a new song, And His praise in the assembly of the saints." 150.4. Praise Him with the timbrel and dance; Praise Him with stringed instruments and the pipe."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.40, 8.22, 8.54 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.22. וַיַּעֲמֹד שְׁלֹמֹה לִפְנֵי מִזְבַּח יְהוָה נֶגֶד כָּל־קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּפְרֹשׂ כַּפָּיו הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 8.54. וַיְהִי כְּכַלּוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה אֵת כָּל־הַתְּפִלָּה וְהַתְּחִנָּה הַזֹּאת קָם מִלִּפְנֵי מִזְבַּח יְהוָה מִכְּרֹעַ עַל־בִּרְכָּיו וְכַפָּיו פְּרֻשׂוֹת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 1.40. And all the people came up after him, and the people piped with pipes, and rejoiced with great joy, so that the earth rent with the sound of them." 8.22. And Solomon stood before the altar of the LORD in the presence of all the congregation of Israel, and spread forth his hands toward heaven;" 8.54. And it was so, that when Solomon had made an end of praying all this prayer and supplication unto the LORD, he arose from before the altar of the LORD, from kneeling on his knees with his hands spread forth toward heaven."
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.26, 14.15, 16.5, 17.26, 17.43, 18.6-18.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.26. וַתֹּאמֶר בִּי אֲדֹנִי חֵי נַפְשְׁךָ אֲדֹנִי אֲנִי הָאִשָּׁה הַנִּצֶּבֶת עִמְּכָה בָּזֶה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה׃ 14.15. וַתְּהִי חֲרָדָה בַמַּחֲנֶה בַשָּׂדֶה וּבְכָל־הָעָם הַמַּצָּב וְהַמַּשְׁחִית חָרְדוּ גַּם־הֵמָּה וַתִּרְגַּז הָאָרֶץ וַתְּהִי לְחֶרְדַּת אֱלֹהִים׃ 16.5. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁלוֹם לִזְבֹּחַ לַיהוָה בָּאתִי הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ וּבָאתֶם אִתִּי בַּזָּבַח וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־יִשַׁי וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא לָהֶם לַזָּבַח׃ 17.26. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־הָאֲנָשִׁים הָעֹמְדִים עִמּוֹ לֵאמֹר מַה־יֵּעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַכֶּה אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הַלָּז וְהֵסִיר חֶרְפָּה מֵעַל יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מִי הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי הֶעָרֵל הַזֶּה כִּי חֵרֵף מַעַרְכוֹת אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים׃ 17.43. וַיֹּאמֶר הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֶל־דָּוִד הֲכֶלֶב אָנֹכִי כִּי־אַתָּה בָא־אֵלַי בַּמַּקְלוֹת וַיְקַלֵּל הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֶת־דָּוִד בֵּאלֹהָיו׃ 18.6. וַיְהִי בְּבוֹאָם בְּשׁוּב דָּוִד מֵהַכּוֹת אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַתֵּצֶאנָה הַנָּשִׁים מִכָּל־עָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לשור [לָשִׁיר] וְהַמְּחֹלוֹת לִקְרַאת שָׁאוּל הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּתֻפִּים בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְשָׁלִשִׁים׃ 18.7. וַתַּעֲנֶינָה הַנָּשִׁים הַמְשַׂחֲקוֹת וַתֹּאמַרְןָ הִכָּה שָׁאוּל באלפו [בַּאֲלָפָיו] וְדָוִד בְּרִבְבֹתָיו׃ 1.26. And she said, O my lord, as thy soul lives, my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying to the Lord." 14.15. And there was trembling in the camp, in the field, and among all the people: the garrison, and the raiding parties, they also trembled, and the earth quaked: so it was a very great trembling." 16.5. And he said, In peace: I am come to sacrifice to the Lord: sanctify yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice. And he sanctified Yishay and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice." 17.26. And David spoke to the men that stood by him, saying, What shall be done to the man that kills yonder Pelishtian, and takes away the reproach from Yisra᾽el? for who is this uncircumcised Pelishtian, that he should taunt the armies of the living God?" 17.43. And the Pelishtian said to David, Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with sticks? And the Pelishtian cursed David by his gods." 18.6. And it came to pass on their return, when David returned from slaying the Pelishtian, that the women came out of all the cities of Yisra᾽el, singing and dancing, to meet king Sha᾽ul, with timbrels, and a joyful song, and with lutes." 18.7. And the women answered one another as they danced, and said, Sha᾽ul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 5.1, 18.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.1. וְנַעֲמָן שַׂר־צְבָא מֶלֶךְ־אֲרָם הָיָה אִישׁ גָּדוֹל לִפְנֵי אֲדֹנָיו וּנְשֻׂא פָנִים כִּי־בוֹ נָתַן־יְהוָה תְּשׁוּעָה לַאֲרָם וְהָאִישׁ הָיָה גִּבּוֹר חַיִל מְצֹרָע׃ 5.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֵלָיו אֱלִישָׁע מַלְאָךְ לֵאמֹר הָלוֹךְ וְרָחַצְתָּ שֶׁבַע־פְּעָמִים בַּיַּרְדֵּן וְיָשֹׁב בְּשָׂרְךָ לְךָ וּטְהָר׃ 18.4. הוּא הֵסִיר אֶת־הַבָּמוֹת וְשִׁבַּר אֶת־הַמַּצֵּבֹת וְכָרַת אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרָה וְכִתַּת נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה כִּי עַד־הַיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה הָיוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקַטְּרִים לוֹ וַיִּקְרָא־לוֹ נְחֻשְׁתָּן׃ 5.1. Now Naaman, captain of the host of the king of Aram, was a great man with his master, and held in esteem, because by him the LORD had given victory unto Aram; he was also a mighty man of valour, but he was a leper." 18.4. He removed the high places, and broke the pillars, and cut down the Asherah; and he broke in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made; for unto those days the children of Israel did offer to it; and it was called Nehushtan."
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 6.14-6.16, 6.19, 11.1-11.5, 11.15, 18.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.14. וְדָוִד מְכַרְכֵּר בְּכָל־עֹז לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְדָוִד חָגוּר אֵפוֹד בָּד׃ 6.15. וְדָוִד וְכָל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל מַעֲלִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן יְהוָה בִּתְרוּעָה וּבְקוֹל שׁוֹפָר׃ 6.16. וְהָיָה אֲרוֹן יְהוָה בָּא עִיר דָּוִד וּמִיכַל בַּת־שָׁאוּל נִשְׁקְפָה בְּעַד הַחַלּוֹן וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד מְפַזֵּז וּמְכַרְכֵּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַתִּבֶז לוֹ בְּלִבָּהּ׃ 6.19. וַיְחַלֵּק לְכָל־הָעָם לְכָל־הֲמוֹן יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה לְאִישׁ חַלַּת לֶחֶם אַחַת וְאֶשְׁפָּר אֶחָד וַאֲשִׁישָׁה אֶחָת וַיֵּלֶךְ כָּל־הָעָם אִישׁ לְבֵיתוֹ׃ 11.1. וַיְהִי לִתְשׁוּבַת הַשָּׁנָה לְעֵת צֵאת הַמַּלְאכִים וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד אֶת־יוֹאָב וְאֶת־עֲבָדָיו עִמּוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּשְׁחִתוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וַיָּצֻרוּ עַל־רַבָּה וְדָוִד יוֹשֵׁב בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 11.1. וַיַּגִּדוּ לְדָוִד לֵאמֹר לֹא־יָרַד אוּרִיָּה אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־אוּרִיָּה הֲלוֹא מִדֶּרֶךְ אַתָּה בָא מַדּוּעַ לֹא־יָרַדְתָּ אֶל־בֵּיתֶךָ׃ 11.2. וְהָיָה אִם־תַּעֲלֶה חֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאָמַר לְךָ מַדּוּעַ נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל־הָעִיר לְהִלָּחֵם הֲלוֹא יְדַעְתֶּם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יֹרוּ מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה׃ 11.2. וַיְהִי לְעֵת הָעֶרֶב וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵעַל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ עַל־גַּג בֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּרְא אִשָּׁה רֹחֶצֶת מֵעַל הַגָּג וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה מְאֹד׃ 11.3. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיִּדְרֹשׁ לָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר הֲלוֹא־זֹאת בַּת־שֶׁבַע בַּת־אֱלִיעָם אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי׃ 11.4. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד מַלְאָכִים וַיִּקָּחֶהָ וַתָּבוֹא אֵלָיו וַיִּשְׁכַּב עִמָּהּ וְהִיא מִתְקַדֶּשֶׁת מִטֻּמְאָתָהּ וַתָּשָׁב אֶל־בֵּיתָהּ׃ 11.5. וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתִּשְׁלַח וַתַּגֵּד לְדָוִד וַתֹּאמֶר הָרָה אָנֹכִי׃ 11.15. וַיִּכְתֹּב בַּסֵּפֶר לֵאמֹר הָבוּ אֶת־אוּרִיָּה אֶל־מוּל פְּנֵי הַמִּלְחָמָה הַחֲזָקָה וְשַׁבְתֶּם מֵאַחֲרָיו וְנִכָּה וָמֵת׃ 18.28. וַיִּקְרָא אֲחִימַעַץ וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ שָׁלוֹם וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לַמֶּלֶךְ לְאַפָּיו אָרְצָה וַיֹּאמֶר בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר סִגַּר אֶת־הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־נָשְׂאוּ אֶת־יָדָם בַּאדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 6.14. And David leaped about before the Lord with all his might; and David was girded with a linen efod." 6.15. So David and all the house of Yisra᾽el brought up the ark of the Lord with shouting, and with the sound of the shofar." 6.16. And as the ark of the Lord came into the city of David, Mikhal, Sha᾽ul’s daughter looked through a window, and saw king David dancing and leaping before the Lord; and she despised him in her heart." 6.19. And he made a distribution among all the people, among the whole multitude of Yisra᾽el, both men and women, to everyone a cake of bread, and a good piece of meat, and a cake of raisins. So all the people departed everyone to his house." 11.1. And it came to pass, at the return of the year, at the time when kings go out to battle, that David sent Yo᾽av, and his servants with him, and all Yisra᾽el, and they ravaged the children of ῾Ammon, and besieged Rabba. But David tarried still at Yerushalayim." 11.2. And it came to pass one evening, that David arose from his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king’s house: and from the roof he saw a woman bathing; and the woman was very fair to look upon." 11.3. And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said, Is not this Bat-sheva, the daughter of Eli῾am, the wife of Uriyya the Ĥittite?" 11.4. And David sent messengers, and took her; and she came in to him, and he lay with her; for she had purified herself from her uncleanness, and then she returned to her house." 11.5. And the woman conceived, and sent and told David, and said, I am with child." 11.15. And he wrote in the letter, saying, Set Uriyya in the forefront of the hottest battle, and withdraw from him, so that he may be hit, and die." 18.28. And Aĥima῾aż called, and said to the king, All is well. And he fell down to the earth upon his face before the king, and said, Blessed be the Lord thy God, who has delivered up the men that raised their hand against my lord the king."
15. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.15, 37.18-37.19, 45.5, 66.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.15. וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי־תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ׃ 37.18. אָמְנָם יְהוָה הֶחֱרִיבוּ מַלְכֵי אַשּׁוּר אֶת־כָּל־הָאֲרָצוֹת וְאֶת־אַרְצָם׃ 37.19. וְנָתֹן אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם בָּאֵשׁ כִּי לֹא אֱלֹהִים הֵמָּה כִּי אִם־מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי־אָדָם עֵץ וָאֶבֶן וַיְאַבְּדוּם׃ 45.5. אֲנִי יְהוָה וְאֵין עוֹד זוּלָתִי אֵין אֱלֹהִים אֲאַזֶּרְךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתָּנִי׃ 66.24. וְיָצְאוּ וְרָאוּ בְּפִגְרֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים הַפֹּשְׁעִים בִּי כִּי תוֹלַעְתָּם לֹא תָמוּת וְאִשָּׁם לֹא תִכְבֶּה וְהָיוּ דֵרָאוֹן לְכָל־בָּשָׂר׃ 1.15. And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear; Your hands are full of blood." 37.18. of a truth, LORD, the kings of Assyria have laid waste all the countries, and their land," 37.19. and have cast their gods into the fire; for they were no gods, but the work of men’s hands, wood and stone; therefore they have destroyed them." 45.5. I am the LORD, and there is none else, beside Me there is no God; I have girded thee, though thou hast not known Me;" 66.24. And they shall go forth, and look Upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against Me; For their worm shall not die, Neither shall their fire be quenched; And they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh. "
16. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.3, 5.31, 6.16, 6.28, 7.8, 11.34, 16.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.3. שִׁמְעוּ מְלָכִים הַאֲזִינוּ רֹזְנִים אָנֹכִי לַיהוָה אָנֹכִי אָשִׁירָה אֲזַמֵּר לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.3. הֲלֹא יִמְצְאוּ יְחַלְּקוּ שָׁלָל רַחַם רַחֲמָתַיִם לְרֹאשׁ גֶּבֶר שְׁלַל צְבָעִים לְסִיסְרָא שְׁלַל צְבָעִים רִקְמָה צֶבַע רִקְמָתַיִם לְצַוְּארֵי שָׁלָל׃ 5.31. כֵּן יֹאבְדוּ כָל־אוֹיְבֶיךָ יְהוָה וְאֹהֲבָיו כְּצֵאת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בִּגְבֻרָתוֹ וַתִּשְׁקֹט הָאָרֶץ אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה׃ 6.16. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו יְהוָה כִּי אֶהְיֶה עִמָּךְ וְהִכִּיתָ אֶת־מִדְיָן כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד׃ 6.28. וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר בַּבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה נֻתַּץ מִזְבַּח הַבַּעַל וְהָאֲשֵׁרָה אֲשֶׁר־עָלָיו כֹּרָתָה וְאֵת הַפָּר הַשֵּׁנִי הֹעֲלָה עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַבָּנוּי׃ 7.8. וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־צֵדָה הָעָם בְּיָדָם וְאֵת שׁוֹפְרֹתֵיהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׁלַּח אִישׁ לְאֹהָלָיו וּבִשְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת הָאִישׁ הֶחֱזִיק וּמַחֲנֵה מִדְיָן הָיָה לוֹ מִתַּחַת בָּעֵמֶק׃ 11.34. וַיָּבֹא יִפְתָּח הַמִּצְפָּה אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וְהִנֵּה בִתּוֹ יֹצֵאת לִקְרָאתוֹ בְתֻפִּים וּבִמְחֹלוֹת וְרַק הִיא יְחִידָה אֵין־לוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בֵּן אוֹ־בַת׃ 16.25. וַיְהִי כי טוב [כְּטוֹב] לִבָּם וַיֹּאמְרוּ קִרְאוּ לְשִׁמְשׁוֹן וִישַׂחֶק־לָנוּ וַיִּקְרְאוּ לְשִׁמְשׁוֹן מִבֵּית האסירים [הָאֲסוּרִים] וַיְצַחֵק לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמִידוּ אוֹתוֹ בֵּין הָעַמּוּדִים׃ 5.3. Hear, O kings; give ear, O princes; I will sing to the Lord; I will intone a melody to the God of Yisra᾽el." 5.31. So let all Thy enemies perish, O Lord: but let them that love him be as the sun when it comes out in its might. And the land was quiet for forty years." 6.16. And the Lord said to him, Surely I will be with thee, and thou shalt smite Midyan as one man." 6.28. And when the men of the city arose early in the morning, behold, the altar of Ba῾al was pulled down, and the Ashera that was by it, was cut down, and the second bullock was offered upon the altar that was built." 7.8. So the people took provisions in their hands, and their shofarot: and he sent all the rest of Yisra᾽el, every man to his tent, and retained those three hundred men: and the host of Midyan was beneath him in the valley." 11.34. And Yiftaĥ came to Miżpe to his house, and, behold, his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and with dances: and she was his only child; beside her he had neither son nor daughter." 16.25. And it came to pass, when their hearts were merry, that they said, Call for Shimshon, that he may make sport for us. And they called for Shimshon out of the prison house; and he made sport for them: and they set him between the pillars."
17. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 2.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.19. קוּמִי רֹנִּי בליל [בַלַּיְלָה] לְרֹאשׁ אַשְׁמֻרוֹת שִׁפְכִי כַמַּיִם לִבֵּךְ נֹכַח פְּנֵי אֲדֹנָי שְׂאִי אֵלָיו כַּפַּיִךְ עַל־נֶפֶשׁ עוֹלָלַיִךְ הָעֲטוּפִים בְּרָעָב בְּרֹאשׁ כָּל־חוּצוֹת׃ 2.19. Arise, cry out in the night, At the beginning of the watches; Pour out thy heart like water Before the face of the Lord; Lift up thy hands toward Him For the life of thy young children, That faint for hunger At the head of every street.’"
18. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 28.1-28.10 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

28.1. מוֹתֵי עֲרֵלִים תָּמוּת בְּיַד־זָרִים כִּי אֲנִי דִבַּרְתִּי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 28.1. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 28.2. בֶּן־אָדָם אֱמֹר לִנְגִיד צֹר כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה יַעַן גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ וַתֹּאמֶר אֵל אָנִי מוֹשַׁב אֱלֹהִים יָשַׁבְתִּי בְּלֵב יַמִּים וְאַתָּה אָדָם וְלֹא־אֵל וַתִּתֵּן לִבְּךָ כְּלֵב אֱלֹהִים׃ 28.2. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 28.3. הִנֵּה חָכָם אַתָּה מדנאל [מִדָּנִיֵּאל] כָּל־סָתוּם לֹא עֲמָמוּךָ׃ 28.4. בְּחָכְמָתְךָ וּבִתְבוּנָתְךָ עָשִׂיתָ לְּךָ חָיִל וַתַּעַשׂ זָהָב וָכֶסֶף בְּאוֹצְרוֹתֶיךָ׃ 28.5. בְּרֹב חָכְמָתְךָ בִּרְכֻלָּתְךָ הִרְבִּיתָ חֵילֶךָ וַיִּגְבַּהּ לְבָבְךָ בְּחֵילֶךָ׃ 28.6. לָכֵן כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה יַעַן תִּתְּךָ אֶת־לְבָבְךָ כְּלֵב אֱלֹהִים׃ 28.7. לָכֵן הִנְנִי מֵבִיא עָלֶיךָ זָרִים עָרִיצֵי גּוֹיִם וְהֵרִיקוּ חַרְבוֹתָם עַל־יְפִי חָכְמָתֶךָ וְחִלְּלוּ יִפְעָתֶךָ׃ 28.8. לַשַּׁחַת יוֹרִדוּךָ וָמַתָּה מְמוֹתֵי חָלָל בְּלֵב יַמִּים׃ 28.9. הֶאָמֹר תֹּאמַר אֱלֹהִים אָנִי לִפְנֵי הֹרְגֶךָ וְאַתָּה אָדָם וְלֹא־אֵל בְּיַד מְחַלְלֶיךָ׃ 28.1. And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:" 28.2. ’Son of man, say unto the prince of Tyre: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Because thy heart is lifted up, And thou hast said: I am a god, I sit in the seat of God, In the heart of the seas; Yet thou art man, and not God, Though thou didst set thy heart as the heart of God—" 28.3. Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel! There is no secret that they can hide from thee!" 28.4. By thy wisdom and by thy discernment Thou hast gotten thee riches, And hast gotten gold and silver Into thy treasures;" 28.5. In thy great wisdom by thy traffic Hast thou increased thy riches, And thy heart is lifted up because of thy riches—" 28.6. Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD: Because thou hast set thy heart As the heart of God;" 28.7. Therefore, behold, I will bring strangers upon thee, The terrible of the nations; And they shall draw their swords against the beauty of thy wisdom, And they shall defile thy brightness. ." 28.8. They shall bring thee down to the pit; And thou shalt die the deaths of them that are slain, In the heart of the seas." 28.9. Wilt thou yet say before him that slayeth thee: I am God? But thou art man, and not God, In the hand of them that defile thee." 28.10. Thou shalt die the deaths of the uncircumcised By the hand of strangers; For I have spoken, saith the Lord GOD.’"
19. Euripides, Alcestis, 426-429, 425 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

425. Ho! sirrahs, catch me this woman; hold her fast; for ’tis no welcome story she will have to hear. It was to make thee leave the holy altar of the goddess that I held thy child’s death before thy eyes, and so induced thee to give thyself up to me to die.
20. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 13.8 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.8. וְדָוִיד וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל מְשַׂחֲקִים לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים בְּכָל־עֹז וּבְשִׁירִים וּבְכִנֹּרוֹת וּבִנְבָלִים וּבְתֻפִּים וּבִמְצִלְתַּיִם וּבַחֲצֹצְרוֹת׃ 13.8. And David and all Israel played before God with all their might; even with songs, and with harps, and with psalteries, and with timbrels, and with cymbals, and with trumpets."
21. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 6.13, 20.5, 20.7-20.19, 20.21-20.22, 20.26, 32.8 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.13. כִּי־עָשָׂה שְׁלֹמֹה כִּיּוֹר נְחֹשֶׁת וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ בְּתוֹךְ הָעֲזָרָה חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת אָרְכּוֹ וְחָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת רָחְבּוֹ וְאַמּוֹת שָׁלוֹשׁ קוֹמָתוֹ וַיַּעֲמֹד עָלָיו וַיִּבְרַךְ עַל־בִּרְכָּיו נֶגֶד כָּל־קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּפְרֹשׂ כַּפָּיו הַשָּׁמָיְמָה׃ 20.5. וַיַּעֲמֹד יְהוֹשָׁפָט בִּקְהַל יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם בְּבֵית יְהוָה לִפְנֵי הֶחָצֵר הַחֲדָשָׁה׃ 20.7. הֲלֹא אַתָּה אֱלֹהֵינוּ הוֹרַשְׁתָּ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת מִלִּפְנֵי עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַתִּתְּנָהּ לְזֶרַע אַבְרָהָם אֹהַבְךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 20.8. וַיֵּשְׁבוּ־בָהּ וַיִּבְנוּ לְךָ בָּהּ מִקְדָּשׁ לְשִׁמְךָ לֵאמֹר׃ 20.9. אִם־תָּבוֹא עָלֵינוּ רָעָה חֶרֶב שְׁפוֹט וְדֶבֶר וְרָעָב נַעַמְדָה לִפְנֵי הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה וּלְפָנֶיךָ כִּי שִׁמְךָ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה וְנִזְעַק אֵלֶיךָ מִצָּרָתֵנוּ וְתִשְׁמַע וְתוֹשִׁיעַ׃ 20.11. וְהִנֵּה־הֵם גֹּמְלִים עָלֵינוּ לָבוֹא לְגָרְשֵׁנוּ מִיְּרֻשָּׁתְךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹרַשְׁתָּנוּ׃ 20.12. אֱלֹהֵינוּ הֲלֹא תִשְׁפָּט־בָּם כִּי אֵין בָּנוּ כֹּחַ לִפְנֵי הֶהָמוֹן הָרָב הַזֶּה הַבָּא עָלֵינוּ וַאֲנַחְנוּ לֹא נֵדַע מַה־נַּעֲשֶׂה כִּי עָלֶיךָ עֵינֵינוּ׃ 20.13. וְכָל־יְהוּדָה עֹמְדִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה גַּם־טַפָּם נְשֵׁיהֶם וּבְנֵיהֶם׃ 20.14. וְיַחֲזִיאֵל בֶּן־זְכַרְיָהוּ בֶּן־בְּנָיָה בֶּן־יְעִיאֵל בֶּן־מַתַּנְיָה הַלֵּוִי מִן־בְּנֵי אָסָף הָיְתָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה בְּתוֹךְ הַקָּהָל׃ 20.15. וַיֹּאמֶר הַקְשִׁיבוּ כָל־יְהוּדָה וְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְהַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוֹשָׁפָט כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה לָכֶם אַתֶּם אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תֵּחַתּוּ מִפְּנֵי הֶהָמוֹן הָרָב הַזֶּה כִּי לֹא לָכֶם הַמִּלְחָמָה כִּי לֵאלֹהִים׃ 20.16. מָחָר רְדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם הִנָּם עֹלִים בְּמַעֲלֵה הַצִּיץ וּמְצָאתֶם אֹתָם בְּסוֹף הַנַּחַל פְּנֵי מִדְבַּר יְרוּאֵל׃ 20.17. לֹא לָכֶם לְהִלָּחֵם בָּזֹאת הִתְיַצְּבוּ עִמְדוּ וּרְאוּ אֶת־יְשׁוּעַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תֵּחַתּוּ מָחָר צְאוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיהוָה עִמָּכֶם׃ 20.18. וַיִּקֹּד יְהוֹשָׁפָט אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה וְכָל־יְהוּדָה וְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם נָפְלוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת לַיהוָה׃ 20.19. וַיָּקֻמוּ הַלְוִיִּם מִן־בְּנֵי הַקְּהָתִים וּמִן־בְּנֵי הַקָּרְחִים לְהַלֵּל לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל לְמָעְלָה׃ 20.21. וַיִּוָּעַץ אֶל־הָעָם וַיַּעֲמֵד מְשֹׁרֲרִים לַיהוָה וּמְהַלְלִים לְהַדְרַת־קֹדֶשׁ בְּצֵאת לִפְנֵי הֶחָלוּץ וְאֹמְרִים הוֹדוּ לַיהוָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 20.22. וּבְעֵת הֵחֵלּוּ בְרִנָּה וּתְהִלָּה נָתַן יְהוָה מְאָרְבִים עַל־בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן מוֹאָב וְהַר־שֵׂעִיר הַבָּאִים לִיהוּדָה וַיִּנָּגֵפוּ׃ 20.26. וּבַיּוֹם הָרְבִעִי נִקְהֲלוּ לְעֵמֶק בְּרָכָה כִּי־שָׁם בֵּרֲכוּ אֶת־יְהוָה עַל־כֵּן קָרְאוּ אֶת־שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא עֵמֶק בְּרָכָה עַד־הַיּוֹם׃ 32.8. עִמּוֹ זְרוֹעַ בָּשָׂר וְעִמָּנוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְעָזְרֵנוּ וּלְהִלָּחֵם מִלְחֲמֹתֵנוּ וַיִּסָּמְכוּ הָעָם עַל־דִּבְרֵי יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה׃ 6.13. for Solomon had made a brazen scaffold, of five cubits long, and five cubits broad, and three cubits high, and had set it in the midst of the court; and upon it he stood, and kneeled down upon his knees before all the congregation of Israel, and spread forth his hands toward heaven—" 20.5. And Jehoshaphat stood in the congregation of Judah and Jerusalem, in the house of the LORD, before the new court;" 20.7. Didst not Thou, O our God, drive out the inhabitants of this land before Thy people Israel, and gavest it to the seed of Abraham Thy friend for ever?" 20.8. And they dwelt therein, and have built Thee a sanctuary therein for Thy name, saying:" 20.9. If evil come upon us, the sword, judgment, or pestilence, or famine, we will stand before this house, and before Thee—for Thy name is in this house—and cry unto Thee in our affliction, and Thou wilt hear and save." 20.10. And now, behold, the children of Ammon and Moab and mount Seir, whom Thou wouldest not let Israel invade, when they came out of the land of Egypt, but they turned aside from them, and destroyed them not;" 20.11. behold, they render unto us [evil], to come to cast us out of Thy possession, which Thou hast given us to inherit." 20.12. O our God, wilt Thou not execute judgment on them? for we have no might against this great multitude that cometh against us; neither know we what to do; but our eyes are upon Thee.’" 20.13. And all Judah stood before the LORD, with their little ones, their wives, and their children." 20.14. Then upon Jahaziel the son of Zechariah, the son of Benaiah, the son of Jeiel, the son of Mattaniah, the Levite, of the sons of Asaph, came the spirit of the LORD in the midst of the congregation;" 20.15. and he said: ‘Hearken ye, all Judah, and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem, and thou king Jehoshaphat: thus saith the LORD unto you: Fear not ye, neither be dismayed by reason of this great multitude; for the battle is not yours, but God’s." 20.16. To-morrow go ye down against them; behold, they come up by the ascent of Ziz; and ye shall find them at the end of the valley, before the wilderness of Jeruel." 20.17. Ye shall not need to fight in this battle; set yourselves, stand ye still, and see the salvation of the LORD with you, O Judah and Jerusalem; fear not, nor be dismayed; to-morrow go out against them; for the LORD is with you.’" 20.18. And Jehoshaphat bowed his head with his face to the ground; and all Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem fell down before the LORD, worshipping the LORD." 20.19. And the Levites, of the children of the Kohathites and of the children of the Korahites, stood up to praise the LORD, the God of Israel, with an exceeding loud voice." 20.21. And when he had taken counsel with the people, he appointed them that should sing unto the LORD, and praise in the beauty of holiness, as they went out before the army, and say: ‘Give thanks unto the LORD, for His mercy endureth for ever.’" 20.22. And when they began to sing and to praise, the LORD set liers-in-wait against the children of Ammon, Moab, and mount Seir, that were come against Judah; and they were smitten." 20.26. And on the fourth day they assembled themselves in the valley of Beracah; for there they blessed the LORD; therefore the name of that place was called The valley of Beracah, unto this day." 32.8. with him is an arm of flesh; but with us is the LORD our God to help us, and to fight our battles.’ And the people rested themselves upon the words of Hezekiah king of Judah."
22. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 6.20-6.21 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

6.21. וַיֹּאכְלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל הַשָּׁבִים מֵהַגּוֹלָה וְכֹל הַנִּבְדָּל מִטֻּמְאַת גּוֹיֵ־הָאָרֶץ אֲלֵהֶם לִדְרֹשׁ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 6.20. For the priests and the Levites had purified themselves together; all of them were pure; and they killed the passover lamb for all the children of the captivity, and for their brethren the priests, and for themselves." 6.21. And the children of Israel, that were come back out of the captivity, and all such as had separated themselves unto them from the filthiness of the nations of the land, to seek the LORD, the God of Israel, did eat,"
23. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.2-8.3, 8.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.2. וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.3. וַיִּקְרָא־בוֹ לִפְנֵי הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמַּיִם מִן־הָאוֹר עַד־מַחֲצִית הַיּוֹם נֶגֶד הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַמְּבִינִים וְאָזְנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶל־סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.2. And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month." 8.3. And he read therein before the broad place that was before the water gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women, and of those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law." 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground."
24. Herodotus, Histories, 3.28-3.30, 4.205, 5.102, 6.75, 7.54, 8.33, 8.51-8.55, 8.99, 8.109, 8.124, 8.129, 8.143, 9.65 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.28. Having put them to death, he next summoned the priests before him. When they gave him the same account, he said that if a tame god had come to the Egyptians he would know it; and with no more words he bade the priests bring Apis. So they went to fetch and bring him. ,This Apis, or Epaphus, is a calf born of a cow that can never conceive again. By what the Egyptians say, the cow is made pregt by a light from heaven, and thereafter gives birth to Apis. ,The marks of this calf called Apis are these: he is black, and has on his forehead a three-cornered white spot, and the likeness of an eagle on his back; the hairs of the tail are double, and there is a knot under the tongue. 3.29. When the priests led Apis in, Cambyses—for he was all but mad—drew his dagger and, meaning to stab the calf in the belly, stuck the thigh; then laughing he said to the priests: ,“Simpletons, are these your gods, creatures of flesh and blood that can feel weapons of iron? That is a god worthy of the Egyptians. But for you, you shall suffer for making me your laughing-stock.” So saying he bade those, whose business it was, to scourge the priests well, and to kill any other Egyptian whom they found holiday-making. ,So the Egyptian festival ended, and the priests were punished, and Apis lay in the temple and died of the wound in the thigh. When he was dead of the wound, the priests buried him without Cambyses' knowledge. 3.30. But Cambyses, the Egyptians say, owing to this wrongful act immediately went mad, although even before he had not been sensible. His first evil act was to destroy his full brother Smerdis, whom he had sent away from Egypt to Persia out of jealousy, because Smerdis alone could draw the bow brought from the Ethiopian by the Fish-eaters as far as two fingerbreadths, but no other Persian could draw it. ,Smerdis having gone to Persia, Cambyses saw in a dream a vision, in which it seemed to him that a messenger came from Persia and told him that Smerdis sitting on the royal throne touched heaven with his head. ,Fearing therefore for himself, lest his brother might slay him and so be king, he sent Prexaspes, the most trusted of his Persians, to Persia to kill him. Prexaspes went up to Susa and killed Smerdis; some say that he took Smerdis out hunting, others that he brought him to the Red Sea and there drowned him. 4.205. But Pheretime did not end well, either. For as soon as she had revenged herself on the Barcaeans and returned to Egypt, she met an awful death. For while still alive she teemed with maggots: thus does over-brutal human revenge invite retribution from the gods. That of Pheretime, daughter of Battus, against the Barcaeans was revenge of this nature and this brutality. 5.102. In the fire at Sardis, a temple of Cybebe, the goddess of that country, was burnt, and the Persians afterwards made this their pretext for burning the temples of Hellas. At this time, the Persians of the provinces this side of the Halys, on hearing of these matters, gathered together and came to aid the Lydians. ,It chanced that they found the Ionians no longer at Sardis, but following on their tracks, they caught them at Ephesus. There the Ionians stood arrayed to meet them, but were utterly routed in the battle. ,The Persians put to the sword many men of renown including Eualcides the general of the Eretrians who had won crowns as victor in the games and been greatly praised by Simonides of Ceos. Those of the Ionians who escaped from the battle fled, each to his city. 6.75. When the Lacedaemonians learned that Cleomenes was doing this, they took fright and brought him back to Sparta to rule on the same terms as before. Cleomenes had already been not entirely in his right mind, and on his return from exile a mad sickness fell upon him: any Spartan that he happened to meet he would hit in the face with his staff. ,For doing this, and because he was out of his mind, his relatives bound him in the stocks. When he was in the stocks and saw that his guard was left alone, he demanded a dagger; the guard at first refused to give it, but Cleomenes threatened what he would do to him when he was freed, until the guard, who was a helot, was frightened by the threats and gave him the dagger. ,Cleomenes took the weapon and set about slashing himself from his shins upwards; from the shin to the thigh he cut his flesh lengthways, then from the thigh to the hip and the sides, until he reached the belly, and cut it into strips; thus he died, as most of the Greeks say, because he persuaded the Pythian priestess to tell the tale of Demaratus. The Athenians alone say it was because he invaded Eleusis and laid waste the precinct of the gods. The Argives say it was because when Argives had taken refuge after the battle in their temple of Argus he brought them out and cut them down, then paid no heed to the sacred grove and set it on fire. 7.54. All that day they made preparations for the crossing. On the next they waited until they could see the sun rise, burning all kinds of incense on the bridges and strewing the road with myrtle boughs. ,At sunrise Xerxes poured a libation from a golden phial into the sea, praying to the sun that no accident might befall him which would keep him from subduing Europe before he reached its farthest borders. After the prayer, he cast the phial into the Hellespont, and along with it a golden bowl, and a Persian sword which they call “acinaces.” ,As for these, I cannot rightly determine whether he cast them into the sea for offerings to the sun, or repented having whipped the Hellespont and gave gifts to the sea as atonement. 8.33. Marching this way down the river Cephisus, they ravaged everything that lay in their way, burning the towns of Drymus, Charadra, Erochus, Tethronium, Amphicaea, Neon, Pediea, Tritea, Elatea, Hyampolis, Parapotamii, and Abae, where there was a richly endowed temple of Apollo, provided with wealth of treasure and offerings. There was also then as now a place of divination at this place. This temple, too, they plundered and burnt, and they pursued and caught some of the Phocians near the mountains. Certain women too perished because of the multitude of their violators. 8.51. Since the crossing of the Hellespont, where the barbarians began their journey, they had spent one month there crossing into Europe and in three more months were in Attica, when Calliades was archon at Athens. ,When they took the town it was deserted, but in the sacred precinct they found a few Athenians, stewards of the sacred precinct and poor people, who defended themselves against the assault by fencing the acropolis with doors and logs. They had not withdrawn to Salamis not only because of poverty but also because they thought they had discovered the meaning of the oracle the Pythia had given, namely that the wooden wall would be impregnable. They believed that according to the oracle this, not the ships, was the refuge. 8.52. The Persians took up a position on the hill opposite the acropolis, which the Athenians call the Areopagus, and besieged them in this way: they wrapped arrows in tar and set them on fire, and then shot them at the barricade. Still the besieged Athenians defended themselves, although they had come to the utmost danger and their barricade had failed them. ,When the Pisistratids proposed terms of surrender, they would not listen but contrived defenses such as rolling down boulders onto the barbarians when they came near the gates. For a long time Xerxes was at a loss, unable to capture them. 8.53. In time a way out of their difficulties was revealed to the barbarians, since according to the oracle all the mainland of Attica had to become subject to the Persians. In front of the acropolis, and behind the gates and the ascent, was a place where no one was on guard, since no one thought any man could go up that way. Here some men climbed up, near the sacred precinct of Cecrops' daughter Aglaurus, although the place was a sheer cliff. ,When the Athenians saw that they had ascended to the acropolis, some threw themselves off the wall and were killed, and others fled into the chamber. The Persians who had come up first turned to the gates, opened them, and murdered the suppliants. When they had levelled everything, they plundered the sacred precinct and set fire to the entire acropolis. 8.54. So it was that Xerxes took complete possession of Athens, and he sent a horseman to Susa to announce his present success to Artabanus. On the day after the messenger was sent, he called together the Athenian exiles who accompanied him and asked them go up to the acropolis and perform sacrifices in their customary way, an order given because he had been inspired by a dream or because he felt remorse after burning the sacred precinct. The Athenian exiles did as they were commanded. 8.55. I will tell why I have mentioned this. In that acropolis is a shrine of Erechtheus, called the “Earthborn,” and in the shrine are an olive tree and a pool of salt water. The story among the Athenians is that they were set there by Poseidon and Athena as tokens when they contended for the land. It happened that the olive tree was burnt by the barbarians with the rest of the sacred precinct, but on the day after its burning, when the Athenians ordered by the king to sacrifice went up to the sacred precinct, they saw a shoot of about a cubit's length sprung from the stump, and they reported this. 8.99. When the first message came to Susa, saying that Xerxes had taken Athens, it gave such delight to the Persians who were left at home that they strewed all the roads with myrtle boughs and burnt incense and gave themselves up to sacrificial feasts and jollity. ,The second, however, coming on the heels of the first, so confounded them that they all tore their tunics, and cried and lamented without ceasing, holding Mardonius to blame; it was not so much in grief for their ships that they did this as because they feared for Xerxes himself. 8.109. When Themistocles perceived that he could not persuade the greater part of them to sail to the Hellespont, he turned to the Athenians (for they were the angriest at the Persians' escape, and they were minded to sail to the Hellespont even by themselves, if the rest would not) and addressed them as follows: ,“This I have often seen with my eyes and heard yet more often, namely that beaten men, when they be driven to bay, will rally and retrieve their former mishap. Therefore I say to you,—as it is to a fortunate chance that we owe ourselves and Hellas, and have driven away so mighty a band of enemies—let us not pursue men who flee, ,for it is not we who have won this victory, but the gods and the heroes, who deemed Asia and Europe too great a realm for one man to rule, and that a wicked man and an impious one who dealt alike with temples and bones, burning and overthrowing the images of the gods,—yes, and one who scourged the sea and threw fetters into it. ,But as it is well with us for the moment, let us abide now in Hellas and take thought for ourselves and our households. Let us build our houses again and be diligent in sowing, when we have driven the foreigner completely away. Then when the next spring comes, let us set sail for the Hellespont and Ionia.” ,This he said with intent to have something to his credit with the Persian, so that he might have a place of refuge if ever (as might chance) he should suffer anything at the hands of the Athenians—and just that did in fact happen. 8.124. The Greeks were too jealous to assign the prize and sailed away each to his own place, leaving the matter undecided; nevertheless, Themistocles was lauded, and throughout all of Hellas was deemed the wisest man by far of the Greeks. ,However, because he had not received from those that fought at Salamis the honor due to his preeminence, he immediately afterwards went to Lacedaemon in order that he might receive honor there. The Lacedaemonians welcomed him and paid him high honor. They bestowed on Eurybiades a crown of olive as the reward of excellence and another such crown on Themistocles for his wisdom and cleverness. They also gave him the finest chariot in Sparta, ,and with many words of praise, they sent him home with the three hundred picked men of Sparta who are called Knights to escort him as far as the borders of Tegea. Themistocles was the only man of whom we know to whom the Spartans gave this escort. 