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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



673
Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 45-50


nanFrom his descendants the Lord brought forth a man of mercy,who found favor in the sight of all flesh and was beloved by God and man,Moses, whose memory is blessed., He made him equal in glory to the holy ones,and made him great in the fears of his enemies., By his words he caused signs to cease;the Lord glorified him in the presence of kings. He gave him commands for his people,and showed him part of his glory., He sanctified him through faithfulness and meekness;he chose him out of all mankind., He made him hear his voice,and led him into the thick darkness,and gave him the commandments face to face,the law of life and knowledge,to teach Jacob the covenant,and Israel his judgments., He exalted Aaron, the brother of Moses,a holy man like him, of the tribe of Levi., He made an everlasting covenant with him,and gave him the priesthood of the people. He blessed him with splendid vestments,and put a glorious robe upon him., He clothed him with superb perfection,and strengthened him with the symbols of authority,the linen breeches, the long robe, and the ephod., And he encircled him with pomegranates,with very many golden bells round about,to send forth a sound as he walked,to make their ringing heard in the temple as a reminder to the sons of his people;, with a holy garment, of gold and blue and purple, the work of an embroiderer;with the oracle of judgment, Urim and Thummim;, with twisted scarlet, the work of a craftsman;with precious stones engraved like signets,in a setting of gold, the work of a jeweler,for a reminder, in engraved letters,according to the number of the tribes of Israel;, with a gold crown upon his turban,inscribed like a signet with "Holiness," a distinction to be prized, the work of an expert,the delight of the eyes, richly adorned., Before his time there never were such beautiful things. No outsider ever put them on,but only his sons and his descendants perpetually., His sacrifices shall be wholly burned twice every day continually., Moses ordained him,and anointed him with holy oil;it was an everlasting covenant for him and for his descendants all the days of heaven,to minister to the Lord and serve as priest and bless his people in his name., He chose him out of all the living to offer sacrifice to the Lord,incense and a pleasing odor as a memorial portion,to make atonement for the people., In his commandments he gave him authority and statutes and judgments,to teach Jacob the testimonies,and to enlighten Israel with his law., Outsiders conspired against him,and envied him in the wilderness,Dathan and Abiram and their men and the company of Korah, in wrath and anger., The Lord saw it and was not pleased,and in the wrath of his anger they were destroyed;he wrought wonders against them to consume them in flaming fire., He added glory to Aaron and gave him a heritage;he allotted to him the first of the first fruits,he prepared bread of first fruits in abundance;, for they eat the sacrifices to the Lord,which he gave to him and his descendants., But in the land of the people he has no inheritance,and he has no portion among the people;for the Lord himself is his portion and inheritance., Phinehas the son of Eleazar is the third in glory,for he was zealous in the fear of the Lord,and stood fast, when the people turned away,in the ready goodness of his soul,and made atonement for Israel., Therefore a covenant of peace was established with him,that he should be leader of the sanctuary and of his people,that he and his descendants should have the dignity of the priesthood for ever., A covenant was also established with David,the son of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah:the heritage of the king is from son to son only;so the heritage of Aaron is for his descendants., May the Lord grant you wisdom in your heart to judge his people in righteousness,so that their prosperity may not vanish,and that their glory may endure throughout their generations.


nanJoshua the son of Nun was mighty in war,and was the successor of Moses in prophesying. He became, in accordance with his name,a great savior of Gods elect,to take vengeance on the enemies that rose against them,so that he might give Israel its inheritance., How glorious he was when he lifted his hands and stretched out his sword against the cities!, Was not the sun held back by his hand?And did not one day become as long as two?, He called upon the Most High, the Mighty One,when enemies pressed him on every side,, and the great Lord answered him with hailstones of mighty power. He hurled down war upon that nation,and at the descent of Beth-horon he destroyed those who resisted,so that the nations might know his armament,that he was fighting in the sight of the Lord;for he wholly followed the Mighty One., And in the days of Moses he did a loyal deed,he and Caleb the son of Jephunneh:they withstood the congregation,restrained the people from sin,and stilled their wicked murmuring., And these two alone were preserved out of six hundred thousand people on foot,to bring them into their inheritance,into a land flowing with milk and honey., And the Lord gave Caleb strength,which remained with him to old age,so that he went up to the hill country,and his children obtained it for an inheritance;, so that all the sons of Israel might see that it is good to follow the Lord., The judges also, with their respective names,those whose hearts did not fall into idolatry and who did not turn away from the Lord -- may their memory be blessed!, By the law of the Lord he judged the congregation,and the Lord watched over Jacob., By his faithfulness he was proved to be a prophet,and by his words he became known as a trustworthy seer., He called upon the Lord, the Mighty One,when his enemies pressed him on every side,and he offered in sacrifice a sucking lamb., Then the Lord thundered from heaven,and made his voice heard with a mighty sound;, and he wiped out the leaders of the people of Tyre and all the rulers of the Philistines., Before the time of his eternal sleep,Samuel called men to witness before the Lord and his anointed:"I have not taken any ones property,not so much as a pair of shoes." And no man accused him., Even after he had fallen asleep he prophesied and revealed to the king his death,and lifted up his voice out of the earth in prophecy,to blot out the wickedness of the people.


nanAnd after him Nathan rose up to prophesy in the days of David., As the fat is selected from the peace offering,so David was selected from the sons of Israel., He played with lions as with young goats,and with bears as with lambs of the flock., In his youth did he not kill a giant,and take away reproach from the people,when he lifted his hand with a stone in the sling and struck down the boasting of Goliath?, For he appealed to the Lord, the Most High,and he gave him strength in his right hand to slay a man mighty in war,to exalt the power of his people., So they glorified him for his ten thousands,and praised him for the blessings of the Lord,when the glorious diadem was bestowed upon him., For he wiped out his enemies on every side,and annihilated his adversaries the Philistines;he crushed their power even to this day., In all that he did he gave thanks to the Holy One, the Most High, with ascriptions of glory;he sang praise with all his heart,and he loved his Maker., He placed singers before the altar,to make sweet melody with their voices., He gave beauty to the feasts,and arranged their times throughout the year,while they praised Gods holy name,and the sanctuary resounded from early morning., The Lord took away his sins,and exalted his power for ever;he gave him the covenant of kings and a throne of glory in Israel., After him rose up a wise son who fared amply because of him;, Solomon reigned in days of peace,and God gave him rest on every side,that he might build a house for his name and prepare a sanctuary to stand for ever., How wise you became in your youth!You overflowed like a river with understanding., Your soul covered the earth,and you filled it with parables and riddles., Your name reached to far-off islands,and you were loved for your peace., For your songs and proverbs and parables,and for your interpretations, the countries marveled at you., In the name of the Lord God,who is called the God of Israel,you gathered gold like tin and amassed silver like lead., But you laid your loins beside women,and through your body you were brought into subjection., You put stain upon your honor,and defiled your posterity,so that you brought wrath upon your children and they were grieved at your folly,, so that the sovereignty was divided and a disobedient kingdom arose out of Ephraim., But the Lord will never give up his mercy,nor cause any of his works to perish;he will never blot out the descendants of his chosen one,nor destroy the posterity of him who loved him;so he gave a remnant to Jacob,and to David a root of his stock., Solomon rested with his fathers,and left behind him one of his sons,ample in folly and lacking in understanding,Rehoboam, whose policy caused the people to revolt. Also Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who caused Israel to sin and gave to Ephraim a sinful way., Their sins became exceedingly many,so as to remove them from their land., For they sought out every sort of wickedness,till vengeance came upon them.


nanThen the prophet Elijah arose like a fire,and his word burned like a torch., He brought a famine upon them,and by his zeal he made them few in number., By the word of the Lord he shut up the heavens,and also three times brought down fire., How glorious you were, O Elijah, in your wondrous deeds!And who has the right to boast which you have?, You who raised a corpse from death and from Hades, by the word of the Most High;, who brought kings down to destruction,and famous men from their beds;, who heard rebuke at Sinai and judgments of vengeance at Horeb;, who anointed kings to inflict retribution,and prophets to succeed you., You who were taken up by a whirlwind of fire,in a chariot with horses of fire;, you who are ready at the appointed time, it is written,to calm the wrath of God before it breaks out in fury,to turn the heart of the father to the son,and to restore the tribes of Jacob., Blessed are those who saw you,and those who have been adorned in love;for we also shall surely live., It was Elijah who was covered by the whirlwind,and Elisha was filled with his spirit;in all his days he did not tremble before any ruler,and no one brought him into subjection., Nothing was too hard for him,and when he was dead his body prophesied., As in his life he did wonders,so in death his deeds were marvelous., For all this the people did not repent,and they did not forsake their sins,till they were carried away captive from their land and were scattered over all the earth;the people were left very few in number,but with rulers from the house of David., Some of them did what was pleasing to God,but others multiplied sins., Hezekiah fortified his city,and brought water into the midst of it;he tunneled the sheer rock with iron and built pools for water., In his days Sennacherib came up,and sent the Rabshakeh;he lifted up his hand against Zion and made great boasts in his arrogance., Then their hearts were shaken and their hands trembled,and they were in anguish, like women in travail., But they called upon the Lord who is merciful,spreading forth their hands toward him;and the Holy One quickly heard them from heaven,and delivered them by the hand of Isaiah., The Lord smote the camp of the Assyrians,and his angel wiped them out., For Hezekiah did what was pleasing to the Lord,and he held strongly to the ways of David his father,which Isaiah the prophet commanded,who was great and faithful in his vision., In his days the sun went backward,and he lengthened the life of the king., By the spirit of might he saw the last things,and comforted those who mourned in Zion., He revealed what was to occur to the end of time,and the hidden things before they came to pass.


nanThe memory of Josiah is like a blending of incense prepared by the art of the perfumer;it is sweet as honey to every mouth,and like music at a banquet of wine., He was led aright in converting the people,and took away the abominations of iniquity., He set his heart upon the Lord;in the days of wicked men he strengthened godliness., Except David and Hezekiah and Josiah they all sinned greatly,for they forsook the law of the Most High;the kings of Judah came to an end;, for they gave their power to others,and their glory to a foreign nation,, who set fire to the chosen city of the sanctuary,and made her streets desolate,according to the word of Jeremiah., For they had afflicted him;yet he had been consecrated in the womb as prophet,to pluck up and afflict and destroy,and likewise to build and to plant., It was Ezekiel who saw the vision of glory which God showed him above the chariot of the cherubim., For God remembered his enemies with storm,and did good to those who directed their ways aright., May the bones of the twelve prophets revive from where they lie,for they comforted the people of Jacob and delivered them with confident hope., How shall we magnify Zerubbabel?He was like a signet on the right hand,, and so was Jeshua the son of Jozadak;in their days they built the house and raised a temple holy to the Lord,prepared for everlasting glory., The memory of Nehemiah also is lasting;he raised for us the walls that had fallen,and set up the gates and bars and rebuilt our ruined houses., No one like Enoch has been created on earth,for he was taken up from the earth., And no man like Joseph has been born,and his bones are cared for., Shem and Seth were honored among men,and Adam above every living being in the creation.


