Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



673
Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 24.23


nanAll this is the book of the covenant of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

59 results
1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 6.12, 6.30, 8.19, 8.21 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.12. And in order that we might inform you in writing who the leaders are, we questioned them and asked them for a list of the names of those who are at their head. 6.30. and likewise wheat and salt and wine and oil, regularly every year, without quibbling, for daily use as the priests in Jerusalem may indicate 8.19. And I, Artaxerxes the king, have commanded the treasurers of Syria and Phoenicia that whatever Ezra the priest and reader of the law of the Most High God sends for, they shall take care to give him 8.21. Let all things prescribed in the law of God be scrupulously fulfilled for the Most High God, so that wrath may not come upon the kingdom of the king and his sons.
2. Septuagint, Baruch, 3.9-4.4, 4.1 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.11, 8.15-8.17 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 8.15. Then Raguel blessed God and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, with every pure and holy blessing.Let thy saints and all thy creatures bless thee;let all thy angels and thy chosen people bless thee for ever. 8.16. Blessed art thou, because thou hast made me glad. It has not happened to me as I expected;but thou hast treated us according to thy great mercy. 8.17. Blessed art thou, because thou hast had compassion on two only children. Show them mercy, O Lord;and bring their lives to fulfilment in health and happiness and mercy.
4. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.6, 4.13, 21.23, 29.5, 29.29, 30.11-30.14, 30.20, 32.39 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.6. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם כִּי הִוא חָכְמַתְכֶם וּבִינַתְכֶם לְעֵינֵי הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁמְעוּן אֵת כָּל־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמְרוּ רַק עַם־חָכָם וְנָבוֹן הַגּוֹי הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה׃ 4.13. וַיַּגֵּד לָכֶם אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל־שְׁנֵי לֻחוֹת אֲבָנִים׃ 21.23. לֹא־תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ עַל־הָעֵץ כִּי־קָבוֹר תִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי־קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־אַדְמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃ 29.5. לֶחֶם לֹא אֲכַלְתֶּם וְיַיִן וְשֵׁכָר לֹא שְׁתִיתֶם לְמַעַן תֵּדְעוּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 30.11. כִּי הַמִּצְוָה הַזֹּאת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם לֹא־נִפְלֵאת הִוא מִמְּךָ וְלֹא רְחֹקָה הִוא׃ 30.12. לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.13. וְלֹא־מֵעֵבֶר לַיָּם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲבָר־לָנוּ אֶל־עֵבֶר הַיָּם וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃ 30.14. כִּי־קָרוֹב אֵלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר מְאֹד בְּפִיךָ וּבִלְבָבְךָ לַעֲשֹׂתוֹ׃ 32.39. רְאוּ עַתָּה כִּי אֲנִי אֲנִי הוּא וְאֵין אֱלֹהִים עִמָּדִי אֲנִי אָמִית וַאֲחַיֶּה מָחַצְתִּי וַאֲנִי אֶרְפָּא וְאֵין מִיָּדִי מַצִּיל׃ 4.6. Observe therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples, that, when they hear all these statutes, shall say: ‘Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.’" 4.13. And He declared unto you His covet, which He commanded you to perform, even the ten words; and He wrote them upon two tables of stone." 21.23. his body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt surely bury him the same day; for he that is hanged is a reproach unto God; that thou defile not thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance." 29.5. Ye have not eaten bread, neither have ye drunk wine or strong drink; that ye might know that I am the LORD your God." 30.11. For this commandment which I command thee this day, it is not too hard for thee, neither is it far off." 30.12. It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.13. Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go over the sea for us, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’" 30.14. But the word is very nigh unto thee, in thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest do it." 30.20. to love the LORD thy God, to hearken to His voice, and to cleave unto Him; for that is thy life, and the length of thy days; that thou mayest dwell in the land which the LORD swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them." 32.39. See now that I, even I, am He, And there is no god with Me; I kill, and I make alive; I have wounded, and I heal; And there is none that can deliver out of My hand."
5. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.11, 24.7-24.8, 33.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.11. כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת־יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּם וַיָּנַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עַל־כֵּן בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ׃ 24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃ 24.8. וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 33.23. וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ׃ 20.11. for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." 24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’" 24.8. And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’" 33.23. And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 14.18-14.20, 14.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.1. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃ 14.18. וּמַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם וָיָיִן וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן׃ 14.19. וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃ 14.22. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֶל־מֶלֶךְ סְדֹם הֲרִימֹתִי יָדִי אֶל־יְהוָה אֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃ 1.1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." 14.18. And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most High." 14.19. And he blessed him, and said: ‘Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth;" 14.20. and blessed be God the Most High, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand.’ And he gave him a tenth of all." 14.22. And Abram said to the king of Sodom: ‘I have lifted up my hand unto the LORD, God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth,"
7. Hebrew Bible, Job, 38.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

38.9. בְּשׂוּמִי עָנָן לְבֻשׁוֹ וַעֲרָפֶל חֲתֻלָּתוֹ׃ 38.9. When I made the cloud the garment thereof, And thick darkness a swaddlingband for it,"
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.10, 2.1, 3.1, 3.19-3.20, 4.17, 8.22-8.32, 8.35, 9.5, 15.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. כִּי־תָבוֹא חָכְמָה בְלִבֶּךָ וְדַעַת לְנַפְשְׁךָ יִנְעָם׃ 2.1. בְּנִי אִם־תִּקַּח אֲמָרָי וּמִצְוֺתַי תִּצְפֹּן אִתָּךְ׃ 3.1. וְיִמָּלְאוּ אֲסָמֶיךָ שָׂבָע וְתִירוֹשׁ יְקָבֶיךָ יִפְרֹצוּ׃ 3.1. בְּנִי תּוֹרָתִי אַל־תִּשְׁכָּח וּמִצְוֺתַי יִצֹּר לִבֶּךָ׃ 3.19. יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃ 4.17. כִּי לָחֲמוּ לֶחֶם רֶשַׁע וְיֵין חֲמָסִים יִשְׁתּוּ׃ 8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.26. עַד־לֹא עָשָׂה אֶרֶץ וְחוּצוֹת וְרֹאשׁ עָפְרוֹת תֵּבֵל׃ 8.27. בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28. בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29. בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃ 8.31. מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ וְשַׁעֲשֻׁעַי אֶת־בְּנֵי אָדָם׃ 8.32. וְעַתָּה בָנִים שִׁמְעוּ־לִי וְאַשְׁרֵי דְּרָכַי יִשְׁמֹרוּ׃ 8.35. כִּי מֹצְאִי מצאי [מָצָא] חַיִּים וַיָּפֶק רָצוֹן מֵיְהוָה׃ 9.5. לְכוּ לַחֲמוּ בְלַחֲמִי וּשְׁתוּ בְּיַיִן מָסָכְתִּי׃ 15.33. יִרְאַת יְהוָה מוּסַר חָכְמָה וְלִפְנֵי כָבוֹד עֲנָוָה׃ 1.10. My son, if sinners entice thee, Consent thou not." 2.1. My son, if thou wilt receive my words, And lay up my commandments with thee;" 3.1. My son, forget not my teaching; But let thy heart keep my commandments;" 3.19. The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens." 3.20. By His knowledge the depths were broken up, And the skies drop down the dew." 4.17. For they eat the bread of wickedness, And drink the wine of violence." 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;" 8.26. While as yet He had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world." 8.27. When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep," 8.28. When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might," 8.29. When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth;" 8.30. Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him," 8.31. Playing in His habitable earth, And my delights are with the sons of men." 8.32. Now therefore, ye children, hearken unto me; For happy are they that keep my ways." 8.35. For whoso findeth me findeth life, And obtaineth favour of the LORD." 9.5. 'Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled." 15.33. The fear of the LORD is the instruction of wisdom; And before honour goeth humility."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.2, 33.6, 44.3, 104.24, 115.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 33.6. בִּדְבַר יְהוָה שָׁמַיִם נַעֲשׂוּ וּבְרוּחַ פִּיו כָּל־צְבָאָם׃ 44.3. אַתָּה יָדְךָ גּוֹיִם הוֹרַשְׁתָּ וַתִּטָּעֵם תָּרַע לְאֻמִּים וַתְּשַׁלְּחֵם׃ 104.24. מָה־רַבּוּ מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְהוָה כֻּלָּם בְּחָכְמָה עָשִׂיתָ מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ קִנְיָנֶךָ׃ 115.15. בְּרוּכִים אַתֶּם לַיהוָה עֹשֵׂה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃ 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night." 33.6. By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; And all the host of them by the breath of His mouth." 44.3. Thou with Thy hand didst drive out the nations, and didst plant them in; Thou didst break the peoples, and didst spread them abroad." 104.24. How manifold are Thy works, O LORD! In wisdom hast Thou made them all; The earth is full of Thy creatures." 115.15. Blessed be ye of the LORD Who made heaven and earth."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 3.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.10. And he said: ‘Blessed be thou of the LORD, my daughter; thou hast shown more kindness in the end than at the beginning, inasmuch as thou didst not follow the young men, whether poor or rich."
