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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



673
Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 50.1-50.4


nanThe leader of his brethren and the pride of his people was Simon the high priest, son of Onias,who in his life repaired the house,and in his time fortified the temple.


nanlike an olive tree putting forth its fruit,and like a cypress towering in the clouds.


nanHe laid the foundations for the high double walls,the high retaining walls for the temple enclosure.


nanThen Simon came down, and lifted up his hands over the whole congregation of the sons of Israel,to pronounce the blessing of the Lord with his lips,and to glory in his name;


nanIn his days a cistern for water was quarried out,a reservoir like the sea in circumference.


nanHe considered how to save his people from ruin,and fortified the city to withstand a seige.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

28 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.3-1.9 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.3. I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life, and I performed many acts of charity to my brethren and countrymen who went with me into the land of the Assyrians, to Nineveh. 1.4. Now when I was in my own country, in the land of Israel, while I was still a young man, the whole tribe of Naphtali my forefather deserted the house of Jerusalem. This was the place which had been chosen from among all the tribes of Israel, where all the tribes should sacrifice and where the temple of the dwelling of the Most High was consecrated and established for all generations for ever. 1.5. All the tribes that joined in apostasy used to sacrifice to the calf Baal, and so did the house of Naphtali my forefather. 1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.5, 32.8-32.9, 33.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.9. כִּי חֵלֶק יְהֹוָה עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃ 33.9. הָאֹמֵר לְאָבִיו וּלְאִמּוֹ לֹא רְאִיתִיו וְאֶת־אֶחָיו לֹא הִכִּיר וְאֶת־בנו [בָּנָיו] לֹא יָדָע כִּי שָׁמְרוּ אִמְרָתֶךָ וּבְרִיתְךָ יִנְצֹרוּ׃ 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 32.9. For the portion of the LORD is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance." 33.9. Who said of his father, and of his mother: ‘I have not seen him’; Neither did he acknowledge his brethren, Nor knew he his own children; For they have observed Thy word, And keep Thy covet."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.5, 23.20-23.21, 28.1, 28.3, 28.36-28.38, 29.1, 30.34-30.38, 40.30-40.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.5. וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּקְרַב הֲלֹם שַׁל־נְעָלֶיךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶיךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עוֹמֵד עָלָיו אַדְמַת־קֹדֶשׁ הוּא׃ 23.21. הִשָּׁמֶר מִפָּנָיו וּשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ אַל־תַּמֵּר בּוֹ כִּי לֹא יִשָּׂא לְפִשְׁעֲכֶם כִּי שְׁמִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ 28.1. שִׁשָּׁה מִשְּׁמֹתָם עַל הָאֶבֶן הָאֶחָת וְאֶת־שְׁמוֹת הַשִּׁשָּׁה הַנּוֹתָרִים עַל־הָאֶבֶן הַשֵּׁנִית כְּתוֹלְדֹתָם׃ 28.1. וְאַתָּה הַקְרֵב אֵלֶיךָ אֶת־אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְכַהֲנוֹ־לִי אַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא אֶלְעָזָר וְאִיתָמָר בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן׃ 28.3. וְאַתָּה תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־חַכְמֵי־לֵב אֲשֶׁר מִלֵּאתִיו רוּחַ חָכְמָה וְעָשׂוּ אֶת־בִּגְדֵי אַהֲרֹן לְקַדְּשׁוֹ לְכַהֲנוֹ־לִי׃ 28.3. וְנָתַתָּ אֶל־חֹשֶׁן הַמִּשְׁפָּט אֶת־הָאוּרִים וְאֶת־הַתֻּמִּים וְהָיוּ עַל־לֵב אַהֲרֹן בְּבֹאוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־מִשְׁפַּט בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־לִבּוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה תָּמִיד׃ 28.36. וְעָשִׂיתָ צִּיץ זָהָב טָהוֹר וּפִתַּחְתָּ עָלָיו פִּתּוּחֵי חֹתָם קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה׃ 28.37. וְשַׂמְתָּ אֹתוֹ עַל־פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת וְהָיָה עַל־הַמִּצְנָפֶת אֶל־מוּל פְּנֵי־הַמִּצְנֶפֶת יִהְיֶה׃ 28.38. וְהָיָה עַל־מֵצַח אַהֲרֹן וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־עֲוֺן הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְכָל־מַתְּנֹת קָדְשֵׁיהֶם וְהָיָה עַל־מִצְחוֹ תָּמִיד לְרָצוֹן לָהֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 29.1. וְזֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־תַּעֲשֶׂה לָהֶם לְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתָם לְכַהֵן לִי לְקַח פַּר אֶחָד בֶּן־בָּקָר וְאֵילִם שְׁנַיִם תְּמִימִם׃ 29.1. וְהִקְרַבְתָּ אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְסָמַךְ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר׃ 30.34. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח־לְךָ סַמִּים נָטָף וּשְׁחֵלֶת וְחֶלְבְּנָה סַמִּים וּלְבֹנָה זַכָּה בַּד בְּבַד יִהְיֶה׃ 30.35. וְעָשִׂיתָ אֹתָהּ קְטֹרֶת רֹקַח מַעֲשֵׂה רוֹקֵחַ מְמֻלָּח טָהוֹר קֹדֶשׁ׃ 30.36. וְשָׁחַקְתָּ מִמֶּנָּה הָדֵק וְנָתַתָּה מִמֶּנָּה לִפְנֵי הָעֵדֻת בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לְךָ שָׁמָּה קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם׃ 30.37. וְהַקְּטֹרֶת אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה בְּמַתְכֻּנְתָּהּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם קֹדֶשׁ תִּהְיֶה לְךָ לַיהוָה׃ 30.38. אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה כָמוֹהָ לְהָרִיחַ בָּהּ וְנִכְרַת מֵעַמָּיו׃ 40.31. וְרָחֲצוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶם׃ 3.5. And He said: ‘Draw not nigh hither; put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.’" 23.20. Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee by the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared." 23.21. Take heed of him, and hearken unto his voice; be not rebellious against him; for he will not pardon your transgression; for My name is in him." 28.1. And bring thou near unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that they may minister unto Me in the priest’s office, even Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron’s sons." 28.3. And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise-hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they make Aaron’s garments to sanctify him, that he may minister unto Me in the priest’s office." 28.36. And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and engrave upon it, like the engravings of a signet: HOLY TO THE LORD." 28.37. And thou shalt put it on a thread of blue, and it shall be upon the mitre; upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be." 28.38. And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead, and Aaron shall bear the iniquity committed in the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow, even in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD." 29.1. And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them to hallow them, to minister unto Me in the priest’s office: take one young bullock and two rams without blemish," 30.34. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum; sweet spices with pure frankincense; of each shall there be a like weight." 30.35. And thou shalt make of it incense, a perfume after the art of the perfumer, seasoned with salt, pure and holy." 30.36. And thou shalt beat some of it very small, and put of it before the testimony in the tent of meeting, where I will meet with thee; it shall be unto you most holy. ." 30.37. And the incense which thou shalt make, according to the composition thereof ye shall not make for yourselves; it shall be unto thee holy for the LORD." 30.38. Whosoever shall make like unto that, to smell thereof, he shall be cut off from his people.’" 40.30. And he set the laver between the tent of meeting and the altar, and put water therein, wherewith to wash;" 40.31. that Moses and Aaron and his sons might wash their hands and their feet thereat;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 9.22, 10.1-10.5, 16.12-16.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.22. וַיִּשָּׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־ידו [יָדָיו] אֶל־הָעָם וַיְבָרְכֵם וַיֵּרֶד מֵעֲשֹׂת הַחַטָּאת וְהָעֹלָה וְהַשְּׁלָמִים׃ 10.1. וּלֲהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּבֵין הַחֹל וּבֵין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהוֹר׃ 10.1. וַיִּקְחוּ בְנֵי־אַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא אִישׁ מַחְתָּתוֹ וַיִּתְּנוּ בָהֵן אֵשׁ וַיָּשִׂימוּ עָלֶיהָ קְטֹרֶת וַיַּקְרִבוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵשׁ זָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא צִוָּה אֹתָם׃ 10.2. וַתֵּצֵא אֵשׁ מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וַתֹּאכַל אוֹתָם וַיָּמֻתוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 10.2. וַיִּשְׁמַע מֹשֶׁה וַיִּיטַב בְּעֵינָיו׃ 10.3. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן הוּא אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה לֵאמֹר בִּקְרֹבַי אֶקָּדֵשׁ וְעַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶכָּבֵד וַיִּדֹּם אַהֲרֹן׃ 10.4. וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה אֶל־מִישָׁאֵל וְאֶל אֶלְצָפָן בְּנֵי עֻזִּיאֵל דֹּד אַהֲרֹן וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם קִרְבוּ שְׂאוּ אֶת־אֲחֵיכֶם מֵאֵת פְּנֵי־הַקֹּדֶשׁ אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 10.5. וַיִּקְרְבוּ וַיִּשָּׂאֻם בְּכֻתֳּנֹתָם אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר מֹשֶׁה׃ 16.12. וְלָקַח מְלֹא־הַמַּחְתָּה גַּחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וּמְלֹא חָפְנָיו קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים דַּקָּה וְהֵבִיא מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת׃ 16.13. וְנָתַן אֶת־הַקְּטֹרֶת עַל־הָאֵשׁ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְכִסָּה עֲנַן הַקְּטֹרֶת אֶת־הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵדוּת וְלֹא יָמוּת׃ 9.22. And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people, and blessed them; and he came down from offering the sin-offering, and the burnt-offering, and the peace-offerings." 10.1. And Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, took each of them his censer, and put fire therein, and laid incense thereon, and offered strange fire before the LORD, which He had not commanded them." 10.2. And there came forth fire from before the LORD, and devoured them, and they died before the LORD." 10.3. Then Moses said unto Aaron: ‘This is it that the LORD spoke, saying: Through them that are nigh unto Me I will be sanctified, and before all the people I will be glorified.’ And Aaron held his peace." 10.4. And Moses called Mishael and Elzaphan, the sons of Uzziel the uncle of Aaron, and said unto them: ‘Draw near, carry your brethren from before the sanctuary out of the camp.’" 10.5. So they drew near, and carried them in their tunics out of the camp, as Moses had said." 16.12. And he shall take a censer full of coals of fire from off the altar before the LORD, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the veil." 16.13. And he shall put the incense upon the fire before the LORD, that the cloud of the incense may cover the ark-cover that is upon the testimony, that he die not."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 16.16-16.17, 17.2-17.5, 17.11-17.13, 25.12-25.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.16. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־קֹרַח אַתָּה וְכָל־עֲדָתְךָ הֱיוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אַתָּה וָהֵם וְאַהֲרֹן מָחָר׃ 16.17. וּקְחוּ אִישׁ מַחְתָּתוֹ וּנְתַתֶּם עֲלֵיהֶם קְטֹרֶת וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אִישׁ מַחְתָּתוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתַיִם מַחְתֹּת וְאַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן אִישׁ מַחְתָּתוֹ׃ 17.2. וְהָיָה הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר אֶבְחַר־בּוֹ מַטֵּהוּ יִפְרָח וַהֲשִׁכֹּתִי מֵעָלַי אֶת־תְּלֻנּוֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הֵם מַלִּינִם עֲלֵיכֶם׃ 17.2. אֱמֹר אֶל־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וְיָרֵם אֶת־הַמַּחְתֹּת מִבֵּין הַשְּׂרֵפָה וְאֶת־הָאֵשׁ זְרֵה־הָלְאָה כִּי קָדֵשׁוּ׃ 17.3. אֵת מַחְתּוֹת הַחַטָּאִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּנַפְשֹׁתָם וְעָשׂוּ אֹתָם רִקֻּעֵי פַחִים צִפּוּי לַמִּזְבֵּחַ כִּי־הִקְרִיבֻם לִפְנֵי־יְהוָה וַיִּקְדָּשׁוּ וְיִהְיוּ לְאוֹת לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.4. וַיִּקַּח אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן אֵת מַחְתּוֹת הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיבוּ הַשְּׂרֻפִים וַיְרַקְּעוּם צִפּוּי לַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 17.5. זִכָּרוֹן לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִקְרַב אִישׁ זָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִזֶּרַע אַהֲרֹן הוּא לְהַקְטִיר קְטֹרֶת לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה כְקֹרַח וְכַעֲדָתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה לוֹ׃ 17.11. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן קַח אֶת־הַמַּחְתָּה וְתֶן־עָלֶיהָ אֵשׁ מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְשִׂים קְטֹרֶת וְהוֹלֵךְ מְהֵרָה אֶל־הָעֵדָה וְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם כִּי־יָצָא הַקֶּצֶף מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה הֵחֵל הַנָּגֶף׃ 17.12. וַיִּקַּח אַהֲרֹן כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר מֹשֶׁה וַיָּרָץ אֶל־תּוֹך הַקָּהָל וְהִנֵּה הֵחֵל הַנֶּגֶף בָּעָם וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־הַקְּטֹרֶת וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־הָעָם׃ 17.13. וַיַּעֲמֹד בֵּין־הַמֵּתִים וּבֵין הַחַיִּים וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה׃ 25.12. לָכֵן אֱמֹר הִנְנִי נֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם׃ 25.13. וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו בְּרִית כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר קִנֵּא לֵאלֹהָיו וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 16.16. And Moses said unto Korah: ‘Be thou and all thy congregation before the LORD, thou, and they, and Aaron, to-morrow;" 16.17. and take ye every man his fire-pan, and put incense upon them, and bring ye before the LORD every man his fire-pan, two hundred and fifty fire-pans; thou also, and Aaron, each his fire-pan.’" 17.2. ‘Speak unto Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest, that he take up the fire-pans out of the burning, and scatter thou the fire yonder; for they are become holy;" 17.3. even the fire-pans of these men who have sinned at the cost of their lives, and let them be made beaten plates for a covering of the altar—for they are become holy, because they were offered before the LORD—that they may be a sign unto the children of Israel.’" 17.4. And Eleazar the priest took the brazen fire-pans, which they that were burnt had offered; and they beat them out for a covering of the altar," 17.5. to be a memorial unto the children of Israel, to the end that no common man, that is not of the seed of Aaron, draw near to burn incense before the LORD; that he fare not as Korah, and as his company; as the LORD spoke unto him by the hand of Moses." 17.11. And Moses said unto Aaron: ‘Take thy fire-pan, and put fire therein from off the altar, and lay incense thereon, and carry it quickly unto the congregation, and make atonement for them; for there is wrath gone out from the LORD: the plague is begun.’" 17.12. And Aaron took as Moses spoke, and ran into the midst of the assembly; and, behold, the plague was begun among the people; and he put on the incense, and made atonement for the people." 17.13. And he stood between the dead and the living; and the plague was stayed." 25.12. Wherefore say: Behold, I give unto him My covet of peace;" 25.13. and it shall be unto him, and to his seed after him, the covet of an everlasting priesthood; because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.10, 2.1, 3.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. כִּי־תָבוֹא חָכְמָה בְלִבֶּךָ וְדַעַת לְנַפְשְׁךָ יִנְעָם׃ 2.1. בְּנִי אִם־תִּקַּח אֲמָרָי וּמִצְוֺתַי תִּצְפֹּן אִתָּךְ׃ 3.1. וְיִמָּלְאוּ אֲסָמֶיךָ שָׂבָע וְתִירוֹשׁ יְקָבֶיךָ יִפְרֹצוּ׃ 3.1. בְּנִי תּוֹרָתִי אַל־תִּשְׁכָּח וּמִצְוֺתַי יִצֹּר לִבֶּךָ׃ 1.10. My son, if sinners entice thee, Consent thou not." 2.1. My son, if thou wilt receive my words, And lay up my commandments with thee;" 3.1. My son, forget not my teaching; But let thy heart keep my commandments;"
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 106.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