nanThe leader of his brethren and the pride of his people was Simon the high priest, son of Onias,who in his life repaired the house,and in his time fortified the temple., He laid the foundations for the high double walls,the high retaining walls for the temple enclosure., In his days a cistern for water was quarried out,a reservoir like the sea in circumference., He considered how to save his people from ruin,and fortified the city to withstand a seige., How glorious he was when the people gathered round him as he came out of the inner sanctuary!, like the sun shining upon the temple of the Most High,and like the rainbow gleaming in glorious clouds;, like roses in the days of the first fruits,like lilies by a spring of water,like a green shoot on Lebanon on a summer day;, like fire and incense in the censer,like a vessel of hammered gold adorned with all kinds of precious stones;, like an olive tree putting forth its fruit,and like a cypress towering in the clouds., When he put on his glorious robe and clothed himself with superb perfection and went up to the holy altar,he made the court of the sanctuary glorious., And when he received the portions from the hands of the priests,as he stood by the hearth of the altar with a garland of brethren around him,he was like a young cedar on Lebanon;and they surrounded him like the trunks of palm trees,, all the sons of Aaron in their splendor with the Lords offering in their hands,before the whole congregation of Israel., Finishing the service at the altars,and arranging the offering to the Most High, the Almighty,, he reached out his hand to the cup and poured a libation of the blood of the grape;he poured it out at the foot of the altar,a pleasing odor to the Most High, the King of all., Then the sons of Aaron shouted,they sounded the trumpets of hammered work,they made a great noise to be heard for remembrance before the Most High., Then all the people together made haste and fell to the ground upon their faces to worship their Lord,the Almighty, God Most High., And the singers praised him with their voices in sweet and full-toned melody., And the people besought the Lord Most High in prayer before him who is merciful,till the order of worship of the Lord was ended;so they completed his service., Then Simon came down, and lifted up his hands over the whole congregation of the sons of Israel,to pronounce the blessing of the Lord with his lips,and to glory in his name;, and they bowed down in worship a second time,to receive the blessing from the Most High., And now bless the God of all,who in every way does great things;who exalts our days from birth,and deals with us according to his mercy., May he give us gladness of heart,and grant that peace may be in our days in Israel,as in the days of old., May he entrust to us his mercy!And let him deliver us in our days!, Those who live on Mount Seir, and the Philistines,and the foolish people that dwell in Shechem., Instruction in understanding and knowledge I have written in this book,Jesus the son of Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), son of Eleazar, of Jerusalem,who out of his heart poured forth wisdom., Blessed is he who concerns himself with these things,and he who lays them to heart will become wise., For if he does them, he will be strong for all things,for the light of the Lord is his path.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 3-5, 8-9, 1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Septuagint, 2 Esdras, 11-16, 1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3. Septuagint, Tobit, 10-14, 2-9, 1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 49.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

49.5. שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי אַחִים כְּלֵי חָמָס מְכֵרֹתֵיהֶם׃ 49.5. Simeon and Levi are brethren; Weapons of violence their kinship."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 25.11-25.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.11. פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן הֵשִׁיב אֶת־חֲמָתִי מֵעַל בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקַנְאוֹ אֶת־קִנְאָתִי בְּתוֹכָם וְלֹא־כִלִּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקִנְאָתִי׃ 25.12. לָכֵן אֱמֹר הִנְנִי נֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם׃ 25.13. וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו בְּרִית כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר קִנֵּא לֵאלֹהָיו וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.11. ’Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned My wrath away from the children of Israel, in that he was very jealous for My sake among them, so that I consumed not the children of Israel in My jealousy." 25.12. Wherefore say: Behold, I give unto him My covet of peace;" 25.13. and it shall be unto him, and to his seed after him, the covet of an everlasting priesthood; because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 31.10-31.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.11. בָּטַח בָּהּ לֵב בַּעְלָהּ וְשָׁלָל לֹא יֶחְסָר׃ 31.12. גְּמָלַתְהוּ טוֹב וְלֹא־רָע כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיה׃ 31.13. דָּרְשָׁה צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים וַתַּעַשׂ בְּחֵפֶץ כַּפֶּיהָ׃ 31.14. הָיְתָה כָּאֳנִיּוֹת סוֹחֵר מִמֶּרְחָק תָּבִיא לַחְמָהּ׃ 31.15. וַתָּקָם בְּעוֹד לַיְלָה וַתִּתֵּן טֶרֶף לְבֵיתָהּ וְחֹק לְנַעֲרֹתֶיהָ׃ 31.16. זָמְמָה שָׂדֶה וַתִּקָּחֵהוּ מִפְּרִי כַפֶּיהָ נטע [נָטְעָה] כָּרֶם׃ 31.17. חָגְרָה בְעוֹז מָתְנֶיהָ וַתְּאַמֵּץ זְרֹעוֹתֶיהָ׃ 31.18. טָעֲמָה כִּי־טוֹב סַחְרָהּ לֹא־יִכְבֶּה בליל [בַלַּיְלָה] נֵרָהּ׃ 31.19. יָדֶיהָ שִׁלְּחָה בַכִּישׁוֹר וְכַפֶּיהָ תָּמְכוּ פָלֶךְ׃ 31.21. לֹא־תִירָא לְבֵיתָהּ מִשָּׁלֶג כִּי כָל־בֵּיתָהּ לָבֻשׁ שָׁנִים׃ 31.22. מַרְבַדִּים עָשְׂתָה־לָּהּ שֵׁשׁ וְאַרְגָּמָן לְבוּשָׁהּ׃ 31.23. נוֹדָע בַּשְּׁעָרִים בַּעְלָהּ בְּשִׁבְתּוֹ עִם־זִקְנֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 31.24. סָדִין עָשְׂתָה וַתִּמְכֹּר וַחֲגוֹר נָתְנָה לַכְּנַעֲנִי׃ 31.25. עֹז־וְהָדָר לְבוּשָׁהּ וַתִּשְׂחַק לְיוֹם אַחֲרוֹן׃ 31.26. פִּיהָ פָּתְחָה בְחָכְמָה וְתוֹרַת־חֶסֶד עַל־לְשׁוֹנָהּ׃ 31.27. צוֹפִיָּה הֲלִיכוֹת בֵּיתָהּ וְלֶחֶם עַצְלוּת לֹא תֹאכֵל׃ 31.28. קָמוּ בָנֶיהָ וַיְאַשְּׁרוּהָ בַּעְלָהּ וַיְהַלְלָהּ׃ 31.29. רַבּוֹת בָּנוֹת עָשׂוּ חָיִל וְאַתְּ עָלִית עַל־כֻּלָּנָה׃ 31.31. תְּנוּ־לָהּ מִפְּרִי יָדֶיהָ וִיהַלְלוּהָ בַשְּׁעָרִים מַעֲשֶׂיהָ׃ 31.10. A woman of valour who can find? For her price is far above rubies." 31.11. The heart of her husband doth safely trust in her, and he hath no lack of gain." 31.12. She doeth him good and not evil all the days of her life." 31.13. She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh willingly with her hands." 31.14. She is like the merchant-ships; she bringeth her food from afar." 31.15. She riseth also while it is yet night, and giveth food to her household, and a portion to her maidens." 31.16. She considereth a field, and buyeth it; with the fruit of her hands she planteth a vineyard." 31.17. She girdeth her loins with strength, And maketh strong her arms." 31.18. She perceiveth that her merchandise is good; Her lamp goeth not out by night." 31.19. She layeth her hands to the distaff, And her hands hold the spindle." 31.20. She stretcheth out her hand to the poor; Yea, she reacheth forth her hands to the needy." 31.21. She is not afraid of the snow for her household; For all her household are clothed with scarlet." 31.22. She maketh for herself coverlets; Her clothing is fine linen and purple." 31.23. Her husband is known in the gates, When he sitteth among the elders of the land." 31.24. She maketh linen garments and selleth them; And delivereth girdles unto the merchant." 31.25. Strength and dignity are her clothing; And she laugheth at the time to come." 31.26. She openeth her mouth with wisdom; And the law of kindness is on her tongue." 31.27. She looketh well to the ways of her household, And eateth not the bread of idleness." 31.28. Her children rise up, and call her blessed; Her husband also, and he praiseth her:" 31.29. ’Many daughters have done valiantly, But thou excellest them all.’" 31.30. Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain; But a woman that feareth the LORD, she shall be praised." 31.31. Give her of the fruit of her hands; And let her works praise her in the gates."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 106.3, 106.23, 106.30-106.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

