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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



673
Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 49.13


nanThe memory of Nehemiah also is lasting;he raised for us the walls that had fallen,and set up the gates and bars and rebuilt our ruined houses.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

14 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.9, 6.12, 8.11, 32.8-32.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.9. רַק הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ וּשְׁמֹר נַפְשְׁךָ מְאֹד פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וּפֶן־יָסוּרוּ מִלְּבָבְךָ כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ וְהוֹדַעְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֵי בָנֶיךָ׃ 6.12. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הוֹצִיאֲךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 8.11. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.9. כִּי חֵלֶק יְהֹוָה עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃ 4.9. Only take heed to thyself, and keep thy soul diligently, lest thou forget the things which thine eyes saw, and lest they depart from thy heart all the days of thy life; but make them known unto thy children and thy children’s children;" 6.12. then beware lest thou forget the LORD, who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 8.11. Beware lest thou forget the LORD thy God, in not keeping His commandments, and His ordices, and His statutes, which I command thee this day;" 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel." 32.9. For the portion of the LORD is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 5.22-5.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.22. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מְתוּשֶׁלַח שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.23. וַיְהִי כָּל־יְמֵי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 5.22. And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters." 5.23. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years." 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him."
3. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 16.21, 18.29, 19.2, 20.29 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.21. וַיָּבֹא דָוִד אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַיַּעֲמֹד לְפָנָיו וַיֶּאֱהָבֵהוּ מְאֹד וַיְהִי־לוֹ נֹשֵׂא כֵלִים׃ 18.29. וַיֹּאסֶף שָׁאוּל לֵרֹא מִפְּנֵי דָוִד עוֹד וַיְהִי שָׁאוּל אֹיֵב אֶת־דָּוִד כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃ 19.2. וַיַּגֵּד יְהוֹנָתָן לְדָוִד לֵאמֹר מְבַקֵּשׁ שָׁאוּל אָבִי לַהֲמִיתֶךָ וְעַתָּה הִשָּׁמֶר־נָא בַבֹּקֶר וְיָשַׁבְתָּ בַסֵּתֶר וְנַחְבֵּאתָ׃ 19.2. וַיִּשְׁלַח שָׁאוּל מַלְאָכִים לָקַחַת אֶת־דָּוִד וַיַּרְא אֶת־לַהֲקַת הַנְּבִיאִים נִבְּאִים וּשְׁמוּאֵל עֹמֵד נִצָּב עֲלֵיהֶם וַתְּהִי עַל־מַלְאֲכֵי שָׁאוּל רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים וַיִּתְנַבְּאוּ גַּם־הֵמָּה׃ 20.29. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׁלְּחֵנִי נָא כִּי זֶבַח מִשְׁפָּחָה לָנוּ בָּעִיר וְהוּא צִוָּה־לִי אָחִי וְעַתָּה אִם־מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אִמָּלְטָה נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֶחָי עַל־כֵּן לֹא־בָא אֶל־שֻׁלְחַן הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 16.21. And David came to Sha᾽ul, and stood before him: and he loved him greatly; and he became his armourbearer." 18.29. And Sha᾽ul continued to be afraid of David; and Sha᾽ul became David’s enemy continually." 19.2. and Yehonatan told David, saying, Sha᾽ul my father seeks to kill thee: now therefore, I pray thee, take heed to thyself in the morning, and abide in a secret place, and hide thyself:" 20.29. and he said, Let me go, I pray thee; for our family has a sacrfice in the city; and my brother, he has commanded me to be there: and now, if I have found favour in thine eyes, let me get away, I pray thee, and see my brothers. Therefore he does not come to the king’s table."
4. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.15, 48.1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.15. וְהַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם בְּנֵי צָדוֹק אֲשֶׁר שָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת מִקְדָּשִׁי בִּתְעוֹת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעָלַי הֵמָּה יִקְרְבוּ אֵלַי לְשָׁרְתֵנִי וְעָמְדוּ לְפָנַי לְהַקְרִיב לִי חֵלֶב וָדָם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 48.1. וּלְאֵלֶּה תִּהְיֶה תְרוּמַת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ לַכֹּהֲנִים צָפוֹנָה חֲמִשָּׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים אֶלֶף וְיָמָּה רֹחַב עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים וְקָדִימָה רֹחַב עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים וְנֶגְבָּה אֹרֶךְ חֲמִשָּׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף וְהָיָה מִקְדַּשׁ־יְהוָה בְּתוֹכוֹ׃ 48.1. וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת הַשְּׁבָטִים מִקְצֵה צָפוֹנָה אֶל־יַד דֶּרֶךְ־חֶתְלֹן לְבוֹא־חֲמָת חֲצַר עֵינָן גְּבוּל דַּמֶּשֶׂק צָפוֹנָה אֶל־יַד חֲמָת וְהָיוּ־לוֹ פְאַת־קָדִים הַיָּם דָּן אֶחָד׃ 44.15. But the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok, that kept the charge of My sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from Me, they shall come near to Me to minister unto Me; and they shall stand before Me to offer unto Me the fat and the blood, saith the Lord GOD;" 48.1. Now these are the names of the tribes: from the north end, beside the way of Hethlon to the entrance of Hamath, Hazar-e, at the border of Damascus, northward, beside Hamath; and they shall have their sides east and west: Dan, one portion."
5. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.9. וַיֹּאמֶר נְחֶמְיָה הוּא הַתִּרְשָׁתָא וְעֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן הַסֹּפֵר וְהַלְוִיִּם הַמְּבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לְכָל־הָעָם הַיּוֹם קָדֹשׁ־הוּא לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אַל־תִּתְאַבְּלוּ וְאַל־תִּבְכּוּ כִּי בוֹכִים כָּל־הָעָם כְּשָׁמְעָם אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.9. And Nehemiah, who was the Tirshatha, and Ezra the priest the scribe, and the Levites that taught the people, said unto all the people: ‘This day is holy unto the LORD your God; mourn not, nor weep.’ For all the people wept, when they heard the words of the Law."
6. Anon., 1 Enoch, 12.3-12.4, 15.1, 81.1-81.2, 82.1-82.3 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.3. And I Enoch was blessing the Lord of majesty and the King of the ages, and lo! the Watcher 12.4. called me -Enoch the scribe- and said to me: 'Enoch, thou scribe of righteousness, go, declare to the Watchers of the heaven who have left the high heaven, the holy eternal place, and have defiled themselves with women, and have done as the children of earth do, and have taken unto themselve 15.1. And He answered and said to me, and I heard His voice: 'Fear not, Enoch, thou righteou 15.1. they shall be evil spirits on earth, and evil spirits shall they be called. [As for the spirits of heaven, in heaven shall be their dwelling, but as for the spirits of the earth which were born upon the earth, on the earth shall be their dwelling.] And the spirits of the giants afflict, oppress, destroy, attack, do battle, and work destruction on the earth, and cause trouble: they take no food, but neverthele 81.1. And he said unto me: ' Observe, Enoch, these heavenly tablets, And read what is written thereon, And mark every individual fact.' 81.1. And in those days they ceased to speak to me, and I came to my people, blessing the Lord of the world. 81.2. And I observed the heavenly tablets, and read everything which was written (thereon) and understood everything, and read the book of all the deeds of mankind, and of all the children of flesh 82.1. And now, my son Methuselah, all these things I am recounting to thee and writing down for thee! and I have revealed to thee everything, and given thee books concerning all these: so preserve, my son Methuselah, the books from thy father's hand, and (see) that thou deliver them to the generations of the world. 82.1. And these are the names of those who lead them, who watch that they enter at their times, in their orders, in their seasons, in their months, in their periods of dominion, and in their positions. Their four leaders who divide the four parts of the year enter first; and after them the twelve leaders of the orders who divide the months; and for the three hundred and sixty (days) there are heads over thousands who divide the days; and for the four intercalary days there are the leaders which sunder 82.2. I have given Wisdom to thee and to thy children, [And thy children that shall be to thee], That they may give it to their children for generations, This wisdom (namely) that passeth their thought. 82.2. in the fields, and the winepress: these things take place in the days of his dominion. These are the names, and the orders, and the leaders of those heads of thousands: Gida'ljal, Ke'el, and He'el, and the name of the head of a thousand which is added to them, Asfa'el: and the days of his dominion are at an end.Section IV. Chapters LXXXIII-XC. The Dream-Visions. 82.3. And those who understand it shall not sleep, But shall listen with the ear that they may learn this wisdom, And it shall please those that eat thereof better than good food.
7. Anon., Jubilees, 4.17-4.18, 45.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.17. And in the second week of the tenth jubilee Mahalalel took unto him to wife Dînâh, the daughter of Barâkî’êl the daughter of his father's brother, and she bare him a son in the third week in the sixth year, and he called his name Jared; 4.18. for in his days the angels of the Lord descended on the earth, those who are named the Watchers, that they should instruct the children of men, and that they should do judgment and uprightness on the earth. 45.16. And Joseph took of the corn of the harvest the fifth part for the king and left four parts for them for food and for seed, and Joseph made it an ordice for the land of Egypt until this day.
8. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. In those days Mattathias the son of John, son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, moved from Jerusalem and settled in Modein.
9. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 4.10, 4.35, 5.5, 15.6, 15.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.10. When the king assented and Jason came to office, he at once shifted his countrymen over to the Greek way of life.' 4.35. For this reason not only Jews, but many also of other nations, were grieved and displeased at the unjust murder of the man.' 5.5. When a false rumor arose that Antiochus was dead, Jason took no less than a thousand men and suddenly made an assault upon the city. When the troops upon the wall had been forced back and at last the city was being taken, Menelaus took refuge in the citadel.' 15.6. This Nicanor in his utter boastfulness and arrogance had determined to erect a public monument of victory over Judas and his men. 15.18. Their concern for wives and children, and also for brethren and relatives, lay upon them less heavily; their greatest and first fear was for the consecrated sanctuary.'
