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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



673
Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 39.3


nanhe will seek out the hidden meanings of proverbs and be at home with the obscurities of parables.


nanthe teeth of wild beasts, and scorpions and vipers,and the sword that punishes the ungodly with destruction;


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

26 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Job, 5.17-5.18, 5.22-5.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.17. הִנֵּה אַשְׁרֵי אֱנוֹשׁ יוֹכִחֶנּוּ אֱלוֹהַּ וּמוּסַר שַׁדַּי אַל־תִּמְאָס׃ 5.18. כִּי הוּא יַכְאִיב וְיֶחְבָּשׁ יִמְחַץ וידו [וְיָדָיו] תִּרְפֶּינָה׃ 5.22. לְשֹׁד וּלְכָפָן תִּשְׂחָק וּמֵחַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אַל־תִּירָא׃ 5.23. כִּי עִם־אַבְנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה בְרִיתֶךָ וְחַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה הָשְׁלְמָה־לָךְ׃ 5.24. וְיָדַעְתָּ כִּי־שָׁלוֹם אָהֳלֶךָ וּפָקַדְתָּ נָוְךָ וְלֹא תֶחֱטָא׃ 5.25. וְיָדַעְתָּ כִּי־רַב זַרְעֶךָ וְצֶאֱצָאֶיךָ כְּעֵשֶׂב הָאָרֶץ׃ 5.26. תָּבוֹא בְכֶלַח אֱלֵי־קָבֶר כַּעֲלוֹת גָּדִישׁ בְּעִתּוֹ׃ 5.27. הִנֵּה־זֹאת חֲקַרְנוּהָ כֶּן־הִיא שְׁמָעֶנָּה וְאַתָּה דַע־לָךְ׃ 5.17. Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth; Therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty." 5.18. For He maketh sore, and bindeth up; He woundeth, and His hands make whole." 5.22. At destruction and famine thou shalt laugh; Neither shalt thou be afraid of the beasts of the earth." 5.23. For thou shalt be in league with the stones of the field; And the beasts of the field shall be at peace with thee." 5.24. And thou shalt know that thy tent is in peace; And thou shalt visit thy habitation, and shalt miss nothing." 5.25. Thou shalt know also that thy seed shall be great, And thine offspring as the grass of the earth." 5.26. Thou shalt come to thy grave in a ripe age, Like as a shock of corn cometh in in its season." 5.27. Lo this, we have searched it, So it is; hear it, and know thou it for thy good."
2. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 6.19, 22.17-24.22, 30.18, 30.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. בְּנִי אִם־יְפַתּוּךָ חַטָּאִים אַל־תֹּבֵא׃ 1.1. מִשְׁלֵי שְׁלֹמֹה בֶן־דָּוִד מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 1.1. The proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel;"
3. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 5.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.12. וַיְדַבֵּר שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים מָשָׁל וַיְהִי שִׁירוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה וָאָלֶף׃ 5.12. And he spoke three thousand proverbs; and his songs were a thousand and five."
4. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.16, 20.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.16. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הָאִישׁ קַטֵּר יַקְטִירוּן כַּיּוֹם הַחֵלֶב וְקַח־לְךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר תְּאַוֶּה נַפְשֶׁךָ וְאָמַר לו [לֹא] כִּי עַתָּה תִתֵּן וְאִם־לֹא לָקַחְתִּי בְחָזְקָה׃ 20.22. וְאִם־כֹּה אֹמַר לָעֶלֶם הִנֵּה הַחִצִּים מִמְּךָ וָהָלְאָה לֵךְ כִּי שִׁלַּחֲךָ יְהוָה׃ 2.16. And if any man said to him, Let them first burn the fat, and then take as much as thy soul desires; then he would answer him, No; but thou shalt give it me now: and if not, I will take it by force." 20.22. But if I say thus to the young man, Behold, the arrows are beyond thee; go thy way: for the Lord has sent thee away."
5. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 4.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.23. וַיֹּאמֶר מַדּוּעַ אתי [אַתְּ] הלכתי [הֹלֶכֶת] אֵלָיו הַיּוֹם לֹא־חֹדֶשׁ וְלֹא שַׁבָּת וַתֹּאמֶר שָׁלוֹם׃ 4.23. And he said: Wherefore wilt thou go to him today? it is neither new moon nor sabbath.’ And she said: ‘It shall be well.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 8.1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.1. וָאָבוֹא וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה כָל־תַּבְנִית רֶמֶשׂ וּבְהֵמָה שֶׁקֶץ וְכָל־גִּלּוּלֵי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל מְחֻקֶּה עַל־הַקִּיר סָבִיב סָבִיב׃ 8.1. וַיְהִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַשִּׁשִּׁית בַּשִּׁשִּׁי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה לַחֹדֶשׁ אֲנִי יוֹשֵׁב בְּבֵיתִי וְזִקְנֵי יְהוּדָה יוֹשְׁבִים לְפָנָי וַתִּפֹּל עָלַי שָׁם יַד אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה׃ 8.1. And it came to pass in the sixth year, in the sixth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I sat in my house, and the elders of Judah sat before me, that the hand of the Lord GOD fell there upon me."
7. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 12.9-12.12 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.9. וְיֹתֵר שֶׁהָיָה קֹהֶלֶת חָכָם עוֹד לִמַּד־דַּעַת אֶת־הָעָם וְאִזֵּן וְחִקֵּר תִּקֵּן מְשָׁלִים הַרְבֵּה׃ 12.11. דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים בַּעֲלֵי אֲסֻפּוֹת נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד׃ 12.12. וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהֵר עֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים הַרְבֵּה אֵין קֵץ וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה יְגִעַת בָּשָׂר׃ 12.9. And besides that Koheleth was wise, he also taught the people knowledge; yea, he pondered, and sought out, and set in order many proverbs." 12.10. Koheleth sought to find out words of delight, and that which was written uprightly, even words of truth." 12.11. The words of the wise are as goads, and as nails well fastened are those that are composed in collections; they are given from one shepherd." 12.12. And furthermore, my son, be admonished: of making many books there is no end; and much study is a weariness of the flesh."
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 13.4, 14.6-14.7, 15.3 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

13.4. together, and they were all afraid, and fear and trembling seized them. And they besought me to draw up a petition for them that they might find forgiveness, and to read their petition in the presence 14.6. has gone forth to bind you for all the days of the world. And (that) previously you shall have seen the destruction of your beloved sons and ye shall have no pleasure in them, but they shall fall before 14.7. you by the sword. And your petition on their behalf shall not be granted, nor yet on your own: even though you weep and pray and speak all the words contained in the writing which I have 15.3. for you: Wherefore have ye left the high, holy, and eternal heaven, and lain with women, and defiled yourselves with the daughters of men and taken to yourselves wives, and done like the children
9. Anon., Jubilees, 23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Ben Sira, 39.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.2. בִּשְׁנַת אַחַת לְמָלְכוֹ אֲנִי דָּנִיֵּאל בִּינֹתִי בַּסְּפָרִים מִסְפַּר הַשָּׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־יִרְמִיָה הַנָּבִיא לְמַלֹּאות לְחָרְבוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִַם שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה׃ 9.2. וְעוֹד אֲנִי מְדַבֵּר וּמִתְפַּלֵּל וּמִתְוַדֶּה חַטָּאתִי וְחַטַּאת עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַפִּיל תְּחִנָּתִי לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי עַל הַר־קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהָי׃ 9.2. in the first year of his reign I Daniel meditated in the books, over the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish for the desolations of Jerusalem seventy years."
12. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 4.44-4.46, 9.27, 14.41 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.44. They deliberated what to do about the altar of burnt offering, which had been profaned. 4.45. And they thought it best to tear it down, lest it bring reproach upon them, for the Gentiles had defiled it. So they tore down the altar 4.46. and stored the stones in a convenient place on the temple hill until there should come a prophet to tell what to do with them. 9.27. Thus there was great distress in Israel, such as had not been since the time that prophets ceased to appear among them. 14.41. And the Jews and their priests decided that Simon should be their leader and high priest for ever, until a trustworthy prophet should arise
13. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), None (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.14. To fear the Lord is wisdoms full measure;she satisfies men with her fruits;
14. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 6.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.12. Wisdom is radiant and unfading,and she is easily discerned by those who love her,and is found by those who seek her.
15. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 8.143, 8.148-8.149 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.143. Moreover, the king of Tyre sent sophisms and enigmatical sayings to Solomon, and desired he would solve them, and free them from the ambiguity that was in them. Now so sagacious and understanding was Solomon, that none of these problems were too hard for him; but he conquered them all by his reasonings, and discovered their hidden meaning, and brought it to light. 8.148. He says also, that Solomon, who was then king of Jerusalem, sent riddles to Hiram, and desired to receive the like from him, but that he who could not solve them should pay money to them that did solve them 8.149. and that Hiram accepted the conditions; and when he was not able to solve the riddles proposed by Solomon, he paid a great deal of money for his fine; but that he afterward did solve the proposed riddles by means of Abdemon, a man of Tyre; and that Hiram proposed other riddles, which, when Solomon could not solve, he paid back a great deal of money to Hiram.” This it is which Dius wrote.
16. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.38-1.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.38. For we have not an innumerable multitude of books among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another [as the Greeks have], but only twenty-two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; 1.39. and of them five belong to Moses, which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of mankind till his death. This interval of time was little short of three thousand years; 1.41. It is true, our history hath been written since Artaxerxes very particularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there hath not been an exact succession of prophets since that time;
17. New Testament, John, 14.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.26. But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and will remind you of all that I said to you.
18. New Testament, Matthew, 5.20, 12.38, 15.1, 23.2, 23.13-23.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.20. For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 12.38. Then certain of the scribes and Pharisees answered, saying, "Teacher, we want to see a sign from you. 15.1. Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem, saying 23.2. saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat. 23.13. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you devour widows' houses, and as a pretense you make long prayers. Therefore you will receive greater condemnation. 23.14. But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! Because you shut up the Kingdom of Heaven against men; for you don't enter in yourselves, neither do you allow those who are entering in to enter. 23.15. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel around by sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much of a son of Gehenna as yourselves.
19. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 1.1.28-1.1.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1.28.  The art of writing well and quickly is not unimportant for our purpose, though it is generally disregarded by persons of quality. Writing is of the utmost importance in the study which we have under consideration and by its means alone can true and deeply rooted proficiency be obtained. But a sluggish pen delays our thoughts, while an unformed and illiterate hand cannot be deciphered, a circumstance which necessitates another wearisome task, namely the dictation of what we have written to a copyist.
20. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 1.1.28-1.1.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

22. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

98b. תאנא ומיישן והולך עד החג:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big המוכר מקום לחבירו וכן המקבל מקום מחבירו לעשות לו בית חתנות לבנו ובית אלמנות לבתו בונה ארבע אמות על שש דברי ר' עקיבא רבי ישמעאל אומר רפת בקר היא זו,הרוצה לעשות רפת בקר בונה ד' אמות על שש,בית קטן שש על ח' גדול ח' על עשר טרקלין י' על י' רומו כחצי ארכו וכחצי רחבו ראיה לדבר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר כבנין ההיכל:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big למה לי למיתנא בית חתנות לבנו ובית אלמנות לבתו ליתני בית חתנות לבנו ולבתו ובית אלמנות לבנו ולבתו מלתא אגב אורחיה קמ"ל דלא דרכא דחתנא למידר בי חמוה,כדכתיב בספר בן סירא הכל שקלתי בכף מאזנים ולא מצאתי קל מסובין וקל מסובין חתן הדר בבית חמיו וקל מחתן אורח מכניס אורח וקל מאורח משיב דבר בטרם ישמע שנאמר (משלי יח, יג) משיב דבר בטרם ישמע אולת היא לו וכלמה:,ר' ישמעאל אומר רפת בקר היא זו הרוצה לעשות כו': רפת בקר מאן קתני לה איכא דאמר ר' ישמעאל קתני לה ואיכא דאמר ר"ע קתני לה,איכא דאמר ר"ע קתני לה וה"ק אע"פ שרפת בקר היא פעמים שאדם עושה דירתו כרפת בקר ואיכא דאמר ר' ישמעאל קתני לה וה"ק שהרוצה לעשות רפת בקר עושה ארבע אמות על שש:,טרקלין י' על י': מאי טרקלין קובתא בי וורדי,תאני וקנתיר שתים עשרה על י"ב מאי קנתיר תרבץ אפדני:,רומו כחצי ארכו וכחצי רחבו ראיה לדבר רשב"ג אומר כבנין ההיכל: ראיה לדבר מאן קתני לה איכא דאמר רשב"ג קתני לה והכי קאמר ראיה לדבר מנין אמר רשב"ג הכל כבנין היכל,ואיכא דאמר ת"ק קתני לה ורשב"ג אתמוהי קא מתמה והכי קאמר ליה [לת"ק] ראיה מנין מבנין היכל אטו כולי עלמא כבנין היכל עבדי,תניא אחרים אומרים רומו כקורותיו ולימא רומו כרחבו איבעית אימא ביתא מעילאי רווח ואיבעית אימא משום דאיכא בי כווי,רבי חנינא נפק לקרייתא רמו ליה קראי אהדדי כתיב (מלכים א ו, ב) והבית אשר בנה המלך שלמה לה' ששים אמה ארכו ועשרים רחבו ושלשים אמה קומתו וכתיב (מלכים א ו, כ) ולפני הדביר עשרים אמה אורך ועשרים אמה רחב ועשרים אמה קומתו אמר להו כי קא חשיב משפת כרובים ולמעלה,מאי קמ"ל 98b. bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAndwhere he sold him aged wine, he is responsible to provide wine that will bcontinue to age,i.e., maintain its quality, buntil the festivalof iSukkot /i., strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bone who sells a plotof land bto another,with the buyer intending to build a bridal house for his son or a widowhood home for his daughter on that plot, band similarly,with regard to a contractor bwho receives a plotof land bfrom anotherunder a commission bto build forthe owner on that land ba bridal house for his son, or a widowhood home for his daughter,the terms of the transaction are a matter of dispute. The mishna presents the dispute: In the latter case, the contractor must bbuilda building that is at least bfour cubits by sixcubits in size, and similarly, in the case of the sale, the seller must provide a plot of land that can accommodate a building of that size; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yishmael says:A structure of bthissize bis a cowshed,and a bridal house or a widowhood home is larger than that., bOne who wants to construct a cowshed buildsa structure at least bfour cubits by sixcubits in size.,The mishna delineates the standard dimensions for various other structures. bA small houseis bsix by eightcubits. bA largehouse is beight by tencubits. bA banquet hall [ iteraklin /i]is bten by tencubits. The standard bheightfor each of these structures is bequal tothe sum of bhalf its length and half its width.There is ba proof of the matter; Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:The proportions