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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



673
Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 33.14


nanGood is the opposite of evil,and life the opposite of death;so the sinner is the opposite of the godly.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 30.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.15. רְאֵה נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַחַיִּים וְאֶת־הַטּוֹב וְאֶת־הַמָּוֶת וְאֶת־הָרָע׃ 30.15. See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil,"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 30.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.15. הֶעָשִׁיר לֹא־יַרְבֶּה וְהַדַּל לֹא יַמְעִיט מִמַּחֲצִית הַשָּׁקֶל לָתֵת אֶת־תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם׃ 30.15. The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less, than the half shekel, when they give the offering of the LORD, to make atonement for your souls."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.11-1.12, 1.21-1.25, 1.28, 1.31, 3.17, 6.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.12. וַתּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע לְמִינֵהוּ וְעֵץ עֹשֶׂה־פְּרִי אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.21. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת אֲשֶׁר שָׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם לְמִינֵהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף כָּנָף לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.22. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים לֵאמֹר פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם בַּיַּמִּים וְהָעוֹף יִרֶב בָּאָרֶץ׃ 1.23. וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם חֲמִישִׁי׃ 1.24. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ בְּהֵמָה וָרֶמֶשׂ וְחַיְתוֹ־אֶרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.25. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֵת כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.31. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה־טוֹב מְאֹד וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 6.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים לְנֹחַ קֵץ כָּל־בָּשָׂר בָּא לְפָנַי כִּי־מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ חָמָס מִפְּנֵיהֶם וְהִנְנִי מַשְׁחִיתָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.11. And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so." 1.12. And the earth brought forth grass, herb yielding seed after its kind, and tree bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 1.21. And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that creepeth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after its kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 1.22. And God blessed them, saying: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.’" 1.23. And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day." 1.24. And God said: ‘Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind.’ And it was so." 1.25. And God made the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.31. And God saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day." 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 6.13. And God said unto Noah: ‘The end of all flesh is come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth."
4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 10.15, 14.20, 18.23, 22.16, 28.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.15. הוֹן עָשִׁיר קִרְיַת עֻזּוֹ מְחִתַּת דַּלִּים רֵישָׁם׃ 18.23. תַּחֲנוּנִים יְדַבֶּר־רָשׁ וְעָשִׁיר יַעֲנֶה עַזּוֹת׃ 22.16. עֹשֵׁק דָּל לְהַרְבּוֹת לוֹ נֹתֵן לְעָשִׁיר אַךְ־לְמַחְסוֹר׃ 28.11. חָכָם בְּעֵינָיו אִישׁ עָשִׁיר וְדַל מֵבִין יַחְקְרֶנּוּ׃ 10.15. The rich man’s wealth is his strong city; the ruin of the poor is their poverty." 14.20. The poor is hated even of his own neighbour; But the rich hath many friends. ." 18.23. The poor useth entreaties; But the rich answereth impudently." 22.16. One may oppress the poor, yet will their gain increase; One may give to the rich, yet will want come." 28.11. The rich man is wise in his own eyes; But the poor that hath understanding searcheth him through."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 103.14, 104.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

103.14. כִּי־הוּא יָדַע יִצְרֵנוּ זָכוּר כִּי־עָפָר אֲנָחְנוּ׃ 104.19. עָשָׂה יָרֵחַ לְמוֹעֲדִים שֶׁמֶשׁ יָדַע מְבוֹאוֹ׃ 103.14. For He knoweth our frame; He remembereth that we are dust." 104.19. Who appointedst the moon for seasons; The sun knoweth his going down."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 17.1, 17.14, 18.1, 18.41-18.45 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ הַתִּשְׁבִּי מִתֹּשָׁבֵי גִלְעָד אֶל־אַחְאָב חַי־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר עָמַדְתִּי לְפָנָיו אִם־יִהְיֶה הַשָּׁנִים הָאֵלֶּה טַל וּמָטָר כִּי אִם־לְפִי דְבָרִי׃ 17.1. וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ צָרְפַתָה וַיָּבֹא אֶל־פֶּתַח הָעִיר וְהִנֵּה־שָׁם אִשָּׁה אַלְמָנָה מְקֹשֶׁשֶׁת עֵצִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמַר קְחִי־נָא לִי מְעַט־מַיִם בַּכְּלִי וְאֶשְׁתֶּה׃ 17.14. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּד הַקֶּמַח לֹא תִכְלָה וְצַפַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶן לֹא תֶחְסָר עַד יוֹם תתן־[תֵּת־] יְהוָה גֶּשֶׁם עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 18.1. וַיְהִי יָמִים רַבִּים וּדְבַר־יְהוָה הָיָה אֶל־אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁלִישִׁית לֵאמֹר לֵךְ הֵרָאֵה אֶל־אַחְאָב וְאֶתְּנָה מָטָר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃ 18.1. חַי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אִם־יֶשׁ־גּוֹי וּמַמְלָכָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁלַח אֲדֹנִי שָׁם לְבַקֶּשְׁךָ וְאָמְרוּ אָיִן וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ אֶת־הַמַּמְלָכָה וְאֶת־הַגּוֹי כִּי לֹא יִמְצָאֶכָּה׃ 18.41. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ לְאַחְאָב עֲלֵה אֱכֹל וּשְׁתֵה כִּי־קוֹל הֲמוֹן הַגָּשֶׁם׃ 18.42. וַיַּעֲלֶה אַחְאָב לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וְאֵלִיָּהוּ עָלָה אֶל־רֹאשׁ הַכַּרְמֶל וַיִּגְהַר אַרְצָה וַיָּשֶׂם פָּנָיו בֵּין ברכו [בִּרְכָּיו׃] 18.43. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־נַעֲרוֹ עֲלֵה־נָא הַבֵּט דֶּרֶךְ־יָם וַיַּעַל וַיַּבֵּט וַיֹּאמֶר אֵין מְאוּמָה וַיֹּאמֶר שֻׁב שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים׃ 18.44. וַיְהִי בַּשְּׁבִעִית וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה־עָב קְטַנָּה כְּכַף־אִישׁ עֹלָה מִיָּם וַיֹּאמֶר עֲלֵה אֱמֹר אֶל־אַחְאָב אֱסֹר וָרֵד וְלֹא יַעַצָרְכָה הַגָּשֶׁם׃ 18.45. וַיְהִי עַד־כֹּה וְעַד־כֹּה וְהַשָּׁמַיִם הִתְקַדְּרוּ עָבִים וְרוּחַ וַיְהִי גֶּשֶׁם גָּדוֹל וַיִּרְכַּב אַחְאָב וַיֵּלֶךְ יִזְרְעֶאלָה׃ 17.1. And Elijah the Tishbite, who was of the settlers of Gilead, said unto Ahab: ‘As the LORD, the God of Israel, liveth, before whom I stand, there shall not be dew nor rain these years, but according to my word.’" 17.14. For thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: The jar of meal shall not be spent, neither shall the cruse of oil fail, until the day that the LORD sendeth rain upon the land.’" 18.1. And it came to pass after many days, that the word of the LORD came to Elijah, in the third year, saying: ‘Go, show thyself unto Ahab, and I will send rain upon the land.’" 18.41. And Elijah said unto Ahab: ‘Get thee up, eat and drink; for there is the sound of abundance of rain.’" 18.42. So Ahab went up to eat and to drink. And Elijah went up to the top of Carmel; and he bowed himself down upon the earth, and put his face between his knees." 18.43. And he said to his servant: ‘Go up now, look toward the sea.’ And he went up, and looked, and said: ‘There is nothing.’ And he said: ‘Go again seven times.’" 18.44. And it came to pass at the seventh time, that he said: ‘Behold, there ariseth a cloud out of the sea, as small as a man’s hand.’ And he said: ‘Go up, say unto Ahab: Make ready thy chariot, and get thee down, that the rain stop thee not.’" 18.45. And it came to pass in a little while, that the heaven grew black with clouds and wind, and there was a great rain. And Ahab rode, and went to Jezreel."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 12.1-12.4, 19.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.1. וְעַתָּה לֹא־תָסוּר חֶרֶב מִבֵּיתְךָ עַד־עוֹלָם עֵקֶב כִּי בְזִתָנִי וַתִּקַּח אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 12.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוָה אֶת־נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד וַיָּבֹא אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים הָיוּ בְּעִיר אֶחָת אֶחָד עָשִׁיר וְאֶחָד רָאשׁ׃ 12.2. לְעָשִׁיר הָיָה צֹאן וּבָקָר הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 12.2. וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵהָאָרֶץ וַיִּרְחַץ וַיָּסֶךְ וַיְחַלֵּף שמלתו [שִׂמְלֹתָיו] וַיָּבֹא בֵית־יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיָּבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַיִּשְׁאַל וַיָּשִׂימוּ לוֹ לֶחֶם וַיֹּאכַל׃ 12.3. וַיִּקַּח אֶת־עֲטֶרֶת־מַלְכָּם מֵעַל רֹאשׁוֹ וּמִשְׁקָלָהּ כִּכַּר זָהָב וְאֶבֶן יְקָרָה וַתְּהִי עַל־רֹאשׁ דָּוִד וּשְׁלַל הָעִיר הוֹצִיא הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃ 12.3. וְלָרָשׁ אֵין־כֹּל כִּי אִם־כִּבְשָׂה אַחַת קְטַנָּה אֲשֶׁר קָנָה וַיְחַיֶּהָ וַתִּגְדַּל עִמּוֹ וְעִם־בָּנָיו יַחְדָּו מִפִּתּוֹ תֹאכַל וּמִכֹּסוֹ תִשְׁתֶּה וּבְחֵיקוֹ תִשְׁכָּב וַתְּהִי־לוֹ כְּבַת׃ 12.4. וַיָּבֹא הֵלֶךְ לְאִישׁ הֶעָשִׁיר וַיַּחְמֹל לָקַחַת מִצֹּאנוֹ וּמִבְּקָרוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לָאֹרֵחַ הַבָּא־לוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־כִּבְשַׂת הָאִישׁ הָרָאשׁ וַיַּעֲשֶׂהָ לָאִישׁ הַבָּא אֵלָיו׃ 19.9. וַיָּקָם הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֵּשֶׁב בַּשָּׁעַר וּלְכָל־הָעָם הִגִּידוּ לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹשֵׁב בַּשַּׁעַר וַיָּבֹא כָל־הָעָם לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְיִשְׂרָאֵל נָס אִישׁ לְאֹהָלָיו׃ 12.1. And the Lord sent Natan to David. And he came to him, and said to him, There were two men in one city; the one rich, and the other poor." 12.2. The rich man had very many flocks and herds:" 12.3. but the poor man had nothing, except one little ewe lamb, which he had bought and reared: and it grew up together with him, and with his children; it did eat of his own bread, and drank of his own cup, and lay in his bosom, and was like a daughter to him." 12.4. And there came a traveller to the rich man, and he spared to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare it for the wayfaring man that was come to him; but took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him." 19.9. Then the king arose, and sat in the gate. And they told all the people, saying, Behold, the king sits in the gate. And all the people came before the king: for Yisra᾽el had fled every man to his tent."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 14.21, 24.16, 29.16, 45.9, 64.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.21. הָכִינוּ לְבָנָיו מַטְבֵּחַ בַּעֲוֺן אֲבוֹתָם בַּל־יָקֻמוּ וְיָרְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וּמָלְאוּ פְנֵי־תֵבֵל עָרִים׃ 24.16. מִכְּנַף הָאָרֶץ זְמִרֹת שָׁמַעְנוּ צְבִי לַצַּדִּיק וָאֹמַר רָזִי־לִי רָזִי־לִי אוֹי לִי בֹּגְדִים בָּגָדוּ וּבֶגֶד בּוֹגְדִים בָּגָדוּ׃ 29.16. הַפְכְּכֶם אִם־כְּחֹמֶר הַיֹּצֵר יֵחָשֵׁב כִּי־יֹאמַר מַעֲשֶׂה לְעֹשֵׂהוּ לֹא עָשָׂנִי וְיֵצֶר אָמַר לְיוֹצְרוֹ לֹא הֵבִין׃ 45.9. הוֹי רָב אֶת־יֹצְרוֹ חֶרֶשׂ אֶת־חַרְשֵׂי אֲדָמָה הֲיֹאמַר חֹמֶר לְיֹצְרוֹ מַה־תַּעֲשֶׂה וּפָעָלְךָ אֵין־יָדַיִם לוֹ׃ 64.7. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אָבִינוּ אָתָּה אֲנַחְנוּ הַחֹמֶר וְאַתָּה יֹצְרֵנוּ וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ כֻּלָּנוּ׃ 14.21. Prepare ye slaughter for his children For the iniquity of their fathers; That they rise not up, and possess the earth, And fill the face of the world with cities." 24.16. From the uttermost part of the earth have we heard songs: ‘Glory to the righteous.’ But I say: I waste away, I waste away, woe is me! The treacherous deal treacherously; Yea, the treacherous deal very treacherously." 29.16. O your perversity! Shall the potter be esteemed as clay; that the thing made should say of him that made it: ‘He made me not’; Or the thing framed say of him that framed it: ‘He hath no understanding?’" 45.9. Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker, as a potsherd with the potsherds of the earth! Shall the clay say to him that fashioned it: ‘What makest thou?’ Or: ‘Thy work, it hath no hands’?" 64.7. But now, O LORD, Thou art our Father; we are the clay, and Thou our potter, and we all are the work of Thy hand."