106.3. אַשְׁרֵי שֹׁמְרֵי מִשְׁפָּט עֹשֵׂה צְדָקָה בְכָל־עֵת׃ 106.3. וַיַּעֲמֹד פִּינְחָס וַיְפַלֵּל וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה׃ 106.23. וַיֹּאמֶר לְהַשְׁמִידָם לוּלֵי מֹשֶׁה בְחִירוֹ עָמַד בַּפֶּרֶץ לְפָנָיו לְהָשִׁיב חֲמָתוֹ מֵהַשְׁחִית׃ 106.31. וַתֵּחָשֶׁב לוֹ לִצְדָקָה לְדֹר וָדֹר עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 106.3. Happy are they that keep justice, that do righteousness at all times." 106.23. Therefore He said that He would destroy them, Had not Moses His chosen stood before Him in the breach, To turn back His wrath, lest He should destroy them." 106.30. Then stood up Phinehas, and wrought judgment, And so the plague was stayed." 106.31. And that was counted unto him for righteousness, Unto all generations for ever."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 6.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.12. וַיִשַּׁרְנָה הַפָּרוֹת בַּדֶּרֶךְ עַל־דֶּרֶךְ בֵּית שֶׁמֶשׁ בִּמְסִלָּה אַחַת הָלְכוּ הָלֹךְ וְגָעוֹ וְלֹא־סָרוּ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול וְסַרְנֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים הֹלְכִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם עַד־גְּבוּל בֵּית שָׁמֶשׁ׃ 6.12. And the cows took the straight way by the road of Bet-shemesh, and went along the highway, lowing as they went, and turned not aside to the right hand or to the left; and the lords of the Pelishtim went after them to the border of Bet-shemesh."
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 24 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10. Septuagint, Tobit, 10-14, 2-9, 1 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 7.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.1. And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charm 6. And it came to pass when the children of men had multiplied that in those days were born unto",them beautiful and comely daughters. And the angels, the children of the heaven, saw and lusted after them, and said to one another: 'Come, let us choose us wives from among the children of men,and beget us children.' And Semjaza, who was their leader, said unto them: 'I fear ye will not,indeed agree to do this deed, and I alone shall have to pay the penalty of a great sin.' And they all answered him and said: 'Let us all swear an oath, and all bind ourselves by mutual imprecations,not to abandon this plan but to do this thing.' Then sware they all together and bound themselves",by mutual imprecations upon it. And they were in all two hundred; who descended in the days of Jared on the summit of Mount Hermon, and they called it Mount Hermon, because they had sworn,and bound themselves by mutual imprecations upon it. And these are the names of their leaders: Samlazaz, their leader, Araklba, Rameel, Kokablel, Tamlel, Ramlel, Danel, Ezeqeel, Baraqijal,,Asael, Armaros, Batarel, Ael, Zaq1el, Samsapeel, Satarel, Turel, Jomjael, Sariel. These are their chiefs of tens.
12. Anon., Testament of Reuben, 5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

13. Dead Sea Scrolls, Aramaic Levi Document, 4.7-4.8, 13.4-13.8, 13.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, Ben Sira, 45-50, 44 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.41, 2.1, 2.24-2.27, 2.49-2.64, 3.3-3.9, 4.30-4.33, 5.1-5.2, 14.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.41. Then the king wrote to his whole kingdom that all should be one people 2.1. In those days Mattathias the son of John, son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, moved from Jerusalem and settled in Modein. 2.24. When Mattathias saw it, be burned with zeal and his heart was stirred. He gave vent to righteous anger; he ran and killed him upon the altar. 2.25. At the same time he killed the kings officer who was forcing them to sacrifice, and he tore down the altar. 2.26. Thus he burned with zeal for the law, as Phinehas did against Zimri the son of Salu. 2.27. Then Mattathias cried out in the city with a loud voice, saying: "Let every one who is zealous for the law and supports the covet come out with me! 2.49. Now the days drew near for Mattathias to die, and he said to his sons: "Arrogance and reproach have now become strong; it is a time of ruin and furious anger. 2.50. Now, my children, show zeal for the law, and give your lives for the covet of our fathers. 2.51. Remember the deeds of the fathers, which they did in their generations; and receive great honor and an everlasting name. 2.52. Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness? 2.53. Joseph in the time of his distress kept the commandment, and became lord of Egypt. 2.54. Phinehas our father, because he was deeply zealous, received the covet of everlasting priesthood. 2.55. Joshua, because he fulfilled the command, became a judge in Israel. 2.56. Caleb, because he testified in the assembly, received an inheritance in the land. 2.57. David, because he was merciful, inherited the throne of the kingdom for ever. 2.58. Elijah because of great zeal for the law was taken up into heaven. 2.59. Haniah, Azariah, and Mishael believed and were saved from the flame. 2.60. Daniel because of his innocence was delivered from the mouth of the lions. 2.61. And so observe, from generation to generation, that none who put their trust in him will lack strength. 2.62. Do not fear the words of a sinner, for his splendor will turn into dung and worms. 2.63. Today he will be exalted, but tomorrow he will not be found, because he has returned to the dust, and his plans will perish. 2.64. My children, be courageous and grow strong in the law, for by it you will gain honor. 3.3. He extended the glory of his people. Like a giant he put on his breastplate;he girded on his armor of war and waged battles,protecting the host by his sword. 3.4. He was like a lion in his deeds,like a lions cub roaring for prey. 3.5. He searched out and pursued the lawless;he burned those who troubled his people. 3.6. Lawless men shrank back for fear of him;all the evildoers were confounded;and deliverance prospered by his hand. 3.7. He embittered many kings,but he made Jacob glad by his deeds,and his memory is blessed for ever. 3.8. He went through the cities of Judah;he destroyed the ungodly out of the land;thus he turned away wrath from Israel. 3.9. He was renowned to the ends of the earth;he gathered in those who were perishing. 4.30. When he saw that the army was strong, he prayed, saying, "Blessed art thou, O Savior of Israel, who didst crush the attack of the mighty warrior by the hand of thy servant David, and didst give the camp of the Philistines into the hands of Jonathan, the son of Saul, and of the man who carried his armor. 4.31. So do thou hem in this army by the hand of thy people Israel, and let them be ashamed of their troops and their cavalry. 4.32. Fill them with cowardice; melt the boldness of their strength; let them tremble in their destruction. 4.33. Strike them down with the sword of those who love thee, and let all who know thy name praise thee with hymns. 5.1. When the Gentiles round about heard that the altar had been built and the sanctuary dedicated as it was before, they became very angry 5.2. and they determined to destroy the descendants of Jacob who lived among them. So they began to kill and destroy among the people. 14.29. Since wars often occurred in the country, Simon the son of Mattathias, a priest of the sons of Joarib, and his brothers, exposed themselves to danger and resisted the enemies of their nation, in order that their sanctuary and the law might be perserved; and they brought great glory to their nation.
16. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 7.29, 7.30, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 14.20-15.10, 15, 15.5, 16, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 24.33, 25, 26, 26.5, 26.6, 26.7, 26.8, 26.9, 26.10, 26.11, 26.12, 26.13, 26.14, 26.15, 26.16, 26.17, 26.18, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 34.13, 34.14, 34.15, 34.17, 35, 36, 36.1, 36.2, 36.3, 36.4, 36.5, 36.6, 36.7, 36.8, 36.9, 36.10, 36.11, 36.12, 36.13, 36.14, 36.15, 36.16, 36.17, 36.18, 36.19, 36.20, 36.21, 36.22, 37, 38, 38.1, 38.2, 38.3, 38.4, 38.5, 38.6, 38.7, 38.8, 38.9, 38.10, 38.11, 38.12, 38.13, 38.14, 38.15, 38.23, 38.24-39.11, 38.31, 38.32, 38.33, 39, 39.1, 39.2, 39.3, 39.4, 39.5, 39.6, 39.7, 39.8, 39.9, 39.10, 39.11, 39.12, 39.13, 39.14, 39.15, 39.16, 39.17, 39.18, 39.19, 39.20, 39.21, 39.22, 39.23, 39.24, 39.25, 39.26, 39.27, 39.28, 39.29, 39.30, 39.31, 39.32, 39.33, 39.34, 39.35, 40, 41, 41.1, 41.2, 41.3, 41.4, 41.5, 41.6, 41.7, 41.8, 41.9, 41.10, 41.11, 41.12, 41.13, 41.14, 41.15, 42, 42.15-43.33, 43, 43.13, 43.18, 44, 44.1, 44.4, 44.6, 44.9, 44.10, 44.11, 44.12, 44.13, 44.14, 44.15, 45.5, 45.6, 45.7, 45.8, 45.9, 45.10, 45.11, 45.12, 45.13, 45.14, 45.15, 45.16, 45.17, 45.18, 45.19, 45.20, 45.21, 45.22, 45.23, 45.24, 45.25, 45.26, 46, 46.11, 46.12, 47, 48, 48.12, 49, 49.14, 50, 50.1, 50.2, 50.27, 50.28, 51, 51.1, 51.2, 51.3, 51.4, 51.5, 51.6, 51.7, 51.8, 51.9, 51.10, 51.11, 51.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

17. Septuagint, Judith, 3.8, 5.5-5.21, 7.30, 8.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

3.8. And he demolished all their shrines and cut down their sacred groves; for it had been given to him to destroy all the gods of the land, so that all nations should worship Nebuchadnezzar only, and all their tongues and tribes should call upon him as god. 5.5. Then Achior, the leader of all the Ammonites, said to him, "Let my lord now hear a word from the mouth of your servant, and I will tell you the truth about this people that dwells in the nearby mountain district. No falsehood shall come from your servant's mouth. 5.6. This people is descended from the Chaldeans. 5.7. At one time they lived in Mesopotamia, because they would not follow the gods of their fathers who were in Chaldea. 5.8. For they had left the ways of their ancestors, and they worshiped the God of heaven, the God they had come to know; hence they drove them out from the presence of their gods; and they fled to Mesopotamia, and lived there for a long time. 5.9. Then their God commanded them to leave the place where they were living and go to the land of Canaan. There they settled, and prospered, with much gold and silver and very many cattle. 5.10. When a famine spread over Canaan they went down to Egypt and lived there as long as they had food; and there they became a great multitude -- so great that they could not be counted. 5.11. So the king of Egypt became hostile to them; he took advantage of them and set them to making bricks, and humbled them and made slaves of them. 5.12. Then they cried out to their God, and he afflicted the whole land of Egypt with incurable plagues; and so the Egyptians drove them out of their sight. 5.13. Then God dried up the Red Sea before them 5.14. and he led them by the way of Sinai and Kadesh-barnea, and drove out all the people of the wilderness. 5.15. So they lived in the land of the Amorites, and by their might destroyed all the inhabitants of Heshbon; and crossing over the Jordan they took possession of all the hill country. 5.16. And they drove out before them the Canaanites and the Perizzites and the Jebusites and the Shechemites and all the Gergesites, and lived there a long time. 5.17. As long as they did not sin against their God they prospered, for the God who hates iniquity is with them. 5.18. But when they departed from the way which he had appointed for them, they were utterly defeated in many battles and were led away captive to a foreign country; the temple of their God was razed to the ground, and their cities were captured by their enemies. 5.19. But now they have returned to their God, and have come back from the places to which they were scattered, and have occupied Jerusalem, where their sanctuary is, and have settled in the hill country, because it was uninhabited. 5.20. Now therefore, my master and lord, if there is any unwitting error in this people and they sin against their God and we find out their offense, then we will go up and defeat them. 5.21. But if there is no transgression in their nation, then let my lord pass them by; for their Lord will defend them, and their God will protect them, and we shall be put to shame before the whole world. 7.30. And Uzziah said to them, "Have courage, my brothers! Let us hold out for five more days; by that time the Lord our God will restore to us his mercy, for he will not forsake us utterly. 8.31. So pray for us, since you are a devout woman, and the Lord will send us rain to fill our cisterns and we will no longer be faint.
18. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 10.1-10.11, 10.14-10.21, 15.5, 24.33, 39.1-39.11, 44.10-44.15, 45.23-45.25, 50.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