10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 33.11, 38.24-39.11, 39.1, 39.2, 39.3, 44.1-50.24, 48.23, 48.24, 48.25, 49.1, 49.4, 49.6, 49.9, 49.10, 49.12, 49.14, 49.16, 50.1, 50.2, 50.3, 50.4, 50.6, 50.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

33.11. In the fulness of his knowledge the Lord distinguished them and appointed their different ways;
11. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 48.24, 49.6, 49.16, 50.1-50.3, 50.6-50.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

12. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.325 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.325. And from that time to this we celebrate this festival, and call it Lights. I suppose the reason was, because this liberty beyond our hopes appeared to us; and that thence was the name given to that festival.
13. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

8b. כל תלתין יומין בין א"ל מחמת הלולא ובין לא א"ל מחמת הלולא אסור מכאן ואילך אי א"ל מחמת הלולא אסור ואי לא אמר ליה מחמת הלולא שרי,וכי א"ל מחמת הלולא עד אימת אמר רב פפא עד תריסר ירחי שתא ומעיקרא מאימת אסור אמר רב פפא משמיה דרבא מכי רמו שערי באסינתי,ולבתר תריסר ירחי שתא שרי והא רב יצחק בריה דרב משרשיא איקלע לבי ההוא עובד כוכבים לבתר תריסר ירחי שתא ושמעיה דאודי ופירש ולא אכל שאני רב יצחק בריה דרב משרשיא דאדם חשוב הוא:,וקרטסים וכו': מאי קרטסים אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל יום שתפסה בו רומי מלכות והתניא קרטסים ויום שתפסה בו רומי מלכות אמר רב יוסף שתי תפיסות תפסה רומי אחת בימי קלפטרא מלכתא ואחת שתפסה בימי יונים,דכי אתא רב דימי אמר תלתין ותרין קרבי עבדו רומאי בהדי יונאי ולא יכלו להו עד דשתפינהו לישראל בהדייהו והכי אתנו בהדייהו אי מינן מלכי מנייכו הפרכי אי מנייכו מלכי מינן הפרכי,ושלחו להו רומאי ליונאי עד האידנא עבידנא בקרבא השתא נעביד בדינא מרגלית ואבן טובה איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו שלחו להו מרגלית לאבן טובה,אבן טובה (ואינך) איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו אבן טובה לאינך אינך וספר תורה איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו אינך לספר תורה,שלחו להו [א"כ] אנן ספר תורה גבן וישראל בהדן כפו להו עשרין ושית שנין קמו להו בהימנותייהו בהדי ישראל מכאן ואילך אישתעבדו בהו,מעיקרא מאי דרוש ולבסוף מאי דרוש מעיקרא דרוש (בראשית לג, יב) נסעה ונלכה ואלכה לנגדך ולבסוף דרוש (בראשית לג, יד) יעבר נא אדני לפני עבדו,עשרין ושית שנין דקמו בהימנותייהו בהדי ישראל מנא לן דאמר רב כהנא כשחלה רבי ישמעאל בר יוסי שלחו ליה רבי אמור לנו שנים וג' דברים שאמרת לנו משום אביך,אמר להו מאה ושמנים שנה קודם שנחרב הבית פשטה מלכות הרשעה על ישראל פ' שנה עד לא חרב הבית גזרו טומאה על ארץ העמים ועל כלי זכוכית מ' שנה עד לא חרב הבית גלתה סנהדרין וישבה לה בחנות,למאי הלכתא א"ר יצחק בר אבדימי לומר שלא דנו דיני קנסות דיני קנסות סלקא דעתך והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ברם זכור אותו האיש לטוב ורבי יהודה בן בבא שמו שאלמלא הוא נשתכחו דיני קנסות מישראל נשתכחו לגרסינהו,אלא בטלו דיני קנסות מישראל שגזרה מלכות הרשעה גזרה כל הסומך יהרג וכל הנסמך יהרג ועיר שסומכין בה תחרב ותחום שסומכין בו יעקר,מה עשה רבי יהודה בן בבא הלך וישב בין שני הרים גדולים ובין שתי עיירות גדולות בין ב' תחומי שבת בין אושא לשפרעם וסמך שם חמשה זקנים ר"מ ור' יהודה ור' יוסי ור"ש ורבי אלעזר בן שמוע ורב אויא מוסיף אף רבי נחמיה,כיון שהכירו בהם אויבים אמר להם בני רוצו אמרו לו רבי ואתה מה תהא עליך אמר להם הריני מוטל לפניהם כאבן שאין לה הופכין אמרו לא זזו משם עד שנעצו לגופו ג' מאות לולניאות של ברזל ועשאוהו לגופו ככברה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק לא תימא דיני קנסות אלא שלא דנו דיני נפשות,מ"ט כיון דחזו דנפישי להו רוצחין ולא יכלי למידן אמרו מוטב נגלי ממקום למקום כי היכי דלא ליחייבו,דכתיב (דברים יז, י) ועשית על פי הדבר אשר יגידו לך מן המקום ההוא מלמד שהמקום גורם:,מאה ושמנים ותו לא והתני רבי יוסי ברבי 8b. during ballthe bthirty daysthat follow the wedding celebration, if the gentile invites a Jew to a feast, bwhether he saidto the Jew that the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration or whether he did not say to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bprohibitedto attend, as it is assumed the festivity is part of the wedding celebration. bFrom thispoint bforward, if he said to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bprohibitedto participate, bbut if he did not say to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bpermittedto do so.,The Gemara asks: bAndin a case bwhere he said to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration, until whenis the feast assumed to be connected to idol worship? bRav Pappa said: Until twelve months of the yearhave passed since the wedding. The Gemara asks: bAnd initially,before the wedding, bfrom when is it prohibited? Rav Pappa said in the name of Rava: Fromthe time bwhen they cast barley into the mortars [ iba’asintei /i]to prepare beer for the wedding.,The Gemara asks: bAnd after the twelve months of the yearhave passed since the wedding, is it always bpermittedto participate in a feast? bBut Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, happenedto come bto the house of a certain gentile after twelve months of the yearhad passed since his son’s wedding, band he heardthe gentile bgiving thanksto his idol for the marriage of his son, band he withdrewfrom the feast band did not eatthere. The Gemara answers: bRav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, is different, as he is an important personand therefore his presence caused the gentile to rejoice.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd Kratesis,and the day of the festival of their kings. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the festival of bKratesis? Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:It commemorates bthe day when Rome seizedcontrol of ban empire.