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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



673
Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 7.30
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1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 5.48-5.49, 5.51-5.52, 5.59, 7.9, 8.46, 8.58 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.48. Then Jeshua the son of Jozadak, with his fellow priests, and Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, with his kinsmen, took their places and prepared the altar of the God of Israel 5.49. to offer burnt offerings upon it, in accordance with the directions in the book of Moses the man of God. 5.51. They kept the feast of booths, as it is commanded in the law, and offered the proper sacrifices every day 5.52. and thereafter the continual offerings and sacrifices on sabbaths and at new moons and at all the consecrated feasts. 5.59. And the priests stood arrayed in their garments, with musical instruments and trumpets, and the Levites, the sons of Asaph, with cymbals 7.9. and the priests and the Levites stood arrayed in their garments, according to kindred, for the services of the Lord God of Israel in accordance with the book of Moses; and the gatekeepers were at each gate. 8.46. and ordered them to tell Iddo and his brethren and the treasurers at that place to send us men to serve as priests in the house of our Lord. 8.58. And I said to them, "You are holy to the Lord, and the vessels are holy, and the silver and the gold are vowed to the Lord, the Lord of our fathers.
2. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.3-1.9 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.3. I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life, and I performed many acts of charity to my brethren and countrymen who went with me into the land of the Assyrians, to Nineveh. 1.4. Now when I was in my own country, in the land of Israel, while I was still a young man, the whole tribe of Naphtali my forefather deserted the house of Jerusalem. This was the place which had been chosen from among all the tribes of Israel, where all the tribes should sacrifice and where the temple of the dwelling of the Most High was consecrated and established for all generations for ever. 1.5. All the tribes that joined in apostasy used to sacrifice to the calf Baal, and so did the house of Naphtali my forefather. 1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias.
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.10, 6.4-6.5, 6.24, 16.20, 22.1-22.3, 31.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.24. וַיְצַוֵּנוּ יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְטוֹב לָנוּ כָּל־הַיָּמִים לְחַיֹּתֵנוּ כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 22.1. לֹא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־שׁוֹר אָחִיךָ אוֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ נִדָּחִים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ מֵהֶם הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם לְאָחִיךָ׃ 22.1. לֹא־תַחֲרֹשׁ בְּשׁוֹר־וּבַחֲמֹר יַחְדָּו׃ 22.2. וְאִם־לֹא קָרוֹב אָחִיךָ אֵלֶיךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתּוֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְהָיָה עִמְּךָ עַד דְּרֹשׁ אָחִיךָ אֹתוֹ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתוֹ לוֹ׃ 22.2. וְאִם־אֱמֶת הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לֹא־נִמְצְאוּ בְתוּלִים לנער [לַנַּעֲרָה׃] 22.3. וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַת אָחִיךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְצָאתָהּ לֹא תוּכַל לְהִתְעַלֵּם׃ 31.13. וּבְנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ וְלָמְדוּ לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 4.10. the day that thou stoodest before the LORD thy God in Horeb, when the LORD said unto me: ‘Assemble Me the people, and I will make them hear My words that they may learn to fear Me all the days that they live upon the earth, and that they may teach their children.’" 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.24. And the LORD commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear the LORD our God, for our good always, that He might preserve us alive, as it is at this day." 16.20. Justice, justice shalt thou follow, that thou mayest live, and inherit the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee." 22.1. Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ox or his sheep driven away, and hide thyself from them; thou shalt surely bring them back unto thy brother." 22.2. And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, and thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it home to thy house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother require it, and thou shalt restore it to him." 22.3. And so shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his garment; and so shalt thou do with every lost thing of thy brother’s, which he hath lost, and thou hast found; thou mayest not hide thyself." 31.13. and that their children, who have not known, may hear, and learn to fear the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over the Jordan to possess it.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 10.15, 29.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.12. כִּי־אֲמַלֵּט עָנִי מְשַׁוֵּעַ וְיָתוֹם וְלֹא־עֹזֵר לוֹ׃ 29.12. Because I delivered the poor that cried, The fatherless also, that had none to help him."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.6-5.8, 18.3, 18.7-18.11, 18.14, 18.18-18.20, 18.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה כִּי יַעֲשׂוּ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאת הָאָדָם לִמְעֹל מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְאָשְׁמָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא׃ 5.7. וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת־חַטָּאתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִישִׁתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַאֲשֶׁר אָשַׁם לוֹ׃ 5.8. וְאִם־אֵין לָאִישׁ גֹּאֵל לְהָשִׁיב הָאָשָׁם אֵלָיו הָאָשָׁם הַמּוּשָׁב לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן מִלְּבַד אֵיל הַכִּפֻּרִים אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ עָלָיו׃ 18.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת־חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְנֶחְשַׁב לַלְוִיִּם כִּתְבוּאַת גֹּרֶן וְכִתְבוּאַת יָקֶב׃ 18.3. וְשָׁמְרוּ מִשְׁמַרְתְּךָ וּמִשְׁמֶרֶת כָּל־הָאֹהֶל אַךְ אֶל־כְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִקְרָבוּ וְלֹא־יָמֻתוּ גַם־הֵם גַּם־אַתֶּם׃ 18.7. וְאַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתְּךָ תִּשְׁמְרוּ אֶת־כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם לְכָל־דְּבַר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּלְמִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וַעֲבַדְתֶּם עֲבֹדַת מַתָּנָה אֶתֵּן אֶת־כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃ 18.8. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת תְּרוּמֹתָי לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים לְמָשְׁחָה וּלְבָנֶיךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם׃ 18.9. זֶה־יִהְיֶה לְךָ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים מִן־הָאֵשׁ כָּל־קָרְבָּנָם לְכָל־מִנְחָתָם וּלְכָל־חַטָּאתָם וּלְכָל־אֲשָׁמָם אֲשֶׁר יָשִׁיבוּ לִי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים לְךָ הוּא וּלְבָנֶיךָ׃ 18.11. וְזֶה־לְּךָ תְּרוּמַת מַתָּנָם לְכָל־תְּנוּפֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכַל אֹתוֹ׃ 18.14. כָּל־חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃ 18.18. וּבְשָׂרָם יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ כַּחֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וּכְשׁוֹק הַיָּמִין לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃ 18.19. כֹּל תְּרוּמֹת הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה נָתַתִּי לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם בְּרִית מֶלַח עוֹלָם הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אִתָּךְ׃ 18.31. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּכָל־מָקוֹם אַתֶּם וּבֵיתְכֶם כִּי־שָׂכָר הוּא לָכֶם חֵלֶף עֲבֹדַתְכֶם בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 5.6. Speak unto the children of Israel: When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit, to commit a trespass against the LORD, and that soul be guilty;" 5.7. then they shall confess their sin which they have done; and he shall make restitution for his guilt in full, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him in respect of whom he hath been guilty." 5.8. But if the man have no kinsman to whom restitution may be made for the guilt, the restitution for guilt which is made shall be the LORD’S, even the priest’s; besides the ram of the atonement, whereby atonement shall be made for him." 18.3. And they shall keep thy charge, and the charge of all the Tent; only they shall not come nigh unto the holy furniture and unto the altar, that they die not, neither they, nor ye." 18.7. And thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priesthood in everything that pertaineth to the altar, and to that within the veil; and ye shall serve; I give you the priesthood as a service of gift; and the common man that draweth nigh shall be put to death.’" 18.8. And the LORD spoke unto Aaron: ‘And I, behold, I have given thee the charge of My heave-offerings; even of all the hallowed things of the children of Israel unto thee have I given them for a consecrated portion, and to thy sons, as a due for ever." 18.9. This shall be thine of the most holy things, reserved from the fire: every offering of theirs, even every meal-offering of theirs, and every sin-offering of theirs, and every guilt-offering of theirs, which they may render unto Me, shall be most holy for thee and for thy sons." 18.10. In a most holy place shalt thou eat thereof; every male may eat thereof; it shall be holy unto thee." 18.11. And this is thine: the heave-offering of their gift, even all the wave-offerings of the children of Israel; I have given them unto thee, and to thy sons and to thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof." 18.14. Every thing devoted in Israel shall be thine." 18.18. And the flesh of them shall be thine, as the wave-breast and as the right thigh, it shall be thine." 18.19. All the heave-offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel offer unto the LORD, have I given thee, and thy sons and thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; it is an everlasting covet of salt before the LORD unto thee and to thy seed with thee.’" 18.20. And the LORD said unto Aaron: ‘Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any portion among them; I am thy portion and thine inheritance among the children of Israel." 18.31. And ye may eat it in every place, ye and your households; for it is your reward in return for your service in the tent of meeting."