10.1. Wisdom protected the first-formed father of the world, when he alone had been created;she delivered him from his transgression 10.2. and gave him strength to rule all things. 10.3. But when an unrighteous man departed from her in his anger,he perished because in rage he slew his brother. 10.4. When the earth was flooded because of him,wisdom again saved it,steering the righteous man by a paltry piece of wood. 10.5. Wisdom also, when the nations in wicked agreement had been confounded,recognized the righteous man and preserved him blameless before God,and kept him strong in the face of his compassion for his child. 10.6. Wisdom rescued a righteous man when the ungodly were perishing;he escaped the fire that descended on the Five Cities. 10.7. Evidence of their wickedness still remains:a continually smoking wasteland,plants bearing fruit that does not ripen,and a pillar of salt standing as a monument to an unbelieving soul. 10.8. For because they passed wisdom by,they not only were hindered from recognizing the good,but also left for mankind a reminder of their folly,so that their failures could never go unnoticed. 10.9. Wisdom rescued from troubles those who served her. 10.10. When a righteous man fled from his brothers wrath,she guided him on straight paths;she showed him the kingdom of God,and gave him knowledge of angels;she prospered him in his labors,and increased the fruit of his toil. 10.11. When his oppressors were covetous,she stood by him and made him rich. 10.14. and when he was in prison she did not leave him,until she brought him the scepter of a kingdom and authority over his masters. Those who accused him she showed to be false,and she gave him everlasting honor. 10.15. A holy people and blameless race wisdom delivered from a nation of oppressors. 10.16. She entered the soul of a servant of the Lord,and withstood dread kings with wonders and signs. 10.17. She gave holy men the reward of their labors;she guided them along a marvelous way,and became a shelter to them by day,and a starry flame through the night. 10.18. She brought them over the Red Sea,and led them through deep waters; 10.19. but she drowned their enemies,and cast them up from the depth of the sea. 10.20. Therefore the righteous plundered the ungodly;they sang hymns, O Lord, to thy holy name,and praised with one accord thy defending hand 10.21. because wisdom opened the mouth of the dumb,and made the tongues of babes speak clearly. 15.5. whose appearance arouses yearning in fools,so that they desire the lifeless form of a dead image.
19. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 16.12-16.14, 16.16, 16.18-16.23, 16.25, 18.10-18.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.12. Yet the sacred and God-fearing mother did not wail with such a lament for any of them, nor did she dissuade any of them from dying, nor did she grieve as they were dying 16.13. but, as though having a mind like adamant and giving rebirth for immortality to the whole number of her sons, she implored them and urged them on to death for the sake of religion. 16.14. O mother, soldier of God in the cause of religion, elder and woman! By steadfastness you have conquered even a tyrant, and in word and deed you have proved more powerful than a man. 16.16. My sons, noble is the contest to which you are called to bear witness for the nation. Fight zealously for our ancestral law. 16.18. Remember that it is through God that you have had a share in the world and have enjoyed life 16.19. and therefore you ought to endure any suffering for the sake of God. 16.20. For his sake also our father Abraham was zealous to sacrifice his son Isaac, the ancestor of our nation; and when Isaac saw his father's hand wielding a sword and descending upon him, he did not cower. 16.21. And Daniel the righteous was thrown to the lions, and Haiah, Azariah, and Mishael were hurled into the fiery furnace and endured it for the sake of God. 16.22. You too must have the same faith in God and not be grieved. 16.23. It is unreasonable for people who have religious knowledge not to withstand pain. 16.25. They knew also that those who die for the sake of God live in God, as do Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the patriarchs. 18.10. While he was still with you, he taught you the law and the prophets. 18.11. He read to you about Abel slain by Cain, and Isaac who was offered as a burnt offering, and of Joseph in prison. 18.12. He told you of the zeal of Phineas, and he taught you about Haiah, Azariah, and Mishael in the fire. 18.13. He praised Daniel in the den of the lions and blessed him. 18.14. He reminded you of the scripture of Isaiah, which says, `Even though you go through the fire, the flame shall not consume you.' 18.15. He sang to you songs of the psalmist David, who said, `Many are the afflictions of the righteous.' 18.16. He recounted to you Solomon's proverb, `There is a tree of life for those who do his will.' 18.17. He confirmed the saying of Ezekiel, `Shall these dry bones live?' 18.18. For he did not forget to teach you the song that Moses taught, which says 18.19. `I kill and I make alive: this is your life and the length of your days.'
20. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.1-2.8, 6.1-6.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. Then the high priest Simon, facing the sanctuary, bending his knees and extending his hands with calm dignity, prayed as follows: 2.1. And because you love the house of Israel, you promised that if we should have reverses, and tribulation should overtake us, you would listen to our petition when we come to this place and pray. 2.2. Lord, Lord, king of the heavens, and sovereign of all creation, holy among the holy ones, the only ruler, almighty, give attention to us who are suffering grievously from an impious and profane man, puffed up in his audacity and power. 2.2. Speedily let your mercies overtake us, and put praises in the mouth of those who are downcast and broken in spirit, and give us peace. 2.3. For you, the creator of all things and the governor of all, are a just Ruler, and you judge those who have done anything in insolence and arrogance. 2.3. In order that he might not appear to be an enemy to all, he inscribed below: "But if any of them prefer to join those who have been initiated into the mysteries, they shall have equal citizenship with the Alexandrians. 2.4. You destroyed those who in the past committed injustice, among whom were even giants who trusted in their strength and boldness, whom you destroyed by bringing upon them a boundless flood. 2.5. You consumed with fire and sulphur the men of Sodom who acted arrogantly, who were notorious for their vices; and you made them an example to those who should come afterward. 2.6. You made known your mighty power by inflicting many and varied punishments on the audacious Pharaoh who had enslaved your holy people Israel. 2.7. And when he pursued them with chariots and a mass of troops, you overwhelmed him in the depths of the sea, but carried through safely those who had put their confidence in you, the Ruler over the whole creation. 2.8. And when they had seen works of your hands, they praised you, the Almighty. 6.1. Then a certain Eleazar, famous among the priests of the country, who had attained a ripe old age and throughout his life had been adorned with every virtue, directed the elders around him to cease calling upon the holy God and prayed as follows: 6.1. Even if our lives have become entangled in impieties in our exile, rescue us from the hand of the enemy, and destroy us, Lord, by whatever fate you choose. 6.2. King of great power, Almighty God Most High, governing all creation with mercy 6.2. Even the king began to shudder bodily, and he forgot his sullen insolence. 6.3. look upon the descendants of Abraham, O Father, upon the children of the sainted Jacob, a people of your consecrated portion who are perishing as foreigners in a foreign land. 6.3. Then the king, when he had returned to the city, summoned the official in charge of the revenues and ordered him to provide to the Jews both wines and everything else needed for a festival of seven days, deciding that they should celebrate their rescue with all joyfulness in that same place in which they had expected to meet their destruction. 6.4. Pharaoh with his abundance of chariots, the former ruler of this Egypt, exalted with lawless insolence and boastful tongue, you destroyed together with his arrogant army by drowning them in the sea, manifesting the light of your mercy upon the nation of Israel. 6.4. Then they feasted, provided with everything by the king, until the fourteenth day, on which also they made the petition for their dismissal. 6.5. Sennacherib exulting in his countless forces, oppressive king of the Assyrians, who had already gained control of the whole world by the spear and was lifted up against your holy city, speaking grievous words with boasting and insolence, you, O Lord, broke in pieces, showing your power to many nations. 6.6. The three companions in Babylon who had voluntarily surrendered their lives to the flames so as not to serve vain things, you rescued unharmed, even to a hair, moistening the fiery furnace with dew and turning the flame against all their enemies. 6.7. Daniel, who through envious slanders was cast down into the ground to lions as food for wild beasts, you brought up to the light unharmed. 6.8. And Jonah, wasting away in the belly of a huge, sea-born monster, you, Father, watched over and restored unharmed to all his family.
21. Philo of Alexandria, On Rewards And Punishments, 1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1. We find, then, that in the sacred oracles delivered by the prophet Moses, there are three separate characters; for a portion of them relates to the creation of the world, a portion is historical, and the third portion is legislative. Now the creation of the world is related throughout with exceeding beauty and in a manner admirably suited to the dignity of God, taking its beginning in the account of the creation of the heaven, and ending with that of the formation of man; the first of which things is the most perfect of all imperishable things, and the other of all corruptible and perishable things. And the Creator, connecting together immortal and mortal things at the creation, made the world, making what he had already created the domit parts, and what he was about to create the subject parts.
22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 198 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

