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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



673
Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 38.16-38.18


nanMy son, let your tears fall for the dead,and as one who is suffering grievously begin the lament. Lay out his body with the honor due him,and do not neglect his burial.


nanLet your weeping be bitter and your wailing fervent;observe the mourning according to his merit,for one day, or two, to avoid criticism;then be comforted for your sorrow.


nanFor sorrow results in death,and sorrow of heart saps ones strength.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.10, 2.14, 3.1, 3.6 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.10. I did not know that there were sparrows on the wall and their fresh droppings fell into my open eyes and white films formed on my eyes. I went to physicians, but they did not help me. Ahikar, however, took care of me until he went to Elymais. 2.14. And she said, "It was given to me as a gift in addition to my wages." But I did not believe her, and told her to return it to the owners; and I blushed for her. Then she replied to me, "Where are your charities and your righteous deeds? You seem to know everything! 3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me.
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 21.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.26. וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עֵין עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ־אֶת־עֵין אֲמָתוֹ וְשִׁחֲתָהּ לַחָפְשִׁי יְשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ תַּחַת עֵינוֹ׃ 21.26. And if a man smite the eye of his bondman, or the eye of his bondwoman, and destroy it, he shall let him go free for his eye’s sake."
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.5, 1.8, 1.10, 1.15, 2.1, 3.1, 3.11, 3.21, 4.10, 4.20, 5.1, 5.20, 6.20, 7.1, 8.9, 19.27, 23.19, 28.7, 28.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. יִשְׁמַע חָכָם וְיוֹסֶף לֶקַח וְנָבוֹן תַּחְבֻּלוֹת יִקְנֶה׃ 1.8. שְׁמַע בְּנִי מוּסַר אָבִיךָ וְאַל־תִּטֹּשׁ תּוֹרַת אִמֶּךָ׃ 1.15. בְּנִי אַל־תֵּלֵךְ בְּדֶרֶךְ אִתָּם מְנַע רַגְלְךָ מִנְּתִיבָתָם׃ 2.1. כִּי־תָבוֹא חָכְמָה בְלִבֶּךָ וְדַעַת לְנַפְשְׁךָ יִנְעָם׃ 2.1. בְּנִי אִם־תִּקַּח אֲמָרָי וּמִצְוֺתַי תִּצְפֹּן אִתָּךְ׃ 3.1. וְיִמָּלְאוּ אֲסָמֶיךָ שָׂבָע וְתִירוֹשׁ יְקָבֶיךָ יִפְרֹצוּ׃ 3.1. בְּנִי תּוֹרָתִי אַל־תִּשְׁכָּח וּמִצְוֺתַי יִצֹּר לִבֶּךָ׃ 3.11. מוּסַר יְהוָה בְּנִי אַל־תִּמְאָס וְאַל־תָּקֹץ בְּתוֹכַחְתּוֹ׃ 3.21. בְּנִי אַל־יָלֻזוּ מֵעֵינֶיךָ נְצֹר תֻּשִׁיָּה וּמְזִמָּה׃ 5.1. בְּנִי לְחָכְמָתִי הַקְשִׁיבָה לִתְבוּנָתִי הַט־אָזְנֶךָ׃ 5.1. פֶּן־יִשְׂבְּעוּ זָרִים כֹּחֶךָ וַעֲצָבֶיךָ בְּבֵית נָכְרִי׃ 7.1. וְהִנֵּה אִשָּׁה לִקְרָאתוֹ שִׁית זוֹנָה וּנְצֻרַת לֵב׃ 7.1. בְּנִי שְׁמֹר אֲמָרָי וּמִצְוֺתַי תִּצְפֹּן אִתָּךְ׃ 8.9. כֻּלָּם נְכֹחִים לַמֵּבִין וִישָׁרִים לְמֹצְאֵי דָעַת׃ 19.27. חַדַל־בְּנִי לִשְׁמֹעַ מוּסָר לִשְׁגוֹת מֵאִמְרֵי־דָעַת׃ 23.19. שְׁמַע־אַתָּה בְנִי וַחֲכָם וְאַשֵּׁר בַּדֶּרֶךְ לִבֶּךָ׃ 28.7. נוֹצֵר תּוֹרָה בֵּן מֵבִין וְרֹעֶה זוֹלְלִים יַכְלִים אָבִיו׃ 28.11. חָכָם בְּעֵינָיו אִישׁ עָשִׁיר וְדַל מֵבִין יַחְקְרֶנּוּ׃ 1.5. That the wise man may hear, and increase in learning, And the man of understanding may attain unto wise counsels;" 1.8. Hear, my son, the instruction of thy father, And forsake not the teaching of thy mother;" 1.10. My son, if sinners entice thee, Consent thou not." 1.15. My son, walk not thou in the way with them, restrain thy foot from their path;" 2.1. My son, if thou wilt receive my words, And lay up my commandments with thee;" 3.1. My son, forget not my teaching; But let thy heart keep my commandments;" 3.11. My son, despise not the chastening of the LORD, Neither spurn thou His correction;" 3.21. My son, let not them depart from thine eyes; Keep sound wisdom and discretion;" 4.10. Hear, O my son, and receive my sayings; And the years of thy life shall be many." 4.20. My son, attend to my words; Incline thine ear unto my sayings." 5.1. My son, attend unto my wisdom; Incline thine ear to my understanding;" 5.20. Why then wilt thou, my son, be ravished with a strange woman, And embrace the bosom of an alien?" 6.20. My son, keep the commandment of thy father, And forsake not the teaching of thy mother;" 7.1. My son, keep my words, And lay up my commandments with thee." 8.9. They are all plain to him that understandeth, And right to them that find knowledge." 19.27. Cease, my son, to hear the instruction That causeth to err from the words of knowledge." 23.19. Hear thou, my son, and be wise, And guide thy heart in the way." 28.7. A wise son observeth the teaching; ut he that is a companion of gluttonous men shameth his father." 28.11. The rich man is wise in his own eyes; But the poor that hath understanding searcheth him through."
4. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 24.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.6. וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי־כֵן וַיַּךְ לֵב־דָּוִד אֹתוֹ עַל אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת אֶת־כָּנָף אֲשֶׁר לְשָׁאוּל׃ 24.6. And it came to pass afterwards, that David’s heart smote him, because he had cut off Sha᾽ul’s robe."
5. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 24.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

24.10. And David’s heart smote him after he had numbered the people. And David said to the Lord, I have sinned greatly in that which I have done: and now, O Lord, take away, I pray Thee, the iniquity of Thy servant; for I have done very foolishly."
6. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.10, 2.14, 3.1, 3.6 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.10. I did not know that there were sparrows on the wall and their fresh droppings fell into my open eyes and white films formed on my eyes. I went to physicians, but they did not help me. Ahikar, however, took care of me until he went to Elymais. 2.14. And she said, "It was given to me as a gift in addition to my wages." But I did not believe her, and told her to return it to the owners; and I blushed for her. Then she replied to me, "Where are your charities and your righteous deeds? You seem to know everything! 3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me.
7. Dead Sea Scrolls, Ben Sira, 31.22, 38.4, 38.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 3.1-3.15, 3.17-3.18, 4.1, 4.11, 4.20, 6.18, 6.32, 7.3, 10.1, 10.28-10.29, 11.8, 11.10, 11.20, 14.11, 15.9-15.10, 17.19-17.27, 21.1-21.2, 21.6, 22.10-22.12, 22.16, 22.19, 22.23, 23.17, 24.1-24.30, 28.2-28.5, 30.14, 31.12, 31.22, 33.25-33.27, 33.31, 34.1-34.18, 34.20, 35.18, 36.24, 37.4, 37.7-37.8, 37.11, 37.16, 37.18, 37.20-37.22, 37.24, 37.27-37.31, 38.1-38.15, 38.17-38.24, 39.20-39.35, 41.11, 42.21, 44.14, 45.5-45.8, 47.19, 51.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. Listen to me your father, O children;and act accordingly, that you may be kept in safety. 3.1. Do not glorify yourself by dishonoring your father,for your fathers dishonor is no glory to you. 3.2. For the Lord honored the father above the children,and he confirmed the right of the mother over her sons. 3.2. For great is the might of the Lord;he is glorified by the humble. 3.3. Whoever honors his father atones for sins 3.3. Water extinguishes a blazing fire:so almsgiving atones for sin. 3.4. and whoever glorifies his mother is like one who lays up treasure. 3.5. Whoever honors his father will be gladdened by his own children,and when he prays he will be heard. 3.6. Whoever glorifies his father will have long life,and whoever obeys the Lord will refresh his mother; 3.7. he will serve his parents as his masters. 3.8. Honor your father by word and deed,that a blessing from him may come upon you. 3.9. For a fathers blessing strengthens the houses of the children,but a mothers curse uproots their foundations. 3.11. For a mans glory comes from honoring his father,and it is a disgrace for children not to respect their mother. 3.12. O son, help your father in his old age,and do not grieve him as long as he lives; 3.13. even if he is lacking in understanding, show forbearance;in all your strength do not despise him. 3.14. For kindness to a father will not be forgotten,and against your sins it will be credited to you; 3.15. in the day of your affliction it will be remembered in your favor;as frost in fair weather, your sins will melt away. 3.17. My son, perform your tasks in meekness;then you will be loved by those whom God accepts. 3.18. The greater you are, the more you must humble yourself;so you will find favor in the sight of the Lord. 4.1. My son, deprive not the poor of his living,and do not keep needy eyes waiting. 4.1. Be like a father to orphans,and instead of a husband to their mother;you will then be like a son of the Most High,and he will love you more than does your mother. 4.11. Wisdom exalts her sons and gives help to those who seek her. 7.3. My son, do not sow the furrows of injustice,and you will not reap a sevenfold crop. 7.3. With all your might love your Maker,and do not forsake his ministers. 10.1. A wise magistrate will educate his people,and the rule of an understanding man will be well ordered. 10.1. A long illness baffles the physician;the king of today will die tomorrow. 10.1. The wisdom of a humble man will lift up his head,and will seat him among the great. 10.1. My son, do not busy yourself with many matters;if you multiply activities you will not go unpunished,and if you pursue you will not overtake,and by fleeing you will not escape. 10.28. My son, glorify yourself with humility,and ascribe to yourself honor according to your worth. 10.28. Call no one happy before his death;a man will be known through his children. 10.29. Who will justify the man that sins against himself?And who will honor the man that dishonors his own life? 10.29. Do not bring every man into your home,for many are the wiles of the crafty. 14.11. My son, treat yourself well, according to your means,and present worthy offerings to the Lord. 15.9. A hymn of praise is not fitting on the lips of a sinner,for it has not been sent from the Lord. 17.19. All their works are as the sun before him,and his eyes are continually upon their ways. 17.22. A mans almsgiving is like a signet with the Lord and he will keep a persons kindness like the apple of his eye. 17.23. Afterward he will arise and requite them,and he will bring their recompense on their heads. 