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 14.14, 18.6, 23.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי שֶׁקֶר הַנְּבִאִים נִבְּאִים בִּשְׁמִי לֹא שְׁלַחְתִּים וְלֹא צִוִּיתִים וְלֹא דִבַּרְתִּי אֲלֵיהֶם חֲזוֹן שֶׁקֶר וְקֶסֶם ואלול [וֶאֱלִיל] ותרמות [וְתַרְמִית] לִבָּם הֵמָּה מִתְנַבְּאִים לָכֶם׃ 18.6. הֲכַיּוֹצֵר הַזֶּה לֹא־אוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת לָכֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם־יְהוָה הִנֵּה כַחֹמֶר בְּיַד הַיּוֹצֵר כֵּן־אַתֶּם בְּיָדִי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 23.26. עַד־מָתַי הֲיֵשׁ בְּלֵב הַנְּבִאִים נִבְּאֵי הַשָּׁקֶר וּנְבִיאֵי תַּרְמִת לִבָּם׃ 14.14. Then the LORD said unto me: ‘The prophets prophesy lies in My name; I sent them not, neither have I commanded them, neither spoke I unto them; they prophesy unto you a lying vision, and divination, and a thing of nought, and the deceit of their own heart." 18.6. ’O house of Israel, cannot I do with you as this potter? saith the LORD. Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are ye in My hand, O house of Israel." 23.26. How long shall this be? Is it in the heart of the prophets that prophesy lies, And the prophets of the deceit of their own heart?"
10. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

64e. or despise them, except so far as it is necessary to have them? I think the true philosopher would despise them, he replied. Altogether, then, you think that such a man would not devote himself to the body, but would, so far as he was able, turn away from the body and concern himself with the soul? Yes. Phaedo. To begin with, then, it is clear that in such matters the philosopher, more than other men, separate
11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 75.2, 80.7, 82.4-82.7, 91.3-91.4, 91.18, 94.1-94.5, 98.4, 99.10, 105.2 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

75.2. reckoned in the reckoning of the year. And owing to them men go wrong therein, for those luminaries truly render service on the world-stations, one in the first portal, one in the third portal of the heaven, one in the fourth portal, and one in the sixth portal, and the exactness of the year i 80.7. And the whole order of the stars shall be concealed from the sinners, And the thoughts of those on the earth shall err concerning them, [And they shall be altered from all their ways], Yea, they shall err and take them to be gods. 82.4. Blessed are all the righteous, blessed are all those who walk In the way of righteousness and sin not as the sinners, in the reckoning of all their days in which the sun traverses the heaven, entering into and departing from the portals for thirty days with the heads of thousands of the order of the stars, together with the four which are intercalated which divide the four portions of the year, which 82.5. lead them and enter with them four days. Owing to them men shall be at fault and not reckon them in the whole reckoning of the year: yea, men shall be at fault, and not recognize them 82.6. accurately. For they belong to the reckoning of the year and are truly recorded (thereon) for ever, one in the first portal and one in the third, and one in the fourth and one in the sixth, and the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days. 82.7. And the account thereof is accurate and the recorded reckoning thereof exact; for the luminaries, and months and festivals, and years and days, has Uriel shown and revealed to me, to whom the 91.3. And he spake unto all the children of righteousness and said: 91.4. Love uprightness and walk therein. And draw not nigh to uprightness with a double heart, And associate not with those of a double heart,But walk in righteousness, my sons. And it shall guide you on good paths, And righteousness shall be your companion. 91.18. And now I tell you, my sons, and show you The paths of righteousness and the paths of violence. Yea, I will show them to you again That ye may know what will come to pass. 94.1. And now I say unto you, my sons, love righteousness and walk therein; For the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation, But the paths of unrighteousness shall suddenly be destroyed and vanish. 94.1. Thus I speak and declare unto you: He who hath created you will overthrow you, And for your fall there shall be no compassion, And your Creator will rejoice at your destruction. 94.2. And to certain men of a generation shall the paths of violence and of death be revealed, And they shall hold themselves afar from them, And shall not follow them. 94.3. And now I say unto you the righteous: Walk not in the paths of wickedness, nor in the paths of death, And draw not nigh to them, lest ye be destroyed. 94.4. But seek and choose for yourselves righteousness and an elect life, And walk in the paths of peace, And ye shall live and prosper. 94.5. And hold fast my words in the thoughts of your hearts, And suffer them not to be effaced from your hearts;For I know that sinners will tempt men to evilly-entreat wisdom, So that no place may be found for her, And no manner of temptation may minish. 98.4. I have sworn unto you, ye sinners, as a mountain has not become a slave, And a hill does not become the handmaid of a woman, Even so sin has not been sent upon the earth, But man of himself has created it, And under a great curse shall they fall who commit it. 105.2. For I and My son will be united with them for ever in the paths of uprightness in their lives; and ye shall have peace: rejoice, ye children of uprightness. Amen.Fragment of the Book of Noah 100. And in those days in one place the fathers together with their sons shall be smitten And brothers one with another shall fall in death Till the streams flow with their blood.",For a man shall not withhold his hand from slaying his sons and his sons' sons, And the sinner shall not withhold his hand from his honoured brother: From dawn till sunset they shall slay one another.,And the horse shall walk up to the breast in the blood of sinners, And the chariot shall be submerged to its height.,In those days the angels shall descend into the secret places And gather together into one place all those who brought down sin And the Most High will arise on that day of judgement To execute great judgement amongst sinners.",And over all the righteous and holy He will appoint guardians from amongst the holy angels To guard them as the apple of an eye, Until He makes an end of all wickedness and all sin, And though the righteous sleep a long sleep, they have nought to fear.,And (then) the children of the earth shall see the wise in security, And shall understand all the words of this book, And recognize that their riches shall not be able to save them In the overthrow of their sins.,Woe to you, Sinners, on the day of strong anguish, Ye who afflict the righteous and burn them with fire: Ye shall be requited according to your works.,Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, Who watch in order to devise wickedness: Therefore shall fear come upon you And there shall be none to help you.,Woe to you, ye sinners, on account of the words of your mouth, And on account of the deeds of your hands which your godlessness as wrought, In blazing flames burning worse than fire shall ye burn.,And now, know ye that from the angels He will inquire as to your deeds in heaven, from the sun and from the moon and from the stars in reference to your sins because upon the earth ye execute,judgement on the righteous. And He will summon to testify against you every cloud and mist and dew and rain; for they shall all be withheld because of you from descending upon you, and they,shall be mindful of your sins. And now give presents to the rain that it be not withheld from descending upon you, nor yet the dew, when it has received gold and silver from you that it may descend. When the hoar-frost and snow with their chilliness, and all the snow-storms with all their plagues fall upon you, in those days ye shall not be able to stand before them.
12. Anon., Jubilees, 2.2-2.3, 2.17-2.33, 6.32, 7.36, 50.12-50.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.2. Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2.3. For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before Him 2.17. And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days and for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years. 2.18. And it divideth the light from the darkness [and] for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth. 2.19. These three kinds He made on the fourth day. 2.20. And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by His hands, the fish and everything that moves in the waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind. 2.21. And the sun rose above them to prosper (them), and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. 2.22. These three kinds He created on the fifth day. 2.23. And on the sixth day He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth. 2.24. And after all this He created man, a man and a woman created He them 2.25. and gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave him dominion. 2.26. And these four kinds He created on the sixth day. br And there were altogether two and twenty kinds. 2.27. And He finished all His work on the sixth day--all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the darkness, and in everything. 2.28. And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work. brAnd all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctification 2.29. these two great classes--He hath hidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him in heaven and on earth. 2.30. And He said unto us: "Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these will keep the Sabbath day 2.31. and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify (it) unto Myself, even so shall I bless them, and they will be My people and I shall be their God. 2.32. And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down as My firstborn son, and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and ever; 2.33. and I will teach them the Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon from all work."... 6.32. this feast is twofold and of a double nature: according to what is written and engraven concerning it celebrate it. 7.36. and now I fear on your behalf, that after my death ye will shed the blood of men upon the earth, and that ye, too, will be destroyed from the face of the earth. 50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever. 50.13. For great is the honour which the Lord hath given to Israel that they should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon from all labour which belongeth to the labour of the children of men, save burning frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths.
13. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 9.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 3.20, 10.14-11.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

15. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 3.20, 10.14-11.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 3.15, 5.24-5.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

17. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.25. וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃ 7.25. And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time."
18. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.39, 1.43, 1.45, 2.29-2.38, 2.41, 6.49, 10.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.39. Her sanctuary became desolate as a desert;her feasts were turned into mourning,her sabbaths into a reproach,her honor into contempt. 1.43. All the Gentiles accepted the command of the king. Many even from Israel gladly adopted his religion; they sacrificed to idols and profaned the sabbath. 1.45. to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and feasts 2.29. Then many who were seeking righteousness and justice went down to the wilderness to dwell there 2.30. they, their sons, their wives, and their cattle, because evils pressed heavily upon them. 2.31. And it was reported to the kings officers, and to the troops in Jerusalem the city of David, that men who had rejected the kings command had gone down to the hiding places in the wilderness. 2.32. Many pursued them, and overtook them; they encamped opposite them and prepared for battle against them on the sabbath day. 2.33. And they said to them, "Enough of this! Come out and do what the king commands, and you will live. 2.34. But they said, "We will not come out, nor will we do what the king commands and so profane the sabbath day. 2.35. Then the enemy hastened to attack them. 2.36. But they did not answer them or hurl a stone at them or block up their hiding places 2.37. for they said, "Let us all die in our innocence; heaven and earth testify for us that you are killing us unjustly. 2.38. So they attacked them on the sabbath, and they died, with their wives and children and cattle, to the number of a thousand persons. 2.41. So they made this decision that day: "Let us fight against every man who comes to attack us on the sabbath day; let us not all die as our brethren died in their hiding places. 6.49. He made peace with the men of Beth-zur, and they evacuated the city, because they had no provisions there to withstand a siege, since it was a sabbatical year for the land. 10.34. And all the feasts and sabbaths and new moons and appointed days, and the three days before a feast and the three after a feast -- let them all be days of immunity and release for all the Jews who are in my kingdom.
19. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 5.25, 6.11, 8.25-8.28, 12.38, 15.1-15.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.25. When this man arrived in Jerusalem, he pretended to be peaceably disposed and waited until the holy sabbath day; then, finding the Jews not at work, he ordered his men to parade under arms.' 6.11. Others who had assembled in the caves near by, to observe the seventh day secretly, were betrayed to Philip and were all burned together, because their piety kept them from defending themselves, in view of their regard for that most holy day.' 8.25. They captured the money of those who had come to buy them as slaves. After pursuing them for some distance, they were obliged to return because the hour was late.' 8.26. For it was the day before the sabbath, and for that reason they did not continue their pursuit.' 8.27. And when they had collected the arms of the enemy and stripped them of their spoils, they kept the sabbath, giving great praise and thanks to the Lord, who had preserved them for that day and allotted it to them as the beginning of mercy.' 8.28. After the sabbath they gave some of the spoils to those who had been tortured and to the widows and orphans, and distributed the rest among themselves and their children.' 12.38. Then Judas assembled his army and went to the city of Adullam. As the seventh day was coming on, they purified themselves according to the custom, and they kept the sabbath there.' 15.1. When Nicanor heard that Judas and his men were in the region of Samaria, he made plans to attack them with complete safety on the day of rest.' 15.2. And when the Jews who were compelled to follow him said, 'Do not destroy so savagely and barbarously, but show respect for the day which he who sees all things has honored and hallowed above other days,' 15.3. the thrice-accursed wretch asked if there were a sovereign in heaven who had commanded the keeping of the sabbath day. 15.4. And when they declared, 'It is the living Lord himself, the Sovereign in heaven, who ordered us to observe the seventh day,' 15.5. he replied, 'And I am a sovereign also, on earth, and I command you to take up arms and finish the king's business.'Nevertheless, he did not succeed in carrying out his abominable design.'
20. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 6.18-6.37, 10.30, 11.17, 11.22, 12.2-12.4, 13.2-13.3, 13.15-13.23, 15.11-15.20, 16.13, 16.17-16.23, 16.26-16.28, 17.1-17.14, 17.19, 18.1, 18.3, 24.28, 25.24, 30.14, 31.3-31.4, 32.19, 33.7-33.13, 33.15, 33.18, 35.17, 35.21, 37.3-37.4, 37.12-37.13, 37.18, 38.1, 38.9, 39.16-39.35, 40.1, 43.6-43.8, 49.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.2. Do good to a godly man, and you will be repaid -- if not by him, certainly by the Most High. 12.3. No good will come to the man who persists in evil or to him who does not give alms. 12.4. Give to the godly man, but do not help the sinner. 13.2. Do not lift a weight beyond your strength,nor associate with a man mightier and richer than you. How can the clay pot associate with the iron kettle?The pot will strike against it, and will itself be broken. 13.2. Humility is an abomination to a proud man;likewise a poor man is an abomination to a rich one. 13.3. A rich man does wrong, and he even adds reproaches;a poor man suffers wrong, and he must add apologies. 13.15. Every creature loves its like,and every person his neighbor; 13.16. all living beings associate by species,and a man clings to one like himself. 13.17. What fellowship has a wolf with a lamb?No more has a sinner with a godly man. 13.18. What peace is there between a hyena and a dog?And what peace between a rich man and a poor man? 13.19. Wild asses in the wilderness are the prey of lions;likewise the poor are pastures for the rich. 13.21. When a rich man totters, he is steadied by friends,but when a humble man falls, he is even pushed away by friends. 13.22. If a rich man slips, his helpers are many;he speaks unseemly words, and they justify him. If a humble man slips, they even reproach him;he speaks sensibly, and receives no attention. 13.23. When the rich man speaks all are silent,and they extol to the clouds what he says. When the poor man speaks they say, "Who is this fellow?" And should he stumble, they even push him down. 15.11. Do not say, "Because of the Lord I left the right way";for he will not do what he hates. 15.12. Do not say, "It was he who led me astray";for he had no need of a sinful man. 15.13. The Lord hates all abominations,and they are not loved by those who fear him. 15.14. It was he who created man in the beginning,and he left him in the power of his own inclination. 15.15. If you will, you can keep the commandments,and to act faithfully is a matter of your own choice. 15.16. He has placed before you fire and water:stretch out your hand for whichever you wish. 15.17. Before a man are life and death,and whichever he chooses will be given to him. 15.18. For great is the wisdom of the Lord;he is mighty in power and sees everything; 15.19. his eyes are on those who fear him,and he knows every deed of man. 16.13. The sinner will not escape with his plunder,and the patience of the godly will not be frustrated. 16.17. Do not say, "I shall be hidden from the Lord,and who from on high will remember me?Among so many people I shall not be known,for what is my soul in the boundless creation? 16.18. Behold, heaven and the highest heaven,the abyss and the earth, will tremble at his visitation. 16.19. The mountains also and the foundations of the earth shake with trembling when he looks upon them. 16.21. Like a tempest which no man can see,so most of his works are concealed. 16.22. Who will announce his acts of justice?Or who will await them? For the covet is far off. 16.23. This is what one devoid of understanding thinks;a senseless and misguided man thinks foolishly. 16.26. The works of the Lord have existed from the beginning by his creation, and when he made them, he determined their divisions. 16.27. He arranged his works in an eternal order,and their dominion for all generations;they neither hunger nor grow weary,and they do not cease from their labors. 16.28. They do not crowd one another aside,and they will never disobey his word. 17.1. The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 17.1. And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works. 17.2. He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 17.2. Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 17.4. He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds. 17.6. He made for them tongue and eyes;he gave them ears and a mind for thinking. 17.7. He filled them with knowledge and understanding,and showed them good and evil. 17.8. He set his eye upon their hearts to show them the majesty of his works. 17.11. He bestowed knowledge upon them,and allotted to them the law of life. 17.12. He established with them an eternal covet,and showed them his judgments. 17.13. Their eyes saw his glorious majesty,and their ears heard the glory of his voice. 17.14. And he said to them, "Beware of all unrighteousness." And he gave commandment to each of them concerning his neighbor. 17.19. All their works are as the sun before him,and his eyes are continually upon their ways. 18.1. He who lives for ever created the whole universe; 18.1. Like a drop of water from the sea and a grain of sand so are a few years in the day of eternity. 18.3. Do not follow your base desires,but restrain your appetites. 24.28. Just as the first man did not know her perfectly,the last one has not fathomed her; 25.24. From a woman sin had its beginning,and because of her we all die. 30.14. Better off is a poor man who is well and strong in constitution than a rich man who is severely afflicted in body. 31.3. The rich man toils as his wealth accumulates,and when he rests he fills himself with his dainties. 31.3. Drunkenness increases the anger of a fool to his injury,reducing his strength and adding wounds. 31.4. The poor man toils as his livelihood diminishes,and when he rests he becomes needy. 32.19. Do nothing without deliberation;and when you have acted, do not regret it. 33.7. Why is any day better than another,when all the daylight in the year is from the sun? 33.8. By the Lords decision they were distinguished,and he appointed the different seasons and feasts; 33.9. some of them he exalted and hallowed,and some of them he made ordinary days. 33.11. In the fulness of his knowledge the Lord distinguished them and appointed their different ways; 33.12. some of them he blessed and exalted,and some of them he made holy and brought near to himself;but some of them he cursed and brought low,and he turned them out of their place. 33.13. As clay in the hand of the potter -- for all his ways are as he pleases -- so men are in the hand of him who made them,to give them as he decides. 33.15. Look upon all the works of the Most High;they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other. 33.18. Hear me, you who are great among the people,and you leaders of the congregation, hearken. 35.17. The prayer of the humble pierces the clouds,and he will not be consoled until it reaches the Lord;he will not desist until the Most High visits him,and does justice for the righteous, and executes judgment. 37.3. O evil imagination, why were you formed to cover the land with deceit? 37.3. for overeating brings sickness,and gluttony leads to nausea. 37.4. Some companions rejoice in the happiness of a friend,but in time of trouble are against him. 37.12. But stay constantly with a godly man whom you know to be a keeper of the commandments,whose soul is in accord with your soul,and who will sorrow with you if you fail. 37.13. And establish the counsel of your own heart,for no one is more faithful to you than it is. 37.18. four turns of fortune appear,good and evil, life and death;and it is the tongue that continually rules them. 38.1. Honor the physician with the honor due him,according to your need of him, for the Lord created him; 38.1. Give up your faults and direct your hands aright,and cleanse your heart from all sin. 38.9. My son, when you are sick do not be negligent,but pray to the Lord, and he will heal you. 39.16. All things are the works of the Lord, for they are very good,and whatever he commands will be done in his time. 39.17. No one can say, "What is this?" "Why is that?" for in Gods time all things will be sought after. At his word the waters stood in a heap,and the reservoirs of water at the word of his mouth. 39.18. At his command whatever pleases him is done,and none can limit his saving power. 39.19. The works of all flesh are before him,and nothing can be hid from his eyes. 39.21. No one can say, "What is this?" "Why is that?" for everything has been created for its use. 39.22. His blessing covers the dry land like a river,and drenches it like a flood. 39.23. The nations will incur his wrath,just as he turns fresh water into salt. 39.24. To the holy his ways are straight,just as they are obstacles to the wicked. 39.25. From the beginning good things were created for good people,just as evil things for sinners. 39.26. Basic to all the needs of mans life are water and fire and iron and salt and wheat flour and milk and honey,the blood of the grape, and oil and clothing. 39.27. All these are for good to the godly,just as they turn into evils for sinners. 39.28. There are winds that have been created for vengeance,and in their anger they scourge heavily;in the time of consummation they will pour out their strength and calm the anger of their Maker. 39.29. Fire and hail and famine and pestilence,all these have been created for vengeance; 39.31. they will rejoice in his commands,and be made ready on earth for their service,and when their times come they will not transgress his word. 39.32. Therefore from the beginning I have been convinced,and have thought this out and left it in writing: 39.33. The works of the Lord are all good,and he will supply every need in its hour. 39.34. And no one can say, "This is worse than that," for all things will prove good in their season. 39.35. So now sing praise with all your heart and voice,and bless the name of the Lord. 40.1. Much labor was created for every man,and a heavy yoke is upon the sons of Adam,from the day they come forth from their mothers womb till the day they return to the mother of all. 40.1. All these were created for the wicked,and on their account the flood came. 49.16. Shem and Seth were honored among men,and Adam above every living being in the creation.