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 4.17, 9.5, 30.14, 31.5, 31.9, 31.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.17. כִּי לָחֲמוּ לֶחֶם רֶשַׁע וְיֵין חֲמָסִים יִשְׁתּוּ׃ 9.5. לְכוּ לַחֲמוּ בְלַחֲמִי וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי׃ 30.14. דּוֹר חֲרָבוֹת שִׁנָּיו וּמַאֲכָלוֹת מְתַלְּעֹתָיו לֶאֱכֹל עֲנִיִּים מֵאֶרֶץ וְאֶבְיוֹנִים מֵאָדָם׃ 31.5. פֶּן־יִשְׁתֶּה וְיִשְׁכַּח מְחֻקָּק וִישַׁנֶּה דִּין כָּל־בְּנֵי־עֹנִי׃ 31.9. פְּתַח־פִּיךָ שְׁפָט־צֶדֶק וְדִין עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן׃ 4.17. For they eat the bread of wickedness, And drink the wine of violence." 9.5. 'Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled." 30.14. There is a generation whose teeth are as swords, and their great teeth as knives, To devour the poor from off the earth, and the needy from among men." 31.5. Lest they drink, and forget that which is decreed, And pervert the justice due to any that is afflicted." 31.9. Open thy mouth, judge righteously, and plead the cause of the poor and needy." 31.20. She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; Yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 74.8, 119.176 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

74.8. אָמְרוּ בְלִבָּם נִינָם יָחַד שָׂרְפוּ כָל־מוֹעֲדֵי־אֵל בָּאָרֶץ׃ 119.176. תָּעִיתִי כְּשֶׂה אֹבֵד בַּקֵּשׁ עַבְדֶּךָ כִּי מִצְוֺתֶיךָ לֹא שָׁכָחְתִּי׃ 74.8. They said in their heart: 'Let us make havoc of them altogether'; They have burned up all the meeting-places of God in the land." 119.176. I have gone astray like a lost sheep; seek Thy servant; For I have not forgotten Thy commandments."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 9.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.3. וַתֹּאבַדְנָה הָאֲתֹנוֹת לְקִישׁ אֲבִי שָׁאוּל וַיֹּאמֶר קִישׁ אֶל־שָׁאוּל בְּנוֹ קַח־נָא אִתְּךָ אֶת־אַחַד מֵהַנְּעָרִים וְקוּם לֵךְ בַּקֵּשׁ אֶת־הָאֲתֹנֹת׃ 9.3. And the asses of Qish Sha᾽ul’s father were lost. And Qish said to Sha᾽ul his son, Take now one of the servants with thee, and arise, go seek the asses."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.25. וְכָמֹהוּ לֹא־הָיָה לְפָנָיו מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁב אֶל־יְהוָה בְּכָל־לְבָבוֹ וּבְכָל־נַפְשׁוֹ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדוֹ כְּכֹל תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה וְאַחֲרָיו לֹא־קָם כָּמֹהוּ׃ 23.25. And like unto him was there no king before him, that turned to the LORD with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the law of Moses; neither after him arose there any like him."
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 50.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

50.6. צֹאן אֹבְדוֹת היה [הָיוּ] עַמִּי רֹעֵיהֶם הִתְעוּם הָרִים שובבים [שׁוֹבְבוּם] מֵהַר אֶל־גִּבְעָה הָלָכוּ שָׁכְחוּ רִבְצָם׃ 50.6. My people hath been lost sheep; Their shepherds have caused them to go astray, They have turned them away on the mountains; They have gone from mountain to hill, They have forgotten their resting-place."
11. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.4, 34.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.4. אֶת־הַנַּחְלוֹת לֹא חִזַּקְתֶּם וְאֶת־הַחוֹלָה לֹא־רִפֵּאתֶם וְלַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת לֹא חֲבַשְׁתֶּם וְאֶת־הַנִּדַּחַת לֹא הֲשֵׁבֹתֶם וְאֶת־הָאֹבֶדֶת לֹא בִקַּשְׁתֶּם וּבְחָזְקָה רְדִיתֶם אֹתָם וּבְפָרֶךְ׃ 34.16. אֶת־הָאֹבֶדֶת אֲבַקֵּשׁ וְאֶת־הַנִּדַּחַת אָשִׁיב וְלַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת אֶחֱבֹשׁ וְאֶת־הַחוֹלָה אֲחַזֵּק וְאֶת־הַשְּׁמֵנָה וְאֶת־הַחֲזָקָה אַשְׁמִיד אֶרְעֶנָּה בְמִשְׁפָּט׃ 34.4. The weak have ye not strengthened, neither have ye healed that which was sick, neither have ye bound up that which was broken, neither have ye brought back that which was driven away, neither have ye sought that which was lost; but with force have ye ruled over them and with rigour." 34.16. I will seek that which was lost, and will bring back that which was driven away, and will bind up that which was broken, and will strengthen that which was sick; and the fat and the strong I will destroy, I will feed them in justice."
12. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.3-1.9 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.3. I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life, and I performed many acts of charity to my brethren and countrymen who went with me into the land of the Assyrians, to Nineveh. 1.4. Now when I was in my own country, in the land of Israel, while I was still a young man, the whole tribe of Naphtali my forefather deserted the house of Jerusalem. This was the place which had been chosen from among all the tribes of Israel, where all the tribes should sacrifice and where the temple of the dwelling of the Most High was consecrated and established for all generations for ever. 1.5. All the tribes that joined in apostasy used to sacrifice to the calf Baal, and so did the house of Naphtali my forefather. 1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias.