106.3. אַשְׁרֵי שֹׁמְרֵי מִשְׁפָּט עֹשֵׂה צְדָקָה בְכָל־עֵת׃ 106.3. וַיַּעֲמֹד פִּינְחָס וַיְפַלֵּל וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה׃ 106.3. Happy are they that keep justice, that do righteousness at all times."
8. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.3-1.9 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.3. I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life, and I performed many acts of charity to my brethren and countrymen who went with me into the land of the Assyrians, to Nineveh. 1.4. Now when I was in my own country, in the land of Israel, while I was still a young man, the whole tribe of Naphtali my forefather deserted the house of Jerusalem. This was the place which had been chosen from among all the tribes of Israel, where all the tribes should sacrifice and where the temple of the dwelling of the Most High was consecrated and established for all generations for ever. 1.5. All the tribes that joined in apostasy used to sacrifice to the calf Baal, and so did the house of Naphtali my forefather. 1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father. 1.9. When I became a man I married Anna, a member of our family, and by her I became the father of Tobias.
9. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 6.5-6.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.5. Therefore, then I say unto you, ye will be jealous against the sons of Levi, and will seek to be exalted over them; but ye shall not be able. 6.6. For God will avenge them, and ye shall die by an evil death. 6.7. For to Levi God gave the sovereignty [and to Judah with him and to me also, and to Dan and Joseph, that we should be for rulers]. 6.8. Therefore I command you to hearken to Levi, because he shall know the law of the Lord, and shall give ordices for judgement and shall sacrifice for all Israel until the consummation of the times, as the anointed High Priest, of whom the Lord spake
10. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.45, 2.24-2.27, 14.47, 16.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.45. to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and feasts 2.24. When Mattathias saw it, be burned with zeal and his heart was stirred. He gave vent to righteous anger; he ran and killed him upon the altar. 2.25. At the same time he killed the kings officer who was forcing them to sacrifice, and he tore down the altar. 2.26. Thus he burned with zeal for the law, as Phinehas did against Zimri the son of Salu. 2.27. Then Mattathias cried out in the city with a loud voice, saying: "Let every one who is zealous for the law and supports the covet come out with me! 14.47. So Simon accepted and agreed to be high priest, to be commander and ethnarch of the Jews and priests, and to be protector of them all. 16.14. Now Simon was visiting the cities of the country and attending to their needs, and he went down to Jericho with Mattathias and Judas his sons, in the one hundred and seventy-seventh year, in the eleventh month, which is the month of Shebat.
11. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.1, 3.5, 3.35, 4.2, 4.4-4.15, 4.22, 4.34, 4.36, 4.49, 5.6, 8.4, 15.30-15.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. While the holy city was inhabited in unbroken peace and the laws were very well observed because of the piety of the high priest Onias and his hatred of wickedness,' 3.5. and when he could not prevail over Onias he went to Apollonius of Tarsus, who at that time was governor of Coelesyria and Phoenicia.' 3.35. Then Heliodorus offered sacrifice to the Lord and made very great vows to the Savior of his life, and having bidden Onias farewell, he marched off with his forces to the king.' 4.2. He dared to designate as a plotter against the government the man who was the benefactor of the city, the protector of his fellow countrymen, and a zealot for the laws.' 4.4. Onias recognized that the rivalry was serious and that Apollonius, the son of Menestheus and governor of Coelesyria and Phoenicia, was intensifying the malice of Simon.' 4.5. So he betook himself to the king, not accusing his fellow citizens but having in view the welfare, both public and private, of all the people.' 4.6. For he saw that without the king's attention public affairs could not again reach a peaceful settlement, and that Simon would not stop his folly.' 4.7. When Seleucus died and Antiochus who was called Epiphanes succeeded to the kingdom, Jason the brother of Onias obtained the high priesthood by corruption,' 4.8. promising the king at an interview three hundred and sixty talents of silver and, from another source of revenue, eighty talents.' 4.9. In addition to this he promised to pay one hundred and fifty more if permission were given to establish by his authority a gymnasium and a body of youth for it, and to enrol the men of Jerusalem as citizens of Antioch.' 4.10. When the king assented and Jason came to office, he at once shifted his countrymen over to the Greek way of life.' 4.11. He set aside the existing royal concessions to the Jews, secured through John the father of Eupolemus, who went on the mission to establish friendship and alliance with the Romans; and he destroyed the lawful ways of living and introduced new customs contrary to the law.' 4.12. For with alacrity he founded a gymnasium right under the citadel, and he induced the noblest of the young men to wear the Greek hat.' 4.13. There was such an extreme of Hellenization and increase in the adoption of foreign ways because of the surpassing wickedness of Jason, who was ungodly and no high priest,' 4.14. that the priests were no longer intent upon their service at the altar. Despising the sanctuary and neglecting the sacrifices, they hastened to take part in the unlawful proceedings in the wrestling arena after the call to the discus,' 4.15. disdaining the honors prized by their fathers and putting the highest value upon Greek forms of prestige. 4.22. He was welcomed magnificently by Jason and the city, and ushered in with a blaze of torches and with shouts. Then he marched into Phoenicia.' 4.34. Therefore Menelaus, taking Andronicus aside, urged him to kill Onias. Andronicus came to Onias, and resorting to treachery offered him sworn pledges and gave him his right hand, and in spite of his suspicion persuaded Onias to come out from the place of sanctuary; then, with no regard for justice, he immediately put him out of the way.' 4.36. When the king returned from the region of Cilicia, the Jews in the city appealed to him with regard to the unreasonable murder of Onias, and the Greeks shared their hatred of the crime.' 4.49. Therefore even the Tyrians, showing their hatred of the crime, provided magnificently for their funeral.' 5.6. But Jason kept relentlessly slaughtering his fellow citizens, not realizing that success at the cost of one's kindred is the greatest misfortune, but imagining that he was setting up trophies of victory over enemies and not over fellow countrymen.' 8.4. and to remember also the lawless destruction of the innocent babies and the blasphemies committed against his name, and to show his hatred of evil.' 15.30. And the man who was ever in body and soul the defender of his fellow citizens, the man who maintained his youthful good will toward his countrymen, ordered them to cut off Nicanor's head and arm and carry them to Jerusalem.' 15.31. And when he arrived there and had called his countrymen together and stationed the priests before the altar, he sent for those who were in the citadel.'
12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 3.12, 3.17, 3.21, 3.22, 4.1, 6.6, 6.7, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 18.4, 18.5, 18.6, 18.7, 24.1, 24.2, 24.3, 24.4, 24.5, 24.6, 24.7, 24.8, 24.9, 24.10, 24.11, 24.12, 24.13, 24.14, 24.15, 24.16, 24.17, 24.18, 24.19, 24.20, 24.21, 24.22, 24.23, 24.24, 24.25, 24.26, 24.27, 24.28, 24.29, 31, 31.21, 31.22, 32, 33, 33.7, 33.8, 33.9, 33.10, 33.11, 33.12, 33.13, 34, 34.1, 34.2, 34.3, 34.4, 34.5, 34.6, 34.7, 34.11, 34.12, 35.1, 35.2, 35.3, 35.4, 35.5, 35.6, 35.7, 35.10, 36.1, 36.2, 36.3, 36.4, 36.5, 36.6, 36.7, 36.8, 36.9, 36.10, 36.11, 36.12, 36.13, 36.14, 36.15, 36.16, 36.17, 36.18, 36.19, 36.20, 36.21, 36.22, 36.28, 36.29, 36.31, 38.24, 38.25, 39.1, 39.2, 39.3, 39.4, 39.5, 39.6, 39.7, 39.8, 39.9, 39.10, 39.11, 42.9, 42.10, 42.11, 42.12, 42.13, 42.14, 42.15-43.33, 43.6, 43.7, 44, 44.20, 45, 45.5, 45.6, 45.7, 45.8, 45.9, 45.10, 45.11, 45.12, 45.13, 45.14, 45.15, 45.16, 45.17, 45.18, 45.19, 45.20, 45.21, 45.22, 45.23, 45.24, 45.25, 46, 47, 47.9, 47.10, 47.11, 48, 48.24, 49, 49.6, 49.12, 49.13, 49.14, 49.16, 50, 50.2, 50.3, 50.4, 50.5, 50.6, 50.7, 50.8, 50.9, 50.10, 50.11, 50.12, 50.13, 50.14, 50.15, 50.16, 50.17, 50.18, 50.19, 50.20, 50.21, 50.22, 50.23, 50.24, 50.25, 50.26, 50.27, 50.28, 51.13, 51.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