21. Septuagint, Judith, 7.30-7.31, 8.6, 8.8, 8.11, 8.24-8.28, 9.1-9.14, 11.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

7.30. And Uzziah said to them, "Have courage, my brothers! Let us hold out for five more days; by that time the Lord our God will restore to us his mercy, for he will not forsake us utterly. 7.31. But if these days pass by, and no help comes for us, I will do what you say. 8.6. She fasted all the days of her widowhood, except the day before the sabbath and the sabbath itself, the day before the new moon and the day of the new moon, and the feasts and days of rejoicing of the house of Israel. 8.8. No one spoke ill of her, for she feared God with great devotion. 8.11. They came to her, and she said to them, "Listen to me, rulers of the people of Bethulia! What you have said to the people today is not right; you have even sworn and pronounced this oath between God and you, promising to surrender the city to our enemies unless the Lord turns and helps us within so many days. 8.24. Now therefore, brethren, let us set an example to our brethren, for their lives depend upon us, and the sanctuary and the temple and the altar rest upon us. 8.25. In spite of everything let us give thanks to the Lord our God, who is putting us to the test as he did our forefathers. 8.26. Remember what he did with Abraham, and how he tested Isaac, and what happened to Jacob in Mesopotamia in Syria, while he was keeping the sheep of Laban, his mother's brother. 8.27. For he has not tried us with fire, as he did them, to search their hearts, nor has he taken revenge upon us; but the Lord scourges those who draw near to him, in order to admonish them. 8.28. Then Uzziah said to her, "All that you have said has been spoken out of a true heart, and there is no one who can deny your words. 9.1. Then Judith fell upon her face, and put ashes on her head, and uncovered the sackcloth she was wearing; and at the very time when that evening's incense was being offered in the house of God in Jerusalem, Judith cried out to the Lord with a loud voice, and said 9.2. O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done' -- yet they did it. 9.3. So thou gavest up their rulers to be slain, and their bed, which was ashamed of the deceit they had practiced, to be stained with blood, and thou didst strike down slaves along with princes, and princes on their thrones; 9.4. and thou gavest their wives for a prey and their daughters to captivity, and all their booty to be divided among thy beloved sons, who were zealous for thee, and abhorred the pollution of their blood, and called on thee for help -- O God, my God, hear me also, a widow. 9.5. For thou hast done these things and those that went before and those that followed; thou hast designed the things that are now, and those that are to come. Yea, the things thou didst intend came to pass 9.6. and the things thou didst will presented themselves and said, `Lo, we are here'; for all they ways are prepared in advance, and thy judgment is with foreknowledge. 9.7. Behold now, the Assyrians are increased in their might; they are exalted, with their horses and riders; they glory in the strength of their foot soldiers; they trust in shield and spear, in bow and sling, and know not that thou art the Lord who crushest wars; the Lord is thy name. 9.8. Break their strength by thy might, and bring down their power in thy anger; for they intend to defile thy sanctuary, and to pollute the tabernacle where thy glorious name rests, and to cast down the horn of thy altar with the sword. 9.9. Behold their pride, and send thy wrath upon their heads; give to me, a widow, the strength to do what I plan. 9.10. By the deceit of my lips strike down the slave with the prince and the prince with his servant; crush their arrogance by the hand of a woman. 9.11. For thy power depends not upon numbers, nor thy might upon men of strength; for thou art God of the lowly, helper of the oppressed, upholder of the weak, protector of the forlorn, savior of those without hope. 9.12. Hear, O hear me, God of my father, God of the inheritance of Israel, Lord of heaven and earth, Creator of the waters, King of all thy creation, hear my prayer! 9.13. Make my deceitful words to be their wound and stripe, for they have planned cruel things against thy covet, and against thy consecrated house, and against the top of Zion, and against the house possessed by thy children. 9.14. And cause thy whole nation and every tribe to know and understand that thou art God, the God of all power and might, and that there is no other who protects the people of Israel but thou alone! 11.17. For your servant is religious, and serves the God of heaven day and night; therefore, my lord, I will remain with you, and every night your servant will go out into the valley, and I will pray to God and he will tell me when they have committed their sins.
22. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.23, 5.6-5.7, 11.20, 15.7-15.13, 15.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.23. for God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity 5.6. So it was we who strayed from the way of truth,and the light of righteousness did not shine on us,and the sun did not rise upon us. 5.7. We took our fill of the paths of lawlessness and destruction,and we journeyed through trackless deserts,but the way of the Lord we have not known. 11.20. Even apart from these, men could fall at a single breath when pursued by justice and scattered by the breath of thy power. But thou hast arranged all things by measure and number and weight. 15.7. For when a potter kneads the soft earth and laboriously molds each vessel for our service,he fashions out of the same clay both the vessels that serve clean uses and those for contrary uses, making all in like manner;but which shall be the use of each of these the worker in clay decides. 15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him. 15.9. But he is not concerned that he is destined to die or that his life is brief,but he competes with workers in gold and silver,and imitates workers in copper;and he counts it his glory that he molds counterfeit gods. 15.10. His heart is ashes, his hope is cheaper than dirt,and his life is of less worth than clay 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit. 15.12. But he considered our existence an idle game,and life a festival held for profit,for he says one must get money however one can, even by base means. 15.13. For this man, more than all others, knows that he sins when he makes from earthy matter fragile vessels and graven images. 15.15. For they thought that all their heathen idols were gods,though these have neither the use of their eyes to see with,nor nostrils with which to draw breath,nor ears with which to hear,nor fingers to feel with,and their feet are of no use for walking.
23. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 16.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

16.14. O mother, soldier of God in the cause of religion, elder and woman! By steadfastness you have conquered even a tyrant, and in word and deed you have proved more powerful than a man.
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 204 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

204. nevertheless, though it belongs to me, I have no objection to those who deserve it enjoying a share of it. But who can be deserving to do so, save he who obeys me and my will? for to this man it shall be given to feel as little grief as possible and as little fear as possible, proceeding along that road which is inaccessible to passions and vices, but which is frequented by excellence of soul and virtue.
25. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 2.98 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.21-15.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.
27. New Testament, Apocalypse, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.1. The fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star from the sky fallen to the earth. The key to the pit of the abyss was given to him.
28. New Testament, Romans, 5.12, 9.20-9.21, 14.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.12. Therefore, as sin entered into the world through one man, and death through sin; and so death passed to all men, because all sinned. 9.20. But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? Will the thing formed ask him who formed it, "Why did you make me like this? 9.21. Or hasn't the potter a right over the clay, from the same lump to make one part a vessel for honor, and another for dishonor? 14.5. One man esteems one day as more important. Another esteems every day alike. Let each man be fully assured in his own mind.
29. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 33.1, 33.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 9.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9.7. רַבִּי נַחְמָן בַּר שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר, הִנֵּה טוֹב מְאֹד, זֶה יֵצֶר טוֹב. וְהִנֵּה טוֹב מְאֹד, זֶה יֵצֶר רָע. וְכִי יֵצֶר הָרָע טוֹב מְאֹד, אֶתְמְהָא. אֶלָּא שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי יֵצֶר הָרָע לֹא בָּנָה אָדָם בַּיִת, וְלֹא נָשָׂא אִשָּׁה, וְלֹא הוֹלִיד, וְלֹא נָשָׂא וְנָתַן. וְכֵן שְׁלֹמֹה אוֹמֵר (קהלת ד, ד): כִּי הִיא קִנְאַת אִישׁ מֵרֵעֵהוּ. 9.7. Rabbi Nahman said in Rabbi Samuel's name: 'Behold, it was good' refers to the Good Desire; 'And behold, it was very good' refers to the Evil Desire. (It only says 'very good' after man was created with both the good and bad inclinations, in all other cases it only says 'and God saw that it was good') Can then the Evil Desire be very good? That would be extraordinary! But without the Evil Desire, however, no man would build a house, take a wife and beget children; and thus said Solomon: 'Again, I considered all labour and all excelling in work, that it is a man's rivalry with his neighbour.' (Ecclesiastes 4:4). \n"
31. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את וגו' ואומר (משלי ז, ג) קשרם על אצבעותיך כתבם על לוח לבך ואומר (תהלים קכז, ד) כחצים ביד גבור כן בני הנעורים ואומר (תהלים קכ, ד) חצי גבור שנונים ואומר (תהלים מה, ו) חציך שנונים עמים תחתיך יפלו ואומר (תהלים קכז, ה) אשרי הגבר אשר מלא את אשפתו מהם לא יבושו כי ידברו את אויבים בשער,מאי את אויבים בשער אמר רבי חייא בר אבא אפי' האב ובנו הרב ותלמידו שעוסקין בתורה בשער אחד נעשים אויבים זה את זה ואינם זזים משם עד שנעשים אוהבים זה את זה שנאמר (במדבר כא, יד) את והב בסופה אל תקרי בסופה אלא בסופה,ת"ר (דברים יא, יח) ושמתם סם תם נמשלה תורה כסם חיים משל לאדם שהכה את בנו מכה גדולה והניח לו רטיה על מכתו ואמר לו בני כל זמן שהרטיה זו על מכתך אכול מה שהנאתך ושתה מה שהנאתך ורחוץ בין בחמין בין בצונן ואין אתה מתיירא ואם אתה מעבירה הרי היא מעלה נומי,כך הקב"ה אמר להם לישראל בני בראתי יצר הרע ובראתי לו תורה תבלין ואם אתם עוסקים בתורה אין אתם נמסרים בידו שנאמר (בראשית ד, ז) הלא אם תטיב שאת,ואם אין אתם עוסקין בתורה אתם נמסרים בידו שנא' לפתח חטאת רובץ ולא עוד אלא שכל משאו ומתנו בך שנאמר ואליך תשוקתו ואם אתה רוצה אתה מושל בו שנאמר ואתה תמשל בו,ת"ר קשה יצר הרע שאפילו יוצרו קראו רע שנאמר (בראשית ח, כא) כי יצר לב האדם רע מנעוריו אמר רב יצחק יצרו של אדם מתחדש עליו בכל יום שנאמר (בראשית ו, ה) רק רע כל היום,ואמר ר"ש בן לוי יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש המיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה עוזרו אין יכול לו שנאמר אלהים לא יעזבנו בידו,תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל בני אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח ואם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע אם אבן הוא נימוח שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים ואומר (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים,להשיאו אשה מנלן דכתיב (ירמיהו כט, ו) קחו נשים והולידו בנים ובנות וקחו לבניכם נשים ואת בנותיכם תנו לאנשים,בשלמא בנו בידו אלא בתו בידו היא הכי קאמר להו ניתן לה מידי ולבשייה ונכסייה כי היכי דקפצו עלה אינשי,ללמדו אומנות מנלן אמר חזקיה דאמר קרא (קהלת ט, ט) ראה חיים עם אשה אשר אהבת אם אשה ממש היא כשם שחייב להשיאו אשה כך חייב ללמדו אומנות אם תורה היא כשם שחייב ללמדו תורה כך חייב ללמדו אומנות,ויש אומרים אף להשיטו בנהר מאי טעמא חיותיה הוא,רבי יהודה אומר כל שאינו מלמדו אומנות מלמדו ליסטות ליסטות ס"ד אלא כאילו מלמדו ליסטות,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דאגמריה עיסקא,כל מצות האב על הבן וכו' מאי כל מצות האב על הבן אילימא כל מצותא דמיחייב אבא למיעבד לבריה נשים חייבות והתניא האב חייב בבנו למולו ולפדותו אביו אין אמו לא,אמר רב יהודה הכי קאמר כל מצות האב המוטלת על הבן לעשות לאביו אחד אנשים ואחד נשים חייבין תנינא להא דת"ר איש אין לי אלא איש אשה מנין כשהוא אומר תיראו הרי כאן שנים,א"כ מה ת"ל איש איש סיפק בידו לעשות אשה אין סיפק בידה לעשות מפני שרשות אחרים עליה אמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב נתגרשה שניהם שוים,ת"ר נאמר (שמות כ, יב) כבד את אביך ואת אמך ונאמר (משלי ג, ט) כבד את ה' מהונך השוה הכתוב כבוד אב ואם לכבוד המקום,נאמר (ויקרא יט, ג) איש אמו ואביו תיראו ונאמר (דברים ו, יג) את ה' אלהיך תירא ואותו תעבוד השוה הכתוב מוראת אב ואם למוראת המקום,נאמר (שמות כא, יז) מקלל אביו ואמו מות יומת ונאמר (ויקרא כד, טו) איש איש כי יקלל אלהיו ונשא חטאו השוה הכתוב ברכת אב ואם לברכת המקום אבל בהכאה ודאי אי אפשר,וכן בדין ששלשתן שותפין בו ת"ר שלשה שותפין הן באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו בזמן שאדם מכבד את אביו ואת אמו אמר הקב"ה מעלה אני עליהם כאילו דרתי ביניהם וכבדוני,תניא רבי אומר גלוי וידוע לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם שבן מכבד את אמו יותר מאביו מפני 30b. b“Say to wisdom: You are my sister,and call understanding your kinswoman” (Proverbs 7:4), which indicates that one should be as knowledgeable in the Torah as in the identity of his sister. bAnd it states: “Bind them upon your fingers, you shall write them upon the tablet of your heart”(Proverbs 7:3). bAnd it states: “As arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are the children of one’s youth”(Psalms 127:4). bAnd it states: “Sharp arrows of the mighty”(Psalms 120:4). bAnd it states: “Your arrows are sharp, the peoples fall under you”(Psalms 45:6). bAnd it states: “Happy is the man who has his quiver full of them; they shall not be put to shame when they speak with their enemies in the gate”(Psalms 127:5).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“enemies in the gate”with regard to Torah study? bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: Even a father and his son,or ba rabbi and his student, who are engaged in Torahtogether bin one gate become enemies with each otherdue to the intensity of their studies. bBut they do not leave there until they love each other, as it is statedin the verse discussing the places the Jewish people engaged in battle in the wilderness: “Therefore it is said in the book of the wars of the Lord, bVahev in Suphah [ ibeSufa /i],and the valleys of Arnon” (Numbers 21:14). The word “ ivahev /i” is interpreted as related to the word for love, iahava /i. Additionally, bdo not readthis as b“in Suphah [ ibeSufa /i]”; rather,read it as b“at its end [ ibesofa /i],”i.e., at the conclusion of their dispute they are beloved to each other., bThe Sages taught: “And you shall place [ ivesamtem /i]these words of Mine in your hearts” (Deuteronomy 11:18). Read this as though it stated isam tam /i, a perfect elixir. The Torah is compared to an elixir of life.There is ba parable thatillustrates this: bA person hit his son with a strong blow and placed a bandage on his wound. And he said to him: My son, as long as this bandage is on your woundand is healing you, beat what you enjoy and drink what you enjoy, and bathe in either hot water or cold water, and you do not need to be afraid,as it will heal your wound. bBut if you take it off,the wound bwill become gangrenous. /b, bSotoo bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: My children, I created an evil inclination,which is the wound, band I created Torah as its antidote. If you are engaged in Torahstudy byou will not be given over into the handof the evil inclination, bas it is stated: “If you do well, shall it not be lifted up?”(Genesis 4:7). One who engages in Torah study lifts himself above the evil inclination., bAnd if you do not engage in Torahstudy, byou are given over to its power, as it is stated: “Sin crouches at the door”(Genesis 4:7). bMoreover, allof the evil inclination’s bdeliberationswill be bconcerning you, as it is statedin the same verse: b“And to you is its desire.” And if you wish you shall rule over it, as it is statedin the conclusion of the verse: b“But you may rule over it”(Genesis 4:7)., bThe Sages taught:So bdifficult is the evil inclination that even its Creator calls it evil, as it is stated: “For the inclination of a man’s heart is evil from his youth”(Genesis 8:21). bRav Yitzḥak says: A person’sevil binclination renews itself to him every day, as it is stated:“And that every inclination of the thoughts in his heart was bonly evil all day [ ikol hayyom /i]”(Genesis 6:5). “ iKol hayyom /i” can also be understood as: Every day., bAnd Rabbi Shimon ben Levi says: A person’s inclination overpowers him every day, and seeks to kill him, as it is stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to slay him”(Psalms 37:32). bAnd if notfor the fact that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, assistseach person in battling his evil inclination, bhe could notovercome bit, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand”(Psalms 37:33).,A Sage from bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: My son, if this wretched one,the evil inclination, bencounters you, pull it into the study hall,i.e., go and study Torah. bIf it is a stoneit will bmelt, and if it is ironit will bbreak, as it is statedwith regard to the Torah: b“Is not My word like fire, says the Lord, and like a hammer that breaks the rock in pieces?”(Jeremiah 23:29). Just as a stone shatters a hammer, so too one can overcome his evil inclination, which is as strong as iron, through Torah study. With regard to the second part of the statement: bIf it is a stoneit will bmelt,this is bas it is statedwith regard to the Torah: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1), band it states: “The water wears the stones”(Job 14:19), indicating that water is stronger than stone.,§ The ibaraita(29a) teaches that a father is commanded bto marryhis son to ba woman.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this matter? bAs it is written: “Take wives and bear sons and daughters, and take wives for your sons and give your daughters to men”(Jeremiah 29:6).,The Gemara analyzes this verse: bGrantedwith regard to bhis son,this is bin his power,i.e., he can instruct him to marry a woman, as a man is the active agent in a marriage. bButwith regard to bhis daughter, isthis bin his power?She must wait for a man to marry her. The Gemara answers: bThis is whatJeremiah was bsaying to themin the aforementioned verse: Her father should bgive her somethingfor her dowry, band he should dress and cover herwith suitable clothing bso that men will leap tomarry bher. /b,§ The ibaraitafurther states that a father is commanded bto teachhis son ba trade.The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bḤizkiyya said: As the verse states: “Enjoy life with the wife whom you love”(Ecclesiastes 9:9). bIfthis verse is interpreted literally, and bitis referring to ban actual woman,then one can derive as follows: bJust asa father bis obligated to marryhis son bto a woman, so too, he is obligated to teach him a trade,as indicated by the term: Life. bAnd ifthe wife mentioned in this verse is allegorical, and bit is the Torah,then one should explain the verse in the following manner: bJust as he is obligated to teach him Torah, so too, he is obligated to teach him a trade. /b,§ The ibaraitaadds: bAnd some saythat a father is balsoobligated bto teachhis son bto swim in a river.The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonfor this? bIt isnecessary for bhis life,i.e., this is potentially a lifesaving skill.,§ The ibaraitafurther teaches that bRabbi Yehuda says: Anyfather bwho does not teachhis son ba trade teaches him banditry.The Gemara asks: Can it benter your mindthat he actually teaches him bbanditry? Rather,the ibaraitameans that it is bas though he taught him banditry. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthe opinion of the first itannaand that of Rabbi Yehuda? Both state that a father must teach his son a trade. The Gemara answers: bThere isa difference bbetween themin a case bwherethe father bteaches himto engage in bbusiness.According to the first itannathis is sufficient, whereas Rabbi Yehuda maintains that he must teach him an actual trade.,§ The mishna teaches: With regard to ball mitzvot of a father with regard to his son,both men and women are obligated to perform them. The Gemara inquires: bWhatis the meaning of the expression: bAll mitzvot of a father with regard to his son? If we saythat this is referring to ball of the mitzvot that a father is required to perform for his son,are bwomen obligatedin these? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA father is obligated with regard to his son to circumcise him, and to redeem him?This indicates that bhis father, yes,he is obligated to do these, but bhis mother, no,she is not obligated to perform these mitzvot for her son., bRav Yehuda saidthat bthis is whatthe mishna bis saying:With regard to beach mitzvafor bthe father that is incumbent upon the son to perform for his father, both men and women are obligatedin them. The Gemara comments: bWealready blearned this, as the Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i, with regard to the verse: b“A manshall fear [ itira’u /i] his mother and his father” (Leviticus 19:3). bI havederived bonlythat ba manis obligated in this mitzva; bfrom wheredo I derive that ba womanis also obligated? bWhen it saysin the same verse: b“A man shall fear [ itira’u /i] his mother and his father”(Leviticus 19:3), employing the plural form of the verb, this indicates that bthere are twothat are obligated bhere,both a man and a woman., bIf so,that both of them are obligated, bwhatis the meaning when bthe verse states: “Man”?In the case of ba man,it is bin his power to performthis mitzva; whereas with regard to ba woman,it is bnotalways bin her power to performthis mitzva, bbecause she is under the authority of anotherperson, i.e., her husband. As she is obligated to her husband to maintain her household, she is not always able to find time for her parents. bRav Idi bar Avin saysthat bRav says:Consequently, if a woman bis divorced,then bboth of them,a daughter and a son, are bequalwith regard to honoring and fearing their father and mother., bThe Sages taughtthat bit is stated: “Honor your father and your mother”(Exodus 20:11), band it is stated: “Honor the Lord with your wealth”(Proverbs 3:9). In this manner, bthe verse equates the honor of one’s father and mother to the honor of the Omnipresent,as the term “honor” is used in both cases.,Similarly, bit is stated: “A man shall fear his mother and his father”(Leviticus 19:3), band it is stated: “You shall fear the Lord your God and Him you shall serve”(Deuteronomy 6:13). bThe verse equates the fear of one’s father and mother to the fear of the Omnipresent. /b,Likewise, bit is stated: “He who curses his father or his mother shall be put to death”(Exodus 21:17), band it is stated: “Whoever curses his God shall bear his sin”(Leviticus 24:15). bThe verse equates the blessing,a euphemism for cursing, bofone’s bfather and mother to the blessing of the Omnipresent. But with regard to striking,i.e., with regard to the ihalakhathat one who strikes his father or mother is liable to receive court-imposed capital punishment, bit is certainly not possibleto say the same concerning the Holy One, Blessed be He., bAnd sotoo, the equating of one’s attitude toward his parents to his attitude toward God is ba logical derivation, as the three of them are partners in hiscreation. As bthe Sages taught: There are three partners inthe forming of ba person: The Holy One, Blessed be He,who provides the soul, band his father and his mother. When a person honors his father and mother, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I ascribecredit bto them as if I dwelt between them and they honor Meas well., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: It is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being that a son honors his mother more thanhe honors bhis father, because /b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

65b. מתיב ר' זירא יצאו עדים זוממין שאין בהן מעשה ואמאי הא ליתנהו בלב,אמר רבא שאני עדים זוממין הואיל וישנו בקול,וקול לרבי יוחנן לאו מעשה הוא והא איתמר חסמה בקול והנהיגה בקול רבי יוחנן אמר חייב ור"ל אמר פטור,רבי יוחנן אמר חייב עקימת פיו הוי מעשה ר"ל אמר פטור עקימת פיו לא הוי מעשה,אלא אמר רבא שאני עדים זוממין הואיל וישנן בראיה,ת"ר בעל אוב זה המדבר בין הפרקים ומבין אצילי ידיו ידעוני זה המניח עצם ידוע בפיו והוא מדבר מאליו,מיתיבי (ישעיהו כט, ד) והיה כאוב מארץ קולך מאי לאו דמשתעי כי אורחיה לא דסליק ויתיב בין הפרקים ומשתעי,תא שמע (שמואל א כח, יג) ותאמר האשה אל שאול אלהים ראיתי עולים מן הארץ מאי לאו דמשתעי כי אורחיה לא דיתיב בין הפרקים ומשתעי,ת"ר בעל אוב אחד המעלה בזכורו ואחד הנשאל בגולגולת מה בין זה לזה מעלה בזכורו אינו עולה כדרכו ואינו עולה בשבת נשאל בגולגולת עולה כדרכו ועולה בשבת,עולה להיכא סליק הא קמיה מנח אלא אימא עונה כדרכו ועונה בשבת,ואף שאלה זו שאל טורנוסרופוס את ר"ע אמר לו ומה יום מיומים אמר לו ומה גבר מגוברין א"ל דמרי צבי שבת נמי דמרי צבי,א"ל הכי קאמינא לך מי יימר דהאידנא שבתא אמר לו נהר סבטיון יוכיח בעל אוב יוכיח קברו של אביו יוכיח שאין מעלה עשן בשבת אמר לו ביזיתו ביישתו וקיללתו,שואל אוב היינו ודורש אל המתים,דורש למתים כדתניא (דברים יח, יא) ודורש אל המתים זה המרעיב עצמו והולך ולן בבה"ק כדי שתשרה עליו רוח טומאה,וכשהיה ר"ע מגיע למקרא זה היה בוכה ומה המרעיב עצמו כדי שתשרה עליו רוח טומאה שורה עליו רוח טומאה המרעיב עצמו כדי שתשרה עליו רוח טהרה על אחת כמה וכמה אבל מה אעשה שעונותינו גרמו לנו שנאמר (ישעיהו נט, ב) כי [אם] עונותיכם היו מבדילים ביניכם לבין אלהיכם,אמר רבא אי בעו צדיקי ברו עלמא שנאמר כי עונותיכם היו מבדילים וגו',רבא ברא גברא שדריה לקמיה דר' זירא הוה קא משתעי בהדיה ולא הוה קא מהדר ליה אמר ליה מן חבריא את הדר לעפריך,רב חנינא ורב אושעיא הוו יתבי כל מעלי שבתא ועסקי בספר יצירה ומיברו להו עיגלא תילתא ואכלי ליה,תנו רבנן מעונן ר' שמעון אומר זה המעביר שבעה מיני זכור על העין וחכ"א זה האוחז את העינים ר"ע אומר זה המחשב עתים ושעות ואומר היום יפה לצאת למחר יפה ליקח לימודי ערבי שביעיות חיטין יפות עיקורי קטניות מהיות רעות,תנו רבנן מנחש זה האומר פתו נפלה מפיו מקלו נפלה מידו בנו קורא לו מאחריו עורב קורא לו צבי הפסיקו בדרך נחש מימינו ושועל משמאלו 65b. bRabbi Zeira raises an objectionto Rava’s answer, as it is stated in a ibaraitathat one who unwittingly commits a transgression punishable by death is obligated to bring a sin-offering, bexcluding conspiring witnesses,who are not obligated to bring a sin-offering, bastheir transgressions bdo not involve an action.Rabbi Zeira asks: bAnd whyis a false witness’s testimony not considered a transgression that involves an action? The testimony is delivered through speech, which should be considered an action, as bthis is nota transgression that is committed bin the heart;the witnesses are liable for what they said, and not for their intention., bRava says: Conspiring witnesses are different, sincetheir transgression biscommitted bthroughtheir bvoice.The essence of their transgression is not speech itself but rather making themselves heard by the court. Therefore, since the projection of one’s voice does not involve action, the transgression of conspiring witnesses is considered not be to involving action.,The Gemara asks: bAnd isprojecting one’s bvoice notconsidered ban action according to Rabbi Yoḥa? But wasn’t it statedthat iamora’imengaged in a dispute concerning the following case: If one bmuzzledan animal bbyprojecting his bvoice,by berating it whenever it tried to eat, has he transgressed the prohibition of: “You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the corn” (Deuteronomy 25:4)? bAndsimilarly, if one bleddifferent species to work together bbyprojecting his bvoice,without performing any action, has he transgressed the prohibition of: “You shall not plow with an ox and a donkey together” (Deuteronomy 22:10)? bRabbi Yoḥa sayshe is bliable, and Reish Lakish sayshe is bexempt. /b,The Gemara explains the reasoning behind their opinions: bRabbi Yoḥa sayshe is bliable,as he maintains that bthe twisting ofone’s bmouthto speak bisconsidered ban action,whereas bReish Lakish sayshe is bexempt,because he holds that that bthe twisting ofone’s bmouthto speak bis notconsidered ban action.Evidently, Rabbi Yoḥa holds that a transgression one commits by projecting his voice is considered to involve an action., bRather, Rava saysthere is a different answer to Rabbi Zeira’s objection: bConspiring witnesses are different, since they arerendered liable mainly bthrough sight,i.e., the important part of their testimony is what they saw, which is not considered an action.,§ bThe Sages taught: A necromancer is one whocauses the voice of the dead to be heard bspeakingfrom bbetweenhis bjoints or from his armpit. A sorcerer [ iyideoni /i] is one who places a bone ofan animal called ba iyaduain his mouth, andthe bone bspeaks on its own. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom the verse: b“And your voice shall be as a ghost out of the ground”(Isaiah 29:4). bWhat, doesthe dead person bnot speakfrom the grave bon his own?The Gemara answers: bNo,this is not so, basthe dead person brisesby sorcery band sits between the jointsof the necromancer band speaks. /b,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from the statement of the necromancer to King Saul: b“And the woman said to Saul, I see a godlike being coming up out of the earth”(I Samuel 28:13). bWhat, doesthe verse bnotmean to say bthatthe dead person bspoke on his own?The Gemara refutes this proof: bNo,this is not so, basthe dead person bsits between the jointsof the necromancer band speaks. /b, bThe Sages taught:The category of ba necromancerincludes bboth one who raisesthe dead bwith his izekhur /i,which is a form of sorcery, band one who inquiresabout the future bfrom a skull [ ibegulgolet /i]. Whatis the difference bbetween thistype of necromancer band thattype of necromancer? When one braisesthe dead bwith his izekhur /i,the dead bdoes not rise in itsusual bmanner,but appears upside-down, bandit bdoes not rise on Shabbat.By contrast, when one binquiresabout the future bfrom a skull,the dead brises in itsusual bmanner, andit brises [ ioleh /i]even bon Shabbat. /b,The Gemara asks with regard to the wording of the last statement: bRises? To where doesit brise? Isn’tthe skull blying before him? Rather, sayas follows: The dead banswers in itsusual bmanner, andit banswers [ ive’oneh /i]even bon Shabbat. /b,With regard to the statement that the dead do not rise on Shabbat, the Gemara relates: bThe wicked Turnus Rufus,the Roman governor of Judea, basked this question of Rabbi Akiva as well.Turnus Rufus bsaid to him: And whatmakes this bday,Shabbat, different bfromother bdays?Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: And whatmakes this bman,referring to his interlocutor, more distinguished bthanother bmen?Turnus Rufus bsaid to him:I am more distinguished bbecause my masterthe emperor bwantsit that way. Rabbi Akiva said to him: bShabbat toois unique bbecause my Master wantsit that way, as he has sanctified that day.,Turnus Rufus bsaid to him: Thisis what bImean to bsay to you: Who is to say that now is Shabbat?Perhaps a different day of the week is Shabbat. Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: The Sabbatyon River can provethat today is Shabbat, as it is calm only on Shabbat. bA necromancer canalso bprovethis, as the dead do not rise on Shabbat. bThe grave of his father,referring to Turnus Rufus’s father, bcanalso bprovethis, bas it does not emit smoke on Shabbat,although smoke rises from it all week, as during the week he is being punished in Gehenna. Turnus Rufus bsaid to him: You have demeanedmy father, byou havepublicly bshamed him, and you have cursed himby saying that he is being punished in Gehenna.,§ The Gemara asks: bIsn’tone who binquiresabout the future from ba necromancerthe same as what is described in the verse: b“Or directs inquiries to the dead”(Deuteronomy 18:11)? Why are they mentioned separately in the verse?,The Gemara answers: One who bdirects inquiries to the deadem-ploys a different method to contact the dead, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Or directs inquiries to the dead”; this is one who starves himself and goes and sleepsovernight bin a graveyard so that a spirit of impurity should settle upon him,and he can listen to what the dead are saying., bAnd when Rabbi Akiva would arrive at this verse he would weepand say: bIf one who starves himself so that a spirit of impurity will settle upon himsucceeds in doing so, and ba spirit of impurity settles upon him, all the more so one who starves himself so that a spirit of purity will settle upon himshould be successful, and a spirit of purity should settle upon him. bBut what can I do, as our iniquities have caused usnot to merit the spirit of sanctity and purity, bas it is stated: “But your iniquities have separated between you and your God,and your sins have hid His face from you, that He will not hear” (Isaiah 59:2)., bRava says: If the righteous wishto do so, btheycan bcreate a world, as it is stated: “But your iniquities have separatedbetween you and your God.” In other words, there is no distinction between God and a righteous person who has no sins, and just as God created the world, so can the righteous.,Indeed, bRava created a man,a golem, using forces of sanctity. Rava bsenthis creation bbefore Rabbi Zeira.Rabbi Zeira bwould speak to him but he would not reply.Rabbi Zeira bsaid to him: Youwere created bbyone of the members of bthe group,one of the Sages. bReturn to your dust. /b,The Gemara relates another fact substantiating the statement that the righteous could create a world if they so desired: bRav Ḥanina and Rav Oshaya would sit every Shabbat eve and engage inthe study of iSefer Yetzira /i, and a third-born calf [ iigla tilta /i] would be created for them, and they would eat itin honor of Shabbat.,§ bThe Sages taught:What is the definition of the bsoothsayermentioned in the verse: “There shall not be found among you…a soothsayer” (Deuteronomy 18:10)? bRabbi Shimon says: This is one who applies seven types of semen [ izekhur /i] toone’s beyein order to perform sorcery. bAnd the Rabbis say: This is one who deceives the eyes,as though he is performing sorcery. bRabbi Akiva says: This is one who calculatesthe fortune of btimes and hours, and says,for example: bToday isa bpropitiousday bfor going awayon a journey; btomorrow is propitious for purchasingproperty successfully. Or he says that bon the eve of the SabbaticalYears, the bwheatharvest bis generally good; uprooting legumesrather than cutting them from above the ground prevents them bfrom going bad. /b, bThe Sages taught:The benchantermentioned in the verse (Deuteronomy 18:10) bisone who relies on superstitious signs, e.g., bone who says:If one’s bbread fell from his mouth,that is a bad sign for him; or: If one’s bstaff fell from his hand,it is a bad sign; or: If one’s bson calls him from behind,it is a sign that he should return from his journey; or: If ba raven calls to him,or if ba deer blocks him on the way,or if ba snake is to his right, orif ba fox is to his left,all of these are bad signs. An enchanter is one who relies on these as bad signs and consequently changes his course of action.
33. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. רע כל היום אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש להמיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה שעוזר לו אינו יכול לו שנאמ' (תהלים לז, לג) ה' לא יעזבנו בידו ולא ירשיענו בהשפטו,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ אם אבן הוא נימוח דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ דכתיב (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן יצר הרע מסיתו לאדם בעוה"ז ומעיד עליו לעולם הבא שנאמר (משלי כט, כא) מפנק מנוער עבדו ואחריתו יהיה מנון שכן באטב"ח של ר' חייא קורין לסהדה מנון,רב הונא רמי כתיב (הושע ד, יב) כי רוח זנונים התעה וכתיב (הושע ה, ד) בקרבם בתחלה התעם ולבסוף בקרבם,אמר רבא בתחלה קראו הלך ולבסוף קראו אורח ולבסוף קראו איש שנאמר (שמואל ב יב, ד) ויבא הלך לאיש העשיר ויחמול לקחת מצאנו ומבקרו לעשות לאורח וכתיב ויקח את כבשת האיש הרש ויעשה לאיש הבא אליו,אמר רבי יוחנן אבר קטן יש לו לאדם מרעיבו שבע משביעו רעב שנאמר (הושע יג, ו) כמרעיתם וישבעו וגו',אמר רב חנא בר אחא אמרי בי רב ארבעה מתחרט עליהן הקב"ה שבראם ואלו הן גלות כשדים וישמעאלים ויצר הרע גלות דכתיב (ישעיהו נב, ה) ועתה מה לי פה נאם ה' כי לקח עמי חנם וגו' כשדים דכתיב (ישעיהו כג, יג) הן ארץ כשדים זה העם לא היה,ישמעאלים דכתיב (איוב יב, ו) ישליו אהלים לשודדים ובטוחות למרגיזי אל לאשר הביא אלוה בידו יצר הרע דכתיב (מיכה ד, ו) ואשר הרעתי,אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא שלש מקראות הללו נתמוטטו רגליהם של שונאיהן של ישראל חד דכתיב ואשר הרעתי וחד דכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ו) הנה כחומר ביד היוצר כן אתם וגו' ואידך (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסרתי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר,רב פפא אמר אף מהאי נמי (יחזקאל לו, כז) ואת רוחי אתן בקרבכם וגו',(זכריה ב, ג) ויראני ה' ארבעה חרשים מאן נינהו ארבעה חרשים אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא משיח בן דוד ומשיח בן יוסף ואליהו וכהן צדק מתיב רב ששת אי הכי היינו דכתיב (זכריה ב, ד) ויאמר אלי אלה הקרנות אשר זרו את יהודה הני לשובה אתו,א"ל שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ויבואו אלה להחריד אותם לידות את קרנות הגוים הנושאים קרן אל ארץ יהודה לזרותה וגו' א"ל בהדי חנא באגדתא למה לי,(מיכה ה, ד) והיה זה שלום אשור כי יבא בארצנו וכי ידרוך בארמנותינו והקמנו עליו שבעה רועים ושמנה נסיכי אדם מאן נינהו שבעה רועים דוד באמצע אדם שת ומתושלח מימינו אברהם יעקב ומשה בשמאלו ומאן נינהו שמנה נסיכי אדם ישי ושאול ושמואל עמוס וצפניה צדקיה ומשיח ואליהו:,ארבעה סולמות כו': תנא גובהה של מנורה חמשים אמה (כו'): וארבעה ילדים של פרחי כהונה ובידיהם כדי שמן של מאה ועשרים לוג: איבעיא להו מאה ועשרים לוג כולהו או דלמא לכל חד וחד תא שמע ובידיהם כדי שמן של שלשים שלשים לוג שהם כולם מאה ועשרים לוג,תנא והן משובחין היו יותר מבנה של מרתא בת בייתוס אמרו על בנה של מרתא בת בייתוס שהיה נוטל שתי יריכות של שור הגדול שלקוח באלף זוז ומהלך עקב בצד גודל ולא הניחוהו אחיו הכהנים לעשות כן משום (משלי יד, כח) ברב עם הדרת מלך,מאי משובחים אילימא משום יוקרא הני יקירי טפי אלא התם כבש ומרובע ולא זקיף הכא סולמות וזקיף טובא:,ולא היה חצר בירושלים: תנא 52b. bevil all day”(Genesis 6:5). All day long his thoughts and desires are for evil. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: A person’sevil binclination overcomes him each day and seeks to kill him, as it stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to kill him”(Psalms 37:32); the wicked here is referring to the wickedness inside one’s heart. bAnd if not for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who assistshim with the good inclination, bhe would not overcome it, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand, nor suffer him to be condemned when he is judged”(Psalms 37:33)., bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: If this scoundrel,the evil inclination, baccosted you,seeking to tempt you to sin, bdrag it to the study halland study Torah. bIf it islike ba stone, it will be dissolvedby the Torah. bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered.The Gemara elaborates: bIf it islike bstone, it will be dissolved, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who is thirsty, come you for the water”(Isaiah 55:1), water in this context meaning Torah; band it is written: “Stones were worn by water”(Job 14:19). bIf it islike biron, it will be shattered, as it is written: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord; and like a hammer that shatters rock”(Jeremiah 23:29)., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The evil inclination incites a personto sin bin this world, andthen btestifies against him in the next world, as it is stated: “He that delicately brings up his servant from a child shall have him become a master [ imanon /i] at the last”(Proverbs 29:21). Initially, in one’s youth, the evil inclination, which should have been enslaved to him, takes control of him and causes him to sin. Then, ultimately, that same evil inclination becomes his imanon /i. iManonmeans witness, bas in Rabbi Ḥiyya’scoded alphabet in which ialef /iand itet /iand ibeit /iand iḥet /i,etc., are interchanged. bWitness[isahada/b] bis called imanon /i.The letters imemand isamekh /i, inunand iheh /i, and ivavand idaletare interchanged with other letters., bRav Huna raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is written: “For the spirit of harlotry causedthem bto err”(Hosea 4:12), indicating that this spirit was a temporary phenomenon and not an integral part of their persona. bAnd it isalso bwritten:“For the spirit of harlotry bis within them”(Hosea 5:4), indicating that it is an integral part of their persona. The Gemara explains: bInitially, it causes them to errfrom without, band ultimately,it is from bwithin them. /b, bRava said: Initially,the verse bcalledthe evil inclination ba travelercoming from afar. bSubsequently,the verse bcalls it a guest,as one welcomes it. bUltimately,the verse bcalls it man,indicating significance, as it became the homeowner. bAs it is statedin the parable of the poor man’s lamb that Nathan the prophet said to David: b“And there came a traveler to the rich man, and he was reluctant to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare for the guest”(II Samuel 12:4). bAnd it is writtenin the same verse: b“And he took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him.”In other words, the evil inclination that began as a traveler gradually rose in prominence., bRabbi Yoḥa said: A man has a small organused in sexual relations. bIf he starvesthe organ, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated;however, bif he satiatesthe organ and overindulges in sexual relations, it bis starving,and desires more, bas it is stated: “When they were fed, they became full,they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten Me” (Hosea 13:6)., bRav Ḥana bar Aḥa saidthat the Sages bin the school of Rav say:There are bfourcreations that bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,created, yet He, as it were, bregrets that He created them,as they do more harm than good. bAnd these are they: Exile, Chaldeans, and Ishmaelites, and the evil inclination. Exile, as it is written: “Now therefore, for what am I here, says the Lord, seeing that My people is taken away for naught”(Isaiah 52:5). God Himself is asking: For what am I here? bChaldeans, as it is written: “Behold the land of the Chaldeans, this is the people that was not”(Isaiah 23:13), meaning, if only they never were., bIshmaelites, as it is written: “The tents of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure, in whatsoever God brings with His hand”(Job 12:6). God brought upon Himself these Arabs that dwell in the deserts in tents. bThe evil inclination, as it is written:“On that day, says the Lord, will I assemble her that is lame, and I will gather her that is driven away, band her that I corrupted”(Micah 4:6). God is saying that He created the evil inclination that led the people to sin and to be cast into exile., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Were it not for these three versesthat follow that indicate that God controls people’s hearts, bthe legs of the enemies ofthe bJewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, bwould have collapsed,unable to withstand the repercussions of their sins. bOne, as it is written: “And her that I corrupted,”indicating God’s regret for doing so. bAnd one, as it is written: “Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are youin My hand, O house of Israel” (Jeremiah 18:6). bAnd the otherverse: b“And I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh”(Ezekiel 36:26), indicating that the matter is not solely in human hands, but in the hands of God as well., bRav Pappa said:It is derived bfrom thisverse bas well: “And I will put My spirit within you,and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you shall keep My ordices, and do them” (Ezekiel 36:27).,§ Apropos the end of days, the Gemara cites another verse and interprets it homiletically. It is stated: b“The Lord then showed me four craftsmen”(Zechariah 2:3). bWho are these four craftsmen? Rav Ḥana bar Bizna saidthat bRabbi Shimon Ḥasida said:They are bMessiah ben David, Messiah ben Yosef, Elijah, and the righteousHigh bPriest,who will serve in the Messianic era. bRav Sheshet raised an objection: If so,if that is the identity of the four craftsmen, then bthat which is writtenin the previous verse: b“And he said to me: These are the horns that scattered Judea”(Zechariah 2:4), is difficult; bthesefour in the first verse bare coming for their enemies,and are not redeemers.,Rav Ḥana bsaid toRav Sheshet: bGo to the end of the verse: “These then are come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted uptheir bhorn against the land of Judah to scatter it.”This indicates that the horns refer to the nations that exiled the Jewish people and that the four craftsmen will hurl those horns aside. Rav Sheshet bsaid to him: Whyshould bIdisagree bwithRav bḤana inmatters of iaggada /i,where he is more expert than I, and I cannot prevail?,The Gemara continues homiletically interpreting verses that relate to the end of days. It is stated: b“And this shall be peace: When the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight princes among men”(Micah 5:4). The Gemara asks: bWho are these seven shepherds?The Gemara explains: bDavidis bin the middle; Adam, Seth, and Methuselah are to his right; Abraham, Jacob, and Moses are to his left. And who are the eight princes among men?They are bYishai, Saul, Samuel, Amos, Zephania, Zedekiah, Messiah, and Elijah. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there were four laddersfor each pole. One of the Sages btaught: The height of the candelabrumupon the pole bis fifty cubits. Andthere were bfour children from the priesthood traineesholding band in their hands jugs of oilwith a capacity bof 120 ilog /iof oil. bA dilemma was raised:Was it b120 ilogaltogether, or perhaps each and everychild carried that amount? bComeand bhearproof from this ibaraita /i: bAnd in their handswere bjugs of oil, eachwith a capacity bof thirty ilog /i, that were alltogether b120 ilog /i. /b,One of the Sages btaught: And theseyoung priests who held the pitchers bwere superiorin strength bto the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos,who was a priest renowned for his might. bThey said about the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, that he would take two thighs of a large bullthat was so large bthatit would be bpurchased for one thousand izuz /i, and walkup the ramp in small steps, bheel to toe,without hurrying, due to his strength. However, bhis brethren the priests would not allow him do so, due tothe principle: b“In the multitude of people is the King’s glory”(Proverbs 14:28). The more priests engaged in the Temple service, the greater glory for God. Therefore, it is preferable for the thighs to be carried to the altar by multiple priests.,The Gemara asks: In bwhatsense were these young priests bsuperior? If we say it is due to the weightof the pitchers that they carried, bthesetwo bthighs are heavierthan the thirty ilogof oil. The Gemara answers: bRather,the difference is that bthere,in the case of the son of Marta, he walked on a brampthat was wide, bandwith a moderate gradient of only one cubit every bfourcubits of length, bandit is bnot steep; herethey climbed bladders, andthose are bvery steep. /b,§ The mishna continues: bAnd there was not a courtyard in Jerusalemthat was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water. One of the Sages btaught: /b
34. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.14-3.22, 3.25-3.26, 4.30, 7.118

3.14. and thou didst love him, and to him only didst thou reveal the end of the times, secretly by night. 3.15. Thou didst make with him an everlasting covet, and promise him that thou wouldst never forsake his descendants; and thou gavest to him Isaac, and to Isaac thou gavest Jacob and Esau. 3.16. And thou didst set apart Jacob for thyself, but Esau thou didst reject; and Jacob became a great multitude. 3.17. And when thou didst lead his descendants out of Egypt, thou didst bring them to Mount Sinai. 3.18. Thou didst bend down the heavens and shake the earth, and move the world, and make the depths to tremble, and trouble the times. 3.19. And thy glory passed through the four gates of fire and earthquake and wind and ice, to give the law to the descendants of Jacob, and thy commandment to the posterity of Israel. 3.20. Yet thou didst not take away from them their evil heart, so that thy law might bring forth fruit in them. 3.21. For the first Adam, burdened with an evil heart, transgressed and was overcome, as were also all who were descended from him. 3.22. Thus the disease became permanent; the law was in the people's heart along with the evil root, but what was good departed, and the evil remained. 3.25. This was done for many years; but the inhabitants of the city transgressed 3.26. in everything doing as Adam and all his descendants had done, for they also had the evil heart. 4.30. For a grain of evil seed was sown in Adam's heart from the beginning, and how much ungodliness it has produced until now, and will produce until the time of threshing comes!


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46, 55
adam and eve, in geneology of error Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
adam and eve Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
advisors Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71
afterlife Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46
angelic descent, and origins of evil Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
angelic sin, as epistemological transgression Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
animal imagery Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71, 134
antithesis Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 134, 146
apocalyptic literature, and book of daniel Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
apocalyptic literature, history of scholarship on Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
bethulia, elders Gera, Judith (2014) 290
biblical women, close to god Gera, Judith (2014) 290
book of judith, original language Gera, Judith (2014) 290
calendar, calendrical issues Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
calendars, solar Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 173, 177
calendars Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 175
capability (human) Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46, 66
clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46, 55, 60, 66
collective humanity Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 229
cosmology Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 249
creation Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 171, 172, 177; Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71, 76, 134
creation topoi Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46, 54, 60, 66
creator Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46
dating systems Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 177
death Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 60
deborah, and judith Gera, Judith (2014) 290
deborah, of l.a.b. Gera, Judith (2014) 290
determinism Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 55, 66
deterministic Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54
diaspora Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 176
divine, image Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46, 60
dualism/dualistic Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 249
dualism Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54, 55
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46, 54, 55, 60, 66
earth, from (out of) the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46
earth Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 55
earthly origin Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 60
elijah, prophet Gera, Judith (2014) 290
enochic literary tradition, place of book of dreams in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
eternal life Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 229
eternality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
everlasting covenant Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46
evil, pre-rabbinic jewish approaches to Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
evil Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71, 76, 134
evil inclination Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
evil inclinations Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 229
faithfulness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
fate Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54
fear of god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71
festivals Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 172, 173, 174, 176, 177
five-day moratorium Gera, Judith (2014) 290
flood, as protological precedent to eschaton Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
free will Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 55, 229
gender roles Gera, Judith (2014) 290
genesis, and book of the watchers Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
god, most high Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 249
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71, 76, 146
good Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71, 76, 134
grandson of ben sira Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
grief Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
ground, from the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46, 54, 66
hannah Gera, Judith (2014) 290
heart Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
honor Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 146
human, existence Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46
human, impermanence Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 55
human, nature Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 229
identity Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 176
idol maker Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 60
idolatry Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
idols Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
image of god Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46, 66
immortal Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 60
immortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
inclination Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54
inclusio Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71
incorruption Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
injustice Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 146
instruction/teaching, ethical Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 249
intermarriage Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
israel-specific Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
iv maccabees Gera, Judith (2014) 290
judgment Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 229
judith, chastises elders Gera, Judith (2014) 290
judith, piety and asceticism Gera, Judith (2014) 290
justice Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 134, 146; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
knowledge, revealed Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
language and style, book of judith, septuagint influence Gera, Judith (2014) 290
law Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
life Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71
life / afterlife Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 249
light Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 172, 173
literary production Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
mankind Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 55
mortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46, 66
mother of seven sons Gera, Judith (2014) 290
mourning Gera, Judith (2014) 290
nature, human Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 229
noah Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
oaths Gera, Judith (2014) 290
obedience Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46, 54, 229
obedient Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 229
parallelism Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 146
passover/pesaḥ Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 174, 176, 177
platonic Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 60
poor Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 134, 146
potter Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 55, 60, 66
prayer Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71
predestinarian/predeterminism Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 249
predetermined Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 55
priestly tradition Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76, 134
prophets Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
qumran community, enochic texts and traditions in Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
qumran community Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54
rabbis, on prayer Gera, Judith (2014) 290
rain and rainmakers Gera, Judith (2014) 290
rich Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 134, 146
righteousness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 134; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
sabbath Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177
secrets/confidences, keeping/betraying Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71
sin/sinners Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
sins / iniquity, origin of' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 249
soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 60
sovereign Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 55
speech Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 146
textual transmission, premodern Reed, Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature (2005) 101
topoi, creation Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46, 54, 60, 66
torah Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 175
treachery Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
trust (between friends) Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71
trust (in god) Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71
two ways Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54, 66
uzziah, weak Gera, Judith (2014) 290
uzziah Gera, Judith (2014) 290
vessels Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 60
vulgate judith Gera, Judith (2014) 290
water shortage Gera, Judith (2014) 290
wealth Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 54
wife Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71, 76
wisdom/wise Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 71, 146
women Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 46
word-pairs Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 146