are blike the building of the Sanctuary;it was forty cubits wide and twenty cubits long and its height was thirty cubits, which is the sum of half the width and half the length., strongGEMARA: /strong bWhy do Ineed the mishna bto teachspecifically: bA bridal house for his son, and: A widowhood home for his daughter?Instead, blet it teach: A bridal house for his son or his daughter, and a widowhood home for his son or his daughter.The Gemara answers: bIt teaches us a matter in passing, that it is not theproper bmannerof conduct bfor a son-in-law to live in his father-in-law’s home.Therefore, it is the father of the groom who generally provides a bridal home for the couple and the bride will return to live near her parents’ house only if she is widowed or divorced.,Support for this is bas it is written in the book of ben Sira: I have weighed everything in the pan of a balance scale and I have not found anything inferior to bran; but inferior to bran is a son-in-law who lives in his father-in-law’s house; and inferior to a son-in-law is a guest who brings in a guest; and inferior to a guest is one who answers a matter before he listens. As it is stated: “He that gives an answer before he listens, it is folly for him and a disgrace”(Proverbs 18:13).,§ The mishna teaches: bRabbi Yishmael says:A structure of bthissize bis a cowshed.And then the mishna continues: bOne who wants to constructa cowshed builds a structure at least four cubits by six cubits in size. The Gemara asks: bWho teachesthis subsequent clause about ba cowshed? There isa Sage bwho saysthat bRabbi Yishmael teaches itand it is an elaboration of his statement. bAnd there isa Sage bwho saysthat bRabbi Akiva teaches itin response to Rabbi Yishmael’s statement.,The Gemara elaborates: bThere isa Sage bwho saysthat bRabbi Akiva teaches it, and thisis what Rabbi Akiva bis saying: Even thoughthis structure bisof the same dimensions as ba cowshed,nevertheless, since there are btimes when a person constructs his homeas small bas a cowshed,a contractor has fulfilled his commission if he builds a house to such dimensions. bAnd there isa Sage bwho saysthat bRabbi Yishmael teaches it, and thisis what Rabbi Yishmael bis sayingto Rabbi Akiva: The dimensions that you stated are clearly not the correct dimensions for a bridal house or widowhood home, bas one who wants to construct a cowshed constructsa structure of bfour cubits by sixcubits. A house for human dwelling is certainly larger than that.,§ The mishna teaches: bA banquet hallis bten by tencubits. The Gemara clarifies: bWhat is a banquet hall? A pavilion of roses. /b, bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The standard size of ba ikanteir /iis btwelve by twelvecubits. The Gemara clarifies: bWhat is a ikanteir /i?It is a decorative bcourtyard of a mansion. /b,The mishna teaches: The standard bheightfor each of these structures is bequal tothe sum of bhalf its length and half its width.There is ba proof of the matter; Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:The proportions are blike the building of the Sanctuary.The Gemara asks: bWho teachesthe phrase: bProof of the matter? There isa Sage bwho saysthat bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel teaches it, and thisis what he bis saying: From wherecan ba proof of the matterbe derived? The mishna then cites that bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel saidthat beverything is like the building of the Sanctuary. /b, bAnd there isa Sage bwho saysthat bthe first itannateaches it, and,understanding that the proof the itannawished to cite was from the example of the Sanctuary, bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielinterjected and bexpressed astonishmentat the idea. bAnd this is whatRabban Shimon ben Gamliel bis saying to the first itanna /i: From wheredo you derive ba proof?Do you derive it bfrom the building of the Sanctuary? Is that to saythat beveryone constructstheir buildings blike the building of the Sanctuary?Why should they do so?, bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: iAḥerimsay:The standard bheight ofeach of these structures is bequal tothe length of bits crossbeams.The Gemara suggests: bAnd letus bsaymore simply that bits heightis bequal to its width.The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, saythat formulating the ruling in this way is necessary, because the space inside ba house widens at the top,as the walls get thinner toward the top and the crossbeams are actually longer than the width of the floor of the building. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that formulating it in this way is necessary bbecause there are indentationsin the wall into which the crossbeams are inserted. The crossbeams are consequently longer than the space inside the house.,§ Apropos the building of the Sanctuary, the Gemara relates the following incident: bRabbi Ḥaninaonce bwent out to the villagesto teach Torah there, and bhe raised a contradiction betweentwo bversesthat detail the dimensions of the Sanctuary: bIt is written: “And the house that King Solomon built for the Lord, was sixty cubits in length, and twenty cubits in width, and its height was thirty cubits”(I Kings 6:2). bBut it isalso bwritten: “And before the partition was twenty cubits in length, and twenty cubits in width, and its height was twenty cubits”(I Kings 6:20). The first verse states that its height was thirty cubits, whereas the second verse states that its height was only twenty cubits. bHe said tothe villagers that the reason for the difference is that bwhenthe latter verse bcalculatedthe height, it did so bfrom theupper bedge of the cherubs and upward,as the cherubs themselves stood ten cubits high.,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe verse bteaching usby considering only the area above the cherubs?
23. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

113b. תני תנא קמיה דרבא ורב ספרא צהבו פניו דרב ספרא אמר לו רבא לאו כגון מר אלא כגון רב חנינא ורב אושעיא דהוו אושכפי בארעא דישראל והוו יתבי בשוקא דזונות ועבדי להו מסאני לזונות ועיילי להו אינהו מסתכלי בהו ואינהו לא מדלן עינייהו לאיסתכולי בהו ומומתייהו הכי בחייהן רבנן קדישי דבארעא דישראל:,שלשה הקדוש ברוך הוא אוהבן מי שאינו כועס ומי שאינו משתכר ומי שאינו מעמיד על מדותיו שלשה הקדוש ברוך הוא שונאן המדבר א' בפה ואחד בלב והיודע עדות בחבירו ואינו מעיד לו והרואה דבר ערוה בחבירו ומעיד בו יחידי,כי הא דטוביה חטא ואתא זיגוד לחודיה ואסהיד ביה קמיה דרב פפא נגדיה לזיגוד א"ל טוביה חטא וזיגוד מינגד אמר ליה אין דכתיב (דברים יט, טו) לא יקום עד אחד באיש ואת לחודך אסהדת ביה שם רע בעלמא קא מפקת ביה,אמר רבי שמואל בר רב יצחק אמר רב מותר לשנאתו שנאמר (שמות כג, ה) כי תראה חמור שנאך רובץ תחת משאו מאי שונא אילימא שונא נכרי והא תניא שונא שאמרו שונא ישראל ולא שונא נכרי,אלא פשיטא שונא ישראל ומי שריא למסניה והכתיב (ויקרא יט, יז) לא תשנא את אחיך בלבבך אלא דאיכא סהדי דעביד איסורא כולי עלמא נמי מיסני סני ליה מאי שנא האי אלא לאו כי האי גוונא דחזיא ביה איהו דבר ערוה,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מצוה לשנאתו שנאמר (משלי ח, יג) יראת ה' (שונאי) רע אמר רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי מהו למימרא ליה לרביה למשנייה אמר ליה אי ידע דמהימן לרביה כבי תרי לימא ליה ואי לא לא לימא ליה,תנו רבנן שלשה חייהן אינם חיים הרחמנין והרתחנין ואניני הדעת ואמר רב יוסף כולהו איתנהו בי,תנו רבנן שלשה שונאין זה את זה אלו הן הכלבים והתרנגולין והחברין וי"א אף הזונות וי"א אף תלמידי חכמים שבבבל,ת"ר שלשה אוהבין זה את זה אלו הן הגרים ועבדים ועורבין,ארבעה אין הדעת סובלתן אלו הן דל גאה ועשיר מכחש וזקן מנאף ופרנס מתגאה על הציבור בחנם ויש אומרים אף המגרש את אשתו פעם ראשונה ושניה ומחזירה,ותנא קמא זימנא דכתובתה מרובה אי נמי יש לו בנים הימנה ולא מצי מגרש לה,חמשה דברים צוה כנען את בניו אהבו זה את זה ואהבו את הגזל ואהבו את הזמה ושנאו את אדוניכם ואל תדברו אמת,ששה דברים נאמרים בסוס אוהב את הזנות ואוהב את המלחמה ורוחו גסה ומואס את השינה ואוכל הרבה ומוציא קמעה וי"א אף מבקש להרוג בעליו במלחמה,שבעה מנודין לשמים אלו הן יהודי שאין לו אשה ושיש לו אשה ואין לו בנים ומי שיש לו בנים ואין מגדלן לתלמוד תורה ומי שאין לו תפילין בראשו ותפילין בזרועו וציצית בבגדו ומזוזה בפתחו והמונע מנעלים מרגליו וי"א אף מי שאין מיסב בחבורה של מצוה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי שמואל בר מרתא אמר רב משום רבי יוסי איש הוצל מניין שאין שואלין בכלדיים שנאמר (דברים יח, יג) תמים תהיה עם ה' אלהיך,ומניין היודע בחבירו שהוא גדול ממנו אפילו בדבר אחד שחייב לנהוג בו כבוד שנאמר (דניאל ו, ד) כל קבל די רוח יתירא ביה [ומלכא עשית להקמותיה על כל מלכותא],והיושבת על דם טהור אסורה לשמש עד כמה אמר רב עונה,תנא הוא יוסף איש הוצל הוא יוסף הבבלי הוא איסי בן גור אריה הוא איסי בן יהודה הוא איסי בן גמליאל הוא איסי בן מהללאל ומה שמו איסי בן עקביה שמו הוא רבי יצחק בן טבלא הוא רבי יצחק בן חקלא הוא רבי יצחק בן אלעא הוא 113b. When bthe itannataughtthis ibaraita bbefore Rava and Rav Safra, Rav Safra’s face lit upwith joy, as he was listed among those praised by God. bRava said to him:This does not refer to someone blike the Master. Rather,the statement applies to people like bRav Ḥanina and Rav Oshaya, who were cobblers in Eretz Yisrael, and they would sit in the marketplace of prostitutes and fashion shoes for prostitutes. Andthe prostitutes bwould entertheir shops and blook at them.However, due to their piety, these Sages bdid not raise their eyes to look atthe women. And those prostitutes were so impressed with this behavior that when they bswore,they would say bas follows: By the lives of the holy Sages of Eretz Yisrael.It is this type of bachelor who is praised by Heaven.,The Gemara cites a similar statement. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, loves threepeople: bOne who does not get angry; one who does not get drunk; and one who is forgiving. The Holy One, Blessed be He, hates threepeople: bOne who says onestatement bwith his mouth andmeans banother in his heart,i.e., a hypocrite; bone who knows testimony about anotherperson band does not testify on his behalf; and one who observes a licentious matterperformed bby anotherperson band testifies against him alone.His testimony is meaningless, as he is the only witness; consequently, he merely gives the individual a bad reputation.,The Gemara comments: This is blikethat incident bwhere Tuveya sinnedwith immorality, band Zigud came alone to testify about him before Rav Pappa.Rav Pappa instructed that bZigud be lashed.Zigud bsaid to him: Tuveya sinned and Zigud is lashed,an objection that became a popular saying. bHe said to him: Yes, as it is written: “One witness shall not rise up against a man”(Deuteronomy 19:15), band you testified against him alone. You have merely given him a bad reputation. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Rav Yitzḥak saidthat bRav said:Although one who sees another committing a sin should not testify against him by himself, bhe isnonetheless bpermitted to hate him, as it is stated: “If you see the donkey of he who hates you lying under its load”(Exodus 23:5). The Gemara clarifies this verse: bWhatis the meaning of he bwho hates youmentioned in the verse? bIf you sayit is referring to ba gentile who hatesyou, bbut wasn’tit btaughtin a ibaraitathat the phrase: bHe who hates, ofwhich the Torah bspoke, is a Jew who hatesyou, bnot a gentile who hatesyou?, bRather,it is bobviousthat the verse is referring to ba Jew who hatesyou. bBut is one permitted to hatea fellow Jew? bBut isn’t it written: “You shall not hate your brother in your heart”(Leviticus 19:17), which clearly prohibits the hatred of another Jew? bRather,perhaps you will say that the verse is referring to a situation bwhere there are witnesses that he performed a sin.However, in that case, beveryoneelse should balso hate him. What is differentabout this particular person who hates him? bRather, is it notreferring bto a case like this, when he saw himperform ba licentious matter?He is therefore permitted to hate him for his evil behavior, whereas others who are unaware of his actions may not hate him., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:Not only is this permitted, it is even ba mitzva to hate him, as it is stated: “The fear of God is to hate evil”(Proverbs 8:13). bRav Aḥa, sonof bRava, said to Rav Ashi: What isthe ihalakhawith regard btowhether one who saw someone sin may btell his teacherso that bhetoo bwill hate him?Rav Ashi bsaid to him: Ifthe student bknowsthat he is btrusted by his teacher as twowitnesses, and therefore his statement will be accepted, bheshould btell him, and ifhe is bnottrusted by his teacher as two witnesses, he should bnot tell him. /b, bThe Sages taught:There are bthreetypes of people bwhose lives are not lives,due to their constant suffering: bThe compassionate, the hot tempered, and the delicate. Rav Yosef said: All of theseattributes barefound bin me. /b,Furthermore, bthe Sages taught:Members of bthreegroups bhate othermembers of the same group: bDogs, roosters, and the Persian priests. And some say: Also prostitutes. And some say: Also Torah scholars in Babylonia. /b,Likewise, bthe Sages taught:Members of bthreegroups blove one another: Converts, slaves, and ravens. /b, bFourtypes of people bcannot be enduredby anyone: bAn arrogant pauper; a wealthy person who deniesmonetary claims against him; ba lecherous old man; and a leader who lords over the community for no cause. And some say: Also one who divorces his wife once and twice and takes her backa third time. He should decide definitively whether or not he wants her.,The Gemara asks: bAndwhy didn’t bthe first itanna /imention this case of a man who remarries his wife after two divorces? The Gemara answers: bSometimesthe husband’s payment to her in the event of divorce, as stipulated in bher marriage contract, is large,and since he is unable to pay he is forced to take her back. bAlternatively, he has children with her and cannot divorce her,as he wants someone to care for them.,The Gemara continues: bCanaan commanded his sonswith regard to bfive mattersthat are apparently normal behavior for slaves: bLove one another, love robbery, love promiscuity, hate your masters, and do not speak the truth. /b, bSix matters are said with regard to a horse:It bloves promiscuity,it bloves war, its demeanor is arrogant, it despises sleep, it eats much, and it excretes little. And some say:Just as a horse always rushes straight into the heat of a battle, it balso attempts to kill its master in war. /b, bSevenare bostracized by Heaven,despite the fact that they have not been ostracized in any court: bA Jew who does not have a wife; and one who has a wife but has no sons; and one who has sons whom he does not raise toengage in bTorah study; and one who does not have phylacteries on his head, and phylacteries on his arm, and ritual fringes on his garment, and a imezuzain his doorway; and one who withholds shoes from his feet. And some say: Also one who does not sit with a groupthat is partaking of a feast in celebration bof a mitzva. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Shmuel bar Marta saidthat Rav said, citing bRabbi Yosei of Hutzal: From whereis it derived bthat onemay bnot consult astrologers? As it is stated: “You shall be wholehearted with the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 18:13). The Torah demands absolute faith in God and acceptance of His justice, without attempting to predict the future., bAnd from whereis it derived concerning bone who knows about another that he is greater than him, even in one matter, that he must treat him with respect? As it is stated: “Because a surpassing spirit was in him, the king thought to set him over the whole realm”(Daniel 6:4). This verse teaches that one who is in any way greater than another person is worthy of his respect., bAndit was also stated by Rabba bar bar Ḥana: With regard to a woman who was bobservingher days of ritually bpure blood,and those days have ended, she bis prohibited to engage in intimacyimmediately, lest she see ritually impure blood. Any blood emitted by a woman within forty days after giving birth to a male child or eighty days after giving birth to a female child is ritually pure. After this period of time has passed, a woman should not have relations with her husband immediately. The Gemara asks: bUntil whenis she prohibited to her husband? bRav said:She must wait ba set interval of timefor the ritual impurity of a inidda /i, i.e., either one day or one night.,With regard to Rabbi Yosei of Hutzal, it was btaught:The bYosef of Hutzalmentioned in other places in the Gemara bisthe same person as bYosef the Babylonian.Yosef is the full name of Yosei. Furthermore, bhe isalso known as bIsi ben Gur Arye, he is Isi ben Yehuda, he is Isi ben Gamliel,and bhe is Isi ben Mahalalel. And what is hisreal bname? Hisreal bnameis bIsi ben Akavya.Similarly, the Sage bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Tavla isalso known as bRabbi Yitzḥak ben Ḥakla,who bis Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Ela.These are two cases of one Sage with several names.
24. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

100b. הוי אומר מדה טובה מרובה ממדת פורענות במדה טובה כתיב (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול ובמידת פורענות הוא אומר (בראשית ז, יא) וארובות השמים נפתחו,במידת פורענות כתיב (ישעיהו סו, כד) ויצאו וראו בפגרי האנשים הפושעים בי כי תולעתם לא תמות ואשם לא תכבה והיו דראון לכל בשר והלא אדם מושיט אצבעו באור בעולם הזה מיד נכוה אלא כשם שנותן הקב"ה כח ברשעים לקבל פורענותם כך נותן הקב"ה כח בצדיקים לקבל טובתן:,רבי עקיבא אומר אף הקורא בספרים החיצונים וכו': תנא בספרי מינים רב יוסף אמר בספר בן סירא נמי אסור למיקרי א"ל אביי מאי טעמא אילימא משום דכתב [ביה] לא תינטוש גילדנא מאודניה דלא ליזיל משכיה לחבלא אלא צלי יתיה בנורא ואיכול ביה תרתין גריצים,אי מפשטיה באורייתא נמי כתב (דברים כ, יט) לא תשחית את עצה אי מדרשא אורח ארעא קמ"ל דלא ליבעול שלא כדרכה,ואלא משום דכתיב בת לאביה מטמונת שוא מפחדה לא יישן בלילה בקטנותה שמא תתפתה בנערותה שמא תזנה בגרה שמא לא תינשא נישאת שמא לא יהיו לה בנים הזקינה שמא תעשה כשפים הא רבנן נמי אמרוה אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אשרי מי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות,אלא משום דכתיב לא תעיל דויא בלבך דגברי גיברין קטל דויא הא שלמה אמרה (משלי יב, כה) דאגה בלב איש ישחנה ר' אמי ור' אסי חד אמר ישיחנה מדעתו וחד אמר ישיחנה לאחרים,ואלא משום דכתיב מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא אל ביתך והא רבי נמי אמרה דתניא רבי אומר לעולם לא ירבה אדם רעים בתוך ביתו שנאמר (משלי יח, כד) איש רעים להתרועע,אלא משום דכתיב זלדקן קורטמן עבדקן סכסן דנפח בכסיה לא צחי אמר במאי איכול לחמא לחמא סב מיניה מאן דאית ליה מעברתא בדיקני' כולי עלמא לא יכלי ליה,אמר רב יוסף מילי מעלייתא דאית ביה דרשינן להו אשה טובה מתנה טובה בחיק ירא אלהים תנתן אשה רעה צרעת לבעלה מאי תקנתיה יגרשנה מביתו ויתרפא מצרעתו אשה יפה אשרי בעלה מספר ימיו כפלים,העלם עיניך מאשת חן פן תלכד במצודתה אל תט אצל בעלה למסוך עמו יין ושכר כי בתואר אשה יפיה רבים הושחתו ועצומים כל הרוגיה רבים היו פצעי רוכל המרגילים לדבר ערוה כניצוץ מבעיר גחלת (ירמיהו ה, כז) ככלוב מלא עוף כן בתיהם מלאים מרמה מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא ביתך רבים יהיו דורשי שלומך גלה סודך לאחד מאלף משוכבת חיקך שמור פתחי פיך אל תצר צרת מחר (משלי כז, א) כי לא תדע מה ילד יום שמא למחר איננו ונמצא מצטער על עולם שאינו שלו,(משלי טו, טו) כל ימי עני רעים בן סירא אומר אף לילות בשפל גגים גגו ובמרום הרים כרמו ממטר גגים לגגו ומעפר כרמו לכרמים,[סימן זיר"א רב"א משרשי"א חנינ"א טובי"ה ינא"י יפ"ה יוחנ"ן מרח"ם יהוש"ע מקצ"ר],אמר ר' זירא אמר רב מאי דכתיב (משלי טו, טו) כל ימי עני רעים אלו בעלי תלמוד וטוב לב משתה תמיד אלו בעלי משנה,רבא אמר איפכא והיינו דאמר רב משרשיא משמיה דרבא מאי דכתיב (קהלת י, ט) מסיע אבנים יעצב בהם אלו בעלי משנה (קהלת י, ט) ובוקע עצים יסכן בם אלו בעלי תלמוד,רבי חנינא אומר כל ימי עני רעים זה מי שיש לו אשה רעה וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה שיש לו אשה טובה רבי ינאי אומר כל ימי עני רעים זה אסטניס וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה שדעתו יפה רבי יוחנן אמר כל ימי עני רעים זה רחמני וטוב לב משתה תמיד זה אכזרי רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר כל ימי עני רעים זה 100b. bYou must say that the attribute of reward is greater than the attribute of punishment,as bwith regard to the attribute of reward it is written: “He commanded the clouds from above, and opened the doors of heaven, and rained upon them manna to eat”(Psalms 78:23–24). bAnd with regard to the attribute of punishmentat the time of the flood the verse bsays: “And the windows of the heavens were opened”(Genesis 7:11). To mete out punishment, God opened only windows, which are considerably smaller openings than doors, indicating that the attribute of reward is greater., bWith regard to the attribute of punishment it is written: “And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men who have rebelled against Me; for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh”(Isaiah 66:24). The Gemara asks: bIs it not sothat when ba person extends his finger into the fire in this world, he is immediately burned?How, then, can one withstand the fire of Gehenna, which is never extinguished? bRather, just as the Holy One, Blessed be He, provides strength to the wicked to receive their punishment, so too, the Holy One, Blessed be He, provides strength to the righteous to receive their reward,His handful.,§ The mishna teaches that bRabbi Akiva says: Also one who reads external literaturehas no share in the World-to-Come. The Sages btaughtin a ibaraita /i: This is a reference to reading bbooks of heretics. Rav Yosef says: It is also prohibited to read the book of ben Sira,due to its problematic content. bAbaye said toRav Yosef: bWhat is the reasonthat it is prohibited to read the book of ben Sira? bIf we saythat it is prohibited bdue tothe fact bthatben Sira bwrote in it: Do not flay the skin of the fish from its ear, so that its skin does not go to ruin, but roast it on the fire and eat with it two loaves of bread,and you believe it to be nonsense, that is not a sufficient reason., bIfyour difficulty is bfrom its literalmeaning, that does not pose a difficulty, as bin the Torah,God balso wrote: “You shall not destroy its trees”(Deuteronomy 20:19). It is prohibited to destroy both trees and fish skin arbitrarily. bIfyour difficulty is bfromits bhomiletic interpretationas a euphemism, ben Sira bis teaching us proper conduct:A man bshould not engage in sexual intercourse in an atypical manner,i.e., anal intercourse, with his wife, as it causes her discomfort., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bA daughter is for her father false treasure; due to fear for her he will not sleep at night: During her minority, lest she be seduced; during her young womanhood lest she engage in licentiousness; once she has reached her majority, lest she not marry; once she marries, lest she have no children; once she grows old, lest she engage in witchcraft(Ben Sira 42:11–14). Perhaps you believe that one should not say this to the father of daughters. bDidn’t the Sages also say itwith regard to women? They said: It is bimpossible for the worldto exist bwithout males and without females;nevertheless, bhappy is one whose children are males and woe unto him whose children are females. /b, bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bDo not introduce anxiety into your heart, as anxiety has killed mighty men(Ben Sira 14:1; 30:29). bDidn’t Solomonalready bsay itin the verse: b“Anxiety in a man’s heart dejects him [ iyashḥena /i]”(Proverbs 12:25)? bRabbi Ami and Rabbi Asiinterpret the term homiletically and read it as iyesiḥenna /i. bOne saysthat it means: bHe shall remove it [ iyesiḥenna /i] from his mind,and that will ease his anxiety. bAnd one says: He shall tell it [ iyesiḥenna /i] to others,and that will ease his anxiety. Both agree with the statement of ben Sira., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bPrevent the multitudes from inside your house, and do not bring everyone into your house(Ben Sira 11:37). bBut didn’t RabbiYehuda HaNasi balso say it, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: A person should never have many friends inside his house, as it is stated: “There are friends that one has to his own detriment”(Proverbs 18:24), as through his association with them he will become weak and be ruined., bRather,perhaps the book poses a difficulty bbecause it is writtenthere: bA sparse-bearded man is clever; a thick-bearded man is a fool. One who blows on his cup is not thirsty. One who said: With what will I eat bread, take the bread from him. One who has a passage in his beard, the entire world is unable to overcome him.Abaye suggests: Due to all this nonsense, it is not appropriate to read this book., bRav Yosef says:Even though there are passages in the book that are inappropriate, bwe teach the superior matters that are in iteven in public. bA good wife is a good gift; she will be given into the bosom of a God-fearing man(Ben Sira 26:3). bA bad wife is leprosy for her husband. What is his remedy? He shall chase her from his house and will be healed from his leprosy(Ben Sira 25:30). bA beautiful wife, happy is her husband; the number of his days is doubled(Ben Sira 26:1). Due to his happiness, it is as though his life is twice as long.,We also teach what it states there: bAvert your eyes from a woman of grace, lest you be trapped in her snare. Turn not to her husband to mix wine and strong drink with him, as many have been corrupted by the beauty of the beautiful woman, and mighty are all her fatalities(Ben Sira 9:9–11). bMany are the wounds of a peddler(Ben Sira 11:36), which in this context is referring to those bwho accustomothers bto matters of forbidden sexual relations. Like a spark ignites a coal(Ben Sira 11:43), blike a cage full of birds, so too, their houses are filled with deceit(Ben Sira 11:36–37). bPrevent the multitudes from inside your house, and do not bring everyone into your house(Ben Sira 11:37). bLet many be those who greet you; reveal your secrets to one in a thousand. From she who lies in your bosom guard the openings of your mouth,i.e., do not tell her everything. bGrieve not about tomorrow’s trouble, because you know not what a day may bring; perhaps tomorrow you will no longer be, and one will have worried about a world that is not his. /b,The verse states: b“All the days of the poor are terrible”(Proverbs 15:15). The