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: Two festivals are bKratesis and the day when Rome seizedcontrol of ban empire?This indi-cates that Kratesis and the day when Rome seized control of an empire are two separate festivals. bRav Yosef said:On btwoseparate occasions bRome seizedcontrol of ban empire. Oneoccurred bin the days of Queen Cleopatra,when they conquered Egypt, band onehappened much earlier, bwhenRome bseizedcontrol bin the days of the Greeks. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bAs when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael bhe said: The Romans waged thirty-two battles with the Greeks but were unable todefeat bthem, until they formed a partnership with the Jewish peopleand finally vanquished the Greeks. bAnd this is the condition that they stipulated withthe Jewish people: bIf the kingscome bfrom among us, the governors [ ihiparkhei /i]will come bfrom among you;and bif the kingscome bfrom among you, the governorswill come bfrom among us. /b, bAnd the Romans sentthe following message bto the Greeks: Until now, weattempted to resolve our conflict bthroughfighting bbattles; now, let ussettle the matter bbymeans of bjudgment.In the case of ba pearl and a precious stone, whichone bof them should serve as a base for the other?The Greeks bsent themin response: The bpearlshould serve as the base bforthe bprecious stone,which has a greater value.,The Romans further inquired: If there was ba precious stone and an onyx [ iinnakh /i],a particularly valuable precious stone, bwhichone bof them should serve as a base for the other?The Greeks answered: The bprecious stoneshould serve as the base bforthe bonyx.Once again, the Romans asked: In the case of ban onyx and a Torah scroll, whichone bof them should be serve as a base for the other?The Greeks responded: The bonyxshould serve as the base bfor the Torah scroll. /b,The Romans bsentthis response bto them: Ifthat is bso,then you should submit to us, as bwe havethe bTorah scroll with us, and the Jewish peopleare bwith us.The Romans are akin to the precious stone, and they are allied with the Jewish people who are akin to the onyx, and they possess the Torah scroll. The Romans therefore bforcedthe Greeks to surrender and took over their world domice. For btwenty-six yearsthe Romans bstood faithfully with the Jewish people; from thatpoint bforward, they subjugated them. /b,The Gemara asks: bInitially,when the Romans acted faithfully, bwhatverse bdid they interpret, and ultimately,when they subjugated the Jews, bwhatverse bdid they interpret? Initially, they interpretedthe verse where Esau said to Jacob upon their meeting: b“Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go before you”(Genesis 33:12). In this verse, Esau equates himself to Jacob, prefiguring the initial Roman treatment of the Jews. bAnd ultimately, they interpretedthe verse that recites Jacob’s response to Esau: b“Let my lord, I pray you, pass over before his servant”(Genesis 33:14), demonstrating Jacob’s subjugation to Esau, and by extension that of the Jews to Rome.,The Gemara asks: With regard to the btwenty-six years during whichthe Romans bstood faithfully with the Jewish people, from where do weknow that this was the case? The Gemara cites a proof. bAs Rav Kahana says: When Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, fell ill,the Sages bsentthe following message bto him:Our bteacher, tell us two or three statements that youonce btold us in the name of your father,Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta, as we do not remember the statements precisely.,Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsaid to themthe following statements that were passed down to him by his father: bOne hundred and eighty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed, the evilRoman bEmpire stretched forth over Israeland ruled over them. bEighty years before the Temple was destroyed,the Sages bdecreed impurity on the land of the nations and on glass vessels. Forty years before the Temple was destroyed, the Sanhedrin was exiledfrom the Chamber of Hewn Stone band sat in the storenear the Temple Mount.,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to what ihalakha /iis it necessary to know where the Sanhedrin would convene? bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said:It is necessary in order bto say that they nolonger bjudged cases of fines.The Gemara asks: bDoes it enter your mindthat at this point the Sanhedrin no longer judged bcases of fines? But doesn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bRav says: Indeed [ iberam /i], that man will be remembered favorably, and Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava is his name, as had it not been for him the laws of fines would have been forgotten fromamong bthe Jewish people.The Gemara challenges that assertion: bWouldthe laws of fines actually bhave been forgotten? Letthe scholars bstudy them,so they will not be forgotten., bRather,his intention was to say that bthe laws of fines would have ceasedto be implemented bfromamong bthe Jewish people,as they would not have been able to adjudicate cases involving these ihalakhotdue to a lack of ordained judges. This is bbecauseat one time bthe wicked kingdomof Rome bissued decrees of religious persecution against the Jewish peoplewith the aim of abolishing the chain of ordination and the authority of the Sages. They said that banyone who ordainsjudges bwill be killed, and anyone who is ordained will be killed, and the city in which they ordainthe judges bwill be destroyed, andthe areas around bthe boundaryof the city bin which they ordainjudges bwill be uprooted.These measures were intended to discourage the Sages from performing or receiving ordination due to fear for the welfare of the local population., bWhat didRabbi bYehuda ben Bava do? He went and sat between two large mountains, and between two large cities,and bbetween two Shabbat boundaries: Between Usha and Shefaram,i.e., in a desolate place that was not associated with any particular city so that he would not endanger anyone not directly involved, band there he ordained five Elders,namely: bRabbi Meir, and Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua. And Rav Avya addsthat bRabbi Neḥemyawas balsoamong those ordained., bWhentheir benemies discovered them,Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava bsaid tothe newly ordained rabbis: bMy sons, runfor your lives. bThey said to him:Our bteacher, and what will be with you?Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava was elderly and unable to run. He bsaid to them:In any case, bI am cast before them like a stone that cannot be overturned;even if you attempt to assist me I will not be able to escape due to my frailty, but if you do not escape without me you will also be killed. People bsaidabout this incident: The Roman soldiers bdid not move from there until they had inserted three hundred iron spears [ ilulniot /i] into his body, making his bodyappear blike a sievepierced with many holes. It can be inferred from this episode that there were ordained judges who could hear cases of fines for many years after the destruction of the Temple, in contrast to Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi’s statement., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saysin explanation: bDo not saythat after the Sanhedrin was exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone they no longer judged cases of bfines; rather,emend the statement to say bthat they nolonger bjudgedcases of bcapital law,as a court does not have the authority to hear capital cases when the Sanhedrin is not sitting in the Chamber of Hewn Stone.,The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonthat the members of the Sanhedrin ceased to meet in their proper place and thereby ended the adjudication of capital cases? bOnce they saw that the murderers were so numerous and they were not able to judgethem and punish them with death, bthey said:It is bbetter that we should be exiledfrom the Chamber of Hewn Stone and move bfrom place to place, so thatoffenders bwill not bedeemed bliableto receive the death penalty in a time period when the court does not carry out their sentences.,The Gemara explains why a court may not adjudicate capital cases once the Sanhedrin has left the Chamber of Hewn Stone. bAs it is written: “And you shall do according to the tenor of the sentence, which they shall declare to you from that place”(Deuteronomy 17:10). This verse bteaches thatit is bthe placewhere the Sanhedrin resides that bcausesthe judgment to take place. In other words, if the Sanhedrin has abandoned its proper place, the Chamber of Hewn Stone, all courts must cease judging capital cases.,The Gemara returns to the earlier comment of Rabbi Yishmael in the name of his father Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta, that the Roman Empire ruled over Israel one hundred and eighty years before the second Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: Did Rome rule over Israel for bone hundred and eightyyears before the destruction of the Temple band no more? But didn’t Rabbi Yosei the Great,i.e., Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta himself, bteach: /b
14. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. והיא נתעברה מעומד דבר אחר שלתיאל שנשאל על אלתו אל זרובבל שנזרע בבבל ומה שמו נחמיה בן חכליה שמו,יהודה וחזקיה בני רבי חייא הוו יתבי בסעודתא קמי רבי ולא הוו קא אמרי ולא מידי אמר להו אגברו חמרא אדרדקי כי היכי דלימרו מילתא כיון דאיבסום פתחו ואמרו אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו שני בתי אבות מישראל ואלו הן ראש גולה שבבבל ונשיא שבארץ ישראל שנאמר (ישעיהו ח, יד) והיה למקדש ולאבן נגף ולצור מכשול לשני בתי ישראל,אמר להם בניי קוצים אתם מטילין לי בעיניי א"ל רבי חייא רבי אל ירע בעיניך יין ניתן בשבעים אותיות וסוד ניתן בשבעים אותיות נכנס יין יצא סוד,א"ר חסדא אמר מר עוקבא ואמרי לה א"ר חסדא דרש מרי בר מר מאי דכתיב (דניאל ט, יד) וישקד ה' על הרעה ויביאה עלינו כי צדיק ה' אלהינו משום דצדיק ה' וישקד ה' על הרעה ויביאה עלינו אין צדקה עשה הקב"ה עם ישראל שהקדים גלות צדקיהו ועוד גלות יכניה קיימת,דכתיב ביה בגלות יכניה (מלכים ב כד, טז) החרש והמסגר אלף חרש כיון שפותחין הכל נעשו כחרשין מסגר כיון שסוגרין בהלכה שוב אין פותחין וכמה היו אלף,עולא אמר שהקדים שתי שנים לונושנתם,א"ר אחא בר יעקב שמע מינה מהרה דמרי עלמא תמני מאה וחמשין ותרתין הוו:,לפיכך כו': תנו רבנן אדם יחידי נברא ומפני מה שלא יהו המינים אומרין הרבה רשויות בשמים דבר אחר מפני הצדיקים ומפני הרשעים שלא יהו הצדיקים אומרים אנו בני צדיק ורשעים אומרים אנו בני רשע,דבר אחר מפני המשפחות שלא יהו משפחות מתגרות זו בזו ומה עכשיו שנברא יחיד מתגרות נבראו שנים על אחת כמה וכמה דבר אחר מפני הגזלנין ומפני החמסנין ומה עכשיו שנברא יחידי גוזלין וחומסין נבראו שנים על אחת כמה וכמה:,ולהגיד גדולתו כו': תנו רבנן להגיד גדולתו של מלך מלכי המלכים הקדוש ברוך הוא שאדם טובע כמה מטבעות בחותם אחד וכולן דומין זה לזה אבל הקדוש ברוך הוא טובע כל אדם בחותמו של אדם הראשון ואין אחד מהן דומה לחבירו שנא' (איוב לח, יד) תתהפך כחומר חותם ויתיצבו כמו לבוש,ומפני מה אין פרצופיהן דומין זה לזה שלא יראה אדם דירה נאה ואשה נאה ויאמר שלי היא שנאמר (איוב לח, טו) וימנע מרשעים אורם וזרוע רמה תשבר,תניא היה רבי מאיר אומר בשלשה דברים אדם משתנה מחבירו בקול במראה ובדעת בקול ובמראה משום ערוה ובדעת מפני הגזלנין והחמסנין,ת"ר אדם נברא בערב שבת ומפני מה שלא יהו המינים אומרים