18.4. To none has he given power to proclaim his works;and who can search out his mighty deeds?
13. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 45.7, 45.24-45.25, 47.9-47.11, 48.24, 49.6, 49.16, 50.1-50.4, 50.6-50.7, 50.16-50.18, 50.22, 50.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 40.3.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.152-4.153, 11.302-11.347, 12.23, 12.137-12.146, 12.154, 12.237, 12.387-12.388, 13.62-13.73, 13.277-13.279, 20.237 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.152. Phineas, a man in other respects better than the rest of the young men, and also one that surpassed his contemporaries in the dignity of his father, (for he was the son of Eleazar the high priest, and the grandson of [Aaron] Moses’s brother,) who was greatly troubled at what was done by Zimri, he resolved in earnest to inflict punishment on him, before his unworthy behavior should grow stronger by impunity, and in order to prevent this transgression from proceeding further, which would happen if the ringleaders were not punished. 4.153. He was of so great magimity, both in strength of mind and body, that when he undertook any very dangerous attempt, he did not leave it off till he overcame it, and got an entire victory. So he came into Zimri’s tent, and slew him with his javelin, and with it he slew Cozbi also 11.302. 2. Now when John had departed this life, his son Jaddua succeeded in the high priesthood. He had a brother, whose name was Manasseh. Now there was one Sanballat, who was sent by Darius, the last king [of Persia], into Samaria. He was a Cutheam by birth; of which stock were the Samaritans also. 11.303. This man knew that the city Jerusalem was a famous city, and that their kings had given a great deal of trouble to the Assyrians, and the people of Celesyria; so that he willingly gave his daughter, whose name was Nicaso, in marriage to Manasseh, as thinking this alliance by marriage would be a pledge and security that the nation of the Jews should continue their good-will to him. 11.304. 1. About this time it was that Philip, king of Macedon, was treacherously assaulted and slain at Egae by Pausanias, the son of Cerastes, who was derived from the family of Oreste 11.305. and his son Alexander succeeded him in the kingdom; who, passing over the Hellespont, overcame the generals of Darius’s army in a battle fought at Granicum. So he marched over Lydia, and subdued Ionia, and overran Caria, and fell upon the places of Pamphylia, as has been related elsewhere. 11.306. 2. But the elders of Jerusalem being very uneasy that the brother of Jaddua the high priest, though married to a foreigner, should be a partner with him in the high priesthood, quarreled with him; 11.307. for they esteemed this man’s marriage a step to such as should be desirous of transgressing about the marriage of [strange] wives, and that this would be the beginning of a mutual society with foreigners 11.308. although the offense of some about marriages, and their having married wives that were not of their own country, had been an occasion of their former captivity, and of the miseries they then underwent; so they commanded Manasseh to divorce his wife, or not to approach the altar 11.309. the high priest himself joining with the people in their indignation against his brother, and driving him away from the altar. Whereupon Manasseh came to his father-in-law, Sanballat, and told him, that although he loved his daughter Nicaso, yet was he not willing to be deprived of his sacerdotal dignity on her account, which was the principal dignity in their nation, and always continued in the same family. 11.311. and he promised that he would do this with the approbation of Darius the king. Manasseh was elevated with these promises, and staid with Sanballat, upon a supposal that he should gain a high priesthood, as bestowed on him by Darius, for it happened that Sanballat was then in years. 11.312. But there was now a great disturbance among the people of Jerusalem, because many of those priests and Levites were entangled in such matches; for they all revolted to Manasseh, and Sanballat afforded them money, and divided among them land for tillage, and habitations also, and all this in order every way to gratify his son-in-law. 11.313. 3. About this time it was that Darius heard how Alexander had passed over the Hellespont, and had beaten his lieutets in the battle at Granicum, and was proceeding further; whereupon he gathered together an army of horse and foot, and determined that he would meet the Macedonians before they should assault and conquer all Asia. 11.314. So he passed over the river Euphrates, and came over Taurus, the Cilician mountain, and at Issus of Cilicia he waited for the enemy, as ready there to give him battle. 11.315. Upon which Sanballat was glad that Darius was come down; and told Manasseh that he would suddenly perform his promises to him, and this as soon as ever Darius should come back, after he had beaten his enemies; for not he only, but all those that were in Asia also, were persuaded that the Macedonians would not so much as come to a battle with the Persians, on account of their multitude. 11.316. But the event proved otherwise than they expected; for the king joined battle with the Macedonians, and was beaten, and lost a great part of his army. His mother also, and his wife and children, were taken captives, and he fled into Persia. 11.317. So Alexander came into Syria, and took Damascus; and when he had obtained Sidon, he besieged Tyre, when he sent an epistle to the Jewish high priest, to send him some auxiliaries, and to supply his army with provisions; and that what presents he formerly sent to Darius, he would now send to him, and choose the friendship of the Macedonians, and that he should never repent of so doing. 11.318. But the high priest answered the messengers, that he had given his oath to Darius not to bear arms against him; and he said that he would not transgress this while Darius was in the land of the living. Upon hearing this answer, Alexander was very angry; 11.319. and though he determined not to leave Tyre, which was just ready to be taken, yet as soon as he had taken it, he threatened that he would make an expedition against the Jewish high priest, and through him teach all men to whom they must keep their oaths. 11.321. 4. But Sanballat thought he had now gotten a proper opportunity to make his attempt, so he renounced Darius, and taking with him seven thousand of his own subjects, he came to Alexander; and finding him beginning the siege of Tyre, he said to him, that he delivered up to him these men, who came out of places under his dominion, and did gladly accept of him for his lord instead of Darius. 11.322. So when Alexander had received him kindly, Sanballat thereupon took courage, and spake to him about his present affair. He told him that he had a son-in-law, Manasseh, who was brother to the high priest Jaddua; and that there were many others of his own nation, now with him, that were desirous to have a temple in the places subject to him; 11.323. that it would be for the king’s advantage to have the strength of the Jews divided into two parts, lest when the nation is of one mind, and united, upon any attempt for innovation, it prove troublesome to kings, as it had formerly proved to the kings of Assyria. 11.324. Whereupon Alexander gave Sanballat leave so to do, who used the utmost diligence, and built the temple, and made Manasseh the priest, and deemed it a great reward that his daughter’s children should have that dignity; 11.325. but when the seven months of the siege of Tyre were over, and the two months of the siege of Gaza, Sanballat died. Now Alexander, when he had taken Gaza, made haste to go up to Jerusalem; 11.326. and Jaddua the high priest, when he heard that, was in an agony, and under terror, as not knowing how he should meet the Macedonians, since the king was displeased at his foregoing disobedience. He therefore ordained that the people should make supplications, and should join with him in offering sacrifice to God, whom he besought to protect that nation, and to deliver them from the perils that were coming upon them; 11.327. whereupon God warned him in a dream, which came upon him after he had offered sacrifice, that he should take courage, and adorn the city, and open the gates; that the rest should appear in white garments, but that he and the priests should meet the king in the habits proper to their order, without the dread of any ill consequences, which the providence of God would prevent. 11.328. Upon which, when he rose from his sleep, he greatly rejoiced, and declared to all the warning he had received from God. According to which dream he acted entirely, and so waited for the coming of the king. 11.329. 5. And when he understood that he was not far from the city, he went out in procession, with the priests and the multitude of the citizens. The procession was venerable, and the manner of it different from that of other nations. It reached to a place called Sapha, which name, translated into Greek, signifies a prospect, for you have thence a prospect both of Jerusalem and of the temple. 11.331. for Alexander, when he saw the multitude at a distance, in white garments, while the priests stood clothed with fine linen, and the high priest in purple and scarlet clothing, with his mitre on his head, having the golden plate whereon the name of God was engraved, he approached by himself, and adored that name, and first saluted the high priest. 11.332. The Jews also did all together, with one voice, salute Alexander, and encompass him about; whereupon the kings of Syria and the rest were surprised at what Alexander had done, and supposed him disordered in his mind. 11.333. However, Parmenio alone went up to him, and asked him how it came to pass that, when all others adored him, he should adore the high priest of the Jews? To whom he replied, “I did not adore him, but that God who hath honored him with his high priesthood; 11.334. for I saw this very person in a dream, in this very habit, when I was at Dios in Macedonia, who, when I was considering with myself how I might obtain the dominion of Asia, exhorted me to make no delay, but boldly to pass over the sea thither, for that he would conduct my army, and would give me the dominion over the Persians; 11.335. whence it is that, having seen no other in that habit, and now seeing this person in it, and remembering that vision, and the exhortation which I had in my dream, I believe that I bring this army under the divine conduct, and shall therewith conquer Darius, and destroy the power of the Persians, and that all things will succeed according to what is in my own mind.” 11.336. And when he had said this to Parmenio, and had given the high priest his right hand, the priests ran along by him, and he came into the city. And when he went up into the temple, he offered sacrifice to God, according to the high priest’s direction, and magnificently treated both the high priest and the priests. 11.337. And when the Book of Daniel was showed him wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that himself was the person intended. And as he was then glad, he dismissed the multitude for the present; but the next day he called them to him, and bid them ask what favors they pleased of him; 11.338. whereupon the high priest desired that they might enjoy the laws of their forefathers, and might pay no tribute on the seventh year. He granted all they desired. And when they entreated him that he would permit the Jews in Babylon and Media to enjoy their own laws also, he willingly promised to do hereafter what they desired. 11.339. And when he said to the multitude, that if any of them would enlist themselves in his army, on this condition, that they should continue under the laws of their forefathers, and live according to them, he was willing to take them with him, many were ready to accompany him in his wars. 11.341. for such is the disposition of the Samaritans, as we have already elsewhere declared, that when the Jews are in adversity, they deny that they are of kin to them, and then they confess the truth; but when they perceive that some good fortune hath befallen them, they immediately pretend to have communion with them, saying that they belong to them, and derive their genealogy from the posterity of Joseph, Ephraim, and Manasseh. 11.342. Accordingly, they made their address to the king with splendor, and showed great alacrity in meeting him at a little distance from Jerusalem. And when Alexander had commended them, the Shechemites approached to him, taking with them the troops that Sanballat had sent him, and they desired that he would come to their city, and do honor to their temple also; 11.343. to whom he promised, that when he returned he would come to them. And when they petitioned that he would remit the tribute of the seventh year to them, because they did not sow thereon, he asked who they were that made such a petition; 11.344. and when they said that they were Hebrews, but had the name of Sidonians, living at Shechem, he asked them again whether they were Jews; and when they said they were not Jews, “It was to the Jews,” said he, “that I granted that privilege; however, when I return, and am thoroughly informed by you of this matter, I will do what I shall think proper.” And in this manner he took leave of the Shechenlites; 11.345. but ordered that the troops of Sanballat should follow him into Egypt, because there he designed to give them lands, which he did a little after in Thebais, when he ordered them to guard that country. 11.346. 7. Now when Alexander was dead, the government was parted among his successors, but the temple upon Mount Gerizzim remained. And if any one were accused by those of Jerusalem of having eaten things common or of having broken the Sabbath, or of any other crime of the like nature 11.347. he fled away to the Shechemites, and said that he was accused unjustly. About this time it was that Jaddua the high priest died, and Onias his son took the high priesthood. This was the state of the affairs of the people of Jerusalem at this time. 12.23. And know this further, that though I be not of kin to them by birth, nor one of the same country with them, yet do I desire these favors to be done them, since all men are the workmanship of God; and I am sensible that he is well-pleased with those that do good. I do therefore put up this petition to thee, to do good to them.” 12.23. He also erected a strong castle, and built it entirely of white stone to the very roof, and had animals of a prodigious magnitude engraven upon it. He also drew round it a great and deep canal of water. 