book of bben Sira says: Also the nightsare terrible, as then the poor person worries. The poor person’s broof is among the lowest roofsin the city, band in the elevation of the hills is his vineyard,at the highest point, as those are of the lowest quality and consequently the least expensive places for each. bFrom the rain on the roofsof the entire city, water will flow down bto his roofand dampen it, band the soil of his vineyardis eroded by the rain and swept down btoother bvineyards. /b,§ The Gemara provides ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow, based primarily on those who authored those statements. bZeira; Rava; Mesharshiyya; Ḥanina itoviyya /i,referring to Rabbi Ḥanina, who spoke of a good [ itova /i] wife; bYannai iyafe /i,referring to Rabbi Yannai, who spoke of one who is broad-minded [ ida’ato yafe /i]; bYoḥa imeraḥem /i,referring to Rabbi Yoḥa, who spoke of one who is compassionate [ imeraḥem /i]; bYehoshua imekatzer /i,referring to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who spoke of one who is intolerant [ ida’ato ketzara /i]., bRabbi Zeira saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written:“All the days of the poor are terrible, and for the good-hearted it is always a feast” (Proverbs 15:15)? b“All the days of the poor are terrible”; these are masters of the Talmud,who invest constant effort in their study and encounter endless difficulties and questions. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; these are masters of the Mishna,who study only halakhic conclusions and encounter no difficulties., bRava saysthat bthe oppositeis true; band this isthat bwhich Rav Mesharshiyya said in the name of Rava: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “One who quarries stones shall be saddened by themand he who chops wood shall be warmed by it” (Ecclesiastes 10:9)? “One who quarries stones shall be saddened by them”; bthese are masters of the Mishna,as they invest effort, but are unable to benefit from that effort, as they do not reach halakhic conclusions. b“And he who chops wood shall be warmed by it”; these are masters of the Talmud,who invest considerable effort and benefit from it, as they reach halakhic conclusions., bRabbi Ḥanina says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to bone who has a bad wife. “And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to bone who has a good wife. Rabbi Yannai says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to one who is bdelicate [ iistenis /i],i.e., one who is sensitive to repulsive items. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to one who is bbroad-minded [ ida’ato yafe /i],i.e., he is not particular and will eat anything. bRabbi Yoḥa says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to one who is bcompassionate [ imeraḥem /i],as he always senses the suffering in the world and is constantly anxious. b“And for the good-hearted it is always a feast”; thisis referring to one who is bcrueland indifferent to suffering in the world. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: “All the days of the poor are terrible”; thisis referring to
25. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

23b. ולא אסבר להו אפיה בפניא כי הוה מנקט ציבי דרא ציבי ומרא בחד כתפא וגלימא בחד כתפא כולה אורחא לא סיים מסאני כי מטי למיא סיים מסאניה כי מטא להיזמי והיגי דלינהו למניה כי מטא למתא נפקא דביתהו לאפיה כי מיקשטא כי מטא לביתיה עלת דביתהו ברישא והדר עייל איהו והדר עיילי רבנן יתיב וכריך ריפתא ולא אמר להו לרבנן תו כרוכו פלג ריפתא לינוקי לקשישא חדא ולזוטרא תרי,אמר לה לדביתהו ידענא דרבנן משום מיטרא קא אתו ניסק לאיגרא וניבעי רחמי אפשר דמרצי הקדוש ברוך הוא וייתי מיטרא ולא נחזיק טיבותא לנפשין סקו לאיגרא קם איהו בחדא זויתא ואיהי בחדא זויתא קדים סלוק ענני מהך זויתא דדביתהו כי נחית אמר להו אמאי אתו רבנן אמרו ליה שדרי לן רבנן לגבי דמר למיבעי רחמי אמיטרא אמר להו ברוך המקום שלא הצריך אתכם לאבא חלקיה,אמרו ליה ידעינן דמיטרא מחמת מר הוא דאתא אלא לימא לן מר הני מילי דתמיהא לן מאי טעמא כי יהיבנא למר שלמא לא אסבר לן מר אפיה אמר להו שכיר יום הואי ואמינא לא איפגר ומאי טעמא דרא מר ציבי אחד כתפיה וגלימא אחד כתפיה אמר להו טלית שאולה היתה להכי שאלי ולהכי לא שאלי,מאי טעמא כולה אורחא לא סיים מר מסאניה וכי מטי למיא סיים מסאניה אמר להו כולה אורחא חזינא במיא לא קא חזינא מ"ט כי מטא מר להיזמי והיגי דלינהו למניה אמר להו זה מעלה ארוכה וזה אינה מעלה ארוכה,מאי טעמא כי מטא מר למתא נפקא דביתהו דמר כי מיקשטא אמר להו כדי שלא אתן עיני באשה אחרת מאי טעמא עיילא היא ברישא והדר עייל מר אבתרה והדר עיילינן אנן אמר להו משום דלא בדקיתו לי,מאי טעמא כי כריך מר ריפתא לא אמר לן איתו כרוכו משום דלא נפישא ריפתא ואמינא לא אחזיק בהו ברבנן טיבותא בחנם מאי טעמא יהיב מר לינוקא קשישא חדא ריפתא ולזוטרא תרי אמר להו האי קאי בביתא והאי יתיב בבי כנישתא,ומאי טעמא קדים סלוק ענני מהך זויתא דהוות קיימא דביתהו דמר לעננא דידיה משום דאיתתא שכיחא בביתא ויהבא ריפתא לעניי ומקרבא הנייתה [ואנא יהיבנא] זוזא ולא מקרבא הנייתיה אי נמי הנהו ביריוני דהוו בשיבבותן [אנא] בעי רחמי דלימותו והיא בעיא רחמי דליהדרו בתיובתא [ואהדרו],חנן הנחבא בר ברתיה דחוני המעגל הוה כי מצטריך עלמא למיטרא הוו משדרי רבנן ינוקי דבי רב לגביה ונקטי ליה בשיפולי גלימיה ואמרו ליה אבא אבא הב לן מיטרא אמר לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע עשה בשביל אלו שאין מכירין בין אבא דיהיב מיטרא לאבא דלא יהיב מיטרא ואמאי קרי ליה חנן הנחבא מפני שהיה מחביא עצמו בבית הכסא,אמר ליה רבי זריקא לרב ספרא תא חזי [מה] בין תקיפי דארעא דישראל לחסידי דבבל חסידי דבבל רב הונא ורב חסדא כי הוה מצטריך עלמא למיטרא אמרי ניכניף הדדי וניבעי רחמי אפשר דמירצי הקדוש ברוך הוא דייתי מיטרא,תקיפי דארעא דישראל כגון ר' יונה אבוה דרבי מני כי הוה מצטריך עלמא למיטרא הוה עייל לביתיה ואמר להו הבו לי גואלקי ואיזיל ואייתי לי בזוזא עיבורא כי הוה נפיק לברא אזיל וקאי בדוכתא עמיקתא דכתיב (תהלים קל, א) ממעמקים קראתיך ה' וקאי בדוכתא צניעא ומכסי בשקא ובעי רחמי ואתי מיטרא כי הוה אתי לביתיה אמרי ליה אייתי מר עיבורא אמר להו אמינא הואיל ואתא מיטרא השתא רווח עלמא,ותו רבי מני בריה הוו קא מצערי ליה דבי נשיאה אישתטח על קברא דאבוה אמר ליה אבא אבא הני מצערו לי יומא חד הוו קא חלפי התם אינקוט כרעא דסוסוותייהו עד דקבילו עלייהו דלא קא מצערו ליה,ותו רבי מני הוה שכיח קמיה דרבי יצחק בן אלישיב אמר ליה עתירי דבי חמי קא מצערו לי אמר ליענו ואיענו אמר קא דחקו לי אמר ליעתרו ואיעתרו,אמר לא מיקבלי עלי אינשי ביתי א"ל מה שמה חנה תתייפי חנה ונתייפת אמר ליה קא מגנדרא עלי א"ל אי הכי תחזור חנה לשחרוריתה וחזרה חנה לשחרוריתה,הנהו תרי תלמידי דהוו קמיה דרבי יצחק בן אלישיב אמרו ליה ניבעי מר רחמי עלן דניחכים טובא אמר להו עמי היתה ושלחתיה,רבי יוסי בר אבין הוה שכיח קמיה דר' יוסי דמן יוקרת שבקיה ואתא לקמיה דרב אשי 23b. bbut he did not return their greetings. Toward evening, as he was gathering firewood, he placed the wood and hoe on one shoulder and his cloak on theother bshoulder.Along bthe entire way he did not wear his shoes,but bwhen he reached water he put on his shoes. When he reachedan area filled with bshrubs and thorns he lifted up his clothes. When he reached the city, his wife came out to greet him, adornedwith finery. bWhen he reached his house, his wife entered first, he entered afterward, and afterward thetwo bSages entered. He sat and ate bread, but he did not say to the Sages: Comeand beat,as was customary and polite. bHe divided bread to his children; to the elderchild he gave bone piece and to the youngerone he gave btwo. /b,Abba Ḥilkiyya bsaid to his wife: I know that these Sages have come due to the rain. Let us go up to the roof and pray for mercy. Perhaps the Holy One, Blessed be He, will be appeased, and it will rain, and we will not receive credit ourselvesfor the rainfall. bThey went up to the roof. He stood in one corner and she stood inthe other bcorner. Clouds began to form on that side where his wifestood. bWhen he descended, he said tothe Sages: bWhy have the Sages come? They said to him: Theother bSages have sent us to the Master,so bthat you should pray for mercy for rain. He said to them: Blessed is God, Who did not require you topetition bAbba Ḥilkiyya,as the sky has filled with clouds and rain is certainly on its way.,They said to him: bWe know that the rain has come on the Master’s account. However, let the Masterplease bsayand explain bto us these aspectsof your behavior bthat are puzzling to us: What is the reasonthat bwhen we greeted the Master, the Master did not return our greeting? He said to them: I am a day laborer,hired for the day, band I saidto myself that I may bnot delaymy work to answer you. They further inquired: bAnd what is the reasonthat bthe Master carried the firewood on one shoulder andhis bcloak onthe other bshoulder? He said to them: It was a borrowed robe. I borrowed it for thispurpose, to wear it, band I did not borrow it for that purpose,to place wood on it.,The Sages continued to ask Abba Ḥilkiyya about his unusual behavior. bWhat is the reasonthat bthe entire way the Master did not wear his shoes, but when he reached water he put on his shoes? He said to them: The entire way I can seeand take care where I walk, and therefore there is no need for me to wear out my shoes, but bin the water I cannot see.Therefore, I put on my shoes to avoid hurting myself. They asked: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen the Master reached shrubs and thorns, he lifted up his clothes? He said to them: Thisflesh bwill healif it is scratched by thorns, bbut thisgarment bwill not healif it is torn.,They further