8.129. This is how Timoxenus' treachery was brought to light. But when Artabazus had besieged Potidaea for three months, there was a great ebb-tide in the sea which lasted for a long while, and when the foreigners saw that the sea was turned to a marsh, they prepared to pass over it into Pallene. ,When they had made their way over two-fifths of it, however, and three yet remained to cross before they could be in Pallene, there came a great flood-tide, higher, as the people of the place say, than any one of the many that had been before. Some of them who did not know how to swim were drowned, and those who knew were slain by the Potidaeans, who came among them in boats. ,The Potidaeans say that the cause of the high sea and flood and the Persian disaster lay in the fact that those same Persians who now perished in the sea had profaned the temple and the image of Poseidon which was in the suburb of the city. I think that in saying that this was the cause they are correct. Those who escaped alive were led away by Artabazus to Mardonius in Thessaly. This is how the men who had been the king's escort fared. 8.143. But to Alexander the Athenians replied as follows: “We know of ourselves that the power of the Mede is many times greater than ours. There is no need to taunt us with that. Nevertheless in our zeal for freedom we will defend ourselves to the best of our ability. But as regards agreements with the barbarian, do not attempt to persuade us to enter into them, nor will we consent. ,Now carry this answer back to Mardonius from the Athenians, that as long as the sun holds the course by which he now goes, we will make no agreement with Xerxes. We will fight against him without ceasing, trusting in the aid of the gods and the heroes whom he has disregarded and burnt their houses and their adornments. ,Come no more to Athenians with such a plea, nor under the semblance of rendering us a service, counsel us to act wickedly. For we do not want those who are our friends and protectors to suffer any harm at Athenian hands.” 9.65. At Plataea, however, the Persians, routed by the Lacedaemonians, fled in disorder to their own camp and inside the wooden walls which they had made in the territory of Thebes. ,It is indeed a marvel that although the battle was right by the grove of Demeter, there was no sign that any Persian had been killed in the precinct or entered into it; most of them fell near the temple in unconsecrated ground. I think—if it is necessary to judge the ways of the gods—that the goddess herself denied them entry, since they had burnt her temple, the shrine at Eleusis.
25. Septuagint, Tobit, 8.5, 11.14 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.5. And Tobias began to pray, "Blessed art thou, O God of our fathers,and blessed be thy holy and glorious name for ever. Let the heavens and all thy creatures bless thee. 11.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels.
26. Anon., Jubilees, 16.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.30. And, as a thank-offering, seven rams, seven kids, seven sheep, and seven he-goats, and their fruit-offerings and their drink-offerings;
27. Anon., Testament of Levi, 7.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.2. For from this day forward shall Shechem be called a city of imbeciles; for as a man mocketh a fool, so did we mock them.
28. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.15. כְּעַן הֵן אִיתֵיכוֹן עֲתִידִין דִּי בְעִדָּנָא דִּי־תִשְׁמְעוּן קָל קַרְנָא מַשְׁרוֹקִיתָא קיתרס [קַתְרוֹס] שַׂבְּכָא פְּסַנְתֵּרִין וְסוּמְפֹּנְיָה וְכֹל זְנֵי זְמָרָא תִּפְּלוּן וְתִסְגְּדוּן לְצַלְמָא דִי־עַבְדֵת וְהֵן לָא תִסְגְּדוּן בַּהּ־שַׁעֲתָה תִתְרְמוֹן לְגוֹא־אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא וּמַן־הוּא אֱלָהּ דֵּי יְשֵׁיזְבִנְכוֹן מִן־יְדָי׃ 3.15. Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the horn, pipe, harp, trigon, psaltery, and bagpipe, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made, well; but if ye worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and who is the god that shall deliver you out of my hands?’"
29. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 10.21, 13.37, 13.51 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.21. So Jonathan put on the holy garments in the seventh month of the one hundred and sixtieth year, at the feast of tabernacles, and he recruited troops and equipped them with arms in abundance. 13.37. We have received the gold crown and the palm branch which you sent, and we are ready to make a general peace with you and to write to our officials to grant you release from tribute. 13.51. On the twenty-third day of the second month, in the one hundred and seventy-first year, the Jews entered it with praise and palm branches, and with harps and cymbals and stringed instruments, and with hymns and songs, because a great enemy had been crushed and removed from Israel.
30. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.7, 10.1-10.8, 14.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.7. On the monthly celebration of the king's birthday, the Jews were taken, under bitter constraint, to partake of the sacrifices; and when the feast of Dionysus came, they were compelled to walk in the procession in honor of Dionysus, wearing wreaths of ivy.' 10.1. Now Maccabeus and his followers, the Lord leading them on, recovered the temple and the city;' 10.2. and they tore down the altars which had been built in the public square by the foreigners, and also destroyed the sacred precincts.' 10.3. They purified the sanctuary, and made another altar of sacrifice; then, striking fire out of flint, they offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years, and they burned incense and lighted lamps and set out the bread of the Presence.' 10.4. And when they had done this, they fell prostrate and besought the Lord that they might never again fall into such misfortunes, but that, if they should ever sin, they might be disciplined by him with forbearance and not be handed over to blasphemous and barbarous nations.' 10.5. It happened that on the same day on which the sanctuary had been profaned by the foreigners, the purification of the sanctuary took place, that is, on the twenty-fifth day of the same month, which was Chislev.' 10.6. And they celebrated it for eight days with rejoicing, in the manner of the feast of booths, remembering how not long before, during the feast of booths, they had been wandering in the mountains and caves like wild animals.' 10.7. Therefore bearing ivy-wreathed wands and beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had given success to the purifying of his own holy place.' 10.8. They decreed by public ordice and vote that the whole nation of the Jews should observe these days every year. 14.4. and went to King Demetrius in about the one hundred and fifty-first year, presenting to him a crown of gold and a palm, and besides these some of the customary olive branches from the temple. During that day he kept quiet.'
31. Septuagint, Judith, 1.13, 2.2, 2.4-2.13, 2.27, 3.8, 4.1, 4.9-4.12, 4.14, 5.3, 5.5-5.21, 6.16, 6.18, 7.6, 7.14, 7.20-7.32, 8.1-8.2, 8.5, 8.7, 8.10-8.27, 8.29-8.32, 9.1-9.14, 10.3, 10.7, 10.12, 10.18, 11.5, 11.7, 11.10, 11.12-11.13, 11.23, 12.1-12.4, 12.9, 12.12, 13.1-13.2, 13.4-13.9, 13.13, 13.18, 14.1, 14.6-14.8, 14.10, 14.15-14.16, 14.18-14.19, 15.1-15.10, 15.13, 16.1, 16.3-16.4, 16.6-16.8, 16.13, 16.15, 16.18-16.19, 16.23, 16.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

1.13. In the seventeenth year he led his forces against King Arphaxad, and defeated him in battle, and overthrew the whole army of Arphaxad, and all his cavalry and all his chariots. 2.2. He called together all his officers and all his nobles and set forth to them his secret plan and recounted fully, with his own lips, all the wickedness of the region; 2.4. When he had finished setting forth his plan, Nebuchadnezzar king of the Assyrians called Holofernes, the chief general of his army, second only to himself, and said to him 2.5. Thus says the Great King, the lord of the whole earth: When you leave my presence, take with you men confident in their strength, to the number of one hundred and twenty thousand foot soldiers and twelve thousand cavalry. 2.6. Go and attack the whole west country, because they disobeyed my orders. 2.7. Tell them to prepare earth and water, for I am coming against them in my anger, and will cover the whole face of the earth with the feet of my armies, and will hand them over to be plundered by my troops 2.8. till their wounded shall fill their valleys, and every brook and river shall be filled with their dead, and overflow; 2.9. and I will lead them away captive to the ends of the whole earth. 2.10. You shall go and seize all their territory for me in advance. They will yield themselves to you, and you shall hold them for me till the day of their punishment. 2.11. But if they refuse, your eye shall not spare and you shall hand them over to slaughter and plunder throughout your whole region. 2.12. For as I live, and by the power of my kingdom, what I have spoken my hand will execute. 2.13. And you -- take care not to transgress any of your sovereign's commands, but be sure to carry them out just as I have ordered you; and do not delay about it. 2.27. Then he went down into the plain of Damascus during the wheat harvest, and burned all their fields and destroyed their flocks and herds and sacked their cities and ravaged their lands and put to death all their young men with the edge of the sword. 3.8. And he demolished all their shrines and cut down their sacred groves; for it had been given to him to destroy all the gods of the land, so that all nations should worship Nebuchadnezzar only, and all their tongues and tribes should call upon him as god. 4.1. By this time the people of Israel living in Judea heard of everything that Holofernes, the general of Nebuchadnezzar the king of the Assyrians, had done to the nations, and how he had plundered and destroyed all their temples; 4.9. And every man of Israel cried out to God with great fervor, and they humbled themselves with much fasting. 4.10. They and their wives and their children and their cattle and every resident alien and hired laborer and purchased slave -- they all girded themselves with sackcloth. 4.11. And all the men and women of Israel, and their children, living at Jerusalem, prostrated themselves before the temple and put ashes on their heads and spread out their sackcloth before the Lord. 4.12. They even surrounded the altar with sackcloth and cried out in unison, praying earnestly to the God of Israel not to give up their infants as prey and their wives as booty, and the cities they had inherited to be destroyed, and the sanctuary to be profaned and desecrated to the malicious joy of the Gentiles. 4.14. And Joakim the high priest and all the priests who stood before the Lord and ministered to the Lord, with their loins girded with sackcloth, offered the continual burnt offerings and the vows and freewill offerings of the people. 5.3. and said to them, "Tell me, you Canaanites, what people is this that lives in the hill country? What cities do they inhabit? How large is their army, and in what does their power or strength consist? Who rules over them as king, leading their army? 5.5. Then Achior, the leader of all the Ammonites, said to him, "Let my lord now hear a word from the mouth of your servant, and I will tell you the truth about this people that dwells in the nearby mountain district. No falsehood shall come from your servant's mouth. 5.6. This people is descended from the Chaldeans. 5.7. At one time they lived in Mesopotamia, because they would not follow the gods of their fathers who were in Chaldea. 5.8. For they had left the ways of their ancestors, and they worshiped the God of heaven, the God they had come to know; hence they drove them out from the presence of their gods; and they fled to Mesopotamia, and lived there for a long time. 5.9. Then their God commanded them to leave the place where they were living and go to the land of Canaan. There they settled, and prospered, with much gold and silver and very many cattle. 5.10. When a famine spread over Canaan they went down to Egypt and lived there as long as they had food; and there they became a great multitude -- so great that they could not be counted. 5.11. So the king of Egypt became hostile to them; he took advantage of them and set them to making bricks, and humbled them and made slaves of them. 5.12. Then they cried out to their God, and he afflicted the whole land of Egypt with incurable plagues; and so the Egyptians drove them out of their sight. 5.13. Then God dried up the Red Sea before them 5.14. and he led them by the way of Sinai and Kadesh-barnea, and drove out all the people of the wilderness. 5.15. So they lived in the land of the Amorites, and by their might destroyed all the inhabitants of Heshbon; and crossing over the Jordan they took possession of all the hill country. 5.16. And they drove out before them the Canaanites and the Perizzites and the Jebusites and the Shechemites and all the Gergesites, and lived there a long time. 5.17. As long as they did not sin against their God they prospered, for the God who hates iniquity is with them. 5.18. But when they departed from the way which he had appointed for them, they were utterly defeated in many battles and were led away captive to a foreign country; the temple of their God was razed to the ground, and their cities were captured by their enemies. 5.19. But now they have returned to their God, and have come back from the places to which they were scattered, and have occupied Jerusalem, where their sanctuary is, and have settled in the hill country, because it was uninhabited. 5.20. Now therefore, my master and lord, if there is any unwitting error in this people and they sin against their God and we find out their offense, then we will go up and defeat them. 5.21. But if there is no transgression in their nation, then let my lord pass them by; for their Lord will defend them, and their God will protect them, and we shall be put to shame before the whole world. 6.16. They called together all the elders of the city, and all their young men and their women ran to the assembly; and they set Achior in the midst of all their people, and Uzziah asked him what had happened. 