12.137. This it is which Polybius relates. But we will return to the series of the history, when we have first produced the epistles of king Antiochus: 12.138. “King Antiochus To Ptolemy, Sendeth Greeting. /p“Since the Jews, upon our first entrance on their country, demonstrated their friendship towards us, and when we came to their city [Jerusalem], received us in a splendid manner, and came to meet us with their senate, and gave abundance of provisions to our soldiers, and to the elephants, and joined with us in ejecting the garrison of the Egyptians that were in the citadel 12.139. we have thought fit to reward them, and to retrieve the condition of their city, which hath been greatly depopulated by such accidents as have befallen its inhabitants, and to bring those that have been scattered abroad back to the city. 12.141. And these payments I would have fully paid them, as I have sent orders to you. I would also have the work about the temple finished, and the cloisters, and if there be any thing else that ought to be rebuilt. And for the materials of wood, let it be brought them out of Judea itself and out of the other countries, and out of Libanus tax free; and the same I would have observed as to those other materials which will be necessary, in order to render the temple more glorious; 12.142. and let all of that nation live according to the laws of their own country; and let the senate, and the priests, and the scribes of the temple, and the sacred singers, be discharged from poll-money and the crown tax and other taxes also. 12.143. And that the city may the sooner recover its inhabitants, I grant a discharge from taxes for three years to its present inhabitants, and to such as shall come to it, until the month Hyperberetus. 12.144. We also discharge them for the future from a third part of their taxes, that the losses they have sustained may be repaired. And all those citizens that have been carried away, and are become slaves, we grant them and their children their freedom, and give order that their substance be restored to them.” 12.145. 4. And these were the contents of this epistle. He also published a decree through all his kingdom in honor of the temple, which contained what follows: “It shall be lawful for no foreigner to come within the limits of the temple round about; which thing is forbidden also to the Jews, unless to those who, according to their own custom, have purified themselves. 12.146. Nor let any flesh of horses, or of mules, or of asses, he brought into the city, whether they be wild or tame; nor that of leopards, or foxes, or hares; and, in general, that of any animal which is forbidden for the Jews to eat. Nor let their skins be brought into it; nor let any such animal be bred up in the city. Let them only be permitted to use the sacrifices derived from their forefathers, with which they have been obliged to make acceptable atonements to God. And he that transgresseth any of these orders, let him pay to the priests three thousand drachmae of silver.” 12.154. 1. After this Antiochus made a friendship and league with Ptolemy, and gave him his daughter Cleopatra to wife, and yielded up to him Celesyria, and Samaria, and Judea, and Phoenicia, by way of dowry. 12.237. 1. About this time, upon the death of Onias the high priest, they gave the high priesthood to Jesus his brother; for that son which Onias left [or Onias IV.] was yet but an infant; and, in its proper place, we will inform the reader of all the circumstances that befell this child. 12.387. Now as to Onias, the son of the high priest, who, as we before informed you, was left a child when his father died, when he saw that the king had slain his uncle Menelaus, and given the high priesthood to Alcimus, who was not of the high priest stock, but was induced by Lysias to translate that dignity from his family to another house, he fled to Ptolemy, king of Egypt; 12.388. and when he found he was in great esteem with him, and with his wife Cleopatra, he desired and obtained a place in the Nomus of Heliopolis, wherein he built a temple like to that at Jerusalem; of which therefore we shall hereafter give an account, in a place more proper for it. 13.62. 1. But then the son of Onias the high priest, who was of the same name with his father, and who fled to king Ptolemy, who was called Philometor, lived now at Alexandria, as we have said already. When this Onias saw that Judea was oppressed by the Macedonians and their kings 13.63. out of a desire to purchase to himself a memorial and eternal fame he resolved to send to king Ptolemy and queen Cleopatra, to ask leave of them that he might build a temple in Egypt like to that at Jerusalem, and might ordain Levites and priests out of their own stock. 13.64. The chief reason why he was desirous so to do, was, that he relied upon the prophet Isaiah, who lived above six hundred years before, and foretold that there certainly was to be a temple built to Almighty God in Egypt by a man that was a Jew. Onias was elevated with this prediction, and wrote the following epistle to Ptolemy and Cleopatra: 13.65. “Having done many and great things for you in the affairs of the war, by the assistance of God, and that in Celesyria and Phoenicia, I came at length with the Jews to Leontopolis, and to other places of your nation 13.66. where I found that the greatest part of your people had temples in an improper manner, and that on this account they bare ill-will one against another, which happens to the Egyptians by reason of the multitude of their temples, and the difference of opinions about divine worship. Now I found a very fit place in a castle that hath its name from the country Diana; this place is full of materials of several sorts, and replenished with sacred animals; 13.67. I desire therefore that you will grant me leave to purge this holy place, which belongs to no master, and is fallen down, and to build there a temple to Almighty God, after the pattern of that in Jerusalem, and of the same dimensions, that may be for the benefit of thyself, and thy wife and children, that those Jews which dwell in Egypt may have a place whither they may come and meet together in mutual harmony one with another, and he subservient to thy advantages; 13.68. for the prophet Isaiah foretold that, ‘there should be an altar in Egypt to the Lord God;’” and many other such things did he prophesy relating to that place. 13.69. 2. And this was what Onias wrote to king Ptolemy. Now any one may observe his piety, and that of his sister and wife Cleopatra, by that epistle which they wrote in answer to it; for they laid the blame and the transgression of the law upon the head of Onias. And this was their reply: 13.71. But since thou sayest that Isaiah the prophet foretold this long ago, we give thee leave to do it, if it may be done according to your law, and so that we may not appear to have at all offended God herein.” 13.72. 3. So Onias took the place, and built a temple, and an altar to God, like indeed to that in Jerusalem, but smaller and poorer. I do not think it proper for me now to describe its dimensions or its vessels, which have been already described in my seventh book of the Wars of the Jews. 13.73. However, Onias found other Jews like to himself, together with priests and Levites, that there performed divine service. But we have said enough about this temple. 13.277. who came readily to their assistance, but was beaten by Aristobulus; and when he was pursued as far as Scythopolis by the two brethren, he got away. So they returned to Samaria, and shut them again within the wall, till they were forced to send for the same Antiochus a second time to help them 13.278. who procured about six thousand men from Ptolemy Lathyrus, which were sent them without his mother’s consent, who had then in a manner turned him out of his government. With these Egyptians Antiochus did at first overrun and ravage the country of Hyrcanus after the manner of a robber, for he durst not meet him in the face to fight with him, as not having an army sufficient for that purpose, but only from this supposal, that by thus harassing his land he should force Hyrcanus to raise the siege of Samaria; 13.279. but because he fell into snares, and lost many of his soldiers therein, he went away to Tripoli, and committed the prosecution of the war against the Jews to Callimander and Epicrates. 20.237. but as for that temple which was built in Egypt, we have spoken of it frequently already. Now when Jacimus had retained the priesthood three years, he died, and there was no one that succeeded him, but the city continued seven years without a high priest.
16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.33, 1.65, 7.423 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.33. But Onias, the high priest, fled to Ptolemy, and received a place from him in the Nomus of Heliopolis, where he built a city resembling Jerusalem, and a temple that was like its temple, concerning which we shall speak more in its proper place hereafter. 1.33. He also made an immediate and continual attack upon the fortress. Yet was he forced, by a most terrible storm, to pitch his camp in the neighboring villages before he could take it. But when, after a few days’ time, the second legion, that came from Antony, joined themselves to him, the enemy were affrighted at his power, and left their fortifications in the nighttime. 1.65. They also invited Antiochus, who was called Cyzicenus, to come to their assistance; whereupon he got ready, and complied with their invitation, but was beaten by Aristobulus and Antigonus; and indeed he was pursued as far as Scythopolis by these brethren, and fled away from them. So they returned back to Samaria, and shut the multitude again within the wall; and when they had taken the city, they demolished it, and made slaves of its inhabitants. 1.65. for it was unlawful there should be any such thing in the temple as images, or faces, or the like representation of any animal whatsoever. Now the king had put up a golden eagle over the great gate of the temple, which these learned men exhorted them to cut down; and told them, that if there should any danger arise, it was a glorious thing to die for the laws of their country; because that the soul was immortal, and that an eternal enjoyment of happiness did await such as died on that account; while the mean-spirited, and those that were not wise enough to show a right love of their souls, preferred death by a disease, before that which is the result of a virtuous behavior. 7.423. Onias, the son of Simon, one of the Jewish high priests, fled from Antiochus the king of Syria, when he made war with the Jews, and came to Alexandria; and as Ptolemy received him very kindly, on account of his hatred to Antiochus, he assured him, that if he would comply with his proposal, he would bring all the Jews to his assistance;
17. Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.5. One must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"
18. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. How was the priestly blessing [pronounced]?In the province (outside of the Temple) it was said as three blessings, but in the Temple as one blessing. In the Temple the name was uttered as it is written, but in the province in its substituted name. In the province the priests raise their hands at the height of their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest who does not raise his hands higher than the frontlet (on his forehead). Rabbi Judah says: even the high priest raises his hands higher than the frontlet, as it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)."
19. Mishnah, Tamid, 7.1-7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. When the high priest went in to bow down, three priests supported him, one by his right and one by his left and one by the precious stones. When the superintendent heard the sound of the footsteps of the high priest as he was about to go out [from the Sanctuary], he raised the curtain for him. He went in, bowed down and went out, and then his fellow priests went in and bowed down and went out." 7.2. They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)." 7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen."
20. Mishnah, Shekalim, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. What did they do with the appropriation? They bring with it the daily burnt-offerings (tamidim) and the additional burnt-offerings (musafim) and their libations, the omer and the two loaves and the showbread and all the other public offerings. Those who guard the aftergrowths of the seventh year take their wages out of the appropriation from the chamber. Rabbi Yose says: [if a man wished] he could volunteer to watch without payment. But they said to him: you too admit that they can only be offered out of public funds."
21. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page [of Torah]? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \"The Lord is righteous\" (Exodus 9:27)."
22. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.1-5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.1. For every high priest, being taken from among men, is appointed for men in things pertaining to God, that he may offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins. 5.2. The high priest can deal gently with those who are ignorant and going astray, because he himself is also surrounded with weakness. 5.3. Because of this, he must offer sacrifices for sins for the people, as well as for himself. 5.4. Nobody takes this honor on himself, but he is called by God, just like Aaron was. 5.5. So also Christ didn't glorify himself to be made a high priest, but it was he who said to him, "You are my Son. Today I have become your father. 5.6. As he says also in another place, "You are a priest forever, After the order of Melchizedek. 5.7. He, in the days of his flesh, having offered up prayers and petitions with strong crying and tears to him who was able to save him from death, and having been heard for his godly fear 5.8. though he was a Son, yet learned obedience by the things which he suffered. 5.9. Having been made perfect, he became to all of those who obey him the author of eternal salvation 5.10. named by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek.
23. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 43, 39 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

25. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

50a. כאיסורו מה איסורו בכזית אף חזרתו בכזית,תניא ר' נתן אומר זה וזה כשתי ביצים ולא הודו לו חכמים,(זכריה יד, ו) והיה ביום ההוא לא יהיה אור יקרות וקפאון מאי יקרות וקפאון,א"ר אלעזר זה אור שיקר בעולם הזה וקפוי לעולם הבא,ר' יוחנן אמר אלו נגעים ואהלות שיקרין הן בעוה"ז וקפויין הן לעולם הבא,ור' יהושע בן לוי אמר אלו בני אדם שיקרין הן בעולם הזה וקפויין הן לעוה"ב כי הא דרב יוסף בריה דר' יהושע בן לוי חלש ואיתנגיד כי הדר אמר ליה אבוה מאי חזית אמר ליה עולם הפוך ראיתי עליונים למטה ותחתונים למעלה אמר לו בני עולם ברור ראית ואנן היכי התם כי היכי דאיתו אנן הכא הכי איתינן התם,ושמעתי שהיו אומרים אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו ושמעתי שהיו אומרים הרוגי מלכות אין אדם יכול לעמוד במחיצתן,(ומאן) נינהו אילימא ר"ע וחביריו משום הרוגי מלכות ותו לא אלא הרוגי לוד,(זכריה יד, כ) ביום ההוא יהיה על מצלות הסוס קדש לה' מאי מצלות הסוס,א"ר יהושע בן לוי עתיד הקב"ה להוסיף על ירושלים עד שהסוס רץ ומציל,ר' אלעזר אמר כל מצילות שתולין לסוס בין עיניו יהיה קדש לה',ור' יוחנן אמר כל ביזה שבוזזין ישראל עד שעה שהסוס רץ ומציל יהיה קדש לה',בשלמא למאן דאמר כל ביזה שבזזו ישראל היינו דכתיב (זכריה יד, כ) והיה הסירות בבית ה' כמזרקים לפני המזבח אלא למ"ד בהנך תרתי מאי והיה הסירות בבית ה' מילתא אחריתי קאמר דמתעתרי ישראל ומתנדבי ומייתי,בשלמא למ"ד ביזה היינו דכתיב (זכריה יד, כא) ולא יהיה כנעני עוד בבית ה' צבאות אלא למ"ד הנך תרתי מאי ולא יהיה כנעני א"ר ירמיה אין כאן עני,וכנעני מנלן דאיקרי תגר דכתיב (בראשית לח, ב) וירא שם יהודה בת איש כנעני מאי כנעני אילימא כנעני ממש אפשר בא אברהם והזהיר את יצחק בא יצחק והזהיר את יעקב ויהודה אזיל ונסיב אלא אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש בת גברא תגרא דכתיב (הושע יב, ח) כנען בידו מאזני מרמה ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כג, ח) אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ:,(זכריה יד, ט) והיה ה' למלך על כל הארץ ביום ההוא יהיה ה' אחד ושמו אחד אטו האידנא לאו אחד הוא,אמר רבי אחא בר חנינא לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה על בשורות טובות אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב ועל בשורות רעות אומר ברוך דיין האמת לעולם הבא כולו הטוב והמטיב,ושמו אחד מאי אחד אטו האידנא לאו שמו אחד הוא,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה נכתב ביו"ד ה"י ונקרא באל"ף דל"ת אבל לעולם הבא כולו אחד נקרא ביו"ד ה"י ונכתב ביו"ד ה"י,סבר רבא למדרשה בפירקא א"ל ההוא סבא לעלם כתיב,ר' אבינא רמי כתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי לעלם וזה זכרי לדור דור אמר הקב"ה לא כשאני נכתב אני נקרא נכתב אני ביו"ד ה"א ונקרא אני באל"ף דל"ת:, br br big strongהדרן עלך אלו עוברין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמקום /strong /big שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בערבי פסחים עד חצות עושין מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות אין עושין ההולך ממקום שעושין למקום שאין עושין או ממקום שאין עושין למקום שעושין נותנין עליו חומרי מקום שיצא משם וחומרי מקום שהלך לשם 50a. bis analogous to its prohibition. Just as its prohibition isonly when it is the size of an bolive-bulk, so too,the requirement to breturn it isonly when it is the size of an bolive-bulk. /b,Another opinion on this issue bwas taughtin a ibaraita /i. bRabbi Natan says:The minimum measure for both bthis and that,leaven and sacrificial meat, is btwo egg-bulksof prohibited material, bbut the Rabbis did not agree with him. /b,Incidental to the discussion of leaving Jerusalem and its surrounding area, the Gemara cites expositions of a prophetic passage, including a statement that God will eventually expand the boundaries of Jerusalem. The verse states: b“And it shall come to pass on that day that there shall not be light,but bheavy clouds [ iyekarot /i] and thickness [ ivekippaon /i]”(Zechariah 14:6). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression b“ iyekarot vekippaon /i”? /b, bRabbi Elazar said: This isthe blightcurrently provided by the sun, bwhich is significant[iyakar /i] in this world and insignificant[ikafuy /i] in the World-to-Come,when the moon will shine as brightly as the sun does now and the sun will be seven times brighter than it is currently., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Thisexpression refers to the tractates of iNega’imand iOholot /i, which are weighty [ iyekarim /i]owing to their difficulty bin this world,as they are among the most complex subjects, bbutwill be beasy [ ikefuyin /i] in the World-to-Come,when people will be much wiser., bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: These are people who areconsidered bimportant [ iyekarim /i] in this world and unimportant[ikefuyim /i] in the World-to-Come.This is blikethe incident involving bRav Yosef, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,who bbecame ill andwas about to bexpire. When he returnedto good health, bhis father said to him: What did you seewhen you were about to die? bHe said to him: I saw an inverted world. Those above,i.e., those who are considered important in this world, were bbelow,insignificant, while bthose below,i.e., those who are insignificant in this world, were babove. He said to him: My son, you have seen a clear world.The world you have seen is the true world, as in that world people’s standings befit them. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: bAnd where are we,the Torah scholars, bthere?Rav Yosef responded: bJust as we areregarded bhere, so are weregarded bthere. /b,Rav Yosef added: bAnd I heard that they were sayingin that world: bPraiseworthy is the one who arrives here with his studies in hand. And Ialso bheard that they were saying: Those executed by the governmentenjoy such an exalted status that bno one can stand in their enclosure. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd who are thesemartyrs that Rav Yosef was referring to? bIf you saythat he was referring to bRabbi Akiva and his colleagues,who were martyred, this cannot be: Is their elevated status bdueonly btothe fact that bthey were martyred bythe Roman bgovernment and nothing more?These men were exceptional in their piety and sanctity during their lives as well. bRather,it is referring to bthe martyrs of Lod,Pappos and Luliyanos, who gave themselves up to be martyred for the sake of the Jewish people. They falsely admitted to killing the king’s daughter in order to prevent a harsh decree from being issued against the entire community. Although they were not known for exceptional piety before that event, they are considered to be extremely holy due to their martyrdom.,The Gemara continues to expound the section of the book of Zechariah cited above. The verse states: b“On that day there shall be upon the bells of the horses [ imetzillot hasus /i]: Holy unto the Lord”(Zechariah 14:20). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression imetzillot hasus /i? /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In the future the Holy One, Blessed be He, will extend Jerusalemby bas much asthe distance that ba horse can runthe entire time bit casts a shadow [ imetzeil /i].Jerusalem will be so large that a horse running from one side of the city in the morning will not arrive at the other end of the city until midday, when its shadow will have disappeared., bRabbi Elazar said: Alldecorative bbells [ imetzillot /i] that one hangs between the eyes of a horse will be sanctified to God,i.e., they will be consecrated for the Temple treasury., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: All spoils that the Jewish peoplewill btakefrom gentiles who wage war against them, bup to the time a horse runs and casts a shadow [ imetzeil /i],i.e., half a day, bwill be sanctified for God. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat this expression refers to ball spoils that the Jewish peoplewill btake, this is as it is writtenin the continuation of the verse, which mentions additional treasure donated to the Temple: b“And the pots in the Lord’s house shall be like the basins before the altar.” However, according to the ones who said theseother btwoexplanations, bwhatis the meaning of: b“And the pots in the Lord’s house”?The Gemara explains that according to these opinions the verse bis saying something else:It is prophesying that in the future bthe Jewish people will become wealthy and bring donationsto the Temple.,The Gemara goes on to ask: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat this expression refers to bspoils, this is as it is writtenin the next verse: b“Andon that day bthere shall no longer be a merchant [ ikena’ani /i] in the house of the Lord of hosts”(Zechariah 14:21), as he will no longer be needed. bHowever, according to the ones who said theseother btwoexplanations, bwhatis the meaning of the expression: b“There shall no longer be a merchant”? Rabbi Yirmeya said:The word ikena’aniis in fact a contraction of the phrase: bThere is no poor person here [ iein kan ani /i].In other words, there will no longer be poor people, and therefore the Jews themselves will be able to donate whatever is needed in the Temple (Maharsha)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat a merchant can be called a ikena’ani /i? As it is written: “And Judah saw there the daughter of a certain ikena’ani /i… /band he took her, and went in unto her” (Genesis 38:2). bWhat isthe meaning of the word ikena’ani /iin this context? bIf you sayit refers to ban actual Canaanite, is it possible that Abraham warned Isaacnot to marry a Canaanite woman, and bIsaac warned Jacobto the same effect, bandnonetheless bJudah went and marrieda Canaanite woman? bRather, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:She was bthe daughter of a merchant, as it is written: “As for the merchant [ ikena’an /i], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He lovesto oppress” (Hosea 12:8). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that this meaning of the word can be understood from the following verse, which describes Tyre: b“Whose traders are princes, whose merchants [ ikieha /i] are the honorable of the earth”(Isaiah 23:8).,The Gemara cites another verse from the prophecy at the end of the book of Zechariah: b“And the Lord shall be King over all the earth, on that day shall the Lord be one and His name one”(Zechariah 14:9). The Gemara asks: bIs that to say that now He is not one? /b, bRabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina said: The World-to-Come is not like this world.In bthis world, upon good tidings one recites: Blessed…Who is good and does good, and over bad tidings one recites: Blessed…the true Judge. In the World-to-Comeone will balwaysrecite: bBlessed…Who is good and does good.There will be only one mode of blessing God for tidings.,The verse states: “On that day shall the Lord be one band His name one.”The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the word bonein this context? bIs that to say that now His name is not one? /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The World-to-Come is not like this world. In this world,God’s name that bis written withthe letters iyod /iand ihehis readas iAdonai /i, which begins with the letters ialef /iand idalet /i.God’s name is not pronounced in the same way as it is written. bHowever, in the World-to-Come it will all be one,as God’s name will be both bread withthe letters iyod /iand ihehand written withthe letters iyod /iand iheh /i. /b, bRava thought to expoundupon the correct punctuation and enunciation of the name of God during his public blecturebefore one of the Festivals. bA certain old man said to him:The word bforever is writtenin the verse: “This is My name forever [ ile’olam /i]” (Exodus 3:15) without the letter ivav /i, such that it can be read ile’alem /i, to conceal, meaning that the name should be concealed., bRabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is writtenin the verse: b“This is My name forever,”implying a requirement to conceal the name of God, and in the very next phrase it states: b“And this is My memorial unto all generations”(Exodus 3:15), which indicates that the name of God is to be publicized and remembered by all. Rather, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I,i.e., My name, is bnot read as I am written. I am written withthe letters iyod /iand iheh /i, and I am read withthe letters ialef /iand idalet /i. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong In ba place wherethe people were baccustomed to perform labor on Passover eve until midday, onemay bdoso on that day. In ba place wherethe people were baccustomed not to performlabor, bonemay bnot doso. The performance of labor on the eve of Passover is not prohibited by Torah law, but is dependent on local custom. If one btravels from a place wherepeople bperformlabor on Passover eve bto a place wherepeople bdo not performlabor, bor from a place wherepeople bdo not performlabor on Passover eve bto a place wherepeople bperformlabor, the Sages bimpose upon him the stringencies ofboth bthe place from which he left and the stringencies of the place to which he went.In both cases, he may not perform labor.
26. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