13. Anon., Jubilees, 21.7-21.11, 21.16, 30.18-30.20, 31.14, 31.16, 32.3-32.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

21.7. And if thou dost slay a victim as an acceptable peace-offering, slay ye it, and pour out its blood upon the altar, and all the fat of the offering offer on the altar with fine flour (and the meat-offering) mingled with oil, with its drink-offering 21.8. --offer them all together on the altar of burnt-offering; it is a sweet savour before the Lord. 21.9. And thou wilt offer the fat of the sacrifice of thank-offerings on the fire which is upon the altar, and the fat which is on the belly, and all the fat on the inward 21.10. and the two kidneys, and all the fat that is upon them, and upon the loins and liver thou shalt remove together with the kidneys. 21.11. And offer all these for a sweet savour acceptable before the Lord, with its meat-offering and with its drink-offering, for a sweet savour, the bread of the offering unto the Lord 21.16. And as regards the wood of the sacrifices, beware lest thou bring (other) wood for the altar in addition to these: cypress, dêfrân, sagâd, pine, fir, cedar, savin, palm, olive, myrrh, laurel, and citron, juniper, and balsam. 30.18. For this reason I have written for thee in the words of the Law all the deeds of the Shechemites, which they wrought against Dinah 30.19. and how the sons of Jacob spake, saying: "We shall not give our daughter to a man who is uncircumcised; 30.20. for that were a reproach unto us." brAnd it is a reproach to Israel, to those who give, and to those who take the daughters of the Gentiles; for this is unclean and abominable to Israel. 31.14. And the darkness left the eyes of Isaac, and he saw the two sons of Jacob, Levi and Judah, and he said: "Are these thy sons, my son? for they are like thee. 31.16. And they came near to him, and he turned and kissed them and embraced them both together. 32.3. And Jacob rose early in the morning, on the fourteenth of this month, and he gave a tithe of all that came with him, both of men and cattle, both of gold and every vessel and garment, yea, he gave tithes of all. 32.4. And in those days Rachel became pregt with her son Benjamin. And Jacob counted his sons from him upwards and Levi fell to the portion of the Lord 32.5. and his father clothed him in the garments of the priesthood and filled his hands. 32.6. And on the fifteenth of this month, he brought to the altar fourteen oxen from amongst the cattle, and twenty-eight rams, and forty-nine sheep, and seven lambs, and twenty-one kids of the goats as a burnt-offering on the altar of sacrifice, well pleasing for a sweet savour before God 32.7. This was his offering, in consequence of the vow which he had vowed that he would give a tenth, with their fruit-offerings and their drink-offerings. 32.8. And when the fire had consumed it, he burnt incense on the fire over the fire 32.9. and for a thank-offering two oxen and four rams and four sheep, four he-goats, and two sheep of a year old, and two kids of the goats;
14. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 2.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15. Anon., Testament of Levi, 5.2, 8.1-8.19, 14.5-14.8, 17.9-17.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. And He said to me: Levi, I have given thee the blessings of the priesthood until I come and sojourn in the midst of Israel. 8.1. And there again I saw a vision as the former, after we had spent there seventy days. 8.2. And I saw seven men in white raiment saying unto me: Arise, put on the robe of the priesthood, and the crown of righteousness, and the breastplate of understanding, and the garment of truth, and the plate of faith, and the turban of the head, and the ephod of prophecy. 8.3. And they severally carried (these things) and put (them,) on me, and said unto me: From henceforth become a priest of the Lord, thou and thy seed for ever. 8.4. And the first anointed me with holy oil, and gave to me the staff of judgment. 8.5. The second washed me with pure water, and fed me with bread and wine (even) the most holy things, and clad me with a holy and glorious robe. 8.6. The third clothed me with a linen vestment like an ephod. 8.7. The, fourth put round me a girdle like unto purple. 8.8. The fifth gave me a branch of rich olive. 8.9. The sixth placed a crown on my head. 14.5. The offerings of the Lord ye shall rob, and from His portion shall ye steal choice portions, eating (them) contemptuously with harlots. 14.6. And out of covetousness ye shall teach the commandments of the Lord, wedded women shall ye pollute, and the virgins of Jerusalem shall ye defile: and with harlots and adulteresses shall ye be joined, and the daughters of the Gentiles shall ye take to wife, purifying them with an unlawful purification; and your union shall be like unto Sodom and Gomorrah. 14.7. And ye shall be puffed up because of your priesthood, lifting yourselves up against men, and not only so, but also against the commands of God. 14.8. For ye shall contemn the holy things with jests and laughter. 17.9. Therefore shall they be taken captive and become a prey, and their land and their substance shall be destroyed.
16. Anon., Testament of Moses, 7.1-7.10, 10.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 9.8-9.10, 12.10, 14.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 9.8-9.10, 12.10, 14.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Ben Sira, 3.21-3.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.45-1.46, 3.49, 3.51, 4.36-4.61, 7.33, 7.36, 10.42, 14.42 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.45. to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and feasts 1.46. to defile the sanctuary and the priests 3.49. They also brought the garments of the priesthood and the first fruits and the tithes, and they stirred up the Nazirites who had completed their days; 3.51. Thy sanctuary is trampled down and profaned,and thy priests mourn in humiliation. 4.36. Then said Judas and his brothers, "Behold, our enemies are crushed; let us go up to cleanse the sanctuary and dedicate it. 4.37. So all the army assembled and they went up to Mount Zion. 4.38. And they saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, and the gates burned. In the courts they saw bushes sprung up as in a thicket, or as on one of the mountains. They saw also the chambers of the priests in ruins. 4.39. Then they rent their clothes, and mourned with great lamentation, and sprinkled themselves with ashes. 4.40. They fell face down on the ground, and sounded the signal on the trumpets, and cried out to Heaven. 4.41. Then Judas detailed men to fight against those in the citadel until he had cleansed the sanctuary. 4.42. He chose blameless priests devoted to the law 4.43. and they cleansed the sanctuary and removed the defiled stones to an unclean place. 4.44. They deliberated what to do about the altar of burnt offering, which had been profaned. 4.45. And they thought it best to tear it down, lest it bring reproach upon them, for the Gentiles had defiled it. So they tore down the altar 4.46. and stored the stones in a convenient place on the temple hill until there should come a prophet to tell what to do with them. 4.47. Then they took unhewn stones, as the law directs, and built a new altar like the former one. 4.48. They also rebuilt the sanctuary and the interior of the temple, and consecrated the courts. 4.49. They made new holy vessels, and brought the lampstand, the altar of incense, and the table into the temple. 4.50. Then they burned incense on the altar and lighted the lamps on the lampstand, and these gave light in the temple. 4.51. They placed the bread on the table and hung up the curtains. Thus they finished all the work they had undertaken. 4.52. Early in the morning on the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month, which is the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-eighth year 4.53. they rose and offered sacrifice, as the law directs, on the new altar of burnt offering which they had built. 4.54. At the very season and on the very day that the Gentiles had profaned it, it was dedicated with songs and harps and lutes and cymbals. 4.55. All the people fell on their faces and worshiped and blessed Heaven, who had prospered them. 4.56. So they celebrated the dedication of the altar for eight days, and offered burnt offerings with gladness; they offered a sacrifice of deliverance and praise. 4.57. They decorated the front of the temple with golden crowns and small shields; they restored the gates and the chambers for the priests, and furnished them with doors. 4.58. There was very great gladness among the people, and the reproach of the Gentiles was removed. 4.59. Then Judas and his brothers and all the assembly of Israel determined that every year at that season the days of dedication of the altar should be observed with gladness and joy for eight days, beginning with the twenty-fifth day of the month of Chislev. 4.60. At that time they fortified Mount Zion with high walls and strong towers round about, to keep the Gentiles from coming and trampling them down as they had done before. 4.61. And he stationed a garrison there to hold it. He also fortified Beth-zur, so that the people might have a stronghold that faced Idumea. 7.33. After these events Nicanor went up to Mount Zion. Some of the priests came out of the sanctuary, and some of the elders of the people, to greet him peaceably and to show him the burnt offering that was being offered for the king. 7.36. Then the priests went in and stood before the altar and the temple, and they wept and said 10.42. Moreover, the five thousand shekels of silver which my officials have received every year from the income of the services of the temple, this too is canceled, because it belongs to the priests who minister there. 14.42. and that he should be governor over them and that he should take charge of the sanctuary and appoint men over its tasks and over the country and the weapons and the strongholds, and that he should take charge of the sanctuary
21. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.21, 1.23, 1.30, 3.15, 4.14, 14.31, 14.34, 15.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.21. And when the materials for the sacrifices were presented, Nehemiah ordered the priests to sprinkle the liquid on the wood and what was laid upon it.' 1.23. And while the sacrifice was being consumed, the priests offered prayer -- the priests and every one. Jonathan led, and the rest responded, as did Nehemiah.' 1.30. Then the priests sang the hymns. 3.15. The priests prostrated themselves before the altar in their priestly garments and called toward heaven upon him who had given the law about deposits, that he should keep them safe for those who had deposited them.' 4.14. that the priests were no longer intent upon their service at the altar. Despising the sanctuary and neglecting the sacrifices, they hastened to take part in the unlawful proceedings in the wrestling arena after the call to the discus,' 14.31. When the latter became aware that he had been cleverly outwitted by the man, he went to the great and holy temple while the priests were offering the customary sacrifices, and commanded them to hand the man over.' 14.34. Having said this, he went away. Then the priests stretched forth their hands toward heaven and called upon the constant Defender of our nation, in these words:' 15.31. And when he arrived there and had called his countrymen together and stationed the priests before the altar, he sent for those who were in the citadel.'
22. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.15, 2.16, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 6, 6.1, 6.6, 6.7, 6.9, 6.16, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.30, 6.31, 6.32, 6.33, 6.34, 6.35, 6.36, 6.37, 7, 7.3, 7.7, 7.8, 7.10, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.31, 7.32, 7.34, 8.1, 8.2, 8.5, 8.9, 8.13, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 10, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.12, 11.14, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26, 11.27, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 13.22, 13.23, 14.3, 14.5, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.16, 14.17, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 31.21, 31.22, 31.27, 33.7, 33.8, 33.9, 33.10, 33.11, 33.12, 33.13, 34.1, 34.2, 34.3, 34.4, 34.5, 34.6, 34.7, 35.1, 35.2, 35.3, 35.4, 35.5, 35.6, 35.7, 35.10, 36.1, 36.2, 36.3, 36.4, 36.5, 36.6, 36.7, 36.8, 36.9, 36.10, 36.11, 36.12, 36.13, 36.14, 36.15, 36.16, 36.17, 36.18, 36.19, 36.20, 36.21, 36.22, 38.24, 38.25, 39.1, 39.2, 39.3, 39.12, 39.13, 39.14, 39.15, 39.16, 39.17, 39.18, 39.19, 39.20, 39.21, 39.22, 39.23, 39.24, 39.25, 39.26, 39.27, 39.28, 39.29, 39.30, 39.31, 39.32, 39.33, 39.34, 39.35, 41.8, 41.9, 42.15-43.33, 43.6, 43.7, 44, 44.20, 45, 45.5, 45.6, 45.7, 45.8, 45.9, 45.10, 45.11, 45.12, 45.13, 45.14, 45.15, 45.16, 45.17, 45.18, 45.19, 45.20, 45.21, 45.22, 45.23, 45.24, 45.25, 45.26, 45.27, 45.28, 45.29, 45.30, 45.31, 45.32, 45.33, 45.34, 45.35, 45.36, 46, 47, 47.10, 48, 49, 50.1, 50.2, 50.3, 50.4, 50.5, 50.6, 50.7, 50.8, 50.9, 50.10, 50.11, 50.12, 50.13, 50.14, 50.15, 50.16, 50.17, 50.18, 50.19, 50.20, 50.21, 50.22, 50.23, 50.24, 50.25, 50.26, 50.27, 50.28, 51.1, 51.2, 51.3, 51.4, 51.5, 51.6, 51.7, 51.8, 51.9, 51.10, 51.11, 51.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. All wisdom comes from the Lord and is with him for ever. 1.1. The fear of the Lord delights the heart,and gives gladness and joy and long life.
23. Septuagint, Judith, 4.14-4.15, 11.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.14. And Joakim the high priest and all the priests who stood before the Lord and ministered to the Lord, with their loins girded with sackcloth, offered the continual burnt offerings and the vows and freewill offerings of the people. 4.15. With ashes upon their turbans, they cried out to the Lord with all their might to look with favor upon the whole house of Israel. 11.3. And now tell me why you have fled from them and have come over to us -- since you have come to safety.
24. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.16, 2.1-2.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.16. Then the priests in all their vestments prostrated themselves and entreated the supreme God to aid in the present situation and to avert the violence of this evil design, and they filled the temple with cries and tears; 2.1. Then the high priest Simon, facing the sanctuary, bending his knees and extending his hands with calm dignity, prayed as follows: 2.1. And because you love the house of Israel, you promised that if we should have reverses, and tribulation should overtake us, you would listen to our petition when we come to this place and pray. 2.2. Lord, Lord, king of the heavens, and sovereign of all creation, holy among the holy ones, the only ruler, almighty, give attention to us who are suffering grievously from an impious and profane man, puffed up in his audacity and power. 2.2. Speedily let your mercies overtake us, and put praises in the mouth of those who are downcast and broken in spirit, and give us peace. 2.3. For you, the creator of all things and the governor of all, are a just Ruler, and you judge those who have done anything in insolence and arrogance. 2.3. In order that he might not appear to be an enemy to all, he inscribed below: "But if any of them prefer to join those who have been initiated into the mysteries, they shall have equal citizenship with the Alexandrians. 2.4. You destroyed those who in the past committed injustice, among whom were even giants who trusted in their strength and boldness, whom you destroyed by bringing upon them a boundless flood. 2.5. You consumed with fire and sulphur the men of Sodom who acted arrogantly, who were notorious for their vices; and you made them an example to those who should come afterward. 2.6. You made known your mighty power by inflicting many and varied punishments on the audacious Pharaoh who had enslaved your holy people Israel. 2.7. And when he pursued them with chariots and a mass of troops, you overwhelmed him in the depths of the sea, but carried through safely those who had put their confidence in you, the Ruler over the whole creation. 2.8. And when they had seen works of your hands, they praised you, the Almighty. 2.9. You, O King, when you had created the boundless and immeasurable earth, chose this city and sanctified this place for your name, though you have no need of anything; and when you had glorified it by your magnificent manifestation, you made it a firm foundation for the glory of your great and honored name. 2.11. And indeed you are faithful and true. 2.12. And because oftentimes when our fathers were oppressed you helped them in their humiliation, and rescued them from great evils 2.13. see now, O holy King, that because of our many and great sins we are crushed with suffering, subjected to our enemies, and overtaken by helplessness. 2.14. In our downfall this audacious and profane man undertakes to violate the holy place on earth dedicated to your glorious name. 2.15. For your dwelling, the heaven of heavens, is unapproachable by man. 2.16. But because you graciously bestowed your glory upon your people Israel, you sanctified this place. 2.17. Do not punish us for the defilement committed by these men, or call us to account for this profanation, lest the transgressors boast in their wrath or exult in the arrogance of their tongue, saying 2.18. `We have trampled down the house of the sanctuary as offensive houses are trampled down.' 2.19. Wipe away our sins and disperse our errors, and reveal your mercy at this hour.
25. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.137-12.144, 13.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.137. This it is which Polybius relates. But we will return to the series of the history, when we have first produced the epistles of king Antiochus: 12.138. “King Antiochus To Ptolemy, Sendeth Greeting. /p“Since the Jews, upon our first entrance on their country, demonstrated their friendship towards us, and when we came to their city [Jerusalem], received us in a splendid manner, and came to meet us with their senate, and gave abundance of provisions to our soldiers, and to the elephants, and joined with us in ejecting the garrison of the Egyptians that were in the citadel 12.139. we have thought fit to reward them, and to retrieve the condition of their city, which hath been greatly depopulated by such accidents as have befallen its inhabitants, and to bring those that have been scattered abroad back to the city. 12.141. And these payments I would have fully paid them, as I have sent orders to you. I would also have the work about the temple finished, and the cloisters, and if there be any thing else that ought to be rebuilt. And for the materials of wood, let it be brought them out of Judea itself and out of the other countries, and out of Libanus tax free; and the same I would have observed as to those other materials which will be necessary, in order to render the temple more glorious; 12.142. and let all of that nation live according to the laws of their own country; and let the senate, and the priests, and the scribes of the temple, and the sacred singers, be discharged from poll-money and the crown tax and other taxes also. 12.143. And that the city may the sooner recover its inhabitants, I grant a discharge from taxes for three years to its present inhabitants, and to such as shall come to it, until the month Hyperberetus. 12.144. We also discharge them for the future from a third part of their taxes, that the losses they have sustained may be repaired. And all those citizens that have been carried away, and are become slaves, we grant them and their children their freedom, and give order that their substance be restored to them.” 13.1. 1. By what means the nation of the Jews recovered their freedom when they had been brought into slavery by the Macedonians, and what struggles, and how many great battles, Judas, the general of their army, ran through, till he was slain as he was fighting for them, hath been related in the foregoing book; 13.1. But when Jonathan knew that Bacchides Was coming upon him, he sent his brother John, who was also called Gaddis, to the Nabatean Arabs, that he might lodge his baggage with them until the battle with Bacchides should be over, for they were the Jews’ friends. 13.1. nor did he abstain from the temple of Dagon itself, but burnt it also, and destroyed those that had fled to it. Now the entire multitude of the enemies that fell in the battle, and were consumed in the temple, were eight thousand.
26. Mishnah, Avot, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. Yose ben Yoezer (a man) of Zeredah and Yose ben Yoha [a man] of Jerusalem received [the oral tradition] from them [i.e. Shimon the Righteous and Antigonus]. Yose ben Yoezer used to say: let thy house be a house of meeting for the Sages and sit in the very dust of their feet, and drink in their words with thirst."
27. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
28. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
29. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.3, 2.10-2.18, 8.1-8.2, 13.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; 2.10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 2.11. For both he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one, for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brothers 2.12. saying, "I will declare your name to my brothers. In the midst of the congregation I will sing your praise. 2.13. Again, "I will put my trust in him." Again, "Behold, here am I and the children whom God has given me. 2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 2.15. and might deliver all of them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 2.16. For most assuredly, not to angels does he give help, but he gives help to the seed of Abraham. 2.17. Therefore he was obligated in all things to be made like his brothers, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. 2.18. For in that he himself has suffered being tempted, he is able to help those who are tempted. 8.1. Now in the things which we are saying, the main point is this. We have such a high priest, who sat down on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens 8.2. a minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, not man. 13.10. We have an altar from which those who serve the holy tabernacle have no right to eat.
30. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 1.50 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.50. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּמִרְיָם בַּת נַחְתּוֹם שֶׁנִּשְׁבֵּית הִיא וְשִׁבְעָה בָנֶיהָ, נְטָלָן קֵיסָר וּנְתָנָן לְגָיו מִן שִׁבְעָה קַנְקַלִּין, הֵבִיא אֶת הָרִאשׁוֹן וְאָמַר לוֹ הִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לַצֶּלֶם, אָמַר לוֹ חַס וְשָׁלוֹם אֵינִי מִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לַצֶּלֶם. אָמַר לוֹ לָמָּה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּךְ כְּתִיב בְּתוֹרָתֵנוּ (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ, מִיָּד הוֹצִיאוֹ וַהֲרָגוֹ. הוֹצִיא הַשֵּׁנִי וְאָמַר לוֹ הִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לַצֶּלֶם, אָמַר לוֹ חַס וְשָׁלוֹם, אָחִי לֹא הִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וַאֲנִי אֵינִי מִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה. אָמַר לוֹ לָמָּה, אָמַר לוֹ שֶׁכָּךְ כְּתִיב בַּתּוֹרָה (שמות ב, ג): לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל פָּנָי, מִיָּד גָּזַר עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוּהוּ. הוֹצִיא הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וְאָמַר לוֹ הִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לַצֶּלֶם, אָמַר לוֹ אֵינִי מִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה. אָמַר לוֹ לָמָּה, [אמר לו שכתוב בתורה] (שמות לד, יד): כִּי לֹא תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לְאֵל אַחֵר, מִיָּד גָּזַר עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוּהוּ. הוֹצִיא הָרְבִיעִי וְאָמַר פְּסוּקֵיהּ (שמות כב, יט): זֹבֵחַ לָאֱלֹהִים יָחֳרָם, גָּזַר עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוּהוּ. הוֹצִיא הַחֲמִישִׁי וְאָמַר גַּם הוּא פְּסוּקֵיהּ (דברים ו, ד): שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד, מִיָּד גָּזַר עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוּהוּ. הוֹצִיא הַשִּׁשִּׁי וְאָמַר גַּם הוּא פְּסוּקֵיהּ (שמות ז, כא): כִּי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּקִרְבֶּךָ אֵל גָּדוֹל וְנוֹרָא, גָּזַר עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוּהוּ. הוֹצִיא הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְהוּא הָיָה קָטָן שֶׁבְּכֻלָּן, אָמַר, בְּנִי הִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לַצֶּלֶם, אָמַר לוֹ חַס וְשָׁלוֹם. אָמַר לוֹ לָמָּה, אָמַר לוֹ שֶׁכֵּן כְּתִיב בְּתוֹרָתֵינוּ (שמות ד, לט): וְיָדַעְתָּ הַיּוֹם וַהֲשֵׁבֹתָ אֶל לְבָבֶךָ כִּי ה' הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וְעַל הָאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת אֵין עוֹד, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּעְנוּ לֵאלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ מְמִירִין אוֹתוֹ בְּאֵל אַחֵר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כו, יז): אֶת ה' הֶאֱמַרְתָּ הַיּוֹם, וּכְשֵׁם שֶׁנִּשְׁבַּעְנוּ לוֹ כָּךְ נִשְׁבַּע לָנוּ שֶׁאֵין מְמִירֵנוּ בְּאֻמָּה אַחֶרֶת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כו, יח): וַה' הֶאֱמִירְךָ הַיּוֹם. אָמַר לוֹ קֵיסָר אַחֶיךָ שָׂבְעוּ יָמִים וְשָׂבְעוּ חַיִּים וְרָאוּ טוֹבָה, וְאַתָּה קָטָן לֹא שָׂבַעְתָּ יָמִים וְלֹא שָׂבַעְתָּ חַיִּים וְלֹא רָאִיתָ טוֹב בָּעוֹלָם, הִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לַצֶּלֶם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה בְךָ טוֹבוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ כְּתִיב בְּתוֹרָתֵנוּ (שמות טו, יח): ה' יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד, וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים י, טז): ה' מֶלֶךְ עוֹלָם וָעֶד אָבְדוּ גוֹיִם מֵאַרְצוֹ, וְאַתֶּם בְּטֵלִים וְאוֹיְבָיו בְּטֵלִים. בָּשָׂר וָדָם הַיּוֹם חַי וּלְמָחָר מֵת, הַיּוֹם עָשִׁיר וּלְמָחָר עָנִי, אֲבָל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא חַי וְקַיָם לְעוֹלָם וּלְעוֹלְמֵי עוֹלָמִים. אָמַר לוֹ קֵיסָר, רְאֵה אַחֶיךָ הֲרוּגִים לְפָנֶיךָ, וַהֲרֵינִי מַשְׁלִיךְ טַבַּעְתִּי לָאָרֶץ לִפְנֵי הַצֶּלֶם וְהַגְבִּיהָהּ כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁשָּׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹלִי. אָמַר לוֹ חֲבָל עֲלָיךְ קֵיסָר, מָה אִם אַתָּה מִתְיָרֵא מִבְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁכְּמוֹתְךָ, אֲנִי לֹא אֶתְיָירֵא מִמֶּלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֱלֹהֵי עוֹלָם. אָמַר לוֹ וְכִי יֵשׁ אֱלוֹהַּ לָעוֹלָם, אָמַר לוֹ אַלְלַי עָלֶיךָ קֵיסָר, וְכִי עוֹלָם שֶׁל הֶפְקֵר רָאִיתָ. אָמַר לוֹ וְכִי יֵשׁ פֶּה לֵאלֹהֵיכֶם, אָמַר לוֹ בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם כְּתִיב (תהלים קטו, ה): פֶּה לָהֶם וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ, וּבֵאלֹהֵינוּ כְּתִיב (תהלים לג, ו): בִּדְבַר ה' שָׁמַיִם נַעֲשׂוּ. אָמַר לוֹ וְכִי יֵשׁ עֵינַיִם לֵאלֹהֵיכֶם, אָמַר לוֹ בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם כְּתִיב (תהלים קטו, ה): עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ, וּבֵאלֹהֵינוּ כְּתִיב (זכריה ד, י): עֵינֵי ה' הֵמָּה מְשׁוֹטְטִים בְּכָל הָאָרֶץ. אָמַר לוֹ וְכִי יֵשׁ אָזְנַיִם לֵאלֹהֵיכֶם, אָמַר לוֹ בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם כְּתִיב (תהלים קטו, ו): אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִשְׁמָעוּ, וּבֵאלֹהֵינוּ כְּתִיב (מלאכי ג, טז): וַיַּקְשֵׁב ה' וַיִּשְׁמָע. אָמַר לוֹ וְכִי יֵשׁ אַף לֵאלֹהֵיכֶם, אָמַר לוֹ בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם כְּתִיב (תהלים קטו, ו): אַף לָהֶם וְלֹא יְרִיחוּן, וּבֵאלֹהֵינוּ כְּתִיב (בראשית ח, כא): וַיָּרַח ה' אֶת רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ. אָמַר לוֹ וְכִי יֵשׁ יָדַיִם לֵאלֹהֵיכֶם, אָמַר לוֹ בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם כְּתִיב (תהלים קטו, ז): יְדֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְמִישׁוּן, וּבֵאלֹהֵינוּ כְּתִיב (ישעיה מח, יג): אַף יָדִי יָסְדָה אֶרֶץ. אָמַר לוֹ וְכִי יֵשׁ רַגְלַיִם לֵאלֹהֵיכֶם, אָמַר לוֹ בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם כְּתִיב (תהלים קטו, ז): רַגְלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְהַלֵּכוּ, וּבֵאלֹהֵינוּ כְּתִיב (זכריה יד, ד): וְעָמְדוּ רַגְלָיו בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא עַל הַר הַזֵּיתִים. אָמַר לוֹ וְכִי יֵשׁ גָּרוֹן לֵאלֹהֵיכֶם, אָמַר לוֹ בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם כְּתִיב (תהלים קטו, ז): לֹא יֶהְגּוּ בִּגְרוֹנָם, וּבֵאלֹהֵינוּ כְּתִיב (איוב לז, ב): וְהֶגֶה מִפִּיו יֵצֵא. אָמַר לוֹ אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ כָּל הַמִּדּוֹת הַלָּלוּ בֵּאלֹהֵיכֶם מִפְּנֵי מָה אֵינוֹ מַצִּיל אֶתְכֶם מִיָּדִי כְּמוֹ שֶׁהִצִּיל לַחֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה מִיַּד נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר. אָמַר לוֹ חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה כְּשֵׁרִים הָיוּ וּנְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מֶלֶךְ הָגוּן הָיָה לֵעָשׂוֹת נֵס עַל יָדוֹ, אֲבָל אַתָּה אֵינְךָ הָגוּן וְאָנוּ נִתְחַיַּבְנוּ מִיתָה לַשָּׁמַיִם, אִם אֵין אַתָּה הוֹרְגֵנוּ הַרְבֵּה הוֹרְגִים יֵשׁ לַמָּקוֹם, הַרְבֵּה דֻּבִּים הַרְבֵּה זְאֵבִים וַאֲרָיוֹת וּנְחָשִׁים וּנְמֵרִים וְעַקְרַבִּים שֶׁיִּפְגְּעוּ בָּנוּ וְיַהַרְגוּנוּ, אֶלָּא לַסּוֹף הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עָתִיד לִפָּרַע מִמְּךָ אֶת דָּמֵינוּ, מִיָּד גָּזַר עָלָיו לְהוֹרְגוֹ. אָמְרָה לוֹ אִמּוֹ בְּחַיֵּי רֹאשְׁךָ קֵיסָר תְּנָה אֶת בְּנִי וַאֲחַבְּקֵהוּ וַאֲנַשְׁקֵהוּ. נְתָנוּהוּ לָהּ וְהוֹצִיאָה לוֹ דַּדֶּיהָ וֶהֱנִיקַתּוּ חָלָב, אָמְרָה לוֹ בְּחַיֵּי רֹאשְׁךָ קֵיסָר הָרְגֵנִי תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָרְגֵהוּ, אָמַר לָהּ קֵיסָר אֵינִי שׁוֹמֵעַ לִיךְ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַתְכֶם (ויקרא כב, כח): וְשׁוֹר אוֹ שֶׂה אֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ לֹא תִשְׁחֲטוּ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד, אָמְרָה לוֹ שׁוֹטֶה שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם כְּבָר קִיַּמְתָּ כָּל הַמִּצְווֹת וְלֹא נִשְׁאָר לְךָ אֶלָּא זוֹ בִּלְבָד, מִיָּד צִוָּה עָלָיו לְהָרְגוֹ. נָפְלָה אִמּוֹ עָלָיו וְהָיְתָה מְחַבַּקְתּוּ וּמְנַשַׁקְתּוּ וְאָמְרָה לוֹ בְּנִי, לֵךְ אֵצֶל אַבְרָהָם אֲבִיכֶם וֶאֱמָר לוֹ כָּךְ אָמְרָה אִמִּי אַל תָּזוּחַ דַּעְתְּךָ עָלֶיךָ וְתֹאמַר בָּנִיתִי מִזְבֵּחַ וְהֶעֱלֵיתִי אֶת יִצְחָק בְּנִי, הֲרֵי אִמֵּנוּ בָּנְתָה שִׁבְעָה מִזְבְּחוֹת וְהֶעֶלְתָה שִׁבְעָה בָנִים בְּיוֹם אֶחָד, אַתָּה נִסָּיוֹן וַאֲנִי מַעֲשֶׂה, עַד שֶׁהָיְתָה מְנַשַּׁקְתּוּ וּמְחַבַּקְתּוּ גָּזַר עָלָיו וַהֲרָגוּהוּ עָלֶיהָ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנֶּהֱרַג שִׁעֲרוּ חֲכָמִים שְׁנוֹתָיו שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ תִּינוֹק וְנִמְצָא בֶּן שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים וְשִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וּמֶחֱצָה. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה צָעֲקוּ כָּל אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם וְאָמְרוּ מָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם שֶׁל אֵלּוּ עוֹשֶׂה לָהֶם שֶׁכָּךְ נֶהֱרָגִין עָלָיו בְּכָל שָׁעָה, וַעֲלֵיהֶם כְּתִיב (תהלים מד, כג): כִּי עָלֶיךָ הֹרַגְנוּ כָל הַיּוֹם. לְאַחַר יָמִים נִשְׁתַּטֵּית אוֹתָהּ הָאִשָּׁה וְנָפְלָה מִן הַגַּג וּמֵתָה, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה טו, ט): אֻמְלְלָה יֹלֶדֶת הַשִּׁבְעָה, וּבַת קוֹל יוֹצֵאת וְאוֹמֶרֶת (תהלים קיג, ט): אֵם הַבָּנִים שְׂמֵחָה, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ צוֹוַחַת וְאוֹמֶרֶת: עַל אֵלֶּה אֲנִי בוֹכִיָּה.
31. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

32. Anon., Odes of Solomon, 20.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

33. Anon., Testament of Adam, 1.12 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

35. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18b. מותרין בהספד ותענית אימת אילימא בני חמיסר וקא קרו ליה בארביסר ומי שרי,והכתיב במגילת תענית יום ארבעה עשר בו ויום חמשה עשר בו יומי פוריא אינון דלא למיספד בהון ואמר רבא לא נצרכא אלא לאסור את של זה בזה ואת של זה בזה,ואלא בני ארביסר וקא קרי ליה בתליסר יום ניקנור הוא ואלא בני ארביסר וקא קרי ליה בתריסר יום טוריינוס הוא,אלא לאו דקא קרו ליה בחדיסר וקתני מותר בהספד ובתענית,לא בני ארבעה עשר וקא קרו ליה בתריסר ודקאמרת יום טריינוס הוא יום טריינוס גופיה בטולי בטלוהו הואיל ונהרגו בו שמעיה ואחיה אחיו כי הא דרב נחמן גזר תעניתא בתריסר אמרו ליה רבנן יום טוריינוס הוא אמר להו יום טוריינוס גופיה בטולי בטלוהו הואיל ונהרגו בו שמעיה ואחיה אחיו,ותיפוק ליה דהוה ליה יום שלפני ניקנור אמר רב אשי השתא איהו גופיה בטלוהו משום יום ניקנור ניקום ונגזר,מאי ניקנור ומאי טוריינוס דתניא ניקנור אחד מאפרכי יוונים היה ובכל יום ויום היה מניף ידו על יהודה וירושלים ואומר אימתי תפול בידי וארמסנה וכשגברה מלכות בית חשמונאי ונצחום קצצו בהונות ידיו ורגליו ותלאום בשערי ירושלים ואמרו פה שהיה מדבר בגאוה וידים שהיו מניפות על ירושלים תעשה בהם נקמה,מאי טוריינוס אמרו כשבקש טוריינוס להרוג את לולינוס ופפוס אחיו בלודקיא אמר להם אם מעמו של חנניה מישאל ועזריה אתם יבא אלהיכם ויציל אתכם מידי כדרך שהציל את חנניה מישאל ועזריה מיד נבוכדנצר אמרו לו חנניה מישאל ועזריה צדיקים גמורין היו וראויין היו ליעשות להם נס ונבוכדנצר מלך הגון היה וראוי ליעשות נס על ידו,ואותו רשע הדיוט הוא ואינו ראוי ליעשות נס על ידו ואנו נתחייבנו כליה למקום ואם אין אתה הורגנו הרבה הורגים יש לו למקום והרבה דובין ואריות יש לו למקום בעולמו שפוגעין בנו והורגין אותנו אלא לא מסרנו הקדוש ברוך הוא בידך אלא שעתיד ליפרע דמינו מידך,אעפ"כ הרגן מיד אמרו לא זזו משם עד שבאו דיופלי מרומי ופצעו את מוחו בגיזרין:,אין גוזרין תענית על הצבור בתחלה בחמישי כו' אין גוזרין תענית בראשי חדשים כו': וכמה הויא התחלה רב אחא אמר שלש רבי אסי אמר אחת,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב זו דברי רבי מאיר שאמר משום רבן (שמעון בן) גמליאל אבל חכמים אומרים מתענה ומשלים דרש מר זוטרא משמיה דרב הונא הלכה מתענה ומשלים:, br br big strongהדרן עלך סדר תעניות כיצד /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongסדר /strong /big תעניות אלו האמור ברביעה ראשונה אבל צמחים ששנו מתריעין עליהן מיד וכן שפסקו גשמים בין גשם לגשם ארבעים יום מתריעין עליהן מפני שהיא מכת בצורת,ירדו לצמחין אבל לא ירדו לאילן לאילן ולא לצמחין לזה ולזה אבל לא לבורות לשיחין ולמערות מתריעין עליהן מיד וכן עיר שלא ירדו עליה גשמים דכתיב (עמוס ד, ז) והמטרתי על עיר אחת ועל עיר אחת לא אמטיר חלקה אחת תמטר וגו' 18b. as the Sages decreed that in certain places one may read the Scroll of Esther on the eleventh, twelfth, or thirteenth of Adar, nevertheless, it is bpermitted to eulogize and faston these days. The Gemara clarifies: bWhendoes this ruling apply? bIf we saythat it applies to bthosein walled cities, who normally read the scroll on the bfifteenthof Adar bandyet this year bthey read it on the fourteenth,a day on which they normally are permitted to fast and eulogize, bbutthis cannot be the case, as bare they permittedto fast and eulogize at all on these days?, bBut isn’t it written in iMegillat Ta’anit /i: The day of the fourteenth ofAdar band the day of the fifteenth ofAdar bare the days of Purim, on which eulogizing is prohibited. And Rava said:Since these days are already mentioned in the Bible (Esther 9:18–19), it bis necessaryto state this ihalakhain iMegillat Ta’anit bonly to prohibitthose living bin thesewalled cities from fasting and eulogizing bon thisdate, the fourteenth, and those living bin thesenon-walled cities from fasting and eulogizing bon this date,the fifteenth.,The Gemara continues its explanation of the difficulty. bBut rather,the mishna must be referring to bthosewho normally read on the bfourteenthof Adar, bbut who readthe Scroll of Esther early, bon the thirteenth.However, it is already prohibited to fast on the thirteenth, as bit is Nicanor’s Day,which is a commemorative day in its own right. bBut rather,you will say that the mishna is referring to bthoseresidents of cities who normally read on bthe fourteenth, but who read itearly that year, bon the twelfth;however, the twelfth of Adar is also a commemorative day, as bit is Trajan’s Day. /b, bRather, isn’tthe mishna referring to a case bwhere they readthe Scroll of Esther bon the eleventhof Adar, bandnevertheless that mishna bteachesthat it is bpermitted to eulogize and faston this day, despite the fact that it is the day before Trajan’s Day? The opinion in this unattributed mishna is not in accordance with that of Rabbi Yosei, which means that there is a contradiction between the two statements of Rabbi Yoḥa.,The Gemara answers: bNo;the mishna is actually referring to bthosewho normally read bon the fourteenth, but who read itthat year bon the twelfthof Adar. bAndwith regard to bthat which you said,that bit is Trajan’s Day, Trajan’s Day itself was annulledand is no longer celebrated, bsince Shemaya and his brother Aḥiya were killed on thatday. We learn this bas inthe incident bwhen Rav Naḥman decreed a fast on the twelfthof Adar and bthe Sages said to him: It is Trajan’s Day. He said to them: Trajan’s Day itself was annulled, since Shemaya and his brother Aḥiya were killed on thatday.,The Gemara asks: bAnd let him derivethat fasting on the twelfth is prohibited in any case, bas it is the day before Nicanor’sDay. bRav Ashi said: Nowthat with regard to Trajan’s Day bitself, they annulled it, will wethen barise and issue a decreenot to fast on this date bdue tothe following day, bNicanor’sDay?,In relation to the above, the Gemara inquires: bWhat isthe origin of bNicanor’sDay band what isthe origin of bTrajan’sDay? bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bNicanor was one of the generals [ iiparkhei /i]in the bGreekarmy, band each and every day he would wave his hand over Judea and Jerusalem and say: When willthis city bfall into my hands, and I shall trample it? And when the Hasmonean monarchy overcamethe Greeks band emerged victorious over them,they killed Nicanor in battle, bcut off his thumbs and big toes, and hung them on the gates of Jerusalem, saying: The mouth that spoke with pride, and the hands that waved over Jerusalem, may vengeance be taken against them.This occurred on the thirteenth of Adar., bWhat isthe origin of bTrajan’sDay? bThey saidin explanation: bWhen Trajan sought to killthe important leaders bLuleyanus and his brother Pappas in Laodicea, he said to them: If you are from the nation of Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah, let your God come and save you from my hand, just as He saved Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah from the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.Luleyanus and Pappas bsaid to him: Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah were full-fledged righteouspeople, band they were worthy that a miracleshould be bperformed for them, and Nebuchadnezzar was a legitimate kingwho rose to power through his merit, band it is fitting that a miraclebe performed bthrough him. /b, bBut this wickedman, Trajan, bis a commoner,not a real king, band it is not fitting that a miraclebe performed bthrough him.Luleyanus and Pappas continued: bAndwe are not wholly righteous, band have been condemned to destruction by the Omnipresentfor our sins. bAnd if you do not kill us, the Omnipresent has many other executioners. Andif men do not kill us, bthe Omnipresent has many bears and lions in His world thatcan bhurt us and kill us. Instead, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed us into your hands only so that He will avenge our blood in the future. /b, bEven so,Trajan remained unmoved by their response and bkilled them immediately. It is saidthat bthey had not moved fromthe place of execution bwhen two officials [ idiyoflei /i] arrived from Romewith permission to remove Trajan from power, band they split his skull with clubs.This was viewed as an act of divine retribution and was established as a commemorative day.,§ The mishna taught: bOne may not decree a fast on the community starting on a Thursday,so as not to cause prices to rise. Furthermore, bone may not decree a fast on New Moons,on Hanukkah, or on Purim. However, if one began a set of fasts, one does not interrupt the sequence for these days. The Gemara asks: bAnd how manyfasts bareconsidered ba beginning? Rav Aḥa said:If one fasted bthreefasts before the festive day. bRabbi Asi said:Even if one fasted bonefast before it., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: This ihalakhaof the mishna that a fast that occurs on a festival is not observed, bis the statement of Rabbi Meir, who saidit bin the name of Rabban Gamliel. However, the Rabbis say:If a communal fast occurs on one of these days, one must bfast and completethe fast until nightfall. bMar Zutra taught in the name of Rav Huna:The practical ihalakha /iis in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, that one bfasts and completeshis fast until nightfall.,, strongMISHNA: /strong bThe order of these fastsof increasing severity, as explained in Chapter One, bis statedonly bina case when bthe first rainfallhas not materialized. bHowever,if there is bvegetation thatgrew and its appearance bchangeddue to disease, the court does not wait at all; bthey cry out about it immediately. And likewise, if rain ceasedfor a period of bforty daysbetween bone rainfall and another, they cry out about it because it is a plague of drought. /b,If sufficient rain bfell for the vegetation but notenough bfell for the trees;or if it was enough bfor the trees but not for the vegetation;or if sufficient rain fell bfor both this and that,i.e., vegetation and trees, bbut notenough btofill the bcisterns, ditches, and caveswith water to last the summer, bthey cry out about it immediately. And likewise,if there is a particular bcity upon which it did not rain,while the surrounding area did receive rain, this is considered a divine curse, bas it is written: “And I caused it to rain upon one city, but caused it not to rain upon another city; one piece was rained upon,and the portion upon which it did not rain withered” (Amos 4:7).