17.24. Yet to those who repent he grants a return,and he encourages those whose endurance is failing. 17.25. Turn to the Lord and forsake your sins;pray in his presence and lessen your offenses. 17.26. Return to the Most High and turn away from iniquity,and hate abominations intensely. 17.27. Who will sing praises to the Most High in Hades,as do those who are alive and give thanks? 21.1. Have you sinned, my son? Do so no more,but pray about your former sins. 21.1. The way of sinners is smoothly paved with stones,but at its end is the pit of Hades. 21.2. Flee from sin as from a snake;for if you approach sin, it will bite you. Its teeth are lions teeth,and destroy the souls of men. 21.2. A fool raises his voice when he laughs,but a clever man smiles quietly. 21.6. Whoever hates reproof walks in the steps of the sinner,but he that fears the Lord will repent in his heart. 22.11. Weep for the dead, for he lacks the light;and weep for the fool, for he lacks intelligence;weep less bitterly for the dead, for he has attained rest;but the life of the fool is worse than death. 22.11. A man who swears many oaths will be filled with iniquity,and the scourge will not leave his house;if he offends, his sin remains on him,and if he disregards it, he sins doubly;if he has sworn needlessly, he will not be justified,for his house will be filled with calamities. 22.12. Mourning for the dead lasts seven days,but for a fool or an ungodly man it lasts all his life. 22.12. There is an utterance which is comparable to death;may it never be found in the inheritance of Jacob!For all these errors will be far from the godly,and they will not wallow in sins. 22.16. A wooden beam firmly bonded into a building will not be torn loose by an earthquake;so the mind firmly fixed on a reasonable counsel will not be afraid in a crisis. 22.16. Two sorts of men multiply sins,and a third incurs wrath. The soul heated like a burning fire will not be quenched until it is consumed;a man who commits fornication with his near of kin will never cease until the fire burns him up. 22.19. A man who pricks an eye will make tears fall,and one who pricks the heart makes it show feeling. 22.19. His fear is confined to the eyes of men,and he does not realize that the eyes of the Lord are ten thousand times brighter than the sun;they look upon all the ways of men,and perceive even the hidden places. 22.23. Gain the trust of your neighbor in his poverty,that you may rejoice with him in his prosperity;stand by him in time of affliction,that you may share with him in his inheritance. 22.23. For first of all, she has disobeyed the law of the Most High;second, she has committed an offense against her husband;and third, she has committed adultery through harlotry and brought forth children by another man. 24.1. Wisdom will praise herself,and will glory in the midst of her people. 24.1. In the holy tabernacle I ministered before him,and so I was established in Zion. 24.2. In the assembly of the Most High she will open her mouth,and in the presence of his host she will glory: 24.2. For the remembrance of me is sweeter than honey,and my inheritance sweeter than the honeycomb. 24.3. I came forth from the mouth of the Most High,and covered the earth like a mist. 24.3. I went forth like a canal from a river and like a water channel into a garden. 24.4. I dwelt in high places,and my throne was in a pillar of cloud. 24.5. Alone I have made the circuit of the vault of heaven and have walked in the depths of the abyss. 24.6. In the waves of the sea, in the whole earth,and in every people and nation I have gotten a possession. 24.7. Among all these I sought a resting place;I sought in whose territory I might lodge. 24.8. Then the Creator of all things gave me a commandment,and the one who created me assigned a place for my tent. And he said, `Make your dwelling in Jacob,and in Israel receive your inheritance. 24.9. From eternity, in the beginning, he created me,and for eternity I shall not cease to exist. 24.11. In the beloved city likewise he gave me a resting place,and in Jerusalem was my dominion. 24.12. So I took root in an honored people,in the portion of the Lord, who is their inheritance. 24.13. I grew tall like a cedar in Lebanon,and like a cypress on the heights of Hermon. 24.14. I grew tall like a palm tree in En-gedi,and like rose plants in Jericho;like a beautiful olive tree in the field,and like a plane tree I grew tall. 24.15. Like cassia and camels thorn I gave forth the aroma of spices,and like choice myrrh I spread a pleasant odor,like galbanum, onycha, and stacte,and like the fragrance of frankincense in the tabernacle. 24.16. Like a terebinth I spread out my branches,and my branches are glorious and graceful. 24.17. Like a vine I caused loveliness to bud,and my blossoms became glorious and abundant fruit. 24.19. Come to me, you who desire me,and eat your fill of my produce. 24.21. Those who eat me will hunger for more,and those who drink me will thirst for more. 24.22. Whoever obeys me will not be put to shame,and those who work with my help will not sin. 24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob. 24.25. It fills men with wisdom, like the Pishon,and like the Tigris at the time of the first fruits. 