6.18. Then the people fell down and worshiped God, and cried out to him, and said 7.6. On the second day Holofernes led out all his cavalry in full view of the Israelites in Bethulia 7.14. They and their wives and children will waste away with famine, and before the sword reaches them they will be strewn about in the streets where they live. 7.20. The whole Assyrian army, their infantry, chariots, and cavalry, surrounded them for thirty-four days, until all the vessels of water belonging to every inhabitant of Bethulia were empty; 7.21. their cisterns were going dry, and they did not have enough water to drink their fill for a single day, because it was measured out to them to drink. 7.22. Their children lost heart, and the women and young men fainted from thirst and fell down in the streets of the city and in the passages through the gates; there was no strength left in them any longer. 7.23. Then all the people, the young men, the women, and the children, gathered about Uzziah and the rulers of the city and cried out with a loud voice, and said before all the elders 7.24. God be judge between you and us! For you have done us a great injury in not making peace with the Assyrians. 7.25. For now we have no one to help us; God has sold us into their hands, to strew us on the ground before them with thirst and utter destruction. 7.26. Now call them in and surrender the whole city to the army of Holofernes and to all his forces, to be plundered. 7.27. For it would be better for us to be captured by them; for we will be slaves, but our lives will be spared, and we shall not witness the death of our babes before our eyes, or see our wives and children draw their last breath. 7.28. We call to witness against you heaven and earth and our God, the Lord of our fathers, who punishes us according to our sins and the sins of our fathers. Let him not do this day the things which we have described! 7.29. Then great and general lamentation arose throughout the assembly, and they cried out to the Lord God with a loud voice. 7.30. And Uzziah said to them, "Have courage, my brothers! Let us hold out for five more days; by that time the Lord our God will restore to us his mercy, for he will not forsake us utterly. 7.31. But if these days pass by, and no help comes for us, I will do what you say. 7.32. Then he dismissed the people to their various posts, and they went up on the walls and towers of their city. The women and children he sent home. And they were greatly depressed in the city. 8.1. At that time Judith heard about these things: she was the daughter of Merari the son of Ox, son of Joseph, son of Oziel, son of Elkiah, son of Aias, son of Gideon, son of Raphaim, son of Ahitub, son of Elijah, son of Hilkiah, son of Eliab, son of Nathanael, son of Salamiel, son of Sarasadai, son of Israel. 8.2. Her husband Manasseh, who belonged to her tribe and family, had died during the barley harvest. 8.5. She set up a tent for herself on the roof of her house, and girded sackcloth about her loins and wore the garments of her widowhood. 8.7. She was beautiful in appearance, and had a very lovely face; and her husband Manasseh had left her gold and silver, and men and women slaves, and cattle, and fields; and she maintained this estate. 8.10. she sent her maid, who was in charge of all she possessed, to summon Chabris and Charmis, the elders of her city. 8.11. They came to her, and she said to them, "Listen to me, rulers of the people of Bethulia! What you have said to the people today is not right; you have even sworn and pronounced this oath between God and you, promising to surrender the city to our enemies unless the Lord turns and helps us within so many days. 8.12. Who are you, that have put God to the test this day, and are setting yourselves up in the place of God among the sons of men? 8.13. You are putting the Lord Almighty to the test -- but you will never know anything! 8.14. You cannot plumb the depths of the human heart, nor find out what a man is thinking; how do you expect to search out God, who made all these things, and find out his mind or comprehend his thought? No, my brethren, do not provoke the Lord our God to anger. 8.15. For if he does not choose to help us within these five days, he has power to protect us within any time he pleases, or even to destroy us in the presence of our enemies. 8.16. Do not try to bind the purposes of the Lord our God; for God is not like man, to be threatened, nor like a human being, to be won over by pleading. 8.17. Therefore, while we wait for his deliverance, let us call upon him to help us, and he will hear our voice, if it pleases him. 8.18. For never in our generation, nor in these present days, has there been any tribe or family or people or city of ours which worshiped gods made with hands, as was done in days gone by -- 8.19. and that was why our fathers were handed over to the sword, and to be plundered, and so they suffered a great catastrophe before our enemies. 8.20. But we know no other god but him, and therefore we hope that he will not disdain us or any of our nation. 8.21. For if we are captured all Judea will be captured and our sanctuary will be plundered; and he will exact of us the penalty for its desecration. 8.22. And the slaughter of our brethren and the captivity of the land and the desolation of our inheritance -- all this he will bring upon our heads among the Gentiles, wherever we serve as slaves; and we shall be an offense and a reproach in the eyes of those who acquire us. 8.23. For our slavery will not bring us into favor, but the Lord our God will turn it to dishonor. 8.24. Now therefore, brethren, let us set an example to our brethren, for their lives depend upon us, and the sanctuary and the temple and the altar rest upon us. 8.25. In spite of everything let us give thanks to the Lord our God, who is putting us to the test as he did our forefathers. 8.26. Remember what he did with Abraham, and how he tested Isaac, and what happened to Jacob in Mesopotamia in Syria, while he was keeping the sheep of Laban, his mother's brother. 8.27. For he has not tried us with fire, as he did them, to search their hearts, nor has he taken revenge upon us; but the Lord scourges those who draw near to him, in order to admonish them. 8.29. Today is not the first time your wisdom has been shown, but from the beginning of your life all the people have recognized your understanding, for your heart's disposition is right. 8.30. But the people were very thirsty, and they compelled us to do for them what we have promised, and made us take an oath which we cannot break. 8.31. So pray for us, since you are a devout woman, and the Lord will send us rain to fill our cisterns and we will no longer be faint. 8.32. Judith said to them, "Listen to me. I am about to do a thing which will go down through all generations of our descendants. 9.1. Then Judith fell upon her face, and put ashes on her head, and uncovered the sackcloth she was wearing; and at the very time when that evening's incense was being offered in the house of God in Jerusalem, Judith cried out to the Lord with a loud voice, and said 9.2. O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done' -- yet they did it. 9.3. So thou gavest up their rulers to be slain, and their bed, which was ashamed of the deceit they had practiced, to be stained with blood, and thou didst strike down slaves along with princes, and princes on their thrones; 9.4. and thou gavest their wives for a prey and their daughters to captivity, and all their booty to be divided among thy beloved sons, who were zealous for thee, and abhorred the pollution of their blood, and called on thee for help -- O God, my God, hear me also, a widow. 9.5. For thou hast done these things and those that went before and those that followed; thou hast designed the things that are now, and those that are to come. Yea, the things thou didst intend came to pass 9.6. and the things thou didst will presented themselves and said, `Lo, we are here'; for all they ways are prepared in advance, and thy judgment is with foreknowledge. 9.7. Behold now, the Assyrians are increased in their might; they are exalted, with their horses and riders; they glory in the strength of their foot soldiers; they trust in shield and spear, in bow and sling, and know not that thou art the Lord who crushest wars; the Lord is thy name. 9.8. Break their strength by thy might, and bring down their power in thy anger; for they intend to defile thy sanctuary, and to pollute the tabernacle where thy glorious name rests, and to cast down the horn of thy altar with the sword. 9.9. Behold their pride, and send thy wrath upon their heads; give to me, a widow, the strength to do what I plan. 9.10. By the deceit of my lips strike down the slave with the prince and the prince with his servant; crush their arrogance by the hand of a woman. 9.11. For thy power depends not upon numbers, nor thy might upon men of strength; for thou art God of the lowly, helper of the oppressed, upholder of the weak, protector of the forlorn, savior of those without hope. 9.12. Hear, O hear me, God of my father, God of the inheritance of Israel, Lord of heaven and earth, Creator of the waters, King of all thy creation, hear my prayer! 9.13. Make my deceitful words to be their wound and stripe, for they have planned cruel things against thy covet, and against thy consecrated house, and against the top of Zion, and against the house possessed by thy children. 9.14. And cause thy whole nation and every tribe to know and understand that thou art God, the God of all power and might, and that there is no other who protects the people of Israel but thou alone! 10.3. and she removed the sackcloth which she had been wearing, and took off her widow's garments, and bathed her body with water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and combed her hair and put on a tiara, and arrayed herself in her gayest apparel, which she used to wear while her husband Manasseh was living. 10.7. When they saw her, and noted how her face was altered and her clothing changed, they greatly admired her beauty, and said to her 10.12. and took her into custody, and asked her, "To what people do you belong, and where are you coming from, and where are you going?" She replied, "I am a daughter of the Hebrews, but I am fleeing from them, for they are about to be handed over to you to be devoured. 10.18. There was great excitement in the whole camp, for her arrival was reported from tent to tent, and they came and stood around her as she waited outside the tent of Holofernes while they told him about her. 11.5. Judith replied to him, "Accept the words of your servant, and let your maidservant speak in your presence, and I will tell nothing false to my lord this night. 11.7. Nebuchadnezzar the king of the whole earth lives, and as his power endures, who had sent you to direct every living soul, not only do men serve him because of you, but also the beasts of the field and the cattle and the birds of the air will live by your power under Nebuchadnezzar and all his house. 11.10. Therefore, my lord and master, do not disregard what he said, but keep it in your mind, for it is true: our nation cannot be punished, nor can the sword prevail against them, unless they sin against their God. 11.12. Since their food supply is exhausted and their water has almost given out, they have planned to kill their cattle and have determined to use all that God by his laws has forbidden them to eat. 11.13. They have decided to consume the first fruits of the grain and the tithes of the wine and oil, which they had consecrated and set aside for the priests who minister in the presence of our God at Jerusalem -- although it is not lawful for any of the people so much as to touch these things with their hands. 11.23. You are not only beautiful in appearance, but wise in speech; and if you do as you have said, your God shall be my God, and you shall live in the house of King Nebuchadnezzar and be renowned throughout the whole world. 12.1. Then he commanded them to bring her in where his silver dishes were kept, and ordered them to set a table for her with some of his own food and to serve her with his own wine. 12.2. But Judith said, "I cannot eat it, lest it be an offense; but I will be provided from the things I have brought with me. 12.3. Holofernes said to her, "If your supply runs out, where can we get more like it for you? For none of your people is here with us. 12.4. Judith replied, "As your soul lives, my lord, your servant will not use up the things I have with me before the Lord carries out by my hand what he has determined to do. 12.9. So she returned clean and stayed in the tent until she ate her food toward evening. 12.12. For it will be a disgrace if we let such a woman go without enjoying her company, for if we do not embrace her she will laugh at us. 13.1. When evening came, his slaves quickly withdrew, and Bagoas closed the tent from outside and shut out the attendants from his master's presence; and they went to bed, for they all were weary because the banquet had lasted long. 13.2. So Judith was left alone in the tent, with Holofernes stretched out on his bed, for he was overcome with wine. 13.4. So every one went out, and no one, either small or great, was left in the bedchamber. Then Judith, standing beside his bed, said in her heart, "O Lord God of all might, look in this hour upon the work of my hands for the exaltation of Jerusalem. 13.5. For now is the time to help thy inheritance, and to carry out my undertaking for the destruction of the enemies who have risen up against us. 13.6. She went up to the post at the end of the bed, above Holofernes' head, and took down his sword that hung there. 13.7. She came close to his bed and took hold of the hair of his head, and said, "Give me strength this day, O Lord God of Israel! 13.8. And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed it from his body. 13.9. Then she tumbled his body off the bed and pulled down the canopy from the posts; after a moment she went out, and gave Holofernes' head to her maid 13.13. They all ran together, both small and great, for it was unbelievable that she had returned; they opened the gate and admitted them, and they kindled a fire for light, and gathered around them. 13.18. And Uzziah said to her, "O daughter, you are blessed by the Most High God above all women on earth; and blessed be the Lord God, who created the heavens and the earth, who has guided you to strike the head of the leader of our enemies. 14.1. Then Judith said to them, "Listen to me, my brethren, and take this head and hang it upon the parapet of your wall. 14.6. So they summoned Achior from the house of Uzziah. And when he came and saw the head of Holofernes in the hand of one of the men at the gathering of the people, he fell down on his face and his spirit failed him. 14.7. And when they raised him up he fell at Judith's feet, and knelt before her, and said, "Blessed are you in every tent of Judah! In every nation those who hear your name will be alarmed. 