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 16.20, 25.18, 25.32-25.33 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

25.18. וַתְּמַהֵר אבוגיל [אֲבִיגַיִל] וַתִּקַּח מָאתַיִם לֶחֶם וּשְׁנַיִם נִבְלֵי־יַיִן וְחָמֵשׁ צֹאן עשוות [עֲשׂוּיֹת] וְחָמֵשׁ סְאִים קָלִי וּמֵאָה צִמֻּקִים וּמָאתַיִם דְּבֵלִים וַתָּשֶׂם עַל־הַחֲמֹרִים׃ 25.32. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לַאֲבִיגַל בָּרוּךְ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר שְׁלָחֵךְ הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לִקְרָאתִי׃ 25.33. וּבָרוּךְ טַעְמֵךְ וּבְרוּכָה אָתְּ אֲשֶׁר כְּלִתִנִי הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִבּוֹא בְדָמִים וְהֹשֵׁעַ יָדִי לִי׃ 16.20. And Yishay took an ass laden with bread, and a bottle of wine, and a kid, and sent them by David his son to Sha᾽ul." 25.18. Then Avigayil made haste, and took two hundred loaves, and two bottles of wine, and five sheep ready prepared, and five measures of parched corn, and a hundred clusters of raisins, and two hundred cakes of figs, and laid them on asses." 25.32. And David said to Avigayil, Blessed be the Lord God of Yisra᾽el, who sent thee this day to meet me:" 25.33. and blessed be thy discretion, and blessed be thou who hast kept me this day from coming to shed blood, and from avenging myself with my own hand."
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 19.15 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.15. וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל חִזְקִיָּהוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יֹשֵׁב הַכְּרֻבִים אַתָּה־הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים לְבַדְּךָ לְכֹל מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 19.15. And Hezekiah prayed before the LORD, and said: ‘O LORD, the God of Israel, that sittest upon the cherubim, Thou art the God, even Thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth; Thou hast made heaven and earth."
13. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 2.3 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

2.3. כִּי עוֹד חָזוֹן לַמּוֹעֵד וְיָפֵחַ לַקֵּץ וְלֹא יְכַזֵּב אִם־יִתְמַהְמָהּ חַכֵּה־לוֹ כִּי־בֹא יָבֹא לֹא יְאַחֵר׃ 2.3. For the vision is yet for the appointed time, And it declareth of the end, and doth not lie; Though it tarry, wait for it; Because it will surely come, it will not delay.’"
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.1, 5.20-5.21, 19.12, 29.13-29.14, 33.18, 37.16, 44.25, 47.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.1. בּוֹא בַצּוּר וְהִטָּמֵן בֶּעָפָר מִפְּנֵי פַּחַד יְהוָה וּמֵהֲדַר גְּאֹנוֹ׃ 2.1. הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר חָזָה יְשַׁעְיָהוּ בֶּן־אָמוֹץ עַל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 5.21. הוֹי חֲכָמִים בְּעֵינֵיהֶם וְנֶגֶד פְּנֵיהֶם נְבֹנִים׃ 19.12. אַיָּם אֵפוֹא חֲכָמֶיךָ וְיַגִּידוּ נָא לָךְ וְיֵדְעוּ מַה־יָּעַץ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת עַל־מִצְרָיִם׃ 29.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲדֹנָי יַעַן כִּי נִגַּשׁ הָעָם הַזֶּה בְּפִיו וּבִשְׂפָתָיו כִּבְּדוּנִי וְלִבּוֹ רִחַק מִמֶּנִּי וַתְּהִי יִרְאָתָם אֹתִי מִצְוַת אֲנָשִׁים מְלֻמָּדָה׃ 29.14. לָכֵן הִנְנִי יוֹסִף לְהַפְלִיא אֶת־הָעָם־הַזֶּה הַפְלֵא וָפֶלֶא וְאָבְדָה חָכְמַת חֲכָמָיו וּבִינַת נְבֹנָיו תִּסְתַּתָּר׃ 33.18. לִבְּךָ יֶהְגֶּה אֵימָה אַיֵּה סֹפֵר אַיֵּה שֹׁקֵל אַיֵּה סֹפֵר אֶת־הַמִּגְדָּלִים׃ 37.16. יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יֹשֵׁב הַכְּרֻבִים אַתָּה־הוּא הָאֱלֹהִים לְבַדְּךָ לְכֹל מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ אַתָּה עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 44.25. מֵפֵר אֹתוֹת בַּדִּים וְקֹסְמִים יְהוֹלֵל מֵשִׁיב חֲכָמִים אָחוֹר וְדַעְתָּם יְשַׂכֵּל׃ 2.1. The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem." 5.20. Woe unto them that call evil good, And good evil; That change darkness into light, And light into darkness; That change bitter into sweet, And sweet into bitter!" 5.21. Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, And prudent in their own sight!" 19.12. Where are they, then, thy wise men? And let them tell thee now; And let them know what the LORD of hosts Hath purposed concerning Egypt." 29.13. And the Lord said: Forasmuch as this people draw near, and with their mouth and with their lips do honour Me, But have removed their heart far from Me, And their fear of Me is a commandment of men learned by rote;" 29.14. Therefore, behold, I will again do a marvellous work among this people, even a marvellous work and a wonder; and the wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the prudence of their prudent men shall be hid." 33.18. Thy heart shall muse on the terror: ‘Where is he that counted, where is he that weighed? Where is he that counted the towers?’" 37.16. ’O LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, that sittest upon the cherubim, Thou art the God, even Thou alone, of all the kingdoms of the earth; Thou hast made heaven and earth." 44.25. That frustrateth the tokens of the imposters, And maketh diviners mad; That turneth wise men backward, And maketh their knowledge foolish;" 47.10. And thou hast been secure in thy wickedness, Thou hast said: ‘None seeth me’; Thy wisdom and thy knowledge, It hath perverted thee; And thou hast said in thy heart. ’I am, and there is none else beside me.’"
15. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 1.2, 8.8-8.9, 9.23, 10.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.2. אֲשֶׁר הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלָיו בִּימֵי יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ בֶן־אָמוֹן מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה בִּשְׁלֹשׁ־עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה לְמָלְכוֹ׃ 8.8. אֵיכָה תֹאמְרוּ חֲכָמִים אֲנַחְנוּ וְתוֹרַת יְהוָה אִתָּנוּ אָכֵן הִנֵּה לַשֶּׁקֶר עָשָׂה עֵט שֶׁקֶר סֹפְרִים׃ 8.9. הֹבִישׁוּ חֲכָמִים חַתּוּ וַיִּלָּכֵדוּ הִנֵּה בִדְבַר־יְהוָה מָאָסוּ וְחָכְמַת־מֶה לָהֶם׃ 9.23. כִּי אִם־בְּזֹאת יִתְהַלֵּל הַמִּתְהַלֵּל הַשְׂכֵּל וְיָדֹעַ אוֹתִי כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה עֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה בָּאָרֶץ כִּי־בְאֵלֶּה חָפַצְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 10.12. עֹשֵׂה אֶרֶץ בְּכֹחוֹ מֵכִין תֵּבֵל בְּחָכְמָתוֹ וּבִתְבוּנָתוֹ נָטָה שָׁמָיִם׃ 1.2. to whom the word of the LORD came in the days of Josiah the son of Amon, king of Judah, in the thirteenth year of his reign." 8.8. How do ye say: ‘We are wise, and the Law of the LORD is with us’? Lo, certainly in vain hath wrought the vain pen of the scribes." 8.9. The wise men are ashamed, they are dismayed and taken; lo, they have rejected the word of the LORD; and what wisdom is in them?." 9.23. But let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth, and knoweth Me, That I am the LORD who exercise mercy, justice, and righteousness, in the earth; for in these things I delight, Saith the LORD." 10.12. He that hath made the earth by His power, That hath established the world by His wisdom, And hath stretched out the heavens by His understanding;"
16. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.8-1.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.8. לֹא־יָמוּשׁ סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה מִפִּיךָ וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה לְמַעַן תִּשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי־אָז תַּצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאָז תַּשְׂכִּיל׃ 1.9. הֲלוֹא צִוִּיתִיךָ חֲזַק וֶאֱמָץ אַל־תַּעֲרֹץ וְאַל־תֵּחָת כִּי עִמְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תֵּלֵךְ׃ 1.8. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein; for then thou shalt make thy ways prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success." 1.9. Have not I commanded thee? Be strong and of good courage; be not affrighted, neither be thou dismayed: for the LORD thy God is with thee whithersoever thou goest.’"
17. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 29.10 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

29.10. Wherefore David blessed the LORD before all the congregation; and David said: ‘Blessed be Thou, O LORD, the God of Israel our father, for ever and ever."
18. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 5.7, 9.7 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.7. אִם־עֹשֶׁק רָשׁ וְגֵזֶל מִשְׁפָּט וָצֶדֶק תִּרְאֶה בַמְּדִינָה אַל־תִּתְמַהּ עַל־הַחֵפֶץ כִּי גָבֹהַּ מֵעַל גָּבֹהַ שֹׁמֵר וּגְבֹהִים עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 9.7. לֵךְ אֱכֹל בְּשִׂמְחָה לַחְמֶךָ וּשֲׁתֵה בְלֶב־טוֹב יֵינֶךָ כִּי כְבָר רָצָה הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־מַעֲשֶׂיךָ׃ 5.7. If thou seest the oppression of the poor, and the violent perverting of justice and righteousness in the state, marvel not at the matter; for one higher than the high watcheth, and there are higher than they." 9.7. Go thy way, eat thy bread with joy, And drink thy wine with a merry heart; For God hath already accepted thy works."
19. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 4.18, 4.23, 7.15, 7.18-7.19 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

4.18. נִשְׁתְּוָנָא דִּי שְׁלַחְתּוּן עֲלֶינָא מְפָרַשׁ קֱרִי קָדָמָי׃ 4.23. אֱדַיִן מִן־דִּי פַּרְשֶׁגֶן נִשְׁתְּוָנָא דִּי ארתחששתא [אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתְּ] מַלְכָּא קֱרִי קֳדָם־רְחוּם וְשִׁמְשַׁי סָפְרָא וּכְנָוָתְהוֹן אֲזַלוּ בִבְהִילוּ לִירוּשְׁלֶם עַל־יְהוּדָיֵא וּבַטִּלוּ הִמּוֹ בְּאֶדְרָע וְחָיִל׃ 7.15. וּלְהֵיבָלָה כְּסַף וּדְהַב דִּי־מַלְכָּא וְיָעֲטוֹהִי הִתְנַדַּבוּ לֶאֱלָהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם מִשְׁכְּנֵהּ׃ 7.18. וּמָה דִי עליך [עֲלָךְ] וְעַל־אחיך [אֶחָךְ] יֵיטַב בִּשְׁאָר כַּסְפָּא וְדַהֲבָה לְמֶעְבַּד כִּרְעוּת אֱלָהֲכֹם תַּעַבְדוּן׃ 7.19. וּמָאנַיָּא דִּי־מִתְיַהֲבִין לָךְ לְפָלְחָן בֵּית אֱלָהָךְ הַשְׁלֵם קֳדָם אֱלָהּ יְרוּשְׁלֶם׃ 4.18. the letter which ye sent unto us hath been plainly read before me." 4.23. Then when the copy of king Artaxerxes’letter was read before Rehum, and Shimshai the scribe, and their companions, they went in haste to Jerusalem unto the Jews, and made them to cease by force and power." 7.15. and to carry the silver and gold, which the king and his counsellors have freely offered unto the God of Israel, whose habitation is in Jerusalem," 7.18. And whatsoever shall seem good to thee and to thy brethren to do with the rest of the silver and the gold, that do ye after the will of your God." 7.19. And the vessels that are given thee for the service of the house of thy God, deliver thou before the God of Jerusalem."
20. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 9.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

9.6. אַתָּה־הוּא יְהוָה לְבַדֶּךָ את [אַתָּה] עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הַיַּמִּים וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם וְאַתָּה מְחַיֶּה אֶת־כֻּלָּם וּצְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם לְךָ מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים׃ 9.6. Thou art the LORD, even Thou alone; Thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all things that are thereon, the seas and all that is in them, and Thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth Thee."
21. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.4.8, 2.1.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.4.8. Do you think you have any wisdom yourself? Oh! Ask me a question and judge from my answer. And do you suppose that wisdom is nowhere else to be found, although you know that you have a mere speck of all the earth in your body and a mere drop of all the water, and that of all the other mighty elements you received, I suppose, just a scrap towards the fashioning of your body? But as for mind, which alone, it seems, is without mass, do you think that you snapped it up by a lucky accident, and that the orderly ranks of all these huge masses, infinite in number, are due, forsooth, to a sort of absurdity? 2.1.12. Ah, said Socrates, if only that path can avoid the world as well as rule and slavery, there may be something in what you say. But, since you are in the world, if you intend neither to rule nor to be ruled, and do not choose to truckle to the rulers
22. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.11, 8.15-8.17 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.11. So she prayed by her window and said, "Blessed art thou, O Lord my God, and blessed is thy holy and honored name for ever. May all thy works praise thee for ever. 8.15. Then Raguel blessed God and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, with every pure and holy blessing.Let thy saints and all thy creatures bless thee;let all thy angels and thy chosen people bless thee for ever. 8.16. Blessed art thou, because thou hast made me glad. It has not happened to me as I expected;but thou hast treated us according to thy great mercy. 8.17. Blessed art thou, because thou hast had compassion on two only children. Show them mercy, O Lord;and bring their lives to fulfilment in health and happiness and mercy.