24.26. It makes them full of understanding, like the Euphrates,and like the Jordan at harvest time. 24.27. It makes instruction shine forth like light,like the Gihon at the time of vintage. 24.28. Just as the first man did not know her perfectly,the last one has not fathomed her; 24.29. for her thought is more abundant than the sea,and her counsel deeper than the great abyss. 28.2. Forgive your neighbor the wrong he has done,and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray. 28.2. for its yoke is a yoke of iron,and its fetters are fetters of bronze; 28.3. Does a man harbor anger against another,and yet seek for healing from the Lord? 28.4. Does he have no mercy toward a man like himself,and yet pray for his own sins? 28.5. If he himself, being flesh, maintains wrath,who will make expiation for his sins? 30.14. Better off is a poor man who is well and strong in constitution than a rich man who is severely afflicted in body. 31.12. Are you seated at the table of a great man?Do not be greedy at it,and do not say, "There is certainly much upon it! 31.22. Listen to me, my son, and do not disregard me,and in the end you will appreciate my words. In all your work be industrious,and no sickness will overtake you. 33.25. Set your slave to work, and you will find rest;leave his hands idle, and he will seek liberty. 33.26. Yoke and thong will bow the neck,and for a wicked servant there are racks and tortures. 33.27. Put him to work, that he may not be idle,for idleness teaches much evil. 33.31. If you have a servant, treat him as a brother,for as your own soul you will need him. 34.1. A man of no understanding has vain and false hopes,and dreams give wings to fools. 34.1. He that is inexperienced knows few things,but he that has traveled acquires much cleverness. 34.2. As one who catches at a shadow and pursues the wind,so is he who gives heed to dreams. 34.2. Like one who kills a son before his fathers eyes is the man who offers a sacrifice from the property of the poor. 34.3. The vision of dreams is this against that,the likeness of a face confronting a face. 34.4. From an unclean thing what will be made clean?And from something false what will be true? 34.5. Divinations and omens and dreams are folly,and like a woman in travail the mind has fancies. 34.6. Unless they are sent from the Most High as a visitation,do not give your mind to them. 34.7. For dreams have deceived many,and those who put their hope in them have failed. 34.8. Without such deceptions the law will be fulfilled,and wisdom is made perfect in truthful lips. 34.9. An educated man knows many things,and one with much experience will speak with understanding. 34.11. I have seen many things in my travels,and I understand more than I can express. 34.12. I have often been in danger of death,but have escaped because of these experiences. 34.13. The spirit of those who fear the Lord will live,for their hope is in him who saves them. 34.14. He who fears the Lord will not be timid,nor play the coward, for he is his hope. 34.15. Blessed is the soul of the man who fears the Lord!To whom does he look? And who is his support? 34.16. The eyes of the Lord are upon those who love him,a mighty protection and strong support,a shelter from the hot wind and a shade from noonday sun,a guard against stumbling and a defense against falling. 34.17. He lifts up the soul and gives light to the eyes;he grants healing, life, and blessing. 34.18. If one sacrifices from what has been wrongfully obtained, the offering is blemished; the gifts of the lawless are not acceptable. 35.18. And the Lord will not delay,neither will he be patient with them,till he crushes the loins of the unmerciful and repays vengeance on the nations;till he takes away the multitude of the insolent,and breaks the scepters of the unrighteous; 36.24. He who acquires a wife gets his best possession,a helper fit for him and a pillar of support. 37.4. Some companions rejoice in the happiness of a friend,but in time of trouble are against him. 37.7. Every counselor praises counsel,but some give counsel in their own interest. 37.8. Be wary of a counselor,and learn first what is his interest -- for he will take thought for himself -- lest he cast the lot against you 37.11. Do not consult with a woman about her rival or with a coward about war,with a merchant about barter or with a buyer about selling,with a grudging man about gratitude or with a merciless man about kindness,with an idler about any work or with a man hired for a year about completing his work,with a lazy servant about a big task -- pay no attention to these in any matter of counsel. 37.16. Reason is the beginning of every work,and counsel precedes every undertaking. 37.18. four turns of fortune appear,good and evil, life and death;and it is the tongue that continually rules them. 37.21. for grace was not given him by the Lord,since he is lacking in all wisdom. 37.22. A man may be wise to his own advantage,and the fruits of his understanding may be trustworthy on his lips. 37.24. A wise man will have praise heaped upon him,and all who see him will call him happy. 37.27. My son, test your soul while you live;see what is bad for it and do not give it that. 37.28. For not everything is good for every one,and not every person enjoys everything. 