inquired: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen the Master reached the city, the Master’s wife came out adornedin her finery? bHe said to them:She dresses that way bso thatwhen I walk through the city bI will not set my eyes upon another woman.They asked: bWhat is the reasonthat bshe entered first, and afterward the Master entered, andonly bafterward we entered? He said to them: Because you have not been checkedby me. I cannot be sure how you will act, and therefore I did not want you to be alone with my wife.,The Sages were not done with their questions. bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen the Master ate bread,you bdid not say to us: Comeand beat?He replied: bBecause there is not enough breadfor guests, band I saidto myself that bI should not gain credit from the Sages for nothing,by offering you food I cannot serve you. They asked: bWhat is the reasonthat bthe Master gave the older child one pieceof bread band the younger child two? He said to them: Thisolder child bstays at home,and if he is hungry he can eat at any time, bbut thisyounger child bsitsand studies bin the synagogue,and therefore he is hungrier.,The two Sages had one final set of queries for Abba Ḥilkiyya. bAnd what is the reasonthat the bclouds began to form on that side where the Master’s wife stoodbefore your own side? He explained: bBecause my wife is frequently at home, and she gives bread to the poor, andtherefore bherprovision of bbenefitto the needy is bimmediate,i.e., soon after the rains fall she is able to provide the needy with provisions. Accordingly, her prayers are answered without delay. In contrast, bI give moneyto the poor, bandconsequently, bthe benefitof my gift bis not immediate,i.e., it takes a lot of time before the rainfall results in my ability to give money to the poor. bAlternatively,her prayers may have been answered first because when bcertain hooligans [ ibiryonei /i] were living in our neighborhood, I prayed that they should die, but she prayed that they should repent. Andindeed, bthey repented. /b,§ The Gemara relates another story about a descendant of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel. bḤa HaNeḥba was the son of Ḥoni HaMe’aggel’s daughter. When the world was in need of rain, the Sages would send schoolchildren to him, and they would grab him by the hem of his cloak and say to him: Father, Father, give us rain. He said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, act on behalf of thesechildren, bwho cannot distinguish betweentheir bFatherin Heaven, bWho can provide rain, andthe bfather who cannot provide rain.The Gemara asks: bAnd why was he called Ḥa HaNeḥba? Because he would hide [ imaḥbi /i] himself in the lavatoryso that people would not bestow honor upon him.,The Gemara relates another story about righteous individuals praying for rain. bRabbi Zerika said to Rav Safra: Comeand bsee what the differenceis between bthe powerful men of Eretz Yisrael and the pious men of Babylonia.This comparison serves to highlight the righteousness of the great men of Eretz Yisrael. By bthe pious men of Babylonia,I mean bRav Huna and Rav Ḥisda. When the world is in need of rain,these Sages say: bLet us assemble together and pray for mercy,and bperhaps the Holy One, Blessed be He, will be appeased and bring rain.In this manner, the pious men of Babylonia publicized their prayers for rain.,By contrast, bthe powerful men of Eretz Yisrael, such as Rabbi Yona, the father of Rabbi Mani,acted differently. bWhen the world was in need of rain, he enters his house and say tohis household: bGive me my sack [ igevalki /i] and I will go and buy myself a dinar of grain. When he went outside, he went and stood in a low place, as it is written: “Out of the depths I have called You, O Lord”(Psalms 130:1). bAnd he would stand in a secluded place, and coverhimself bwith sackcloth, and pray for mercy, and rain would come. When he would come home, they would say to him:Did bthe Master bring grain? He said to them: I saidto myself, bsince rain hasnow bcome,there will be brelief in the worldand prices will soon go down. In this manner, he hid his greatness even from his own household., bAnd furthermore,the Gemara relates that bRabbi Mani,Rabbi Yona’s bson, was persecuted bymembers bof the house of the iNasi /i. He prostrated himself upon his father’s grave and saidto him: bFather, Father, these men are persecuting me. One day,those men bwere passing there,by the grave, and bthe legs of their horses became stuckin the ground buntil they accepted upon themselves not to persecuteRabbi Mani anymore., bAnd furthermore,the Gemara relates that bRabbi Mani was frequently found before Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Elyashiv,a well-known miracle worker. Once, Rabbi Mani bsaid to him: The wealthy members of my father-in-law’s house are persecuting me.Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid: May they become poor,so they will no longer lord over you. bAndindeed, bthey became poor.Some time later, Rabbi Mani bsaidto his teacher: Now that they are poor bthey are pressuring mefor ficial support. Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid: May they become richagain. bAndindeed, bthey became rich. /b,Rabbi Mani bsaid tohis teacher: bThe members of my household,i.e., my wife, bare not acceptable to me,as she is not beautiful. Rabbi Yitzḥak bsaid: What is her name?Rabbi Mana replied: bḤana.Rabbi Yitzḥak declared: bLet Ḥana grow beautiful, andindeed bshe grew beautiful.After a while, Rabbi Mani bsaidto Rabbi Yitzḥak: bShe acts haughtily toward me,due to her great beauty. bHe said to him: If so, let Ḥana return to her homelyappearance, band she returned to her homelyappearance.,The Gemara relates: bThese two students, who were sitting before Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Elyashiv, said to him: Let the Master pray for mercy on ourbehalf, bthat we should become very wise. He said to them:This power bwasindeed bwith meat one stage, as I used to be able to pray for matters of this kind, bbut I sent it away.I took it upon myself never to pray for changes in the world order.,The Gemara cites another story involving a complaint. bRabbi Yosei bar Avin was frequently found before Rabbi Yosei from Yokrat.At some point bhe left him and cameto study bbefore Rav Ashi,who did not recognize him.
26. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 6.23 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
alexandria Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198
angelic sin,as epistemological transgression Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
antiochus iii Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9
apocalyptic literature,and book of daniel Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
apocalyptic literature,history of scholarship on Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
apocalyptic literature,social settings of Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
aramaic Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 36
athens,athenian drama Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 298
banquets Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
ben sira Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9, 13; Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 209, 211; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404; Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 36, 39
bible (hebrew bible and/or new testament) Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
bipartite (jewish) bible Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 209, 261
book access Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9, 13
caesarea (maritima) Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 298
cicero Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 13
cyril of jerusalem,daniel Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 62
david Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
dead sea scrolls Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
death Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
delphi Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
devil Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
disciple Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
divine speech,enigmatic Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 233
drama Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 298
dreams Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
dynastic egypt Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9
education,pedagogy Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
egypt Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198
elijah Sigal (2007), The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew, 36
enigmatic speech,graeco-roman oracular and prophetic,pedagogic Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 233
enochic literary tradition,place of book of dreams in Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
enochic literary tradition,social settings of Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
epic Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 298
eschatology Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95
ethical education,in book of proverbs Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