שותף היה לו להקדוש ברוך הוא במעשה בראשית דבר אחר שאם תזוח דעתו עליו אומר לו יתוש קדמך במעשה בראשית דבר אחר כדי שיכנס למצוה מיד,דבר אחר כדי שיכנס לסעודה מיד משל למלך בשר ודם שבנה פלטרין ושיכללן והתקין סעודה ואחר כך הכניס אורחין שנא' (משלי ט, א) חכמת בנתה ביתה חצבה עמודיה שבעה (משלי ט, ב) טבחה טבחה מסכה יינה אף ערכה שולחנה (משלי ט, ג) שלחה נערותיה תקרא על גפי מרומי קרת,חכמת בנתה ביתה זו מידתו של הקב"ה שברא את כל העולם כולו בחכמה חצבה עמודיה שבעה אלו שבעת ימי בראשית טבחה טבחה מסכה יינה אף ערכה שולחנה אלו ימים ונהרות וכל צורכי עולם שלחה נערותיה תקרא זה אדם וחוה,על גפי מרומי קרת רבה בר בר חנה רמי כתיב על גפי וכתיב על כסא בתחלה על גפי ולבסוף על כסא,(משלי ט, ד) מי פתי יסור הנה חסר לב אמרה לו אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא מי פתאו לזה אשה אמרה לו דכתיב (משלי ו, לב) נואף אשה חסר לב,תניא היה ר' מאיר אומר אדם הראשון מכל העולם כולו הוצבר עפרו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, טז) גלמי ראו עיניך (וכתיב (דברי הימים ב טז, ט) כי ה' עיניו משוטטות בכל הארץ) אמר רב אושעיא משמיה דרב אדם הראשון 38a. bandthe mother of Shealtiel bconceivedwhile bstanding. Alternatively, “Shealtiel”is interpreted as meaning bthat God [ iEl] requested [ inishal]dissolution bof His oath,as it were, and allowed Jeconiah to father a child. In the continuation of that passage in Chronicles, where the verse refers to the grandson of Jeconiah, bZerubbabel [ iZerubavel],the Gemara interprets that his name teaches bthat he was sown [ inizra /i],i.e., conceived, bin Babylonia [ iBavel /i]. And whatwas bhistrue bname? Nehemiah, son of Hachaliah,was bhistrue bname. /b,Having mentioned the sons of Rabbi Ḥiyya, the Gemara relates: bYehuda and Ḥizkiyya, sons of Rabbi Ḥiyya, were sitting at a meal before RabbiYehuda HaNasi, band they were not saying anything.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid tohis servants: bAdd more wine for the young men, so that they will say something. Once they were inebriated, they loosenedtheir tongues band said: The son of David,i.e., the Messiah, bwill not come until two fathers’ houses are destroyed from Israel,as those two families are preventing the redemption. bAnd they are the head of the exile who is in Babylonia,i.e., the family of the Exilarch, band the iNasiwho is in Eretz Yisrael,i.e., the family of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi (see 5a), bas it is statedin reference to the Messiah: b“And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offense to both the houses of Israel”(Isaiah 8:14).,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to them: My children, do you throw thorns in my eyes?How can you say this in the presence of the iNasihimself? bRabbi Ḥiyya said to him: My teacher, do not viewtheir behavior bin a negativelight. bWine [ iyayin /i] is given in letters of seventy,i.e., the numerical value of the letters in the word iyayinis seventy, band secret [ isod] is given in letters of seventy,i.e., the numerical value of the letters in the word isodis seventy. When bwine enters, secrets emerge. /b,Apropos the discussion of exile, bRav Ḥisda saysthat bMar Ukva says, and some saythat bRav Ḥisda saysthat bMari bar Mar taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And so the Lord has hastened the evil, and brought it upon us; for the Lord our God is righteousin all His works He has done” (Daniel 9:14)? Is it bbecause “the Lordour God bis righteous”that b“the Lord has hastened the evil, and brought it upon us”?He explains: bYes,because it was ba righteousact that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, performed for the Jewish people by hastening the exile of Zedekiah whilethe Jews who had been exiled in bthe exile of Jeconiah,which preceded it, bwere still alive,as the wise people among those exiled with Jeconiah were able to instruct those exiled with Zedekiah.,This is bas it is written concerning the exile of Jeconiah:“And all the men of might, seven thousand, and bthe craftsmen [ iheḥarash /i] and the smiths [ ivehammasger /i] one thousand”(II Kings 24:16). The Gemara interprets: The term b“ iḥarash /i,”which can be read as iḥeresh /i, deaf-mute, is referring to Torah scholars, as bwhen they opentheir mouths to teach Torah, ballthe others bbecome as thoughthey were bdeaf-mutes,as they would listen quietly to the one teaching Torah. The term b“ imasger /i,”which is related to isaggur /i, meaning closed, teaches that bwhen they close,i.e., finish, teaching bthe ihalakha /i, they do not reopenthe discussion, as all has been clarified. bAnd how many werethese Torah scholars? bOne thousand. /b, bUlla says:The righteous act that the Lord performed, referred to in the verse in Daniel, was bthat He hastenedthe exile by btwo years of ivenoshantem /i.Moses taught: “When you shall have children, and children’s children, and you shall have remained long [ ivenoshantem /i] in the land, and shall deal corruptly, and make a carved idol, the likeness of anything, and shall do evil in the sight of the Lord your God, to provoke him to anger, I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that you shall soon utterly perish from off the land into which you go over the Jorden to possess it; you shall not prolong your days upon it, but shall utterly be destroyed” (Deuteronomy 4:25–26). The numerical value of the letters of the word “ ivenoshantem /i” is 852, and the Jewish people were exiled in the 850th year after entering Eretz Yisrael. Since they were exiled early, not all of the curses enumerated in the verse would be fulfilled., bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov says: Learn from itthat bfor the Master of the World,the term bsoonis referring to b852years, as the verse states: “You shall soon utterly perish,” and the intended time until the exile was 852 years.,§ The mishna teaches: bTherefore,Adam the first man was created alone. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAdam was created alone, and for whatreason? bSo that the heretics will not say: There are many authorities in Heaven,and each created a different person. bAlternatively, Adam was created alone due to the righteous and due to the wicked.It was bso that the righteous will not say: We are the children of the righteous,and righteousness is natural for us, so there is no need for us to exert ourselves to be righteous, bandso that bthe wickedwill not bsay: We are the children of the wickedand cannot change our ways.,The ibaraitacontinues: bAlternatively,he was created alone bdue to the families, so that the families will not quarrel with each other,each one boasting of the heritage of their progenitor. bAnd if now thatAdam bwas created alone,families still bquarreland each family claims superiority, if there were btwopeople bcreatedinitially, ball the more sowould they do this. bAlternatively,he was created alone bdue to the robbers and due to those who take by forcethat which is not theirs, as the feeling of fraternity among all people, having descended from the same forefather, will limit crime. bAnd if now thatAdam bwas created alone,criminals still brob and take by forcethat which is not theirs, if there were btwopeople bcreatedinitially, ball the more sowould this be the case.,The mishna teaches: bAndthis serves bto tell of the greatness ofthe Holy One, Blessed be He, as when a person stamps several coins with one seal, they are all similar to each other. But the supreme King of kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, stamped all people with the seal of Adam the first man, as all are his offspring, and not one of them is similar to another. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta8:5): The fact that Adam the first man was created alone serves bto declare the greatness of the supreme King of kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, as a person stamps several coins with one seal, and they are all similar to each other. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, stamps all people with the seal of Adam the firstman, band not one of themis bsimilar to another. As it is stated: “It is changed like clay under the seal and they stand as a garment”(Job 38:14). The verse describes people as being created “under the seal,” but their external appearance is different, just as garments can differ in appearance.,The ibaraitaasks: bAnd for whatreason bare their faces not similar to one another?The ibaraitaanswers: It is so bthat a man will not see a beautiful home or a beautiful woman and say: She is mine.If all people looked the same, no one could contradict him. bAs it is statedin the following verse: b“And from the wicked their light is withheld and the high arm shall be broken”(Job 38:15), indicating that the reason people look different from one another is to prevent the wicked from succeeding in their plans., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Meir would say:One bperson is different from another in three ways: In voice, in appearance, and in thought.The differences bin voice and appearanceare bdue to a woman forbidden to him,so that people will not exchange spouses one with another. bAndthe differences bin thoughtare bdue to the robbers and those who take by forcethat which is not theirs, as, if everyone thought in a similar way, criminals could take advantage of others because they would understand where they keep their valuables., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta8:7): bAdamthe first man bwas created on Shabbat eveat the close of the six days of Creation. bAnd for whatreason was this so? bSo that the heretics will notbe able to bsaythat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, had a partner,i.e., Adam, bin the acts of Creation. Alternatively,he was created on Shabbat eve so bthat ifa person bbecomes haughty,God can bsay to him: The mosquito preceded you in the acts of Creation,as you were created last. bAlternatively,he was created on Shabbat eve bin order that he enter into the mitzvaof observing Shabbat bimmediately. /b, bAlternatively,he was created on Shabbat eve, after all of the other creations, bin order that he enter into a feast immediately,as the whole world was prepared for him. This is bcomparable to a king of flesh and blood, whofirst bbuilt palaces [ ipalterin /i] and improved them, and prepared a feast and afterward brought in his guests. As it is stated: “Wisdom has built her house, and she has hewn out her seven pillars. She has killed her beasts; she has mingled her wine; she has also furnished her table. She has sent forth her maidens; she calls upon the top of the highest places of the city”(Proverbs 9:1–3).,The ibaraitaexplains: b“Wisdom has built her house”; thisis referring to bthe attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who created the entire world with wisdom. “She has hewn out her seven pillars”; thesepillars are referring to bthe seven days of Creation,in which the world was established. b“She has killed her beasts; she has mingled her wine; she has also furnished her table”; theseare referring to bthe seas and rivers and all the necessities of the worldthat were created. b“She has sent forth her maidens; she calls”; thisis referring to bAdam and Eve,who were created at the end of Creation.,The verses continue: b“Upon the top of the highest places of the city.” Rabba bar bar Ḥana raises a contradiction:It bis