37.29. Do not have an insatiable appetite for any luxury,and do not give yourself up to food; 37.31. Many have died of gluttony,but he who is careful to avoid it prolongs his life. 38.1. Honor the physician with the honor due him,according to your need of him, for the Lord created him; 38.1. Give up your faults and direct your hands aright,and cleanse your heart from all sin. 38.2. for healing comes from the Most High,and he will receive a gift from the king. 38.2. Do not give your heart to sorrow;drive it away, remembering the end of life. 38.3. The skill of the physician lifts up his head,and in the presence of great men he is admired. 38.3. He moulds the clay with his arm and makes it pliable with his feet;he sets his heart to finish the glazing,and he is careful to clean the furnace. 38.4. The Lord created medicines from the earth,and a sensible man will not despise them. 38.5. Was not water made sweet with a tree in order that his power might be known? 38.6. And he gave skill to men that he might be glorified in his marvelous works. 38.7. By them he heals and takes away pain; 38.8. the pharmacist makes of them a compound. His works will never be finished;and from him health is upon the face of the earth. 38.9. My son, when you are sick do not be negligent,but pray to the Lord, and he will heal you. 38.11. offer a sweet-smelling sacrifice, and a memorial portion of fine flour,and pour oil on your offering, as much as you can afford. 38.12. And give the physician his place, for the Lord created him;let him not leave you, for there is need of him. 38.13. There is a time when success lies in the hands of physicians 38.14. for they too will pray to the Lord that he should grant them success in diagnosis and in healing, for the sake of preserving life. 38.15. He who sins before his Maker,may he fall into the care of a physician. 38.17. Let your weeping be bitter and your wailing fervent;observe the mourning according to his merit,for one day, or two, to avoid criticism;then be comforted for your sorrow. 38.18. For sorrow results in death,and sorrow of heart saps ones strength. 38.19. In calamity sorrow continues,and the life of the poor man weighs down his heart. 38.21. Do not forget, there is no coming back;you do the dead no good, and you injure yourself. 38.22. Remember my doom, for yours is like it:yesterday it was mine, and today it is yours. 38.23. When the dead is at rest, let his remembrance cease,and be comforted for him when his spirit is departed. 38.24. The wisdom of the scribe depends on the opportunity of leisure;and he who has little business may become wise. 39.21. No one can say, "What is this?" "Why is that?" for everything has been created for its use. 39.22. His blessing covers the dry land like a river,and drenches it like a flood. 39.23. The nations will incur his wrath,just as he turns fresh water into salt. 39.24. To the holy his ways are straight,just as they are obstacles to the wicked. 39.25. From the beginning good things were created for good people,just as evil things for sinners. 39.26. Basic to all the needs of mans life are water and fire and iron and salt and wheat flour and milk and honey,the blood of the grape, and oil and clothing. 39.27. All these are for good to the godly,just as they turn into evils for sinners. 39.28. There are winds that have been created for vengeance,and in their anger they scourge heavily;in the time of consummation they will pour out their strength and calm the anger of their Maker. 39.29. Fire and hail and famine and pestilence,all these have been created for vengeance; 39.31. they will rejoice in his commands,and be made ready on earth for their service,and when their times come they will not transgress his word. 39.32. Therefore from the beginning I have been convinced,and have thought this out and left it in writing: 39.33. The works of the Lord are all good,and he will supply every need in its hour. 39.34. And no one can say, "This is worse than that," for all things will prove good in their season. 39.35. So now sing praise with all your heart and voice,and bless the name of the Lord. 41.11. The mourning of men is about their bodies,but the evil name of sinners will be blotted out. 42.21. He has ordained the splendors of his wisdom,and he is from everlasting and to everlasting. Nothing can be added or taken away,and he needs no one to be his counselor. 42.21. He consumes the mountains and burns up the wilderness,and withers the tender grass like fire. 44.14. Their bodies were buried in peace,and their name lives to all generations. 45.5. He made him hear his voice,and led him into the thick darkness,and gave him the commandments face to face,the law of life and knowledge,to teach Jacob the covet,and Israel his judgments. 45.6. He exalted Aaron, the brother of Moses,a holy man like him, of the tribe of Levi. 45.7. He made an everlasting covet with him,and gave him the priesthood of the people. He blessed him with splendid vestments,and put a glorious robe upon him. 45.8. He clothed him with superb perfection,and strengthened him with the symbols of authority,the linen breeches, the long robe, and the ephod. 47.19. But you laid your loins beside women,and through your body you were brought into subjection. 51.2. for thou hast been my protector and helper and hast delivered my body from destruction and from the snare of a slanderous tongue,from lips that utter lies. Before those who stood by thou wast my helper 51.2. I directed my soul to her,and through purification I found her. I gained understanding with her from the first,therefore I will not be forsaken.
9. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.1-1.9, 1.12-1.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.1. Love righteousness, you rulers of the earth,think of the Lord with uprightness,and seek him with sincerity of heart; 1.2. because he is found by those who do not put him to the test,and manifests himself to those who do not distrust him. 1.3. For perverse thoughts separate men from God,and when his power is tested, it convicts the foolish; 1.4. because wisdom will not enter a deceitful soul,nor dwell in a body enslaved to sin. 1.5. For a holy and disciplined spirit will flee from deceit,and will rise and depart from foolish thoughts,and will be ashamed at the approach of unrighteousness. 1.6. For wisdom is a kindly spirit and will not free a blasphemer from the guilt of his words;because God is witness of his inmost feelings,and a true observer of his heart, and a hearer of his tongue. 1.7. Because the Spirit of the Lord has filled the world,and that which holds all things together knows what is said; 1.8. therefore no one who utters unrighteous things will escape notice,and justice, when it punishes, will not pass him by. 1.9. For inquiry will be made into the counsels of an ungodly man,and a report of his words will come to the Lord,to convict him of his lawless deeds; 1.12. Do not invite death by the error of your life,nor bring on destruction by the works of your hands; 1.13. because God did not make death,and he does not delight in the death of the living. 1.14. For he created all things that they might exist,and the generative forces of the world are wholesome,and there is no destructive poison in them;and the dominion of Hades is not on earth. 1.15. For righteousness is immortal.
10. Mishnah, Maasrot, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. New Testament, John, 11.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.44. He who was dead came out, bound hand and foot with wrappings, and his face was wrapped around with a cloth. Jesus said to them, "Free him, and let him go.
12. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27b. בכליכה והיו עניים מתביישין התקינו שיהו הכל מוציאין בכליכה מפני כבודן של עניים,בראשונה היו מניחין את המוגמר תחת חולי מעים מתים והיו חולי מעים חיים מתביישין התקינו שיהו מניחין תחת הכל מפני כבודן של חולי מעים חיים,בראשונה היו מטבילין את הכלים על גבי נדות מתות והיו נדות חיות מתביישות התקינו שיהו מטבילין על גבי כל הנשים מפני כבודן של נדות חיות בראשונה מטבילין על גבי זבין מתים והיו זבין חיים מתביישין התקינו שיהו מטבילין על גב הכל מפני כבודן של זבין חיים,בראשונה היתה הוצאת המת קשה לקרוביו יותר ממיתתו עד שהיו קרוביו מניחין אותו ובורחין עד שבא רבן גמליאל ונהג קלות ראש בעצמו ויצא בכלי פשתן ונהגו העם אחריו לצאת בכלי פשתן אמר רב פפא והאידנא נהוג עלמא אפילו בצרדא בר זוזא:,אין מניחין את המטה ברחוב: אמר רב פפא אין מועד בפני תלמיד חכם וכל שכן חנוכה ופורים,והני מילי בפניו אבל שלא בפניו לא איני והא רב כהנא ספדיה לרב זביד מנהרדעא בפום נהרא אמר רב פפי יום שמועה הוה וכבפניו דמי,אמר עולא הספד על לב דכתיב (ישעיהו לב, יב) על שדים סופדים טיפוח ביד קילוס ברגל,תנו רבנן המקלס לא יקלס בסנדל אלא במנעל מפני הסכנה,אמר רבי יוחנן אבל כיון שניענע ראשו שוב אין מנחמין רשאין לישב אצלו,ואמר רבי יוחנן הכל חייבין לעמוד מפני נשיא חוץ מאבל וחולה ואמר ר' יוחנן לכל אומרים להם שבו חוץ מאבל וחולה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אבל יום ראשון אסור לאכול לחם משלו מדאמר ליה רחמנא ליחזקאל (יחזקאל כד, יז) ולחם אנשים לא תאכל רבה ורב יוסף מחלפי סעודתייהו להדדי,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב מת בעיר כל בני העיר אסורין בעשיית מלאכה,רב המנונא איקלע לדרומתא שמע קול שיפורא דשכבא חזא הנך אינשי דקא עבדי עבידתא אמר להו ליהוו הנך אינשי בשמתא לא שכבא איכא במתא אמרו ליה חבורתא איכא במתא אמר להו אי הכי שריא לכו,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המתקשה על מתו יותר מדאי על מת אחר הוא בוכה ההיא איתתא דהות בשיבבותיה דרב הונא הוו לה שבעה בני מת חד מינייהו הוות קא בכיא ביתירתא עליה שלח לה רב הונא לא תעבדי הכי לא אשגחה ביה שלח לה אי צייתת מוטב ואי לא צבית זוודתא לאידך מית ומיתו כולהו לסוף אמר לה תימוש זוודתא לנפשיך ומיתא,(ירמיהו כב, י) אל תבכו למת ואל תנודו לו אל תבכו למת יותר מדאי ואל תנודו לו יותר מכשיעור הא כיצד שלשה ימים לבכי ושבעה להספד ושלשים לגיהוץ ולתספורת מכאן ואילך אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא אי אתם רחמנים בו יותר ממני,(ירמיהו כב, י) בכו בכו להולך אמר רב יהודה להולך בלא בנים רבי יהושע בן לוי לא אזל לבי אבלא אלא למאן דאזיל בלא בני דכתיב בכו בכו להולך כי לא ישוב עוד וראה את ארץ מולדתו רב הונא אמר זה שעבר עבירה ושנה בה,רב הונא לטעמיה דאמר רב הונא כיון שעבר אדם עבירה ושנה בה הותרה לו הותרה לו סלקא דעתך אלא אימא נעשית לו כהיתר,אמר רבי לוי אבל שלשה ימים הראשונים יראה את עצמו כאילו חרב מונחת לו בין שתי (יריכותיו) משלשה עד שבעה כאילו מונחת לו כנגדו בקרן זוית מכאן ואילך כאילו עוברת כנגדו בשוק:,ולא של נשים לעולם מפני הכבוד: אמרי נהרדעי לא שנו 27b. bon a plain biermade from poles that were strapped together, band the poor were embarrassed.The Sages binstituted that everyone should be taken outfor burial bon a plain bier, due to the honor of the poor. /b,Similarly, bat first they would place incense underthe beds of bthose who died with an intestinal disease,because the body emitted an especially unpleasant odor. bAnd those who were alive with an intestinal disease were embarrassedwhen they understood that they, too, would be treated in this manner after their death, and that everyone would know the cause of their death. The Sages binstituted that incense should be placed under everyone, due to the honor of those with an intestinal disease who werestill bliving. /b,Moreover, bat first they wouldritually bimmerseall bthe utensilsthat had been used bbywomen who bdiedwhile bmenstruating,which had thereby contracted ritual impurity. bAnddue to this, bthe living menstruating women were embarrassed.The Sages binstituted thatthe utensils that had been used bby alldying bwomen must be immersed, due to the honor of living menstruating women.And, bat first they wouldritually bimmerseall bthe utensilsthat had been used by izavin /i,men suffering from gonorrhea, bwho died,as the utensils had thereby contracted ritual impurity. bAnddue to this bthe living izavinfelt embarrassed.The Sages binstituted thatthe utensils that had been used bby allmen bmust be immersed, due to the honor of the living izavin /i. /b,Likewise, bat first taking the dead outfor burial bwas more difficult for the relatives than theactual bdeath,because it was customary to bury the dead in expensive shrouds, which the poor