36. Anon., Megillat Taanit (Lichtenstein), None

37. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 92-93, 95, 87

87. pectacle from which a man could scarcely tear himself away. The construction of the altar was in keeping with the place itself and with the burnt offerings which were consumed by fire upon it, and the approach to it was on a similar scale. There was a gradual slope up to it, conveniently arranged for the purpose of decency, and the ministering priests were robed in linen garments, down to their


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
acrostic, nonalphabetic Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 92
alliteration Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 42
allusion, to christian texts, motifs, traditions Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 286, 287
altar Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
animal imagery Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 188
antiochus iii van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 69
antithesis Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 89
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, maccabees, books of Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 286, 287
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, rabbinic allusions and informal borrowing Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 286, 287
bailees (shomerin) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
ben sira Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 148; Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 207, 211
brother, brotherhood Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
chiasm Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25, 89
community Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
covenantal re-enactment, at qumran Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 148
creation Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
death Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25, 85, 89, 188
enemies Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 42, 188
eschatology, eschatological Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
ethnic boundary making model, field characteristics van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 69
ethnic boundary making model, strategic modes of boundary making van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 69
exegesis, sectarian Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 207, 211
faithfulness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 42, 188
familial Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
family Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
fear of god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25, 85, 89
festivals Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25, 42, 85, 89, 92, 188; Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
good Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 188
hasmonean revolt Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 286, 287
hebrew, biblical Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
hebrew, rabbinic Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
hellenistic kings/rulers, antiochus iv epiphanes Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
high priest Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
hope Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 188
hybridity Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 211
identity, jewish Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
inclusio Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25, 42, 89, 92
jerusalem van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 69
key word Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25, 92
law of moses Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25, 85, 188
levites Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
life Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 89
link word Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 89
logocentrism, maccabees, books of Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 286, 287
martyrdom, martyr, desire Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
martyrdom, martyr, judaism, jewish Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
martyrdom, martyr, sacrifice Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
martyrdom, martyr, trauma, traumatic experience Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
medium, media Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
ministry Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
neighbors Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 92
oath Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
old age Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 89
owner, lost property, not located Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
owner, lost property Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
pain Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
poor Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 92
prayer Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 188
pride Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 92
priest, priestly Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
priesthood Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
priests, aaronide Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
priests Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 148
property, disposition of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
property, guardian of Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
property, lost or missing Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
property, restitution of lost or stolen Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
property, stolen Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
ptolemaic empire van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 69
quarreling Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 188
qumran, shema at Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 148
repentance Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
repetition Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25, 89
reproof Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 188
rhyme, final Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25, 85
rhyme, internal Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25
rhyme Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25, 42, 89
rich Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 92
righteousness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 89
rulers Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 92
sabbath Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
sanctuary Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
scribe Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25
second temple literature, allusions in rabbinic works Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 286, 287
second temple literature Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 286, 287
second temple period, shema verses in Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 148
secrets/confidences, keeping/betraying Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 188
sectarian settlements Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
seleucid empire Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
shema, at qumran Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 148
shema, in ben sira Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 148
shema, linked to decalogue Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 148
simon ii (high priest) van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 69
sin/sinners Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 92
slavery Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
social relationships Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 92
solidarity Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
song Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 25
speech Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 188
synagogue Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
temple van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 69
tent of testimony Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
testimony, testify Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
theft Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 124
torah focus' Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 211
torah focus Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 207
tradition, enochic Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 64
trust (in god) Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 92
virtue Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 89
weinfeld, moshe Alexander, Gender and Timebound Commandments in Judaism (2013) 148
wine Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 89
wisdom, hidden Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 64
wisdom/wise Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 42, 89, 92
word-pairs Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 89
wound Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 188