198. But that nobility is placed only in the acquisition of virtue, and that you ought to imagine that he who has that is the only man really noble, and not the man who is born of noble and virtuous parents, is plain from many circumstances." XXXVII.
23. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 5-6, 4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4. For thus it is written: And it came to pass after certain days, that Cain brought of the fruits of the earth a sacrifice unto God; and Abel also brought of the firstlings of his sheep, and of the fat thereof. And God had respect to Abel and to his offerings, but Cain and his sacrifices He did not regard. And Cain was deeply grieved, and his countece fell. And God said to Cain, Why are you grieved, and why is your countece fallen? If you offer rightly, but do not divide rightly, have you not sinned? Be at peace: your offering returns to yourself, and you shall again possess it. And Cain said to Abel his brother, Let us go into the field. And it came to pass, while they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him. You see, brethren, how envy and jealousy led to the murder of a brother. Through envy, also, our father Jacob fled from the face of Esau his brother. Envy made Joseph be persecuted unto death, and to come into bondage. Genesis xxxvii Envy compelled Moses to flee from the face of Pharaoh king of Egypt, when he heard these words from his fellow-countryman, Who made you a judge or a ruler over us? Will you kill me, as you killed the Egyptian yesterday? Exodus 2:14 On account of envy, Aaron and Miriam had to make their abode without the camp. Numbers 12:14-15 Envy brought down Dathan and Abiram alive to Hades, through the sedition which they excited against God's servant Moses. Numbers 16:33 Through envy, David not only underwent the hatred of foreigners, but was also persecuted by Saul king of Israel.
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.152-4.153, 12.3-12.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.152. Phineas, a man in other respects better than the rest of the young men, and also one that surpassed his contemporaries in the dignity of his father, (for he was the son of Eleazar the high priest, and the grandson of [Aaron] Moses’s brother,) who was greatly troubled at what was done by Zimri, he resolved in earnest to inflict punishment on him, before his unworthy behavior should grow stronger by impunity, and in order to prevent this transgression from proceeding further, which would happen if the ringleaders were not punished. 4.153. He was of so great magimity, both in strength of mind and body, that when he undertook any very dangerous attempt, he did not leave it off till he overcame it, and got an entire victory. So he came into Zimri’s tent, and slew him with his javelin, and with it he slew Cozbi also 12.3. And while these princes ambitiously strove one against another, every one for his own principality, it came to pass that there were continual wars, and those lasting wars too; and the cities were sufferers, and lost a great many of their inhabitants in these times of distress, insomuch that all Syria, by the means of Ptolemy the son of Lagus, underwent the reverse of that denomination of Savior, which he then had. 12.3. Out of regard therefore to justice, and out of pity to those that have been tyrannized over, contrary to equity, I enjoin those that have such Jews in their service to set them at liberty, upon the receipt of the before-mentioned sum; and that no one use any deceit about them, but obey what is here commanded. 12.3. And when Judas saw their camp, and how numerous their enemies were, he persuaded his own soldiers to be of good courage, and exhorted them to place their hopes of victory in God, and to make supplication to him, according to the custom of their country, clothed in sackcloth; and to show what was their usual habit of supplication in the greatest dangers, and thereby to prevail with God to grant you the victory over your enemies. 12.4. He also seized upon Jerusalem, and for that end made use of deceit and treachery; for as he came into the city on a Sabbath day, as if he would offer sacrifices he, without any trouble, gained the city, while the Jews did not oppose him, for they did not suspect him to be their enemy; and he gained it thus, because they were free from suspicion of him, and because on that day they were at rest and quietness; and when he had gained it, he ruled over it in a cruel manner. 12.4. 5. When this epistle was sent to the king, he commanded that an epistle should be drawn up for Eleazar, the Jewish high priest, concerning these matters; and that they should inform him of the release of the Jews that had been in slavery among them. He also sent fifty talents of gold for the making of large basons, and vials, and cups, and an immense quantity of precious stones. 12.4. But when Judas saw that Alcimus was already become great, and had destroyed many of the good and holy men of the country, he also went all over the country, and destroyed those that were of the other party. But when Alcimus saw that he was not able to oppose Judas, nor was equal to him in strength, he resolved to apply himself to king Demetrius for his assistance; 12.5. Nay, Agatharchides of Cnidus, who wrote the acts of Alexander’s successors, reproaches us with superstition, as if we, by it, had lost our liberty; where he says thus: 12.5. And I have sent to thee Andreas, the captain of my guard, and Aristeus, men whom I have in very great esteem; by whom I have sent those first-fruits which I have dedicated to the temple, and to the sacrifices, and to other uses, to the value of a hundred talents. And if thou wilt send to us, to let us know what thou wouldst have further, thou wilt do a thing acceptable to me.” 12.6. “There is a nation called the nation of the Jews, who inhabit a city strong and great, named Jerusalem. These men took no care, but let it come into the hands of Ptolemy, as not willing to take arms, and thereby they submitted to be under a hard master, by reason of their unseasonable superstition.” 12.6. 8. And first I will describe what belongs to the table. It was indeed in the king’s mind to make this table vastly large in its dimensions; but then he gave orders that they should learn what was the magnitude of the table which was already at Jerusalem, and how large it was, and whether there was a possibility of making one larger than it. 12.7. This is what Agatharchides relates of our nation. But when Ptolemy had taken a great many captives, both from the mountainous parts of Judea, and from the places about Jerusalem and Samaria, and the places near Mount Gerizzim, he led them all into Egypt, and settled them there. 12.7. for there was made a plate of gold four fingers broad, through the entire breadth of the table, into which they inserted the feet, and then fastened them to the table by buttons and button-holes, at the place where the crown was situate, that so on what side soever of the table one should stand, it might exhibit the very same view of the exquisite workmanship, and of the vast expenses bestowed upon it: 12.8. And as he knew that the people of Jerusalem were most faithful in the observation of oaths and covets; and this from the answer they made to Alexander, when he sent an embassage to them, after he had beaten Darius in battle; so he distributed many of them into garrisons, and at Alexandria gave them equal privileges of citizens with the Macedonians themselves; and required of them to take their oaths, that they would keep their fidelity to the posterity of those who committed these places to their care. 12.8. while small shields, made of stones, beautiful in their kind, and of four fingers’ depth, filled up the middle parts. About the top of the basin were wreathed the leaves of lilies, and of the convolvulus, and the tendrils of vines in a circular manner. 12.9. Nay, there were not a few other Jews who, of their own accord, went into Egypt, as invited by the goodness of the soil, and by the liberality of Ptolemy. 12.9. and when they had taken off the covers wherein they were wrapt up, they showed him the membranes. So the king stood admiring the thinness of those membranes, and the exactness of the junctures, which could not be perceived; (so exactly were they connected one with another;) and this he did for a considerable time. He then said that he returned them thanks for coming to him, and still greater thanks to him that sent them; and, above all, to that God whose laws they appeared to be.
25. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. A scroll on which the writing has become erased and eighty-five letters remain, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\" (Numbers 11:35-36) defiles the hands. A single sheet on which there are written eighty-five letters, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\", defiles the hands. All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands. The Song of Songs and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) defile the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the Song of Songs defiles the hands, but there is a dispute about Kohelet. Rabbi Yose says: Kohelet does not defile the hands, but there is a dispute about the Song of Songs. Rabbi Shimon says: [the ruling about] Kohelet is one of the leniencies of Bet Shammai and one of the stringencies of Bet Hillel. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I have received a tradition from the seventy-two elders on the day when they appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah head of the academy that the Song of Songs and Kohelet defile the hands. Rabbi Akiba said: Far be it! No man in Israel disputed that the Song of Songs [saying] that it does not defile the hands. For the whole world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the writings are holy but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies. If they had a dispute, they had a dispute only about Kohelet. Rabbi Yoha ben Joshua the son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva said in accordance with the words of Ben Azzai: so they disputed and so they reached a decision."
26. New Testament, Jude, 6-8, 5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. New Testament, Hebrews, 11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