71a. מטהר שבטים שבטו של לוי מטהר תחילה שנא' (מלאכי ג, ג) וישב מצרף ומטהר כסף וטיהר את בני לוי וזיקק אותם כזהב וככסף והיו לי"י מגישי מנחה בצדקה,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כסף מטהר ממזרים שנאמר וישב מצרף ומטהר כסף מאי מגישי מנחה בצדקה א"ר יצחק צדקה עשה הקב"ה עם ישראל שמשפחה שנטמעה נטמעה,גופא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל ארצות עיסה לארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל עיסה לבבל בימי רבי בקשו לעשות בבל עיסה לארץ ישראל אמר להן קוצים אתם משימים לי בין עיני רצונכם יטפל עמכם ר' חנינא בר חמא,נטפל עמהם ר' חנינא בר חמא אמר להם כך מקובלני מר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי שאמר משום אביו כל ארצות עיסה לארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל עיסה לבבל,בימי רבי פנחס בקשו לעשות בבל עיסה לארץ ישראל אמר להם לעבדיו כשאני אומר שני דברים בבית המדרש טלוני בעריסה ורוצו כי עייל אמר להם אין שחיטה לעוף מן התורה,אדיתבי וקמעייני בה אמר להו כל ארצות עיסה לארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל עיסה לבבל נטלוהו בעריסה ורצו רצו אחריו ולא הגיעוהו ישבו ובדקו עד שהגיעו לסכנה ופירשו,א"ר יוחנן היכלא בידינו היא אבל מה אעשה שהרי גדולי הדור נטמעו בה סבר לה כר' יצחק דאמר ר' יצחק משפחה שנטמעה נטמעה,אמר אביי אף אנן נמי תנינא משפחת בית הצריפה היתה בעבר הירדן וריחקה בן ציון בזרוע עוד אחרת היתה וקירבה בן ציון בזרוע כגון אלו אליהו בא לטמא ולטהר לרחק ולקרב כגון אלו דידעין אבל משפחה שנטמעה נטמעה,תאנא עוד אחרת היתה ולא רצו חכמים לגלותה אבל חכמים מוסרים אותו לבניהם ולתלמידיהן פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעמים בשבוע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כמאן דאמר פעם אחת בשבוע כדתניא הריני נזיר אם לא אגלה משפחות יהיה נזיר ולא יגלה משפחות,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן שם בן ארבע אותיות חכמים מוסרין אותו לתלמידיהן פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעמים בשבוע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כמאן דאמר פעם אחת בשבוע דכתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי לעולם לעלם כתיב רבא סבר למידרשיה בפירקא א"ל ההוא סבא לעלם כתיב,רבי אבינא רמי כתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי וכתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה זכרי אמר הקב"ה לא כשאני נכתב אני נקרא נכתב אני ביו"ד ה"י ונקרא באל"ף דל"ת,ת"ר בראשונה שם בן שתים עשרה אותיות היו מוסרין אותו לכל אדם משרבו הפריצים היו מוסרים אותו לצנועים שבכהונה והצנועים שבכהונה מבליעים אותו בנעימת אחיהם הכהנים תניא אמר רבי טרפון פעם אחת עליתי אחר אחי אמי לדוכן והטיתי אזני אצל כהן גדול ושמעתי שהבליע שם בנעימת אחיו הכהנים,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שם בן ארבעים ושתים אותיות אין מוסרין אותו אלא למי שצנוע ועניו ועומד בחצי ימיו ואינו כועס ואינו משתכר ואינו מעמיד על מדותיו וכל היודעו והזהיר בו והמשמרו בטהרה אהוב למעלה ונחמד למטה ואימתו מוטלת על הבריות ונוחל שני עולמים העולם הזה והעולם הבא,אמר שמואל משמיה דסבא בבל בחזקת כשרה עומדת עד שיודע לך במה נפסלה שאר ארצות בחזקת פסול הן עומדות עד שיודע לך במה נכשרה ארץ ישראל מוחזק לפסול פסול מוחזק לכשר כשר,הא גופא קשיא אמרת מוחזק לפסול פסול הא סתמא כשר והדר תני מוחזק לכשר כשר הא סתמא פסול אמר רב הונא בר תחליפא משמיה דרב לא קשיא 71a. bpurifiesthe btribes,i.e., clarifies their lineage, He will bpurifythat of bthe tribe of Levi first, as it is statedwith regard to the angel sent forth by God: b“And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver; and there shall be they that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousness”(Malachi 3:3)., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Money purifies imamzerim /i.Money causes rich imamzerimto become assimilated with Jews of unflawed lineage, since other families marry them despite their flawed lineage. In the future, God will not single them out as imamzerim /i, bas it is stated: “And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver,”which teaches that money, i.e., silver, purifies them. bWhat,then, is the connection to the next part of the verse: b“They that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousness”? Rabbi Yitzḥak says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, performedan act of brighteousness with the Jewish peopleby establishing bthat a family that has become assimilatedwith Jews of unflawed lineage remains bassimilated.They are not removed from their tribe despite their flawed lineage.,§ With regard to bthematter bitselfthat was discussed earlier, the lineage of the Jews in various lands, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The lineage of residents of ball lands is muddledcompared btothat of the residents of bEretz Yisrael, andthe lineage of residents of bEretz Yisrael is muddledcompared btothat of bBabylonia.The Gemara relates: bIn the days of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bthey sought to establishthe lineage of the Jews in bBabyloniaas bmuddledrelative btothat of bEretz Yisrael.In other words, the people of Eretz Yisrael wanted their lineage to be considered superior to that of the residents of Babylonia, so that if people from Eretz Yisrael would wish to marry Babylonians, they would have to investigate the lineage of the Babylonians. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was descended from Hillel, a Babylonian, so bhe said tothose who put forth this suggestion: bAre you placing thorns between my eyes?Do you wish to insult me? bIf you wish, Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama will join youand explain it to you., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama joined themand bsaid to them: Thisis the tradition that bI received from Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who says in the name of his father,who was from Eretz Yisrael: The lineage of residents of ball lands is muddledcompared btothat of bEretz Yisrael, andthe lineage of residents of bEretz Yisrael is muddledcompared btothat of bBabylonia. /b,The Gemara further relates with regard to the same issue: bIn the days of Rabbi Pineḥas, they sought to establishthe lineage of bBabyloniaas bmuddledrelative btothat of bEretz Yisrael. He said to his servants: When I have said two statements in the house of study, pick me up on a stretcher and run,so that I will not be attacked for my statements. bWhen he enteredthe house of study bhe said tothose studying there: bSlaughter of a bird is notobligatory bby Torah law. /b, bWhile they were sitting and scrutinizing thisnovel ihalakha /i, bhe said to them:The lineage of residents of ball lands is muddledcompared btothat of bEretz Yisrael, andthe lineage of residents of bEretz Yisrael is muddledcompared btothat of bBabylonia.His servants bpicked him up on a stretcher and ran.Those that were in the house of study bpursued him but could not catch him.Nevertheless, bthey sat and examinedthe lineage of various families in order to determine whether in fact the lineage of the residents of Eretz Yisrael was problematic, buntil they reachedpowerful families. It was bdangerousto accuse them of flaws due to their power, band they withdrewfrom their inspections., bRabbi Yoḥa saysas an oath: By the bSanctuary! It is in our powerto reveal the identity of a family that has a flawed lineage, bbut what can I do, as the greatest of the generation are assimilated into it?Consequently, I will not reveal its name. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Yoḥa bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak says: A family that has become assimilatedremains bassimilated,and one should not reveal their flawed status., bAbaye said: We too learnin the mishna ( iEduyyot8:7): bThere was a familyknown as bBeit HaTzerifa in Transjordan, anda person called bben Tziyyon forcefully distanced itand proclaimed that its lineage was flawed, although its lineage was unflawed. bThere was anotherone bthat ben Tzion forcefully drew near,although its lineage was flawed. The mishna adds: Known families bsuch as these, Elijah comes todeclare bimpure and todeclare bpure, to distance and to draw near.Abaye continues: When the mishna states: bSuch as these,it means those bwhosestatus bwe know. But a family that has become assimilated,whose flawed lineage is unknown to the public, bhasalready bbecome assimilated,and not even Elijah will publicize its flaw.,The Sage btaught( iTosefta /i, iEduyyot3:4): bThere was anotherfamily with flawed lineage, bbut the Sages did not want to reveal itsidentity to all. bBut the Sages transmit itsname bto their children and to their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years,to prevent them from marrying into their family. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who saysthat they transmit it bonce every seven years, as it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iNazir1:2): One who says: bI am hereby a nazirite if I do not revealthe names of bfamiliesof flawed lineage among the Jewish people, bhe should be a nazirite and not revealthe identity of such bfamilies.This shows that such information should be kept secret as much as possible.,§ The above statement, concerning a matter that the Sages transmitted privately and infrequently, leads the Gemara to teach a similar ihalakha /i: bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: The Sages transmitthe correct pronunciation of bthe four-letter nameof God bto their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who saysthat they transmit it bonce every seven years, as it is written: “This is My name forever [ ile’olam /i]”(Exodus 3:15), which is bwrittenso that it can be read ile’alem /i,to hide. This indicates that the Divine Name must remain hidden. The Gemara relates: bRava planned to expoundand explain the proper way to say the name bina public bdiscourse. A certain elder said to him: It is writtenso that it can be read ile’alem /i,indicating that it must stay hidden., bRabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is written: “This is My name,”indicating that the name as written is that of God; band it is written: “This is My remembrance”(Exodus 3:15), which indicates that it is not God’s actual name but merely a way of remembering His name. The explanation is as follows: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Not as I am written am I pronounced. I am written withthe letters iyod /i, iheh /i, ivav /i, iheh /i, bwhileMy name is bpronounced withthe letters ialef /i, idalet /i, inun /i, iyod /i., bThe Sages taught: Initially,the Sages bwould transmit the twelve-letter nameof God bto any person. When the uninhibited oneswho used the name disrespectfully bincreased, they would transmit itonly bto discreetmembers bof the priesthood, and the discreetmembers bof the priesthoodwould pronounce the name during the Priestly Benediction. They would bconceal itby saying it bduring the sweetmelody bof their priestly brothers,so that it would not become publicly known. bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Tarfon,who was himself a priest, bsaid:On bone occasion I ascended after my mother’s brother to the platformto give the Priestly Benediction, band I inclined my ear near the High Priest, and I heard him conceal the name during the sweetmelody bof his priestly brothers. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The forty-two-letter nameof God bmay be transmitted only to one who is discreet, and humble, and stands atat least bhalf his life, and does not get angry, and does not get drunk, and does not insist upon his rightsbut is willing to yield. There is no concern that such a person might reveal the name in a fit of anger or drunkenness. bAnd anyone who knowsthis name band is careful with it and guards it in purity is beloved above and treasured below; and fear of him is cast upon the creatures; and he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come. /b,§ The Gemara returns to the issue of lineage: bShmuel says in the name ofa certain belder:A family in bBabylonia has a presumptive status of unflawedlineage buntil it becomes known to you in what way it wasrendered of bflawedlineage. Conversely, a family from bother lands has a presumptive status of flawedlineage buntil it becomes known to you in what way it wasrendered bunflawed.As for families in bEretz Yisrael,one who bhas a presumptive status of flawedlineage is of bflawedlineage, whereas one who bhas presumptive status of unflawedlineage is of bunflawedlineage.,The Gemara is puzzled by this last statement: bThis matter itself is difficult:First, byou saidthat a family that bhas a presumptive status of flawedlineage is of bflawedlineage, indicating that a family with bunspecifiedstatus is of bunflawedlineage. bAnd thenyou bteach:A family that bhas a presumptive status of unflawedlineage is of bunflawedlineage, indicating that a family with bunspecifiedstatus is of bflawedlineage. bRav Huna bar Taḥalifa said in the name of Rav:This is bnot difficult. /b
27. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. ככתבו ובמדינה בכינויו במדינה כהנים נושאים את ידיהן כנגד כתפיהן ובמקדש על גבי ראשיהן חוץ מכהן גדול שאינו מגביה את ידיו למעלה מן הציץ ר' יהודה אומר אף כהן גדול מגביה ידיו למעלה מן הציץ שנאמר (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן (במדבר ו, כג) כה תברכו בלשון הקודש אתה אומר בלשון הקודש או אינו אלא בכל לשון נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן (דברים כז, יב) אלה יעמדו לברך את העם מה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלשון הקודש,רבי יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר כה עד שיאמרו בלשון הזה,תניא אידך כה תברכו בעמידה אתה אומר בעמידה או אינו אלא אפי' בישיבה נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן אלה יעמדו לברך מה להלן בעמידה אף כאן בעמידה,ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (דברים י, ח) לשרתו ולברך בשמו מה משרת בעמידה אף מברך בעמידה ומשרת גופיה מנלן דכתיב (דברים יח, ה) לעמוד לשרת,תניא אידך כה תברכו בנשיאות כפים אתה אומר בנשיאות כפים או אינו אלא שלא בנשיאות כפים נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם מה להלן בנשיאות כפים אף כאן בנשיאות כפים,קשיא ליה לר' יונתן אי מה להלן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת צבור אף כאן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת ציבור,ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (דברים יח, ה) הוא ובניו כל הימים מקיש בניו לו מה הוא בנשיאות כפים אף בניו בנשיאות כפים וכתיב כל הימים ואיתקש ברכה לשירות,ותניא אידך כה תברכו את בני ישראל בשם המפורש אתה אומר בשם המפורש או אינו אלא בכינוי ת"ל (במדבר ו, כז) ושמו את שמי שמי המיוחד לי,יכול אף בגבולין כן נאמר כאן ושמו את שמי ונאמר להלן (דברים יב, ה) לשום את שמו שם מה להלן בית הבחירה אף כאן בבית הבחירה,רבי יאשיה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (שמות כ, כא) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבוא אליך בכל מקום ס"ד אלא מקרא זה מסורס הוא בכל מקום אשר אבוא אליך וברכתיך שם אזכיר את שמי והיכן אבוא אליך וברכתיך בבית הבחירה שם אזכיר את שמי בבית הבחירה,תניא אידך כה תברכו את בני ישראל אין לי אלא בני ישראל גרים נשים ועבדים משוחררים מנין ת"ל (במדבר ו, כג) אמור להם לכולהו,תניא אידך כה תברכו פנים כנגד פנים אתה אומר פנים כנגד פנים או אינו אלא פנים כנגד עורף ת"ל אמור להם כאדם האומר לחבירו,תניא אידך כה תברכו בקול רם או אינו אלא בלחש ת"ל אמור להם כאדם שאומר לחבירו,אמר אביי נקטינן לשנים קורא כהנים ולא' אינו קורא כהן שנא' אמור להם לשנים ואמר רב חסדא נקטינן כהן קורא כהנים ואין ישראל קורא כהנים שנאמר אמור להם אמירה 38a. bas it is writtenin the Torah, i.e., the Tetragrammaton, band in the countrythey use bits substitute nameof Lordship. bIn the country, the priests lift their handsso they are baligned with their shouldersduring the benediction. bAnd in the Templethey lift them babove their heads, except for the High Priest, who does not lift his hands above the frontplate.Since the Tetragrammaton is inscribed on it, it is inappropriate for him to lift his hands above it. bRabbi Yehuda says: Even the High Priest lifts his hands above the frontplate, as it is stated: “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them”(Leviticus 9:22)., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught:The mitzva given to the priests: b“So you shall blessthe children of Israel” (Numbers 6:23), is that they bless them bin the sacred tongue,Hebrew. Do byou saythat the benediction must be recited bin the sacred tongue, orperhaps it may be recited bin any language?The ibaraitaanswers: bIt is stated here,with regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the blessings and curses: b“These shall standon Mount Gerizim bto bless the people”(Deuteronomy 27:12). There is a verbal analogy between these two usages of the word “bless”: bJust as there,the blessings and curses were recited bin the sacred tongue,as stated above (33a), bso too here,the Priestly Benediction is recited bin the sacred tongue. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says: It is not necessaryto derive this from a verbal analogy, as bit sayswith regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“Thus,”which means that it is not recited correctly bunless they recite it in thisexact blanguage,as it is written in the Torah., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless,”means bwhile standing.Do byou saythat the benediction must be recited bwhile standing, orperhaps it may bevenbe recited bwhile sitting? It is stated here: “So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the blessings and curses: b“These shall standon Mount Gerizim bto bless.” Just as there,the blessing was recited bwhile standing, so too here,the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction bwhile standing. /b, bRabbi Natan says: It is not necessaryto derive this from a verbal analogy, as bit saysin the verse: “At that time the Lord separated the tribe of Levi to bear the Ark of the Covet of the Lord, to stand before the Lord bto minister to Him and to bless in His name”(Deuteronomy 10:8). bJust asa priest bperforms theTemple bservice while standing, so too, he blesses while standing.The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive that bhe performs the service itselfwhile standing? bAs it is written: “To stand to ministerin the name of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 18:5)., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless”means bwith lifted hands.Do byou saythat the priests must recite the benediction bwith lifted hands, orperhaps they may recite it bwithout lifted hands? It is stated here: “So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the dedication of the Tabernacle: b“And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them”(Leviticus 9:22). bJust as there,Aaron blessed the nation bwith lifted hands, so too here,the Priestly Benediction is recited bwith lifted hands. /b,This ihalakhawas bdifficult for Rabbi Yonatan to understand: Ifthis ihalakhais derived from the dedication of the Tabernacle, then why not also say: bJust as there,the bHigh Priestwas the one who recited the blessing, bandit was the bNew Moon, andthe offerings that were brought were ba communal service, so too here,the Priestly Benediction must be recited only by the bHigh Priest, andon the bNew Moon, andwhen performing ba communal service? /b, bRabbi Natan says: It is not necessaryto derive from a verbal analogy that the Priestly Benediction is recited with lifted hands, as bit sayswith regard to Aaron: “To stand to minister in the name of the Lord, bhim and his sons forever”(Deuteronomy 18:5). In this verse, bhis sons are juxtaposed with him. Just asAaron recited the Priestly Benediction bwith lifted hands, so too, his sonsrecite the benediction bwith lifted hands. Andfurthermore, bit is written “forever,”which indicates that it is referring not only to special occasions. bAndalthough the verse is not referring to the Priestly Benediction, the bbenediction is juxtaposed tothe Temple bservicein another verse: “To minister to Him and to bless in His name” (Deuteronomy 10:8)., bAnd it is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless the children of Israel”means the blessing should be recited bwith the ineffable name.Do byou saythat the Priestly Benediction must be recited bwith the ineffable name, orperhaps bit isrecited bwith only the substitute name, iAdonai /i? bThe verse states: “So shall they put My name”(Numbers 6:27), which means bMy name that is unique to Me. /b,One bmighthave thought that beven in the outlying areas,outside the Temple, bthisineffable name is used. bIt is stated here,with regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“So shall they put My name,” and it is stated there,with regard to the place one must sacrifice offerings: “The place that the Lord your God has chosen out of all your tribes bto put His name there”(Deuteronomy 12:5). The verbal analogy teaches that bjust as there,the expression “to put His name there” is referring to bthe Temple, so too here,the mitzva of “so shall they put My name” applies bin the Templeand not anywhere else., bRabbi Yoshiya says: It is not necessaryto derive this ihalakhafrom the verbal analogy, as it can be derived from a verse. bIt saysin the verse: b“In every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come to youand bless you” (Exodus 20:20). Does it benter your mindthat this verse literally means that the Divine Presence will be revealed beverywhere? Rather, this versemust be interpreted by btransposition.It must be reordered and read as follows: bIn every place where I will come to you and bless you, there I will cause My name to be mentioned.Rabbi Yoshiya explains that God is stating: bAnd where will I come to you and bless you? In the Temple.Therefore, he derives: bThere, in the Temple, I will cause My name to be mentioned,but the ineffable name is not mentioned elsewhere., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless the sons of Israel”(Numbers 6:23). bI havederived bonlythe ihalakhato bless bthe sons of Israel. From wheredo I derive the ihalakhaof blessing bconverts, women, and emancipated slaves? The verse statesimmediately afterward: b“You shall say to them,”meaning bto all ofthe Jewish people., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless,”means that the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction bface-to-facewith the congregation. Do byou saythat the Benediction must be recited bface-to-face, orperhaps bit is onlyrecited with the bfacesof the priests bfacing the back of the necksof the congregation? bThe verse states: “You shall say to them,”face-to-face, blike a person who is talking to another. /b, bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless”means that the benediction must be recited bout loud. Or,perhaps, bis itrecited bonly in a whisper? The verse states: “You shall say to them,” like a person who is talking to another. /b, bAbaye said: We have a traditionwith regard to the prayer leader calling the priests to recite the Priestly Benediction: When there are btwopriests, bhe calls: Priests, butwhen there is bonepriest bhe does not call: Priest, as it is stated: “You shall say to them,”in plural, meaning btoa minimum of btwopriests. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: We have a traditionthat ba priest calls: Priests, but an Israelite does not call: Priests, as it is stated: “You shall say to them,”which means that the bsaying /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