14.8. Now tell me what you have done during these days." Then Judith described to him in the presence of the people all that she had done, from the day she left until the moment of her speaking to them. 14.10. And when Achior saw all that the God of Israel had done, he believed firmly in God, and was circumcised, and joined the house of Israel, remaining so to this day. 14.15. But when no one answered, he opened it and went into the bedchamber and found him thrown down on the platform dead, with his head cut off and missing. 14.16. And he cried out with a loud voice and wept and groaned and shouted, and rent his garments. 14.18. The slaves have tricked us! One Hebrew woman has brought disgrace upon the house of King Nebuchadnezzar! For look, here is Holofernes lying on the ground, and his head is not on him! 14.19. When the leaders of the Assyrian army heard this, they rent their tunics and were greatly dismayed, and their loud cries and shouts arose in the midst of the camp. 15.1. When the men in the tents heard it, they were amazed at what had happened. 15.2. Fear and trembling came over them, so that they did not wait for one another, but with one impulse all rushed out and fled by every path across the plain and through the hill country. 15.3. Those who had camped in the hills around Bethulia also took to flight. Then the men of Israel, every one that was a soldier, rushed out upon them. 15.4. And Uzziah sent men to Betomasthaim and Bebai and Choba and Kola, and to all the frontiers of Israel, to tell what had taken place and to urge all to rush out upon their enemies to destroy them. 15.5. And when the Israelites heard it, with one accord they fell upon the enemy, and cut them down as far as Choba. Those in Jerusalem and all the hill country also came, for they were told what had happened in the camp of the enemy; and those in Gilead and in Galilee outflanked them with great slaughter, even beyond Damascus and its borders. 15.6. The rest of the people of Bethulia fell upon the Assyrian camp and plundered it, and were greatly enriched. 15.7. And the Israelites, when they returned from the slaughter, took possession of what remained, and the villages and towns in the hill country and in the plain got a great amount of booty, for there was a vast quantity of it. 15.8. Then Joakim the high priest, and the senate of the people of Israel who lived at Jerusalem, came to witness the good things which the Lord had done for Israel, and to see Judith and to greet her. 15.9. And when they met her they all blessed her with one accord and said to her, "You are the exaltation of Jerusalem, you are the great glory of Israel, you are the great pride of our nation! 15.10. You have done all this singlehanded; you have done great good to Israel, and God is well pleased with it. May the Almighty Lord bless you for ever!" And all the people said, "So be it! 15.13. and they crowned themselves with olive wreaths, she and those who were with her; and she went before all the people in the dance, leading all the women, while all the men of Israel followed, bearing their arms and wearing garlands and with songs on their lips. 16.1. Then Judith began this thanksgiving before all Israel, and all the people loudly sang this song of praise. 16.3. For God is the Lord who crushes wars; for he has delivered me out of the hands of my pursuers, and brought me to his camp, in the midst of the people. 16.4. The Assyrian came down from the mountains of the north; he came with myriads of his warriors; their multitude blocked up the valleys, their cavalry covered the hills. 16.6. But the Lord Almighty has foiled them by the hand of a woman. 16.7. For their mighty one did not fall by the hands of the young men, nor did the sons of the Titans smite him, nor did tall giants set upon him; but Judith the daughter of Merari undid him with the beauty of her countece. 16.8. For she took off her widow's mourning to exalt the oppressed in Israel. She anointed her face with ointment and fastened her hair with a tiara and put on a linen gown to deceive him. 16.13. I will sing to my God a new song: O Lord, thou are great and glorious, wonderful in strength, invincible. 16.15. For the mountains shall be shaken to their foundations with the waters; at thy presence the rocks shall melt like wax, but to those who fear thee thou wilt continue to show mercy. 16.18. When they arrived at Jerusalem they worshiped God. As soon as the people were purified, they offered their burnt offerings, their freewill offerings, and their gifts. 16.19. Judith also dedicated to God all the vessels of Holofernes, which the people had given her; and the canopy which she took for herself from his bedchamber she gave as a votive offering to the Lord. 16.23. She became more and more famous, and grew old in her husband's house, until she was one hundred and five years old. She set her maid free. She died in Bethulia, and they buried her in the cave of her husband Manasseh 16.25. And no one ever again spread terror among the people of Israel in the days of Judith, or for a long time after her death.
32. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.591-3.593 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.591. But when from Italy shall come a man 3.592. A spoiler, then, Laodicea, thou 3.593. Beautiful city of the Carian
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.180, 2.255-2.257 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.180. Then the Hebrews, being amazed at this great and wonderful event, gained a victory which they had never hoped for without bloodshed or loss; and, seeing the instantaneous and complete destruction of the enemy, formed two choruses, one of men and the other of women, on the sea shore, and sang hymns of gratitude to God, Moses leading the song of the men, and his sister that of the women; for these two persons were the leaders of the choruses. 2.255. and an utter destruction of the enemy, whom the walls the sea, which had been congealed and which now turned back again, overwhelmed, and the sea pouring down and hurrying into what had just been a road, as if into some deep ravine, washed away every thing, and there was evidence of the completeness of the destruction in the bodies which floated on the waters, and which strewed the surface of the sea; and a great agitation of the waves, by which all the dead were cast up into a heap on the opposite shore, becoming a necessary spectacle to those who had been delivered, and to whom it had been granted not merely to escape from their dangers, but also to behold their enemies punished, in a manner too marvellous for description, by no human but by a divine power. 2.256. For this mercy Moses very naturally honoured his Benefactor with hymns of gratitude. For having divided the host into two choruses, one of men and one of women, he himself became the leader of that of the men, and appointed his sister to be the chief of that of the women, that they might sing hymns to their father and Creator, joining in harmonies responsive to one another, by a combination of dispositions and melody, the former being eager to offer the same requital for the mercies which they had received, and the latter consisting of a symphony of the deep male with the high female voices, for the tones of men are deep and those of women are high; and when there is a perfect and harmonious combination of the two a most delightful and thoroughly harmonious melody is effected. 2.257. And he persuaded all those myriads of men and women to be of one mind, and to sing in concert the same hymn at the same time in praise of those marvellous and mighty works which they had beheld, and which I have been just now relating. At which the prophet rejoicing, and seeing also the exceeding joy of his nation, and being himself too unable to contain his delight, began the song. And they who heard him being divided into two choruses, sang with him, taking the words which he uttered.
34. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.26, 4.40, 11.143, 13.372, 14.299 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.26. 6. But presently after this first supply of food, he sent them a second; for as Moses was lifting up his hands in prayer, a dew fell down; and Moses, when he found it stick to his hands, supposed this was also come for food from God to them. He tasted it; 3.26. However, he entirely forbade us the use of blood for food, and esteemed it to contain the soul and spirit. He also forbade us to eat the flesh of an animal that died of itself, as also the caul, and the fat of goats, and sheep, and bulls. 11.143. So Esdras rose up from the ground, and stretched out his hands towards heaven, and said that he was ashamed to look towards it, because of the sins which the people had committed, while they had cast out of their memories what their fathers had undergone on account of their wickedness; 13.372. 5. As to Alexander, his own people were seditious against him; for at a festival which was then celebrated, when he stood upon the altar, and was going to sacrifice, the nation rose upon him, and pelted him with citrons [which they then had in their hands, because] the law of the Jews required that at the feast of tabernacles every one should have branches of the palm tree and citron tree; which thing we have elsewhere related. They also reviled him, as derived from a captive, and so unworthy of his dignity and of sacrificing. 14.299. When he had despatched these affairs, and was gone to meet Antigonus, he joined battle with him, and beat him, and drove him out of Judea presently, when he was just come into its borders. But when he was come to Jerusalem, Hyrcanus and the people put garlands about his head;
35. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.1, 5.3-5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. The flute was for five or six days. This refers to the flute at the Bet Hashoevah [the place of the water-drawing] which does not override Shabbat or the festival day. They said: he who has not seen the Simchat Bet Hashoevah has never seen rejoicing in his life." 5.3. From the worn-out pants and belts of the priests they made wicks and with them they kindled the lamps. And there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated by the light of the Bet Hashoevah." 5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"
36. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. Section one: Rabbi Shimon ben Gamaliel said: There were no days of joy in Israel greater than the fifteenth of Av and Yom Kippur. Section two: On these days the daughters of Jerusalem would go out in borrowed white garments in order not to shame any one who had none. All these garments required immersion. The daughters of Jerusalem come out and dance in the vineyards. What would they say? Young man, lift up your eyes and see what you choose for yourself. Do not set your eyes on beauty but set your eyes on the family. “Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain, but a woman that fears the Lord, she shall be praised” (Proverbs 31:30). And it further says, “Give her of the fruit of her hands; and let her works praise her in the gates” (ibid, 31:31). Section three: Similarly it says, “O maidens of Zion, go forth and gaze upon King Solomon wearing the crown that his mother gave him on his wedding day, on the day of the gladness of his heart” (Song of Songs 3:11). “On his wedding day”: this refers to Matan Torah (the Giving of the Torah). “And on the day of the gladness of his heart”: this refers to the building of the Temple; may it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen."
37. New Testament, John, 12.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.13. they took the branches of the palm trees, and went out to meet him, and cried out, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel!
38. Plutarch, Alexander The Great, 72.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

72.2. Alexander’s grief at this loss knew no bounds. Arrian finds great diversity in the accounts of Alexander’s displays of grief at Hephaestion’s death ( Anab. vii. 14 ). He immediately ordered that the manes and tails of all horses and mules should be shorn in token of mourning and took away the battlements of the cities round about; he also crucified the wretched physician, and put a stop to the sound of flutes and every kind of music in the camp for a long time, until an oracular response from Ammon came bidding him honour Hephaestion as a hero and sacrifice to him.
39. Plutarch, Pelopidas, 33.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

40. Plutarch, Table Talk, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

41. Tacitus, Histories, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.5.  Whatever their origin, these rites are maintained by their antiquity: the other customs of the Jews are base and abominable, and owe their persistence to their depravity. For the worst rascals among other peoples, renouncing their ancestral religions, always kept sending tribute and contributions to Jerusalem, thereby increasing the wealth of the Jews; again, the Jews are extremely loyal toward one another, and always ready to show compassion, but toward every other people they feel only hate and enmity. They sit apart at meals, and they sleep apart, and although as a race, they are prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; yet among themselves nothing is unlawful. They adopted circumcision to distinguish themselves from other peoples by this difference. Those who are converted to their ways follow the same practice, and the earliest lesson they receive is to despise the gods, to disown their country, and to regard their parents, children, and brothers as of little account. However, they take thought to increase their numbers; for they regard it as a crime to kill any late-born child, and they believe that the souls of those who are killed in battle or by the executioner are immortal: hence comes their passion for begetting children, and their scorn of death. They bury the body rather than burn it, thus following the Egyptians' custom; they likewise bestow the same care on the dead, and hold the same belief about the world below; but their ideas of heavenly things are quite the opposite. The Egyptians worship many animals and monstrous images; the Jews conceive of one god only, and that with the mind alone: they regard as impious those who make from perishable materials representations of gods in man's image; that supreme and eternal being is to them incapable of representation and without end. Therefore they set up no statues in their cities, still less in their temples; this flattery is not paid their kings, nor this honour given to the Caesars. But since their priests used to chant to the accompaniment of pipes and cymbals and to wear garlands of ivy, and because a golden vine was found in their temple, some have thought that they were devotees of Father Liber, the conqueror of the East, in spite of the incongruity of their customs. For Liber established festive rites of a joyous nature, while the ways of the Jews are preposterous and mean.
42. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.1-4.3, 4.7-4.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4.1. Formerly when they were beholding the joy at the ceremony of the water drawing, the men were beholding it from within the Temple precincts and the women from without. But when the supreme court saw that they behaved in a frivolous manner they erected three balconies in the court, facing the three sides, that from them the women might behold the rejoicing at the ceremony. So when they were beholding the rejoicing at the ceremony the sexes were not mixed up together." 4.2. Saints and pious men were dancing before them with torches, and saying words of praise. What were they saying? Happy is he who has not sinned, and whoever has sinned shall be forgiven. Some of them were saying, Happy am I whose youth has not shamed my old age, this was said by the pious men. And others of them were saying, Happy am I whose old age can atone for my youth, this was said by the penitents.Hillel the Elder used to say : To the place which my heart loves, there my feet lead me. If you come to my house (says God), I will go to there. If you do not come to My house, then I will not go to there. For it is said, “In every place where I record My name I will come unto you, and I will bless you.”" 4.3. There is a story of Rabbi Shim’on ben Gamliel: he was dancing with eight lighted torches, and as he did so none of them fell to the ground. And when he prostrated himself he put his finger on the pavement, bending himself and kissing it, and then stood upright again. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Haiah said: All the days of the rejoicing at the water-drawing our eyes had no sleep, for we rose early in the morning for the morning sacrifice. We went to the synagogue, then to the college, then to do additional prayers, then to eat and drink, then to afternoon prayer, then to the evening sacrifice, then to the rejoicing of the water-drawing." 4.7. Why did they blow three blasts? To make the distinction between the holy and the mundane day. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city. When he sounded, those who were removing broth from a pot, or were keeping warm a boiler, or were lighting a lamp, ceased to do so, even if the boiler were in one's hand he did not keep it warm, but put it on the ground, even if the lamp were in one's hand, he did not put it on the lamp-stand, but lay it on the ground. The sexton lay the trumpets on the top of the roof, came down, and went away. Rabbi Yose said, “He who wishes to light his lamp after six soundings may do so.” The (sages) said to him, “Your rule would vary according to circumstances, but there was a place on the top of the roof where the sexton lay the trumpets.”" 4.8. Should the first day fall on the eve of Sabbath they sound a plain note, but do not sound a tremolo. How do they sound? With a single plain, and not a tremulous, note. “The flute-playing supersedes the Sabbath” - the words of Rabbi Yose ben Rabbi Yehudah. But the sages say, “It does not supersede even the festival itself.”" 4.9. All the divisions on duty were treated alike and divided into three lots for the bullocks, except two who were treated alike but not divided into three lots. Rabbi Eleazar ben Parata and Rabbi Eleazar ben Yacov said, “There was no balloting for the fat of the goat, but whoever offered the limbs offered also the fat.” Rabbi Haninah ben Antigonus said, “There was no balloting except for the leaders of the guards. The rest of all the guards took turns all round.” Abba Yose ben Hanin said, “There was balloting on the first day of the festival only, and all the remaining days they were taking turns all round.” How was the ballot conducted? They gathered at the cell of Gazith, where they stood closely together like a cochlear. An officer came and took the turban of one of them, for they knew that from him the lot began. Individuals among them drew out two, but did not count them more than one."
43. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

51b. באבוקות של אור שבידיהן ואומרים לפניהם דברי שירות ותושבחות והלוים בכנורות ובנבלים ובמצלתים ובחצוצרות ובכלי שיר בלא מספר על חמש עשרה מעלות היורדות מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים כנגד חמש עשרה (מעלות) שבתהלים שעליהן לוים עומדין בכלי שיר ואומרים שירה,ועמדו שני כהנים בשער העליון שיורד מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים ושני חצוצרות בידיהן קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו למעלה עשירית תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לעזרה תקעו והריעו ותקעו,(הגיעו לקרקע תקעו והריעו ותקעו) היו תוקעין והולכין עד שמגיעין לשער היוצא ממזרח הגיעו לשער היוצא ממזרח הפכו פניהן ממזרח למערב ואמרו אבותינו שהיו במקום הזה אחוריהם אל ההיכל ופניהם קדמה ומשתחוים קדמה לשמש ואנו ליה עינינו ר' יהודה אומר היו שונין ואומרין אנו ליה וליה עינינו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר מי שלא ראה שמחת בית השואבה לא ראה שמחה מימיו מי שלא ראה ירושלים בתפארתה לא ראה כרך נחמד מעולם מי שלא ראה בהמ"ק בבנינו לא ראה בנין מפואר מעולם מאי היא אמר אביי ואיתימא רב חסדא זה בנין הורדוס,במאי בניה אמר (רבא) באבני שישא ומרמרא איכא דאמרי באבני שישא כוחלא ומרמרא אפיק שפה ועייל שפה כי היכי דלקבל סידא סבר למשעיין בדהבא אמרו ליה רבנן שבקיה דהכי שפיר טפי דמיתחזי כאדותא דימא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר מי שלא ראה דיופלוסטון של אלכסנדריא של מצרים לא ראה בכבודן של ישראל אמרו כמין בסילקי גדולה היתה סטיו לפנים מסטיו פעמים שהיו בה (ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא) כפלים כיוצאי מצרים והיו בה ע"א קתדראות של זהב כנגד ע"א של סנהדרי גדולה כל אחת ואחת אינה פחותה מעשרים ואחד רבוא ככרי זהב ובימה של עץ באמצעיתה וחזן הכנסת עומד עליה והסודרין בידו וכיון שהגיע לענות אמן הלה מניף בסודר וכל העם עונין אמן,ולא היו יושבין מעורבין אלא זהבין בפני עצמן וכספין בפני עצמן ונפחין בפני עצמן וטרסיים בפני עצמן וגרדיים בפני עצמן וכשעני נכנס שם היה מכיר בעלי אומנתו ונפנה לשם ומשם פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו,אמר אביי וכולהו קטלינהו אלכסנדרוס מוקדן מ"ט איענשו משום דעברי אהאי קרא (דברים יז, טז) לא תוסיפון לשוב בדרך הזה עוד ואינהו הדור אתו,כי אתא אשכחינהו דהוו קרו בסיפרא (דברים כח, מט) ישא ה' עליך גוי מרחוק אמר מכדי ההוא גברא בעי למיתי ספינתא בעשרה יומי דליה זיקא ואתי ספינתא בחמשא יומי נפל עלייהו וקטלינהו:,במוצאי יום טוב כו': מאי תיקון גדול אמר רבי אלעזר כאותה ששנינו חלקה היתה בראשונה והקיפוה גזוזטרא והתקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו נשים מבפנים ואנשים מבחוץ והיו באים לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מבחוץ ואנשים מבפנים ועדיין היו באין לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,היכי עביד הכי והכתיב (דברי הימים א כח, יט) הכל בכתב מיד ה' עלי השכיל,אמר רב קרא אשכחו ודרוש 51b. bwith flaming torchesthat they would juggle bin their hands, and they would say before them passages of song and praiseto God. bAnd the Leviteswould play bon lyres, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, and countlessother bmusical instruments.The musicians would stand bon the fifteen stairs that descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteenSongs of the bAscents in Psalms,i.e., chapters 120–134, and bupon whichthe bLevites stand with musical instruments and recitetheir bsong. /b, bAndthis was the ceremony of the Water Libation: bTwo priests stood at the Upper Gate that descends from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, with two trumpets in their hands.When bthe rooster crowedat dawn, bthey sounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i.When btheywho would draw the water breached the tenth stairthe trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i,to indicate that the time to draw water from the Siloam pool had arrived. When bthey reached theWomen’s bCourtyardwith the basins of water in their hands, the trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i. /b,When bthey reached the groundof the Women’s Courtyard, the trumpeters bsounded a itekia /i, and sounded a iterua /i, and sounded a itekia /i. They continued soundingthe trumpets buntil they reached the gatethrough bwhichone bexits to the east,from the Women’s Courtyard to the eastern slope of the Temple Mount. When bthey reached the gatethrough bwhichone bexits to the east, they turned fromfacing beast tofacing bwest,toward the Holy of Holies, band said: Our ancestors who were in this placeduring the First Temple period who did not conduct themselves appropriately, stood b“with their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east”(Ezekiel 8:16), band we, our eyes are to God. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bthey would repeat and say: We are to God, and our eyes are to God. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawingof the Water, bnever saw celebration in his life. One who did not see Jerusalem in its glory, never saw a beautiful city. One who did not see the Temple in its constructedstate, bnever saw a magnificent structure.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe Temple building to which the Sages refer? bAbaye said, and some saythat it was bRav Ḥisdawho said: bThisis referring to the magnificent bbuilding of Herod,who renovated the Second Temple.,The Gemara asks: bWith whatmaterials bdid he construct it? Rava said:It was bwith stones ofgreen-gray bmarble and white marble [ imarmara /i]. Some say:It was bwith stones of blue marble and white marble.The rows of stones were set with bone rowslightly bprotruded and one rowslightly bindented, so that the plaster would takebetter. bHe thought to platethe Temple bwith gold,but bthe Sages said to him: Leave itas is, and do not plate it, bas it is better this way, aswith the different colors and the staggered arrangement of the rows of stones, bit has the appearance of waves of the sea. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda says: One who did not see the great synagogue [ ideyofloston /i] of Alexandria of Egypt never saw the glory of Israel. They saidthat its structure bwas like a large basilica [ ibasileki /i],with ba colonnade within a colonnade. At times there were six hundred thousandmen bandanother bsix hundred thousandmen bin it, twice the number of those who left Egypt. In it there were seventy-one golden chairs [ ikatedraot /i], corresponding to the seventy-onemembers bof the Great Sanhedrin, each of whichconsisted of bno less than twenty-one thousand talents of gold. Andthere was ba wooden platform at the center. The sexton of the synagoguewould bstand on it, with the scarves in his hand. Andbecause the synagogue was so large and the people could not hear the communal prayer, bwhenthe prayer leader breachedthe conclusion of a blessing requiring the people bto answer amen,the sexton bwaved the scarf and all the peoplewould banswer amen. /b, bAndthe members of the various crafts bwould not sit mingled. Rather, the goldsmithswould sit bamong themselves, and the silversmiths among themselves, and the blacksmiths among themselves, and the coppersmiths among themselves, and the weavers among themselves. And when a poorstranger bentered there, he would recognize peoplewho plied bhis craft, and he would turn tojoin them bthere. And from therehe would secure bhis livelihoodas well as bthe livelihoodof the bmembers of his household,as his colleagues would find him work in that craft.,After depicting the glory of the synagogue, the Gemara relates that bAbaye said: All ofthe people who congregated in that synagogue bwere killed by Alexanderthe Great bof Macedonia.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat bthey were punishedand killed? It is bdue tothe fact bthat they violatedthe prohibition with regard to Egypt in bthis verse: “You shall henceforth return no more that way”(Deuteronomy 17:16), band they returned.Since they established their permanent place of residence in Egypt, they were punished., bWhenAlexander barrived, he found them,and saw bthat they were readingthe verse bin theTorah bscroll: “The Lord will bring a nation against you from far,from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoops down; a nation whose tongue you shall not understand” (Deuteronomy 28:49). bHe said,referring to himself: bNow, since that man sought to come by ship in ten days,and ba wind carried it and the ship arrived inonly bfive days,apparently the verse referring a vulture swooping down is referring to me and heavenly forces are assisting me. Immediately, bhe set upon them and slaughtered them. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAt the conclusion ofthe first bFestivalday, etc., the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair. The Gemara asks: bWhatis this bsignificant repair? Rabbi Elazar saidthat bit is like that which we learned:The walls of the Women’s Courtyard bwere smooth,without protrusions, binitially.Subsequently, they affixed protrusions to the wall surrounding the Women’s Courtyard. Each year thereafter, for the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, they placed wooden planks on these projections and bsurroundedthe courtyard bwith a balcony [ igezuztra /i]. And they instituted thatthe bwomen should sit above andthe bmen below. /b, bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: bInitially, women wouldstand bon the insideof the Women’s Courtyard, closer to the Sanctuary to the west, band the menwere bon the outsidein the courtyard and on the rampart. bAnd they would come toconduct themselves with inappropriate blevityin each other’s company, as the men needed to enter closer to the altar when the offerings were being sacrificed and as a result they would mingle with the women. Therefore, the Sages binstituted that the women should sit on the outside and the men on the inside, and still they would come toconduct themselves with inappropriate blevity.Therefore, bthey institutedin the interest of complete separation bthat the women would sit above and the men below. /b,The Gemara asks: bHow could one do so,i.e., alter the structure of the Temple? bBut isn’t it writtenwith regard to the Temple: b“All thisI give you bin writing,as bthe Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me,even all the works of this pattern” (I Chronicles 28:19), meaning that all the structural plans of the Temple were divinely inspired; how could the Sages institute changes?, bRav said: They found a verse, and interpreted it homileticallyand acted accordingly:


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Gera, Judith (2014) 51
abigail Gera, Judith (2014) 51
abraham Gera, Judith (2014) 51
achior, arrives in bethulia Gera, Judith (2014) 229, 403
achior, manhandled Gera, Judith (2014) 229
achior Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 41; Gera, Judith (2014) 51, 222, 229
alexander the great Gera, Judith (2014) 161