28. New Testament, Luke, 2, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

29. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

24b. יתרו לאחר מתן תורה הוה מאי איכא למימר אלא יתרו מישראל זבן,ת"ש (שמואל א טו, טו) ויאמר שאול מעמלקי הביאום אשר חמל העם על מיטב הצאן והבקר (המשנים והכרים ועל כל הצאן) למען זבוח לה' אלהיך מאי מיטב דמי מיטב,ומ"ש מיטב כי היכי דליקפץ עליהן זבינא,ת"ש (שמואל ב כד, כב) ויאמר ארונה אל דוד יקח ויעל אדוני המלך (את) הטוב בעיניו (ואת) [ראה] הבקר לעולה והמוריגים וכלי הבקר לעצים אמר רב נחמן ארונה גר תושב היה,מאי מוריגים אמר עולא מטה של טורביל מאי מטה של טורביל עיזא דקורקסא דדיישן אמר רב יוסף מאי קרא (ישעיהו מא, טו) הנה שמתיך למורג חרוץ חדש בעל פיפיות תדוש הרים ותדוק וגבעות כמוץ תשים,מיתיבי (שמואל א ו, יד) ואת הפרות העלו עולה לה' הוראת שעה היתה,ה"נ מסתברא דאי לא תימא הכי עולה נקבה מי איכא,ומאי קושיא דלמא בבמת יחיד וכדרב אדא בר אהבה דאמר רב אדא בר אהבה מנין לעולה נקבה שהיא כשרה בבמת יחיד שנאמר (שמואל א ז, ט) ויקח שמואל טלה חלב אחד ויעלהו עולה,ויעלהו זכר משמע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק ויעלה כתיב,ר' יוחנן אמר גבול יש לה פחותה מבת ג' שנים נעקרת בת ג' שנים אינה נעקרת,איתיביה כל הני תיובתא שני להו פחותה מבת ג' שנים ת"ש ואת הפרות העלו עולה לה' בפחותה מבת שלש שנים,מתקיף לה רב הונא בריה דרב נתן א"כ היינו ואת בניהם כלו בבית פחותה מבת ג' שנים,(ופחותה מבת נ' שנים) מי קא ילדה והתניא פרה וחמור מבת ג' ודאי לכהן מכאן ואילך ספק אלא מחוורתא כדשנין מעיקרא:,(שמואל א ו, יב) וישרנה הפרות בדרך על דרך בית שמש וגו' מאי וישרנה א"ר יוחנן משום ר"מ שאמרו שירה ורב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב שישרו פניהם כנגד ארון ואמרו שירה,ומאי שירה אמרו א"ר יוחנן משום ר"מ (שמות טו, א) אז ישיר משה ובני ישראל ור' יוחנן דידיה אמר (ישעיהו יב, ד) ואמרתם ביום ההוא הודו לה' קראו בשמו וגו',ור"ש בן לקיש אמר מזמורא יתמא (תהלים צח, א) מזמור שירו לה' שיר חדש כי נפלאות עשה הושיעה לו ימינו וזרוע קדשו ר' אלעזר אמר (תהלים צט, א) ה' מלך ירגזו עמים,ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר (תהלים צג, א) ה' מלך גאות לבש ר' יצחק נפחא אמר רוני רוני השיטה התנופפי ברוב הדרך המחושקת בריקמי זהב המהוללה בדביר ארמון ומפוארה בעדי עדיים,רב אשי מתני לה להא דר' יצחק אהא (במדבר י, לה) ויהי בנסוע הארון ויאמר משה קומה ה' ישראל מאי אמרו אמר ר' יצחק רוני רוני השיטה וכו',אמר רב כמאן קרו פרסאי לספרא דביר מהכא (שופטים א, יא) ושם דביר לפנים קרית ספר,רב אשי אמר כמאן קרו פרסאי לנידה דשתנא מהכא (בראשית לא, לה) כי דרך נשים לי 24b. the incident involving bYitro was after the giving of the Torah, what is there to say?How could they accept offerings from him? bRather,it must be that bYitro purchasedthe animals bfrom a Jew. /b,The Gemara further states: bComeand bhearanother objection from a verse: b“And Saul said: They have brought them from the Amalekites; for the people spared the best of the flock and of the herd, to sacrifice unto the Lord your God”(I Samuel 15:15). The verse states explicitly that the Israelites intended to sacrifice animals previously owned by gentiles. The Gemara explains: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase: b“The best”?This is referring to bthemonetary bvalue of the bestlivestock. The intention was not to sacrifice the animals themselves, but to sell them and use the proceeds of the sale to purchase other animals to sacrifice as offerings.,The Gemara inquires: bAnd what is differentabout bthe bestanimals? If the animals were sold for their value, why sell those animals in particular, rather than several inferior-quality animals? The Gemara explains that they did so bin order that buyers would jump atthe opportunity to buy superior-quality livestock. In other words, it is easier to sell one superior-quality animal than several inferior-quality ones., bComeand bhearanother objection from a verse: b“And Araunah said unto David: Let my lord the king take and offer up what seems good unto him; behold the cattle for the burnt-offering, and the threshing instruments [ imorigim /i] and the accoutrements of the cattle for the wood”(II Samuel 24:22). Apparently, David was willing to accept oxen as offerings from a gentile. bRav Naḥman says: Araunah was a gentile who resided in Eretz Yisrael and observed the seven Noahide mitzvot [ iger toshav /i].The seven Noahide mitzvot include the prohibition against engaging in bestiality, and therefore Araunah was not suspected of this practice.,Tangentially, the Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the term b“ imorigim /i,”mentioned in this verse? bUlla said:It is ba iturbilbed.The Gemara asks: bWhatis ba iturbilbed?It is ba serrated board [ ikurkesa /i]used bfor threshing. Rav Yosef said: What is the versefrom which the meaning of imorigimis derived? It is derived from the verse: b“Behold, I have made you a new threshing board [ imorag /i] having sharp teeth; you shall thresh the mountains, and beat them small, and shall make the hills as chaff”(Isaiah 41:15).,The Gemara braises an objectionto the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer. After the Philistines returned the Ark of the Covet to the Israelites upon a cart drawn by cattle, the verse states: b“And they sacrificed the cattle as a burnt-offering unto the Lord”(I Samuel 6:14). Evidently, the Jews did not hesitate to sacrifice the Philistines’ animals. The Gemara explains: There, bit was a provisional edictissued in extraordinary circumstances, and their actions are not representative of the general ihalakha /i.,The Gemara adds: bThis also stands to reason, as, if you do not say so,one can raise a further difficulty with this episode: bIs there a female burnt-offering?Only males may be sacrificed as burnt-offerings. Since the Jews sacrificed the cows as burnt-offerings, it is clear that they were acting unconventionally due to extenuating circumstances.,The Gemara rejects this proof: bAnd what is the difficulty?In other words, the additional problem with the incident, that the animals were female, which is cited as proof that there were extenuating circumstances, is not in fact difficult at all. The Gemara elaborates: bPerhapsthe cows were offered bupon a private altar, andthis is bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rav Adda bar Ahava, as Rav Adda bar Ahava says: From whereis it derived bthat a female burnt-offering is fitto be sacrificed bupon a private altar? As it is stated: “And Samuel took a milking lamb, and sacrificed it [ ivaya’alehu /i] for a burnt-offeringunto the Lord” (I Samuel 7:9). The phrase “milking lamb” indicates that it was a female, and yet Samuel sacrificed it upon a private altar.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: But the word ivaya’alehu /iis masculine, which bmeansthat the lamb was ba male. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says:Although the word is read in the masculine, bit is writtenin the feminine form, ivaya’alah /i,which teaches that even a female lamb may be sacrificed on a private altar.,§ After concluding its discussion of the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, the Gemara cites another resolution of the contradiction between the mishna and the ibaraita /i. bRabbi Yoḥa says: There isa clear bdemarcationin the case of an animal with whom a man engaged in bestiality. If she is bless than three yearsold, bshe becomes barrenas a result of penetration, but if she is already bthree yearsold, bshe does not become barren.Although gentiles are generally suspected of engaging in bestiality, the ibaraitarules that an animal that is less than three years old may be used as an offering because a gentile will refrain from engaging in bestiality with an animal that may become barren as a result of his actions., bThey raised all of those refutationsfrom the aforementioned verses which indicate that animals purchased from gentiles may be brought as offerings, and bhe answered themby claiming that the animals being offered were bless than three yearsold. The Gemara reexamines one of the objections. bComeand bhear,as the verse states: b“And they sacrificed the cattle as a burnt-offering unto the Lord”(I Samuel 6:14). Rabbi Yoḥa explained that although binthat incident the cattle had been owned by Philistines, they were bless than three yearsold, and it was therefore presumed that the Philistines had not engaged in bestiality with them.,The Gemara cites a refutation of Rabbi Yoḥa’s answer: bRav Huna, son of Rabbi Natan, objects to this: If so,then bthis isalso true with regard to the verse: “And they took two nursing cows and tied them to the cart band shut up their calves at home”(I Samuel 6:10). According to Rabbi Yoḥa, the verse is necessarily referring to cows that are bless than three yearsold., bAnd cana cow that is bless than three yearsold bgive birth? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to ba cow or a donkeypurchased from a gentile when they were less bthan three yearsold, the first of their offspring born after the purchase is bcertainlyreserved bfor the priest,who is entitled to the firstborn of a cow or donkey owned by a Jew. bFrom thispoint bforward,i.e., if they were older than three years at the time of the sale, it is buncertainwhether or not the offspring is the firstborn. This indicates that an animal does not bear offspring within the first three years of its life. Since the cows in the verse had already given birth, they could not have been less than three years old, as Rabbi Yoḥa claimed. The Gemara concludes: bRather, it is clear as we initially answered,i.e., Rabbi Yoḥa’s suggestion is rejected, and the actions in that verse were due to a provisional edict.,§ The Gemara further analyzes the episode involving the cows sent by the Philistines. The verse states: b“And the cattle took the straight [ ivayyisharna /i] way, on the way to Beit Shemesh;they went along the highway, lowing as they went” (I Samuel 6:12). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the word ivayyisharna /i? Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Meir:It means bthat they recited a song [ ishira /i]. And Rav Zutra bar Toviyyasays that bRav says:It means bthat they straightened [ iyishru /i] their facesso that they were bopposite the Ark and recited a song. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what song did they recite? Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Meir:They recited the song that follows the verse: b“Then sang Moses and the children of Israelthis song unto the Lord” (Exodus 15:1). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa himself saysthat it was: b“And on that day shall you say: Give thanks unto the Lord, proclaim His name,declare His doings among the peoples, make mention that His name is exalted” (Isaiah 12:4)., bAnd Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish saysthat it was ban orphaned psalm,i.e., a psalm whose author and the event to which it makes reference are not specified. The psalm begins with: b“A Psalm. O sing unto the Lord a new song, for He has done marvelous things; His right hand, and His holy arm, have wrought salvation for Him”(Psalms 98:1). bRabbi Elazar saysthat it was the psalm beginning with: b“The Lord reigns; let the peoples tremble”(Psalms 99:1)., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat it was the Psalm beginning: b“The Lord reigns; He is clothed in majesty”(Psalms 93:1). bRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa says:They did not recite a verse found in the Bible, but rather, the following song: bSing, sing, acacia; ascend in all your glory; overlaid with golden embroidery, exalted by the book [ idevir /i] of the palace, and magnificent with jewels.The song alludes to the Ark of the Covet, which was made of acacia wood and covered with gold. The expression: Book of the palace, is a reference to the Torah scroll that was placed in the Ark., bRav Ashi teaches thisstatement bof Rabbi Yitzḥak in relation to thisverse: b“And it came to pass, when the Ark set forward, that Moses said: Rise up, O Lord,and let Your enemies be scattered” (Numbers 10:35). The Gemara asks: bWhat did the Jewish people reciteat this juncture? bRabbi Yitzḥak saysthat they recited: bSing, sing, acacia,ascend in all your glory; overlaid with golden embroidery, exalted by the book of the palace, and magnificent with jewels.,§ Apropos the mention of the term idevir /i, the Gemara discusses its etymology. bRav said: On whatbasis bdo the Persians call a book [ isifra /i]by the term idevir /i?They derive it bfrom here: “Now the name of Debir [ idevir /i] beforehand was Kiriath Sefer”(Judges 1:11). Since the name idevirwas changed to Kiriath Sefer, the Persians referred to a isifra /i, i.e., a book, as idevir /i.,The Gemara examines the etymology of another term coined by the Persians. bRav Ashi said: On whatbasis bdo the Persians call a menstruating womanby the term idashtana /i?It is bfrom here,a verse in which Rachel claims to be a menstruating woman: b“For the manner of women is upon me [ iderekh nashim li /i]”(Genesis 31:35). The word idashtanais a shortened form of the phrase iderekh nashim /i.
30. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17a. בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה ובין התלמידים העוסקים בתורתך בין עוסקין לשמה בין עוסקין שלא לשמה וכל העוסקין שלא לשמה יהי רצון שיהו עוסקין לשמה.,ר' אלכסנדרי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתעמידנו בקרן אורה ואל תעמידנו בקרן חשכה ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו איכא דאמרי הא רב המנונא מצלי לה ור' אלכסנדרי בתר דמצלי אמר הכי רבון העולמים גלוי וידוע לפניך שרצוננו לעשות רצונך ומי מעכב שאור שבעיסה ושעבוד מלכיות יהי רצון מלפניך שתצילנו מידם ונשוב לעשות חוקי רצונך בלבב שלם.,רבא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי אלהי עד שלא נוצרתי איני כדאי ועכשיו שנוצרתי כאלו לא נוצרתי עפר אני בחיי ק"ו במיתתי הרי אני לפניך ככלי מלא בושה וכלימה יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהי שלא אחטא עוד ומה שחטאתי לפניך מרק ברחמיך הרבים אבל לא ע"י יסורין וחלאים רעים והיינו וידוי דרב המנונא זוטי ביומא דכפורי.,מר בריה דרבינא כי הוה מסיים צלותיה אמר הכי אלהי נצור לשוני מרע ושפתותי מדבר מרמה ולמקללי נפשי תדום ונפשי כעפר לכל תהיה פתח לבי בתורתך ובמצותיך תרדוף נפשי ותצילני מפגע רע מיצר הרע ומאשה רעה ומכל רעות המתרגשות לבא בעולם וכל החושבים עלי רעה מהרה הפר עצתם וקלקל מחשבותם יהיו לרצון אמרי פי והגיון לבי לפניך ה' צורי וגואלי.,רב ששת כי הוה יתיב בתעניתא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי רבון העולמים גלוי לפניך בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אדם חוטא ומקריב קרבן ואין מקריבין ממנו אלא חלבו ודמו ומתכפר לו ועכשיו ישבתי בתענית ונתמעט חלבי ודמי יהי רצון מלפניך שיהא חלבי ודמי שנתמעט כאילו הקרבתיו לפניך על גבי המזבח ותרצני.,ר' יוחנן כי הוה מסיים ספרא דאיוב אמר הכי סוף אדם למות וסוף בהמה לשחיטה והכל למיתה הם עומדים אשרי מי שגדל בתורה ועמלו בתורה ועושה נחת רוח ליוצרו וגדל בשם טוב ונפטר בשם טוב מן העולם ועליו אמר שלמה (קהלת ז, א) טוב שם משמן טוב ויום המות מיום הולדו.,מרגלא בפומיה דר"מ גמור בכל לבבך ובכל נפשך לדעת את דרכי ולשקוד על דלתי תורתי נצור תורתי בלבך ונגד עיניך תהיה יראתי שמור פיך מכל חטא וטהר וקדש עצמך מכל אשמה ועון ואני אהיה עמך בכל מקום.,מרגלא בפומייהו דרבנן דיבנה אני בריה וחברי בריה אני מלאכתי בעיר והוא מלאכתו בשדה אני משכים למלאכתי והוא משכים למלאכתו כשם שהוא אינו מתגדר במלאכתי כך אני איני מתגדר במלאכתו ושמא תאמר אני מרבה והוא ממעיט שנינו אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט ובלבד שיכוין לבו לשמים.,מרגלא בפומיה דאביי לעולם יהא אדם ערום ביראה (משלי טו, א) מענה רך משיב חמה ומרבה שלום עם אחיו ועם קרוביו ועם כל אדם ואפילו עם נכרי בשוק כדי שיהא אהוב למעלה ונחמד למטה ויהא מקובל על הבריות,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שלא הקדימו אדם שלום מעולם ואפילו נכרי בשוק.,מרגלא בפומיה דרבא תכלית חכמה תשובה ומעשים טובים שלא יהא אדם קורא ושונה ובועט באביו ובאמו וברבו ובמי שהוא גדול ממנו בחכמה ובמנין שנאמר (תהלים קיא, י) ראשית חכמה יראת ה' שכל טוב לכל עושיהם לעושים לא נאמר אלא לעושיהם לעושים לשמה ולא לעושים שלא לשמה וכל העושה שלא לשמה נוח לו שלא נברא.,מרגלא בפומיה דרב [לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא] העולם הבא אין בו לא אכילה ולא שתיה ולא פריה ורביה ולא משא ומתן ולא קנאה ולא שנאה ולא תחרות אלא צדיקים יושבין ועטרותיהם בראשיהם ונהנים מזיו השכינה שנאמר (שמות כד, יא) ויחזו את האלהים ויאכלו וישתו:,גדולה הבטחה שהבטיחן הקב"ה לנשים יותר מן האנשים שנא' (ישעיהו לב, ט) נשים שאננות קומנה שמענה קולי בנות בוטחות האזנה אמרתי,א"ל רב לר' חייא נשים במאי זכיין באקרויי בנייהו לבי כנישתא ובאתנויי גברייהו בי רבנן ונטרין לגברייהו עד דאתו מבי רבנן.,כי הוו מפטרי רבנן מבי ר' אמי ואמרי לה מבי ר' חנינא אמרי ליה הכי עולמך תראה בחייך ואחריתך לחיי העולם הבא ותקותך לדור דורים לבך יהגה תבונה פיך ידבר חכמות ולשונך ירחיש רננות עפעפיך יישירו נגדך עיניך יאירו במאור תורה ופניך יזהירו כזוהר הרקיע שפתותיך יביעו דעת וכליותיך תעלוזנה מישרים ופעמיך ירוצו לשמוע דברי עתיק יומין.,כי הוו מפטרי רבנן מבי רב חסדא ואמרי לה מבי ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמרו ליה הכי (תהלים קמד, יד) אלופינו מסובלים וגו',אלופינו מסובלים רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי יוחנן ור' אלעזר חד אמר אלופינו בתורה ומסובלים במצות וחד אמר אלופינו בתורה ובמצות ומסובלים ביסורים 17a. bin the heavenly entourage [ ipamalia /i]of angels each of whom ministers to a specific nation (see Daniel 10), and whose infighting causes war on earth; br band in the earthly entourage,the Sages, br band among the disciples engaged inthe study of bYour Torah, br bwhether they engage in itsstudy bfor its own sake or not for its own sake. br bAnd all those engagedin Torah study bnot for its own sake, br bmay it beYour bwillthat bthey will come to engagein its study bfor its own sake. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rabbi Alexandri said the following: br bMay it be Your will, Lord our God, br bthat You station us in a lighted corner and not in a darkened corner, br band do not let our hearts become faint nor our eyes dim. br bSome say that this was the prayer that Rav Hamnuna would recite, and that after Rabbi Alexandri prayed, he would say the following: br bMaster of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You br bthat our will is to perform Your will, and what prevents us? brOn the one hand, bthe yeast in the dough,the evil inclination that is within every person; br band the subjugation to the kingdomson the other. br bMay it be Your will br bthat You will deliver us from their hands,of both the evil inclination and the foreign kingdoms, brso that bwe may return to perform the edicts of Your will with a perfect heart. /b, bAfter his prayer, Rava said the following: br bMy God, before I was created I was worthless, br band now that I have been created it is as if I had not been created,I am no more significant. br bI am dust in life, all the more so in my death. br bI am before You as a vessel filled with shame and humiliation. brTherefore, bmay it be Your will, Lord my God, that I will sin no more, br band that thosetransgressions bthat I have committed, br bcleanse in Your abundant mercy; br bbutmay this cleansing bnotbe bby means of suffering and serious illness,but rather in a manner I will be able to easily endure. br bAnd this is the confession of Rav Hamnuna Zuti on Yom Kippur. /b, bWhen Mar, son of Ravina, would conclude his prayer, he said the following: br bMy God, guard my tongue from evil and my lips from speaking deceit. br bTo those who curse me let my soul be silent br band may my soul be like dust to all. br bOpen my heart to Your Torah, br band may my soul pursue your mitzvot. br bAnd save me from a bad mishap, from the evil inclination, br bfrom a bad woman, and from all evils that suddenly come upon the world. br bAnd all who plan evil against me, br bswiftly thwart their counsel, and frustrate their plans. br bMay the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart find favor before You, br bLord, my Rock and my Redeemer. /b,The Gemara recounts that bwhen Rav Sheshet would sit inobservance of ba fast, after he prayed he said as follows: br bMaster of the Universe, it is revealed before You brthat bwhen the Temple is standing, one sins and offers a sacrifice. br bAndalthough bonly its fat and blood were offered fromthat sacrifice on the altar, his transgression bis atoned for him. br bAnd now, I sat inobservance of ba fast and my fat and blood diminished. br bMay it be Your will that my fat and blood that diminished beconsidered as if bI offereda sacrifice bbefore You on the altar, br band may I find favor in Your eyes.brHaving cited statements that various Sages would recite after their prayers, the Gemara cites additional passages recited by the Sages on different occasions., bWhen Rabbi Yoḥa would concludestudy of bthe book of Job, he said the following: br bA person will ultimately die and an animal will ultimately be slaughtered, and all are destined for death.Therefore, death itself is not a cause for great anguish. brRather, bhappy is he who grew up in Torah, whose labor is in Torah, br bwho gives pleasure to his Creator, br bwho grew up with a good name and who took leave of the world with a good name. brSuch a person lived his life fully, band about him, Solomon said: br b“A good name is better than fine oil, and the day of death than the day of one’s birth”(Ecclesiastes 7:1); one who was faultless in life reaches the day of his death on a higher level than he was at the outset., bRabbi Meir was wont to saythe following idiom: br bStudy with all your heart and with all your soul to know My ways br band to be diligent at the doors of My Torah. br bKeep My Torah in your heart, br band fear of Me should be before your eyes. br bGuard your mouth from all transgression, br band purify and sanctify yourself from all fault and iniquity. br bAndif you do so, bI,God, bwill be with you everywhere. /b, bThe Sages in Yavne were wont to say: br bIwho learn Torah bamGod’s bcreature and my counterpartwho engages in other labor bisGod’s bcreature. br bMy work is in the city and his work is in the field. br bI rise early for my work and he rises early for his work. br bAnd just as he does not presume toperform bmy work, so I do not presume toperform bhis work. br bLest you say: Iengage in Torah study ba lot, while heonly engages in Torah study ba little,so I am better than he, br bit hasalready bbeen taught: br bOne who brings a substantialsacrifice band one who brings a meagersacrifice have equal merit, br bas long as he directs his heart towards Heaven(Rav Hai Gaon, iArukh /i)., bAbaye was wont to say: br bOne must always be shrewdand utilize every strategy binorder to achieve bfearof Heaven and performance of mitzvot. brOne must fulfill the verse: b“A soft answer turns away wrath”(Proverbs 15:1) brand take steps to bincrease peace with one’s brethren and with one’s relatives, br band with all people, even with a non-Jew in the marketplace,despite the fact that he is of no importance to him and does not know him at all ( iMe’iri /i), br bso that he will be loved abovein God’s eyes, br bpleasant belowin the eyes of the people, br band acceptable to allof God’s bcreatures. /b,Tangentially, the Gemara mentions that bthey said about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai that no one ever preceded him inissuing a bgreeting, not even a non-Jew in the marketplace,as Rabban Yoḥa would always greet him first., bRava was wont to say: br bThe objective ofTorah bwisdomis to achieve brepentance and good deeds; br bthat one should not readthe Torah band studymishna and become arrogant br band spurn his father and his mother and his teacher br band one who is greater than he in wisdom or inthe bnumberof students who study before him, br bas it is stated: “The beginning of wisdom is fear of the Lord, a good understanding have all who fulfill them”(Psalms 111:10). br bIt is not statedsimply: bAll who fulfill, but rather: All who fulfill them,those who perform these actions as they ought to be performed, meaning bthose who dosuch deeds bfor their own sake,for the sake of the deeds themselves, bnot those who do them not for their own sake. brRava continued: bOne who does them not for their own sake,it would have been bpreferable for him had he not been created. /b, bRav was wont to say: br bThe World-to-Come is not like this world. br bIn the World-to-Come there is no eating, no drinking, br bno procreation, nobusiness bnegotiations, br bno jealousy, no hatred, and no competition. br bRather, the righteous sit with their crowns upon their heads, enjoying the splendor of the Divine Presence, as it is stated: br b“And they beheld God, and they ate and drank”(Exodus 24:11), meaning that beholding God’s countece is tantamount to eating and drinking.,The Gemara states: bGreater is the promisefor the future bmade by the Holy One, Blessed be He, to women than to men, as it is stated: “Rise up, women at ease; hear My voice, confident daughters, listen to what I say”(Isaiah 32:9). This promise of ease and confidence is not given to men., bRav said to Rabbi Ḥiyya:By bwhatvirtue bdo women meritto receive this reward? Rabbi Ḥiyya answered: They merit this reward bfor bringing their children to readthe Torah bin the synagogue, and for sending their husbands to studymishna bin the study hall, and for waiting for their husbands until they return from the study hall. /b, bWhen the Sageswho had been studying there btook leave of the study hall of Rabbi Ami, and some sayit was bthe study hall of Rabbi Ḥanina, they would say to him the followingblessing: br bMay you see your world,may you benefit from all of the good in the world, bin your lifetime, br band may your end be to life in the World-to-Come, br band may your hopebe sustained bfor many generations. brMay byour heart meditate understanding, br byour mouth speak wisdom, and your tongue whisper with praise. brMay byour eyelids look directly before you, br byour eyes shine in the light of Torah, br band your face radiate like the brightness of the firmament. brMay byour lips express knowledge, br byour kidneys rejoice in the upright, br band your feet run to hear the words of the Ancient of Days,God (see Daniel 7)., bWhen the Sages took leave of the study hall of Rav Ḥisda, and some sayit was bthe study hall of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, they would say to him the following,in accordance with the verse: b“Our leaders are laden,there is no breach and no going forth and no outcry in our open places” (Psalms 144:14)., bOur leaders are laden. Rav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar,disputed the proper understanding of this verse. bOne said: Our leaders in Torah are laden with mitzvot. And one said: Our leaders in Torah and mitzvot are laden with suffering. /b
31. Anon., 2 Enoch, 18.2-18.5, 18.9