69a. וסיפא איצטריכא ליה פושטין ומקפלין ומניחין תחת ראשיהם,פושטין ומקפלין ומניחין אותן תחת ראשיהן שמעת מינה בגדי כהונה ניתנו ליהנות בהן אמר רב פפא לא תימא תחת ראשיהן אלא אימא כנגד ראשיהן אמר רב משרשיא שמעת מינה תפילין מן הצד שפיר דמי,הכי נמי מסתברא דכנגד ראשיהן דאי סלקא דעתך תחת ראשיהן ותיפוק לי משום כלאים דהא איכא אבנט ונהי נמי דניתנו ליהנות בהן הא מתהני מכלאים,הניחא למ"ד אבנטו של כהן גדול (בשאר ימות השנה) זה הוא אבנטו של כהן הדיוט אלא למאן דאמר אבנטו של כ"ג לא זה הוא אבנטו של כהן הדיוט מאי איכא למימר,וכי תימא כלאים בלבישה והעלאה הוא דאסור בהצעה שרי והתניא (ויקרא יט, יט) לא יעלה עליך אבל אתה מותר להציעו תחתיך אבל אמרו חכמים אסור לעשות כן שמא תיכרך נימא אחת על בשרו,וכ"ת דמפסיק ליה מידי ביני ביני והאמר ר"ש בן פזי אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי אמר רבי משום קהלא קדישא שבירושלים אפי' עשר מצעות זו על גב זו וכלאים תחתיהן אסור לישן עליהן אלא לאו שמע מינה כנגד ראשיהן שמע מינה,רב אשי אמר לעולם תחת ראשיהן והא קא מתהני מכלאים בגדי כהונה קשין הן כי הא דאמר רב הונא בריה דר' יהושע האי נמטא גמדא דנרש שריא,ת"ש בגדי כהונה היוצא בהן למדינה אסור ובמקדש בין בשעת עבודה בין שלא בשעת עבודה מותר מפני שבגדי כהונה ניתנו ליהנות בהן ש"מ,ובמדינה לא והתניא בעשרים וחמשה [בטבת] יום הר גרזים [הוא] דלא למספד,יום שבקשו כותיים את בית אלהינו מאלכסנדרוס מוקדון להחריבו ונתנו להם באו והודיעו את שמעון הצדיק מה עשה לבש בגדי כהונה ונתעטף בבגדי כהונה ומיקירי ישראל עמו ואבוקות של אור בידיהן וכל הלילה הללו הולכים מצד זה והללו הולכים מצד זה עד שעלה עמוד השחר,כיון שעלה עמוד השחר אמר להם מי הללו אמרו לו יהודים שמרדו בך כיון שהגיע לאנטיפטרס זרחה חמה ופגעו זה בזה כיון שראה לשמעון הצדיק ירד ממרכבתו והשתחוה לפניו אמרו לו מלך גדול כמותך ישתחוה ליהודי זה אמר להם דמות דיוקנו של זה מנצחת לפני בבית מלחמתי,אמר להם למה באתם אמרו אפשר בית שמתפללים בו עליך ועל מלכותך שלא תחרב יתעוך עובדי כוכבים להחריבו אמר להם מי הללו אמרו לו כותיים הללו שעומדים לפניך אמר להם הרי הם מסורין בידיכם,מיד נקבום בעקביהם ותלאום בזנבי סוסיהם והיו מגררין אותן על הקוצים ועל הברקנים עד שהגיעו להר גרזים כיון שהגיעו להר גריזים חרשוהו וזרעוהו כרשינין כדרך שבקשו לעשות לבית אלהינו ואותו היום עשאוהו יו"ט,אי בעית אימא ראויין לבגדי כהונה ואי בעית אימא (תהלים קיט, קכו) עת לעשות לה' הפרו תורתך,חזן הכנסת נוטל ספר תורה ש"מ חולקין כבוד לתלמיד במקום הרב אמר אביי כולה משום כבודו דכ"ג היא,וכהן גדול עומד מכלל שהוא יושב והא אנן תנן 69a. That mishna’s teaching highlighting the prohibition to sleep in priestly vestments bis needed for the latter clauseof that mishna, which states: bThey removetheir priestly vestments band fold them and place them under their heads.Since they are allowed to sleep on them, it must be emphasized that they may not sleep while wearing them.,The Gemara considers resolving the dilemma from the latter clause: bThey removetheir priestly vestments band fold them and place them under their heads.The Gemara suggests: bLearn from thisthat bit is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. Rav Pappa said: Do not saythat the mishna means they may actually place the vestments bunder their headsas a pillow; brather, saythat the mishna permits the vestments to be placed only bnext to their heads. Rav Mesharshiyya said:Given this understanding of that mishna, one can blearn from herethat one who places bphylacteries to the sideof his head when he sleeps has done bwell;there is no concern that he will turn over in his sleep and lie upon them., bSo too, it is reasonableto say bthatthe mishna permits the vestments to be placed only bnext to their headsand not under their heads; bas, if it could enter your mindto say that the mishna permits the vestments to be placed bunder their heads, and I would derivethat it is prohibited bdue tothe fact the priestly vestments contain a forbidden mixture of bdiverse kinds, asamong them bthere isthe bbelt,which is woven from a mixture of wool and linen. bAnd even ifit is assumed bthat it is permitted to derive benefit frompriestly vestments, it would still be prohibited to lie upon them because by doing so the priests would be bderiving benefit froma garment made of bdiverse kinds. /b,The Gemara elaborates on the preceding argument: If one claims that the mishna permits priests to sleep upon their vestments, bit works out well according to the one who said: The belt of the High Priestworn on Yom Kippur, which does not contain diverse kinds, bis the same as the belt of a common priest.According to this view, the common priest’s belt does not contain diverse kinds, and therefore it may be permitted for a priest to sleep upon it. bHowever, according to the one who saidthat bthe High Priest’s belton Yom Kippur bis not the same as the belt of a common priest,and that the belt of the common priest is made of diverse kinds, bwhat is there to say?How could the mishna possibly permit priests to sleep upon their vestments?, bAnd if you saythat with regard to the prohibition of bdiverse kindsonly bwearingor bplacingthe garment bupon oneself is prohibited, but spreading them outand lying upon them on bis permitted,and as such it should be permitted for the priests to sleep upon their vestments, this is incorrect. As, bwasn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat the verse states: b“Neither shall there come upon youa garment of diverse kinds”(Leviticus 19:19), which implies: bBut you are permitted to spread it beneath youto lie upon. This is true according to Torah law, bbut the Sages said: It is prohibited to do so, lest a fiber wrap upon his flesh,which would lead to the transgression of the Torah prohibition., bAnd if you saythat a priest could still avoid the prohibition of diverse kinds by bplacing a separation betweenhimself and the belt containing diverse kinds, bdidn’t Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi saythat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid in the name of the holy community in Jerusalem: Evenif there are bten mattressespiled bone atop the other anda garment of bdiverse kindsis placed bunderneath themall, bit is prohibited to sleep upon them?This is because the rabbinic decree is applied equally to all cases irrespective of whether the original concern exists. Therefore, there can be no way for the priests to sleep upon the vestments without transgressing the prohibition of diverse kinds. bRather,must one bnot conclude fromthe preceding discussion that the mishna permits the vestments to be placed only bnext to their heads?The Gemara concludes: bLearn from itthat this is indeed so., bRav Ashi said: Actually,the mishna may be understood as permitting the vestments to be placed bunder their heads.One should not object that by doing so the priests would be bderiving benefit froma garment made of bdiverse kindsbecause bpriestly vestments,and specifically the belt, bare stiff,and therefore the prohibition of diverse kinds does not apply to them. This is bin accordance with thatwhich bRav Huna, son of Rabbi Yehoshua, said: This stiff felt [ inamta /i],made of diverse kinds, that is produced binthe city of bNeresh, is permitted,since a stiff object does not wrap around the body to provide warmth, and therefore the person wearing is not considered to have derived benefit from it.,Since the mishna’s intention is uncertain, it cannot provide a clear proof for the dilemma of whether it is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. The Gemara therefore suggests another proof: bComeand bhearan explicit ibaraitaconcerning this issue: With regard to bpriestly vestments, it is prohibited to go out to the country,i.e., outside the Temple, while bwearing them, but in the Temple it is permittedfor the priests to wear them, bwhether during theTemple bservice or not during the service, due tothe fact bthat it is permitted to derive benefit from priestly vestments. Learn from thisthat it is indeed permitted.,§ The ibaraitataught that the priestly vestments may not be worn outside the Temple. The Gemara challenges this: Is it really bnotpermitted to wear priestly vestments bin the country? Wasn’t it taughtin another ibaraita /i, in iMegillat Ta’anit /i: bThe twenty-fifth of Tevetis known as bthe day of Mount Gerizim,which was established as a joyful day, and therefore beulogizingis bnotpermitted.,What occurred on that date? It was on that bday that the Samaritans [ ikutim /i] requested the House of our Lord from Alexander the Macedonian in order to destroy it, and he gave it to them,i.e., he gave them permission to destroy it. People bcame and informedthe High Priest, bShimon HaTzaddik,of what had transpired. bWhat did he do? He donned the priestly vestments and wrapped himself in the priestly vestments. And the nobles of the Jewish Peoplewere bwith him,with btorches of fire in their hands. And all that night, these,the representatives of the Jewish people, bapproached from this side, and those,the armies of Alexander and the Samaritans, bapproached from that side, until dawn,when they finally saw one another., bWhen dawn arrived,Alexander bsaid tothe Samaritans: bWho are thesepeople coming to meet us? bThey said to him:These are the bJews who rebelled against you. When he reached Antipatris, the sun shone andthe two camps bmet each other. WhenAlexander bsaw Shimon HaTzaddik, he descended from his chariot and bowed before him.His escorts bsaid to him:Should ban important king such as you bow to this Jew?He bsaid to them:I do so because bthe image of this man’s face is victorious before me on my battlefields,i.e., when I fight I see his image going before me as a sign of victory, and therefore I know that he has supreme sanctity., bHe saidto the representatives of the Jewish people: bWhy have you come? They saidto him: bIs it possible thatthe Temple, the bhouse in which we pray for you and for your kingdom not to be destroyed, gentiles willtry to bmislead you into destroying it,and we would remain silent and not tell you? bHe said to them: Who are thesepeople who want to destroy it? The Jews bsaid to him:They are bthese Samaritans who stand before you. He said to them:If so, bthey are delivered into your handsto deal with them as you please., bImmediately, they stabbedthe Samaritans bin their heels and hung them from their horses’ tails and continued to drag them over the thorns and thistles until they reached Mount Gerizim. When they arrived at Mount Gerizim,where the Samaritans had their temple, bthey plowed it over and seededthe area bwith leeks,a symbol of total destruction. This was bjust as they had sought to do to the House of our Lord. And they made that day a festivalto celebrate the salvation of the Temple and the defeat of the Samaritans.,It is apparent from the ibaraitathat Shimon HaTzaddik wore the priestly vestments even outside the Temple. This would seem to be in contravention of the ruling of the other ibaraitaprohibiting this. The Gemara resolves the contradiction: bIf you wish, sayShimon HaTzaddik did not wear a set of genuine, sanctified priestly vestments; rather, he wore garments that were bfitting to be priestly vestmentsin that they were made of the same material and design. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that he indeed wore a set of genuine priestly vestments, but in times of great need, such as when one seeks to prevent the destruction of the Temple, it is permitted to violate the ihalakha /i, as indicated by the verse: b“It is time to act for the Lord, they have nullified your Torah”(Psalms 119:126).,§ It was taught in the mishna: bThe synagogue attendant takes a Torah scrolland gives it to the head of the synagogue, who gives it to the deputy High Priest, who gives it to the High Priest. The Gemara suggests: bLearn from herethat bhonor may be given to a student in the presence of the teacher.Although the High Priest is considered everyone’s teacher and master, honor was nevertheless extended to other individuals without fear of impugning the High Priest’s honor. bAbaye said:A proof may not be adduced from here because bthe entireprocess bis for the honor of the High Priest.The passing of the Torah scroll to people of increasing importance demonstrates that the High Priest is considered the most important of all those present.,§ It was further taught in the mishna: bThe High Priest standsand receives the scroll from the Deputy. bBy inference,until that point bhehad been bsitting. But didn’t we learnin a mishna:


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 35
abba saul Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
angel Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81
antioch(enes) in jerusalem Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 220
antiochus iii Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 9; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 191; van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 57, 69
antiochus iii the great, privileges granted by Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 220
antiochus iv epiphanes Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 12
antiochus ix (cyzicenus) Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 63
antiochus viii (aspendius) Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 63
approval, divine Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 206
aramaic, inscriptions, mount gerizim Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 191
babylonian talmud (bt), on john hyrcanus Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 63
baptism Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81
ben sira Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 8, 9; Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 206, 207
bible Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81; Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
biblical allusions and language, phinehas/zimri story Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 147
blessing Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 206
body (human), xv Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
book access Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 8, 9
boundaries Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187
cairo genizah Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 63
change Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
christianity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
citizenship van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 57
city Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187, 190
cleopatra i Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 191
covenant Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 35; Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186, 187
creation Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
critical spatiality Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186, 187, 190
david Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 35
death penalty Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
demetrius i Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 187
didactic poem Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 16
divine identity Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81
divine name, surrogate Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
divine name Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81
dynastic egypt Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 9
ethnic boundary making model, field characteristics van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 69
ethnic boundary making model, nation-building van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 57
ethnic boundary making model, strategic modes of boundary making van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 69
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 206, 207
exodus Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 9
festivals Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
firstspace Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187
flavians Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 9
glory Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81
god, approval of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 206
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 16
greeks van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 57
hai gaon Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
hasidim Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
hebrew, qumran Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
hebrew Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 191
hebrew bible Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
hebrew language Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187
hellenism/hellenization Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 12
hellenistic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 8, 9
hellenistic kings/rulers, antiochus iv epiphanes Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
hererobaptists Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
high priest, in tractates tamid and yoma Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 206
high priest Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 12, 16; Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81
high priesthood, as municipal position Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 193, 220
historical setting Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 12, 16
holy Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187, 190
honor Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187
hymn of praise Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 16
hymns Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
hyrcanus i Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 63
identity, jewish Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
image of god Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81
imagery Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
israel/israelite Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 16
janneus Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 147
jerusalem Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 8; Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 16; Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187; van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 69
jewish scribe x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 8, 9
jews (and judaism) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 220
josephus Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 9; Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 191; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 187
judea van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 57
kingdom, political Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187
kinship Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
liturgy Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 206; Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 48
lives of the prophets, hebrew urtext of Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 63
lord Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81
macedonians van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 57
manuscript corrections, interpolations and revisions Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 438
map/mapping Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186, 187
masada Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 63
mercy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 47
moses Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 48
mount gerizim, excavations Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 191
mount gerizim Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 191
nan, altar Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187, 190
nicanor Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 63
oath, formula Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
onias, temple of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 187
onias father of the high priest simeon in ben sira Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 147
onias iii Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 187, 193
onias iv Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 187
perfection Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 47
pharisaic-rabbinic tradition, law Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
pharisees Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
phinehas Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 35; Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 147
physical Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
place Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186, 187, 190
poetry Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 9
praise Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187
prayer Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 16
priest, high Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186, 190
priest, priesthood Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81
priest Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 9; Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187
priesthood Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 12, 16; Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 35
priests and textuality Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 206
primordial Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
prostration Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 206
ptolemaic empire van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 57, 69
ptolemies, administration Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 438
ptolemy v Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 191
purity and impurity, ritual purity Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
ritual Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187, 190
rome Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 9
sabbath Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
samaritans Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 191
sanctuary Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187, 190
sapiential (wisdom) literature Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 12
school Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 16
schools Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 8, 9
scribal education Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 8, 9
scribe Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
scripture Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
second temple Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81
secondspace Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187, 190
seleucid Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 8, 9
seleucid empire Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
seleucids, administration Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 438
seleucids Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 12
seleucus iv Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 438
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 438
simeon ii (high priest) Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 12, 16
simeon the just (simeon ii) Schiffman, Testimony and the Penal Code (1983) 147
simon (of heliodorus story) Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 438
simon ii Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 9
simon ii (high priest) van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 69
simon son of onias Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 35
simon the hasmonean Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 35
sirach Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 63
slavery Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 170
solidarity Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 48
sound Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187
space Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187, 190
surface Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
syria Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 191
syrians van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 57
tabernacle Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 206
tamid, tractate, narrative structure of Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 206
teacher Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 16
teachers Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 9
temple Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 438; Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187, 190; van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 69
temple (jerusalem) Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 16
temple legends Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 63
temple motif, in the hyrcanus legend Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 63
temptation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth, A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews (2018) 47
testament genre Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 206
the instruction of merikare Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 9
theme Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
thirdspace Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187, 190
thrones Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187
time Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186, 187, 190
torah focus' Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 207
translation of biblical books Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 35
universal Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
universalism Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 187
wilderness, tabernacle in Balberg, Blood for Thought: The Reinvention of Sacrifice in Early Rabbinic Literature (2017) 206
wisdom/wise Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 16
wisdom Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 8
worship Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81; Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 187, 190
yahweh, yhwh Novenson, Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity (2020) 81
zimri Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 147
zion Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190