written: “Upon the top ofthe highest places,” bandit bis writtenafterward: “For she sits at the door of her house, bon a seatin the high places of the city” (Proverbs 9:14). Is she at the top or on a seat? He explains: bInitially,Adam was alone bupon the topof a high place, band ultimately,Adam was bon a seatthat is set for a bridegroom, when Eve was paired with him.,The verse states in that passage: b“Whoever is thoughtless, let him turn in here; as for him that lacks understanding, she tells him”(Proverbs 9:4). The Gemara explains: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Who lured thisman to sin? bThe woman told himto sin. An allusion to the interpretation that one who is lured to sin by a woman is called one “that lacks understanding” is bas it is written: “He who commits adultery with a woman lacks understanding”(Proverbs 6:32)., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Meir would say: The dustthat served to form bAdam the firstman bwas gathered from the entire world, as it is stated:“When I was made in secret and wrought in the lowest places of the earth, bYour eyes did see my unshaped flesh”(Psalms 139:15–16), bandit bis written: “For the eyes of the Lord run to and fro throughout the whole earth”(II Chronicles 16:9), indicating that this figure was formed from the whole earth, the place within the view of the Lord’s eyes. bRav Oshaya says in the name of Rav:With regard to bAdam the firstman


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
advisors Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 56
bible Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
body (human), xv Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
caution Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 56
change Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
city Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
claudius, roman emperor, expulsion of jews from rome by Feldman, Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered (2006) 708, 732, 745
covenant Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
critical spatiality Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186, 190
cyril of jerusalem, daniel Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 62
david Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 56
enemies Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 56
enoch literature, its motivation Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 46
essenes, proto-essenes Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 46
faithfulness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 56
hanukkah, holiday of, festival of lights Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 151
hebrew bible Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
high priesthood, as municipal position Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 254
holy Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
hymns Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
imagery Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
israel/israelite Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 56
jonathan Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 56
kinship Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
letters, hasmonean propaganda' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 151
map/mapping Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
moses, law of Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 62
moses Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 56
nan, altar Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
onias iii Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 254
physical Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
place Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186, 190
priest, high Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186, 190
primordial Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
pseudonymity, motives for Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 46
rabbinic literature Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 151
rebellion, etiology Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 254
ritual Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
sadducees Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 46
sanctuary Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
saul Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 56
scribe Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
scripture Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
secondspace Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
secrets/confidences, keeping/betraying Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 56
sirach Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 62
space Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
surface Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
temple Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
temple (second), mount Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 254
theme Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186
thirdspace Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
time Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 186, 190
universal Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
universalism Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 254
virtue Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 56
worship Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190
zadok, zadokites Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 46
zerubbabel Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 151
zion Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 190