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
2 baruch (apocalypse of baruch) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
3 baruch Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
aaron, high priest Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
aaron Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33, 105
abel Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
abraham Gera, Judith (2014) 284; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 133; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 108
alcimus, high priest Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 105
alexandria, jewish writings of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 117, 145
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 117, 145
amram, father of moses, visions of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
amram, father of moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
ancestors Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 237
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
antigonus of sokho Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 65
antiochus iv epiphanes Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 118
apocalypse of baruch ( Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
apocrypha Gera, Judith (2014) 284
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha of hebrew bible, canonical books, relationship to Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha of hebrew bible Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
aquila (translator) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
aramaic levi document Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
assembly Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 236, 237
barak, judge Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
ben sira Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 4, 5; Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 211; Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 118, 123; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96, 117; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 236, 237
bethulia, elders Gera, Judith (2014) 284
bible, texts and exegesis relating to egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
biblical allusions and language, phinehas/zimri story Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 147
body (human), xv Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
book of the watchers, and the epistle of jude Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
boundaries Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183
cain Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
cairo genizah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
canaanites, canticles, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
canon, old testament Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 56
catalogues Gera, Judith (2014) 284
chain of transmission Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 65, 66
charismatic endowment Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
children Gera, Judith (2014) 284
christian saints Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
christians (byzantines, copts, nubians, syrian orthodox) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
city Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 185; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 237
cognitive science Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
comparative Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 185
comparison Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 185
construction Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
covenant, concept of Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 118
covenant Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 5; Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33, 45, 105
critical spatiality Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183, 185
cult Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 185
cultural geography Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
cyril of jerusalem, daniel Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 108
dammūh, theodotion Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
daniel, daniel, book of, prose prayer in Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 6
daniel, figure of Gera, Judith (2014) 284
dathan and abiram Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
david, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
david Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33, 45; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 133
dead sea scrolls Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
deconstruction Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
descendants Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 5
dichotomy Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
dreams Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
dua-kheti Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 237
ecbatana, ecclesiastes, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
egyptians, depictions in hebrew bible, lxx, and ancient jewish writings Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
elders Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 65
eleazar Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 282, 286
elijah Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
elisha Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
emancipation Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183
embodiment Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
enoch, as intercessor for fallen angels Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
enoch, elevation of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
enoch Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
enochic literary tradition, place of 2 enoch in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
epistle to the hebrews Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 108
esau Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
essenes, esther, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
essenes, memory for those in future Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 282
essenes, model of virtue Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 282
example lists Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
exemplary figures Gera, Judith (2014) 284
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 211
exodus, exodus, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
ezekiel b. nethanel, ezra, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
ezra, 4 ezra Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
faith Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
fallen angels, as paradigms of punished wicked Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
fallen angels, imprisonment of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
fallen angels, punishment of Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
feminism Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183
fides Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
first-person speech, in prayer and in the song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 6
firstspace Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
genealogy Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 105
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
genos/gene/gens/genus, jews as Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 133
genre Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 185
gentiles, as contrast with jews Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 133
gentiles, non-jews (christians, muslims) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
gentiles Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 105
god, and wisdom Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 108
god, tests and chastises Gera, Judith (2014) 284
great assembly Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 65, 66
hasidim Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 105
healing Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
hebrew bible/old testament, wisdom literature Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
hegemony Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
heikhalot traditions Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 6
hellenistic Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 4, 5
hermon, mt Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
historical surveys, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 284
historiography Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
holophernes, conquers and destroys Gera, Judith (2014) 284
human/humankind Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
hybridity Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 211
hymns Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183, 185
idol/idolatry Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
idumea, idumeans Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 105
inspiration Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 118, 123
intermarriage Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
irenaeus Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
isaac Gera, Judith (2014) 284
israel, biblical, and egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
israel, biblical, in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
israel Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 133
israel x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 5
iv maccabees Gera, Judith (2014) 284
jacob, patriarch Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
jacob Gera, Judith (2014) 284; Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 133
janneus Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 147
jerusalem Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183, 185
jew/jewish, literature/ authors Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 118, 123
jewish scribe x Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 4, 5
jews/judeans/ioudaioi, and ethnicity in post-biblical texts Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 133
joarib Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 105
joazar, lxx Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
jonathan the hasmonean Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 45
joseph, patriarch Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
joseph (son of jacob the patriarch) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
joshua Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 133
judah, jacobs son Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 45
judah maccabee Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 133
judaism (karaites, rabbanites) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
judas maccabeus Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 45
judith, chastises elders Gera, Judith (2014) 284
kingship Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 45
knowledge, god's own" "151.0_118.0@law, god's" Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 118
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
language and style, book of judith, optatives and subjunctives Gera, Judith (2014) 284
laos Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 133
late antique period Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 4
law, god's" '151.0_118.0@law, torah Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
levi (son of jacob the patriarch), aramaic traditions on Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
liberation Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17, 183
library furniture Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 4
life, new, i Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
life Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 236, 237
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
literature Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 118, 123
maccabees, books of Gruen, Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter (2020) 133
margins Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
mattathias Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 108
mattathias the hasmonean Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 45, 105
method Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
miriam, sister of moses Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
miriam Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
moses, hebrew name Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
moses Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65; Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
mother of seven sons Gera, Judith (2014) 284
mysticism, heikhalot traditions and Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 6
nan, altar Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 185
nan, author Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183
nation Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 237
nehemiah, nehemiah, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
new testament, and enochic texts and traditions Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
noah Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65; Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
oniads Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33, 105
onias father of the high priest simeon in ben sira Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 147
pairs Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 65
palestine (eretz israel, holy land) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 117
parable Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 185
periphery Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183
pharaoh Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 117, 145
phineas Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 5
phinehas Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33, 45, 105; Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 147
piyyut, piyyutim, origins of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 6
piyyut, piyyutim Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 6
place Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
poem Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183, 185
poetry, prayer and Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 6
praise Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183, 185
praise of the fathers Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 5
prayer, poetry and Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 6
prayer Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 118, 123
priest, high Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183, 185
priest Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 5; Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
priesthood Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33, 45, 105
prophets Tropper, Simeon the Righteous in Rabbinic Literature: A Legend Reinvented (2013) 65
prose, psalms, book of Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 6
provence, proverbs, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 117, 145
psalms, apocrypha and pseudepigrapha Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
ptolemy i soter (ptolemy son of lagos) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
public-private Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
qumran Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
reality Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183
resistance Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17, 183
rhetorolect, miracle Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
ritual Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183
roman period Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 4
rome Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 4
ryle h.e. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 56
sage Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 185
samaritan, samaritans Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
sapiential texts (wisdom literature) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
satire Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 237
saul, king Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65
scribal practice Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
scribe Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183
scribes Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
secondspace Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17, 183
septuagint (lxx) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 117, 145
shame and disgrace Gera, Judith (2014) 284
shechem Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
simon the hasmonean Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 45
slavery, of hebrews in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
sodom, sodomites Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
solomon Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 145
song of songs Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 6
space Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17, 183
spirit, characterizations as, life principle/ power of life Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
spirit, characterizations as, power Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
spirit, characterizations as, soul Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
spirit, effects of, knowledge/understanding Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
spirit, effects of, life itself Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
spirit, effects of, of a mentor Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
spirit, modes of presence, endowment Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
spirit, modes of presence, poured out upon Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 118, 123
spirit, modes of presence, rushing upon Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 123
student v, vi Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 236
synagogues Lieber, A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue (2014) 6
temple, herodian Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 236, 237
temple Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17, 183, 185
testing and trials, of forefathers Gera, Judith (2014) 284
testing and trials Gera, Judith (2014) 284
textual transmission, premodern Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 104
textures, ideological Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
thirdspace Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17, 183
tobiads, tobit, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 96
topos/topoi Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 17
torah Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 185
torah (pentateuch) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 117, 145
torah focus' Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 211
transformation Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 183
translation Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 4; Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 236
translation of biblical books Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 33
transmission Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 4, 5
uzziah Gera, Judith (2014) 284
vocation Levison, Filled with the Spirit (2009) 118
voice Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 185
wisdom Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 236, 237
wisdom literature Weissenrieder, Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances (2016) 237
wisdom literature (sapiential texts) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 189
wisdom of solomon Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 117, 145; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 108
woman wisdom Robbins, von Thaden and Bruehler,Foundations for Sociorhetorical Exploration : A Rhetoric of Religious Antiquity Reader (2006)" 185
zeal Eckhardt, Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals (2011) 105
zeal and zealots Gera, Judith (2014) 284
zealot Allen and Dunne, Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity (2022) 5
zimri Noam, Shifting Images of the Hasmoneans: Second Temple Legends and Their Reception in Josephus and Rabbinic Literature (2018) 147
ὑπόδειγμα Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 65