ethical education,judaism Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
exercises,student Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 209, 211
exodus Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9; Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198
fallen angels,as paradigms of punished wicked Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
fear of god Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17; Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198
figures (literary) Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
flavians Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9
fragments of hellenistic jewish authors,composition and dissemination Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 298
fragments of hellenistic jewish authors,jewish scribes Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 298
fragments of hellenistic jewish authors,private libraries Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 298
genesis,and book of the watchers Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
giants,as paradigms of punished wicked Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
god,and Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 96
god Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
hellenism/hellenization Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
hellenistic Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9, 13
hybridity Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 211
identity Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
inspiration Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
interpretation,biblical Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
jerusalem Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 13; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
jesus christ,in the fourth gospel Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
jew/jewish,literature/ authors Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
jew/jewish,relationship to christianity Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
jewish scribe x Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9, 13
jews Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
john,fourth gospel' "151.0_404.0@law,god's" Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
josephus Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9
judaism Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
knowledge,revealed Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
knowledge Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 96
law,torah Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
law of moses Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
library,qumran Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 13
life,of jesus Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
life Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
literary production Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
literature Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
marks of scripture,memorization,indicators of Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 209
memory techniques Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 209
moses,art Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
moses,example Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
moses,law of Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 62
moses,legislator Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
moses,qumran Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
moses,scribe Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
moses Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
nag hammadi Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 13
parables Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 13
paraclete Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
pharisees Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 13
philo judaeus Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
poetry Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9
poor Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
prayer Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 96; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
priest Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9
priesthood Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
private (collection,property,goods) Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 13
prophets,as category of books Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 209
prophets,jewish,educational methods in Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
prophets,jewish,figures in Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
prophets,jewish,proverbs,book of Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
prophets,jewish,riddles in Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
qumran,moses Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
qumran,scriptural traditions Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
resurrection Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
revelation Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
rich Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
rome Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9, 13
rulers Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
sapiential (wisdom) literature Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
school Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
schools Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9, 13
scribal education Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9
scribe Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
scribes,scribalism Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
second temple jewish Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
seleucid Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9
sex/sexuality Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
shekhina,re-written scripture Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
simon ii Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9
sinai,qumran literature Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
sinai Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
sirach,book of Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198
sirach Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 62
slave Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
sons,of the devil Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
sophia Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198
spirit,characterizations as,breath (life itself) Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
spirit,characterizations as,teacher Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
spirit,characterizations as,truth Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
spirit,effects of,interpret dreams/scripture Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
spirit,effects of,knowledge/understanding Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
spirit,effects of,life itself Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
spirit,modes of presence,indwelling Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
spirit,modes of presence,poured out upon Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
spirit,modes of presence,prompting Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
spirit,modes of presence,receiving of Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 404
spirit Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 96
teachers Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9, 13
temple,second Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
temple (jerusalem) Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
textual transmission,premodern Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
the instruction of merikare Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 9
torah,and wisdom Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198
torah Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
torah focus Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 209, 211
trajan Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 13
transmission of tradition Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 95, 96
travel Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
tripartite (jewish) bible Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 209, 261
virtue Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198
wisdom,and torah Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198
wisdom,belonging to a collective Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198
wisdom,in sirach Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198
wisdom,personified Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198
wisdom,wisdom literature,educational method' Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
wisdom,wisdom literature Damm (2018), Religions and Education in Antiquity, 49
wisdom/wise Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 17
wisdom Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 13
wisdom literature,and apocalyptic literature Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 70
wisdom of solomon,book of Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 198