could not afford. The problem grew bto the point that relatives wouldsometimes babandonthe corpse band run away.This lasted buntil Rabban Gamliel came and actedwith bfrivolity,meaning that he waived his dignity, by leaving instructions that he be btaken outfor burial bin linen garments. And the peopleadopted this bpractice after himand had themselves btaken outfor burial bin linen garments. Rav Pappa said: And nowadays, everyone follows the practiceof taking out the dead for burial beven inplain bhemp garments [ itzerada /i]that cost only ba dinar. /b,It is taught in the mishna: bThe bierof the deceased bis not set down in the streetduring the intermediate days of a Festival, bso as not to encourage eulogies. Rav Pappa said:There are bnorestrictions on eulogizing on the intermediate days of ba Festival in the presenceof a deceased bTorah scholar,and therefore he may be eulogized in the ordinary manner during the Festival week. bAnd all the more soa Torah scholar may be eulogized on the days of bHanukkah and Purim,which have less sanctity than the intermediate days of a Festival.,The Gemara comments: bBut thisallowance to eulogize a Torah scholar during the intermediate days of a Festival bapplies onlywhen the eulogy is binthe bpresenceof the deceased, before the bier. bHowever,giving a eulogy that is bnot in his presenceis bnotpermitted. The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But didn’t Rav Kahana eulogize Rav Zevid from Neharde’a inhis city bPum Naharaduring the intermediate days of a Festival? bRav Pappa said: It was the dayon which Rav Kahana received the bnewsof Rav Zevid’s death, banda eulogy in such a situation bis considered asif it is bin his presence. /b,The Gemara continues its discussion of the ihalakhotof mourning: bUlla said:Although ihespedusually refers to a eulogy, strictly speaking, ihesped /iis referring to striking oneself bon the heart, as it is written: “Striking [ isofedim /i] the breasts”(Isaiah 32:12). The term itipuaḥ /iis referring to striking bwithone bhandagainst the other hand, i.e., clapping. The term ikillus /iis referring to stomping bwithone’s bfooton the ground., bThe Sages taughta ibaraita /i: bOne who stomps his foot on the groundas a sign of mourning bshould not stomp with a sandal, but ratherhe should do so wearing ba shoe, due to the dangerof being hurt. Because a sandal is easily torn, it is possible that something sharp on the ground will puncture his foot, or that he will suffer some other injury., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Once a mourner nods his headto show that his grief has slightly diminished, bthe consolers may no longer sit next to him,as with his action the mourner shows that he no longer desires their presence., bRabbi Yoḥa further said: All are obligated to standin the bpresence of the iNasi /i, except for a mourner and one who is sick. Rabbi Yoḥa said: To allwho stand before a great person bone says: Be seated,and only then may they sit down, bexcept for a mourner and one who is sick.If they stood up they do not need permission to sit down, but rather they may do so if they wish., bRav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: A mourneron the bfirst dayof his mourning bis prohibited from eating of his own bread.From where is this derived? bFromwhat bthe Merciful One says to Ezekielwhen the latter is in mourning: b“Nor eat the bread of men”(Ezekiel 24:17), which indicates that other mourners must eat bread made by others. It was related that when bRabba and Rav Yosefwere in mourning they bwould exchange their meals with each other. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav:When a person bdies in a city, all of the residents of that city are prohibited from performing workuntil he has been buried.,The Gemara relates that when bRav Hamnunaonce bhappenedto come to a place called bDarumata he heard the sound of a ishofar /iannouncing that a person bhad diedin the town. When bhe saw some people doing work he said to them: Let these people be under an excommunication. Is there not a deadperson bin town? They said to him: There areseparate bgroups in the town,each one responsible for its own dead. Knowing that the deceased was not from our group, we continued our work. bHe said to them: If so, it is permittedto you, and he revoked his excommunication., bAnd Rav Yehuda said further in the name of Rav: Anyone who grieves excessively over his deadand does not allow himself to be consoled bwillin the end bweep for anotherperson. The Gemara relates that ba certain womanwho lived bin the neighborhood of Rav Huna had seven sons. One of them died and she wept for him excessively. Rav Huna senta message bto her: Do not do this.But bshe took no heed of him. Hethen bsentanother message bto her: If you listen to me, it is well, but if not, prepare shrouds for another death.But she would not listen band they all died. In the end,when she continued with her excessive mourning, bhe said to her:Since you are acting in this way, bprepare shrouds for yourself, andsoon thereafter bshe died. /b,The Sages taught in a ibaraitawith regard to the verse that states: b“Weep not for the dead, neither bemoan him”(Jeremiah 22:10): b“Weep not for the dead”is referring to bexcessivemourning; b“neither bemoan him” more than theappropriate bmeasureof time. bHow so?What is the appropriate measure? bThree days for weeping, and seven for eulogizing, and thirty forthe prohibition against bironingclothing band forthe prohibition against bcutting hair. From thispoint bforward the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Do not be more merciful withthe deceased bthan I am.If the Torah commands one to mourn for a certain period of time, then that suffices.,It is stated in the continuation of the verse: b“Weep sore for him that goes away.” Rav Yehuda said:This is referring bto one who leavesthe world bwithout childrento survive him, since mourning for him is much more intense. It was related that bRabbi Yehoshua ben Leviwould bgo to a house of mourning only for one who passed away without children, as it is written: “Weep sore for him that goes away; for he shall return [ iyashuv /i] no more, nor see his native land”(Jeremiah 22:10). bRav Hunadisagreed with the interpretation of the verse and bsaid:“Him that goes” bisone bwho committed a transgression andthen brepeated it,i.e., one who sins constantly and does not repent [ iyashav /i], and therefore loses his portion in the World-to-Come, his “native land.”,The Gemara notes that bRav Hunaconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning,as bRav Huna said: Once a person commits a transgression and repeats it, it becomes permitted to him.The Gemara questions the wording used here: bDoes it enter your mindthat it is actually bpermitted?How could it possibly be permitted for him to sin? bRather, sayinstead: bIt becomes as though it were permitted,for after doing it twice he no longer relates to his action as the violation of a serious prohibition., bRabbi Levi said: A mournerduring bthe first three daysof his mourning bshould see himself as though a sword were lying between his two thighs,meaning that he too may be facing imminent death. During this period he should live in dread. bFrom the third to the seventhdays he should conduct himself bas ifthe sword bwere lying opposite him in the corner,but still threatening him. bFrom thispoint bforward it is as ifthe sword bwas moving before him in the marketplace,and the fear is not as great.,§ The mishna teaches: bAndthe biers bof womenare bneverset down, bdue totheir bhonor.The Sages of bNeharde’a say: They only taughtthi


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
accessories Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
advisors Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70
afterlife Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 131
ben sira Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
benedictions/blessings Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
bier Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
bones Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
burial customs Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
caution Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70
cemetery, cemeteries Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
classical world Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
coffins Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
collective humanity Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 131
corpse Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 114
covenant Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
david Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
death Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70, 199; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 114
earth Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 131
evil Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
faithfulness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70
flesh Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 114
funeral Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70
grief Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
health Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
heart Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
human, nature Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 131
humility Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70
hymn Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
immortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 131
injustice Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
jericho Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
jews Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
justice Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 131
keening, keeners Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
knowledge Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 114
leather Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
link word Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70
mattresses Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
mocking Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
morality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 114
mortal Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 114
mortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 114
mourning Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
mēbîn Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 35
nature, human Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 131
orthodox judaism Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
ossuary, ossuaries Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
parallelism Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
pedagogy Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 35
physical Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 114, 131
poor Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70, 199
prayer Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
psychosomatic Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 131
qumran Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
repentance/penitence Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
riddle Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
roman Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
sacrifice Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70
sacrifices/cult' "204.0_481.0@'en gedi" Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
sarcophagus, sarcophagi Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
secrets/confidences, keeping/betraying Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
self Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 131
shrouds Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
skulls Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
slave Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
sorrow Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 131
tears Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
temporal Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 114, 131
textiles Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
trust (between friends) Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70
trust (in god) Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70
wicked Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 114
widow Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199
wife Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70, 199
wisdom, literature Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 35
wisdom, recipients of Bakker, The Secret of Time: Reconfiguring Wisdom in the Dead Sea Scrolls (2023) 35
wisdom/wise Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 70
wooden' Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
wound Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 199