ammon and ammonites Gera, Judith (2014) 161
ammonites Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 41
amnon Gera, Judith (2014) 51
angel of god Gera, Judith (2014) 222
animals, fish, and birds, fast/ mourn/ in sackcloth Gera, Judith (2014) 183
apocrypha Gera, Judith (2014) 101
aram, king of Gera, Judith (2014) 222
army, assyrian, cavalry Gera, Judith (2014) 222
arphaxad, king of medes Gera, Judith (2014) 162
assyrians, biblical and historical Gera, Judith (2014) 162
assyrians, court talesnan Gera, Judith (2014) 222
atonement Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 296
babylon and babylonians, chronicles and inscriptions Gera, Judith (2014) 162
babylon and babylonians Gera, Judith (2014) 162
balaam Gera, Judith (2014) 51
baptism Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
bar-kokhba Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 378
barak Gera, Judith (2014) 51
bathsheba Gera, Judith (2014) 51
bethulia, children of Gera, Judith (2014) 403
bethulia, city gates Gera, Judith (2014) 403
bethulia, elders Gera, Judith (2014) 403
bethulia, people of Gera, Judith (2014) 229, 403, 407
bethulia, women of Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 229, 403
biblical women, at assemblies Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 183, 229
biblical women, celebrate victors Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 161, 447
biblical women, vulnerable Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 183
biblical women, wise Gera, Judith (2014) 51
blessings Gera, Judith (2014) 407
book of judith, and greek writings Gera, Judith (2014) 453, 469
book of judith, author Gera, Judith (2014) 407
book of judith, date Gera, Judith (2014) 407
book of judith, irony and humor Gera, Judith (2014) 183
book of judith, message Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 162
book of judith, original language Gera, Judith (2014) 87
booty and plundering Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 162, 469
cambyses Gera, Judith (2014) 162
chabris Gera, Judith (2014) 403
charmis Gera, Judith (2014) 403
children, at assemblies Gera, Judith (2014) 229
children, in joel and jonah Gera, Judith (2014) 183
children, outsiders Gera, Judith (2014) 183
children, vulnerable Gera, Judith (2014) 183
children, women Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 183, 229
children Gera, Judith (2014) 183
circumcision Gera, Judith (2014) 183
coastal cities and people, submissive Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 162, 446
coastal cities and people Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 162
commanders, army, and kings Gera, Judith (2014) 222
communal laments, animals Gera, Judith (2014) 183
communal laments Gera, Judith (2014) 183
confession of sin Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
constantine Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
councils and conferences, terms for Gera, Judith (2014) 229
councils and conferences Gera, Judith (2014) 222
crossing boundaries Gera, Judith (2014) 403
crush/ shatter enemy Gera, Judith (2014) 222
crying out Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 469
cyrus the great Gera, Judith (2014) 162
dance Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 135
daniel, figure of Gera, Judith (2014) 101
daniel, influence on judith Gera, Judith (2014) 51, 222
david, and goliath Gera, Judith (2014) 51, 222
david Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 161, 446, 447
deborah, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 51
despair and low spirits Gera, Judith (2014) 101
dinah Gera, Judith (2014) 101
dionysus, dionysiac cult Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 378
earth, face of Gera, Judith (2014) 222
eglon Gera, Judith (2014) 51
egypt and egyptians Gera, Judith (2014) 87, 162
ehud Gera, Judith (2014) 51
esther, and judith Gera, Judith (2014) 101
esther, in lxx / additions Gera, Judith (2014) 101
esther, in mt Gera, Judith (2014) 51
esther Bacchi, Uncovering Jewish Creativity in Book III of the Sibylline Oracles: Gender, Intertextuality, and Politics (2022) 82
eusebius Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
exile, captivity, and return, exodus, story of Gera, Judith (2014) 222
fasting Gera, Judith (2014) 183
fear Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 162
feasting Gera, Judith (2014) 469
female voice Gera, Judith (2014) 101
fire Gera, Judith (2014) 469
gender roles Gera, Judith (2014) 101
gentiles/gentile Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
gentiles Gera, Judith (2014) 51, 222
gideon Gera, Judith (2014) 222
god, celebrated Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 407, 453, 469
god, might Gera, Judith (2014) 403
god, responds to prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 183
god, unique Gera, Judith (2014) 222
god, vengeful and warrior Gera, Judith (2014) 469
gods, foreign Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 162, 222, 469
gold, objects Gera, Judith (2014) 161
gold, statue Gera, Judith (2014) 161
goliath Gera, Judith (2014) 51, 222
hagar Gera, Judith (2014) 51
hallel Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 296
haman Gera, Judith (2014) 51
hasmonean Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 63
hellenistic, institutions and practices Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 447
hellenistic religion Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 63
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 447, 469
high priest Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 63
holophernes, angry and tyrannical Gera, Judith (2014) 222
holophernes, conquers and destroys Gera, Judith (2014) 162, 446
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 162
homily Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 296
huldah Gera, Judith (2014) 51
ii maccabees Gera, Judith (2014) 469
impression of dionysiac festival' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 378
israel Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 41
israelites, celebrate Gera, Judith (2014) 407, 446, 447, 469
israelites, prayers and blessings Gera, Judith (2014) 183, 407
israelites Gera, Judith (2014) 162, 183
jael, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 51
jason of cyrene Gera, Judith (2014) 469
jehoshaphat Gera, Judith (2014) 161
jephthah Gera, Judith (2014) 101
jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 183, 469
jethro Gera, Judith (2014) 51
jew/s Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
jewish prayers/ prayer-practice Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
joakim of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 447
job Gera, Judith (2014) 51
jonah Gera, Judith (2014) 183
josephus Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 63, 296
joy, rejoicing Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 135, 296
jubilees Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 296
judah Gera, Judith (2014) 51
judgment Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 296
judith, an instrument? Gera, Judith (2014) 403
judith, and god Gera, Judith (2014) 101
judith, complex character Gera, Judith (2014) 101
judith Bacchi, Uncovering Jewish Creativity in Book III of the Sibylline Oracles: Gender, Intertextuality, and Politics (2022) 82
knowledge / foreknowledge Gera, Judith (2014) 87, 469
language and style, book of judith, calques and hebraicisms Gera, Judith (2014) 446, 447
language and style, book of judith, elegant style Gera, Judith (2014) 87
language and style, book of judith, imperatives Gera, Judith (2014) 453
language and style, book of judith, indirect speech Gera, Judith (2014) 229
language and style, book of judith, key words and internal echoes Gera, Judith (2014) 407, 453
language and style, book of judith, particles and connectives Gera, Judith (2014) 453
language and style, book of judith, prepositions Gera, Judith (2014) 229, 446
language and style, book of judith, pronouns Gera, Judith (2014) 101
language and style, book of judith, relative clauses Gera, Judith (2014) 407
language and style, book of judith, syntax Gera, Judith (2014) 87, 453
language and style, book of judith, varied language Gera, Judith (2014) 87
language and style, book of judith, wordplay Gera, Judith (2014) 87
language and style Gera, Judith (2014) 87
lord, and lord Gera, Judith (2014) 222, 453
lulav Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 63, 135, 296
maid, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 403, 446
maimonides Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 135
medes and media Gera, Judith (2014) 162
mesopotamia Gera, Judith (2014) 87
midian(ites) Gera, Judith (2014) 222
miriam, song of Gera, Judith (2014) 446, 447, 453
miriam Gera, Judith (2014) 51
moab and moabites Gera, Judith (2014) 161
moses, and judith Gera, Judith (2014) 51
moses Gera, Judith (2014) 222, 447
mountain Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 41
mourning Gera, Judith (2014) 183
musical instruments Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 162, 446, 447, 453
naaman Gera, Judith (2014) 51, 222
nabonidus Gera, Judith (2014) 162
nabopolassar Gera, Judith (2014) 162
naomi Gera, Judith (2014) 51
nations Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 63
nebuchadnezzar, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 222
nebuchadnezzar of judith, as rival of god Gera, Judith (2014) 222
nebuchadnezzar of judith, as sole god Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 162, 222
nineveh Gera, Judith (2014) 183
nonverbal aspects of prayer Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
old testament Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
orant(e) Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
peaceful attitudes Gera, Judith (2014) 162
penitence and sins Gera, Judith (2014) 469
performativity Bacchi, Uncovering Jewish Creativity in Book III of the Sibylline Oracles: Gender, Intertextuality, and Politics (2022) 82
persian traces in judith Gera, Judith (2014) 161
pheretime Gera, Judith (2014) 469
philistines Gera, Judith (2014) 161
philo of alexandria Gera, Judith (2014) 447
poetry in judith, and biblical poetry Gera, Judith (2014) 453
poetry in judith, and greek style Gera, Judith (2014) 453
praise Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 296
prayer gestures/postures, kneeling Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
prayer gestures/postures, lifting up hands Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
prayer gestures/postures, outstretched hands/spreading of hands Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
prayer gestures/postures, standing Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
prayer gestures/postures Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
prayers and praying, in bible Gera, Judith (2014) 407
prayers and praying, in post-biblical literature Gera, Judith (2014) 407
prayers and praying, preparation for Gera, Judith (2014) 407
prayers and praying Gera, Judith (2014) 183
priest Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 63, 135
priests Gera, Judith (2014) 469
processions, victory Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 162, 446, 447
prostration and bowing Gera, Judith (2014) 407
purity Gera, Judith (2014) 469
questions Gera, Judith (2014) 229
rahab Gera, Judith (2014) 51
rape Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 183
rebecca Gera, Judith (2014) 51
rizpah Gera, Judith (2014) 51
rosh hashana Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 296
ruth Gera, Judith (2014) 51, 101
sackcloth Gera, Judith (2014) 183
sacrifices Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 162, 469
samaria Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 41
samaritans Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 41
samson Gera, Judith (2014) 161
sarah, abrahams wife Gera, Judith (2014) 51
saul Gera, Judith (2014) 51, 446
self-proclaimed Gera, Judith (2014) 222
sennacherib Gera, Judith (2014) 162, 403
septuagint Gera, Judith (2014) 87
shiphrah and puah Gera, Judith (2014) 51
sieges Gera, Judith (2014) 183
simeon, ancestor of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 101
simeon, attacks shechem Gera, Judith (2014) 101
simhat beit hashoeva Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 135
sinai, single man Gera, Judith (2014) 222
sinai Gera, Judith (2014) 407
slaves, and servants Gera, Judith (2014) 222
solomon Gera, Judith (2014) 161; Sandnes and Hvalvik, Early Christian Prayer and Identity Formation (2014) 82
son of hamor, women of Gera, Judith (2014) 101
son of hamor Gera, Judith (2014) 101
song and dance Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 229, 446, 447
song of deborah Gera, Judith (2014) 469
statues Gera, Judith (2014) 162
susanna, and judith Gera, Judith (2014) 101
susanna Bacchi, Uncovering Jewish Creativity in Book III of the Sibylline Oracles: Gender, Intertextuality, and Politics (2022) 82
symbol Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 296
tamar, amnons sister Gera, Judith (2014) 51
tamar, judahs daughter in law Gera, Judith (2014) 51
temple Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 63, 135
temple in jerusalem, altar and vessels Gera, Judith (2014) 183
temple in jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 183
temples, foreign Gera, Judith (2014) 162
tents, holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 446
territory Ben-Eliyahu, Identity and Territory: Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity (2019) 41
thanksgiving, song and prayers Gera, Judith (2014) 162, 453
themistocles Gera, Judith (2014) 447
thyrsos Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 63
titans Gera, Judith (2014) 453
trees Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 63
uzziah, admires/blesses judith Gera, Judith (2014) 407
uzziah, weak Gera, Judith (2014) 51
uzziah Gera, Judith (2014) 51, 229, 403
victory celebrations Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 161, 403, 446, 447, 453, 469
victory song, judiths Gera, Judith (2014) 453, 469
vine Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 63
vulgate judith Gera, Judith (2014) 229, 446, 447
wands, ritual Gera, Judith (2014) 446
war, attitudes towards Gera, Judith (2014) 101, 183
woman of abel beth-maacah Gera, Judith (2014) 51
woman of tekoa Gera, Judith (2014) 51
woman of thebez Gera, Judith (2014) 51
woman of valor Gera, Judith (2014) 87
women of proverbs, lady wisdom Gera, Judith (2014) 51
women of proverbs, strange woman Gera, Judith (2014) 51
worms Gera, Judith (2014) 469
wreaths and crowns, victory Gera, Judith (2014) 161, 162, 446, 447
xerxes Gera, Judith (2014) 162, 469
yom kippur Rubenstein, The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods (1995) 296
zeal and zealots Gera, Judith (2014) 162