23. Anon., 1 Enoch, 41.1, 48.1, 48.7, 49.3, 63.7, 94.5, 104.10, 104.12 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

41.1. And after that I saw all the secrets of the heavens, and how the kingdom is divided, and how the 48.1. And in that place I saw the fountain of righteousness Which was inexhaustible: And around it were many fountains of wisdom: And all the thirsty drank of them, And were filled with wisdom, And their dwellings were with the righteous and holy and elect. 48.1. And on the day of their affliction there shall be rest on the earth, And before them they shall fall and not rise again: And there shall be no one to take them with his hands and raise them: For they have denied the Lord of Spirits and His Anointed. The name of the Lord of Spirits be blessed. 48.7. And the wisdom of the Lord of Spirits hath revealed him to the holy and righteous; For he hath preserved the lot of the righteous, Because they have hated and despised this world of unrighteousness, And have hated all its works and ways in the name of the Lord of Spirits: For in his name they are saved, And according to his good pleasure hath it been in regard to their life. 49.3. And in him dwells the spirit of wisdom, And the spirit which gives insight, And the spirit of understanding and of might, And the spirit of those who have fallen asleep in righteousness. 63.7. For we have not believed before Him Nor glorified the name of the Lord of Spirits, [nor glorified our Lord]But our hope was in the sceptre of our kingdom, And in our glory. 94.5. And hold fast my words in the thoughts of your hearts, And suffer them not to be effaced from your hearts;For I know that sinners will tempt men to evilly-entreat wisdom, So that no place may be found for her, And no manner of temptation may minish. 104.12. concerning them. Then, I know another mystery, that books will be given to the righteous and the
24. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q418, 0 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

25. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 5.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

26. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.9, 2.11, 2.15, 2.18, 2.24, 2.27, 2.36, 3.13, 3.26, 3.32, 4.37, 5.19, 5.23, 6.11, 6.19, 7.7-7.8, 7.10, 7.13, 7.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.9. דִּי הֵן־חֶלְמָא לָא תְהוֹדְעֻנַּנִי חֲדָה־הִיא דָתְכוֹן וּמִלָּה כִדְבָה וּשְׁחִיתָה הזמנתון [הִזְדְּמִנְתּוּן] לְמֵאמַר קָדָמַי עַד דִּי עִדָּנָא יִשְׁתַּנֵּא לָהֵן חֶלְמָא אֱמַרוּ לִי וְאִנְדַּע דִּי פִשְׁרֵהּ תְּהַחֲוֻנַּנִי׃ 2.11. וּמִלְּתָא דִי־מַלְכָּה שָׁאֵל יַקִּירָה וְאָחֳרָן לָא אִיתַי דִּי יְחַוִּנַּהּ קֳדָם מַלְכָּא לָהֵן אֱלָהִין דִּי מְדָרְהוֹן עִם־בִּשְׂרָא לָא אִיתוֹהִי׃ 2.15. עָנֵה וְאָמַר לְאַרְיוֹךְ שַׁלִּיטָא דִי־מַלְכָּא עַל־מָה דָתָא מְהַחְצְפָה מִן־קֳדָם מַלְכָּא אֱדַיִן מִלְּתָא הוֹדַע אַרְיוֹךְ לְדָנִיֵּאל׃ 2.18. וְרַחֲמִין לְמִבְעֵא מִן־קֳדָם אֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא עַל־רָזָה דְּנָה דִּי לָא יְהֹבְדוּן דָּנִיֵּאל וְחַבְרוֹהִי עִם־שְׁאָר חַכִּימֵי בָבֶל׃ 2.24. כָּל־קֳבֵל דְּנָה דָּנִיֵּאל עַל עַל־אַרְיוֹךְ דִּי מַנִּי מַלְכָּא לְהוֹבָדָה לְחַכִּימֵי בָבֶל אֲזַל וְכֵן אֲמַר־לֵהּ לְחַכִּימֵי בָבֶל אַל־תְּהוֹבֵד הַעֵלְנִי קֳדָם מַלְכָּא וּפִשְׁרָא לְמַלְכָּא אֲחַוֵּא׃ 2.27. עָנֵה דָנִיֵּאל קֳדָם מַלְכָּא וְאָמַר רָזָה דִּי־מַלְכָּא שָׁאֵל לָא חַכִּימִין אָשְׁפִין חַרְטֻמִּין גָּזְרִין יָכְלִין לְהַחֲוָיָה לְמַלְכָּא׃ 2.36. דְּנָה חֶלְמָא וּפִשְׁרֵהּ נֵאמַר קֳדָם־מַלְכָּא׃ 3.13. בֵּאדַיִן נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר בִּרְגַז וַחֲמָה אֲמַר לְהַיְתָיָה לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ בֵּאדַיִן גֻּבְרַיָּא אִלֵּךְ הֵיתָיוּ קֳדָם מַלְכָּא׃ 3.26. בֵּאדַיִן קְרֵב נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר לִתְרַע אַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא עָנֵה וְאָמַר שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד־נְגוֹ עַבְדוֹהִי דִּי־אֱלָהָא עליא [עִלָּאָה] פֻּקוּ וֶאֱתוֹ בֵּאדַיִן נָפְקִין שַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ מִן־גּוֹא נוּרָא׃ 3.32. אָתַיָּא וְתִמְהַיָּא דִּי עֲבַד עִמִּי אֱלָהָא עליא [עִלָּאָה] שְׁפַר קָדָמַי לְהַחֲוָיָה׃ 5.19. וּמִן־רְבוּתָא דִּי יְהַב־לֵהּ כֹּל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא הֲווֹ זאעין [זָיְעִין] וְדָחֲלִין מִן־קֳדָמוֹהִי דִּי־הֲוָה צָבֵא הֲוָא קָטֵל וְדִי־הֲוָה צָבֵא הֲוָה מַחֵא וְדִי־הֲוָה צָבֵא הֲוָה מָרִים וְדִי־הֲוָה צָבֵא הֲוָה מַשְׁפִּיל׃ 5.23. וְעַל מָרֵא־שְׁמַיָּא הִתְרוֹמַמְתָּ וּלְמָאנַיָּא דִי־בַיְתֵהּ הַיְתִיו קדמיך [קָדָמָךְ] ואנתה [וְאַנְתְּ] ורברבניך [וְרַבְרְבָנָךְ] שֵׁגְלָתָךְ וּלְחֵנָתָךְ חַמְרָא שָׁתַיִן בְּהוֹן וְלֵאלָהֵי כַסְפָּא־וְדַהֲבָא נְחָשָׁא פַרְזְלָא אָעָא וְאַבְנָא דִּי לָא־חָזַיִן וְלָא־שָׁמְעִין וְלָא יָדְעִין שַׁבַּחְתָּ וְלֵאלָהָא דִּי־נִשְׁמְתָךְ בִּידֵהּ וְכָל־אֹרְחָתָךְ לֵהּ לָא הַדַּרְתָּ׃ 6.11. וְדָנִיֵּאל כְּדִי יְדַע דִּי־רְשִׁים כְּתָבָא עַל לְבַיְתֵהּ וְכַוִּין פְּתִיחָן לֵהּ בְּעִלִּיתֵהּ נֶגֶד יְרוּשְׁלֶם וְזִמְנִין תְּלָתָה בְיוֹמָא הוּא בָּרֵךְ עַל־בִּרְכוֹהִי וּמְצַלֵּא וּמוֹדֵא קֳדָם אֱלָהֵהּ כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־הֲוָא עָבֵד מִן־קַדְמַת דְּנָה׃ 6.19. אֱדַיִן אֲזַל מַלְכָּא לְהֵיכְלֵהּ וּבָת טְוָת וְדַחֲוָן לָא־הַנְעֵל קָדָמוֹהִי וְשִׁנְתֵּהּ נַדַּת עֲלוֹהִי׃ 7.7. בָּאתַר דְּנָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה רביעיה [רְבִיעָאָה] דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא יַתִּירָא וְשִׁנַּיִן דִּי־פַרְזֶל לַהּ רַבְרְבָן אָכְלָה וּמַדֱּקָה וּשְׁאָרָא ברגליה [בְּרַגְלַהּ] רָפְסָה וְהִיא מְשַׁנְּיָה מִן־כָּל־חֵיוָתָא דִּי קָדָמַיהּ וְקַרְנַיִן עֲשַׂר לַהּ׃ 7.8. מִשְׂתַּכַּל הֲוֵית בְּקַרְנַיָּא וַאֲלוּ קֶרֶן אָחֳרִי זְעֵירָה סִלְקָת ביניהון [בֵּינֵיהֵן] וּתְלָת מִן־קַרְנַיָּא קַדְמָיָתָא אתעקרו [אֶתְעֲקַרָה] מִן־קדמיה [קֳדָמַהּ] וַאֲלוּ עַיְנִין כְּעַיְנֵי אֲנָשָׁא בְּקַרְנָא־דָא וּפֻם מְמַלִּל רַבְרְבָן׃ 7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 2.9. that, if ye make not known unto me the dream, there is but one law for you; and ye have agreed together to speak before me lying and corrupt words, till the time be changed; only tell me the dream, and I shall know that ye can declare unto me the interpretation thereof.’" 2.11. And it is a hard thing that the king asketh, and there is none other that can declare it before the king, except the gods, whose dwelling is not with flesh.’" 2.15. he answered and said to Arioch the king’s captain: ‘Wherefore is the decree so peremptory from the king?’ Then Arioch made the thing known to Daniel." 2.18. that they might ask mercy of the God of heaven concerning this secret; that Daniel and his companions should not perish with the rest of the wise men of Babylon." 2.24. Therefore Daniel went in unto Arioch, whom the king had appointed to destroy the wise men of Babylon; he went and said thus unto him: ‘Destroy not the wise men of Babylon; bring me in before the king, and I will declare unto the king the interpretation.’" 2.27. Daniel answered before the king, and said: ‘The secret which the king hath asked can neither wise men, enchanters, magicians, nor astrologers, declare unto the king;" 2.36. This is the dream; and we will tell the interpretation thereof before the king." 3.13. Then Nebuchadnezzar in his rage and fury commanded to bring Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego. Then were these men brought before the king." 3.26. Then Nebuchadnezzar came near to the mouth of the burning fiery furnace; he spoke and said: ‘Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, ye servants of God Most High, come forth, and come hither.’ Then Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, came forth out of the midst of the fire." 3.32. It hath seemed good unto me to declare the signs and wonders that God Most High hath wrought toward me." 5.19. and because of the greatness that He gave him, all the peoples, nations, and languages trembled and feared before him: whom he would he slew, and whom he would he kept alive; and whom he would he raised up, and whom he would he put down." 5.23. but hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of His house before thee, and thou and thy lords, thy consorts and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know; and the God in whose hand thy breath is, and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not glorified;" 6.11. And when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house—now his windows were open in his upper chamber toward Jerusalem—and he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime." 6.19. Then the king went to his palace, and passed the night fasting; neither were diversions brought before him; and his sleep fled from him." 7.7. After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth; it devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet; and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns." 7.8. I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another horn, a little one, before which three of the first horns were plucked up by the roots; and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things." 7.10. A fiery stream issued And came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, And ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; The judgment was set, And the books were opened." 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him." 7.20. and concerning the ten horns that were on its head, and the other horn which came up, and before which three fell; even that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spoke great things, whose appearance was greater than that of its fellows."
27. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 4.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.30. When he saw that the army was strong, he prayed, saying, "Blessed art thou, O Savior of Israel, who didst crush the attack of the mighty warrior by the hand of thy servant David, and didst give the camp of the Philistines into the hands of Jonathan, the son of Saul, and of the man who carried his armor.
28. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.24-1.29, 7.23, 13.14, 15.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.24. The prayer was to this effect:'O Lord, Lord God, Creator of all things, who art awe-inspiring and strong and just and merciful, who alone art King and art kind,' 1.25. who alone art bountiful, who alone art just and almighty and eternal, who dost rescue Israel from every evil, who didst choose the fathers and consecrate them,' 1.26. accept this sacrifice on behalf of all thy people Israel and preserve thy portion and make it holy. 1.27. Gather together our scattered people, set free those who are slaves among the Gentiles, look upon those who are rejected and despised, and let the Gentiles know that thou art our God.' 1.28. Afflict those who oppress and are insolent with pride. 1.29. Plant thy people in thy holy place, as Moses said.' 7.23. Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.' 13.14. So, committing the decision to the Creator of the world and exhorting his men to fight nobly to the death for the laws, temple, city, country, and commonwealth, he pitched his camp near Modein.' 15.1. When Nicanor heard that Judas and his men were in the region of Samaria, he made plans to attack them with complete safety on the day of rest.'
29. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.26, 1.27, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.17, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.30, 4.1, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 6.7, 6.9, 6.16, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.30, 6.31, 6.32, 6.33, 6.34, 6.35, 6.36, 6.37, 7.9, 7.18, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.19, 13.15, 13.16, 13.19, 14.20, 14.20-15.10, 14.21, 15.1, 15.3, 15.9, 15.10, 17.12, 17.19, 17.20, 17.21, 17.22, 17.23, 17.24, 17.25, 17.26, 17.27, 19.13, 19.14, 19.15, 19.16, 19.17, 19.20, 21.1, 21.2, 21.6, 21.11, 22.10, 22.11, 22.22, 22.23, 23.27, 24, 24.1, 24.2, 24.3, 24.4, 24.5, 24.6, 24.7, 24.8, 24.9, 24.10, 24.11, 24.12, 24.13, 24.14, 24.15, 24.16, 24.17, 24.18, 24.19, 24.20, 24.21, 24.22, 24.24, 24.25, 24.26, 24.27, 24.28, 24.29, 24.30, 24.31, 24.32, 24.33, 24.34, 25.1, 25.2, 25.3, 25.4, 25.5, 25.6, 25.7, 25.8, 25.9, 25.10, 25.11, 25.15, 25.21, 27.8, 27.9, 27.16, 27.17, 27.21, 27.25, 27.26, 27.27, 28.1, 28.2, 28.3, 28.4, 28.5, 28.11, 28.19, 28.20, 29.9, 29.10, 29.11, 29.12, 29.13, 29.15, 29.20, 30.13, 31.12, 31.12-32.13, 31.23, 31.24, 34.1, 34.2, 34.3, 34.4, 34.5, 34.6, 34.7, 34.8, 36.1, 36.2, 36.3, 36.4, 36.5, 36.6, 36.7, 36.8, 36.9, 36.10, 36.11, 36.12, 36.13, 36.14, 36.15, 36.16, 36.17, 36.18, 36.19, 36.20, 36.21, 36.22, 36.29, 37.21, 38.3, 38.9, 38.10, 38.11, 38.12, 38.13, 38.14, 38.15, 38.16, 38.17, 38.18, 38.19, 38.20, 38.21, 38.22, 38.23, 38.24, 38.24-39.11, 39.1, 39.20, 39.21, 39.22, 39.23, 39.24, 39.25, 39.26, 39.27, 39.28, 39.29, 39.30, 39.31, 39.32, 39.33, 39.34, 39.35, 40.17, 42.9, 42.10, 42.11, 42.12, 42.13, 42.14, 42.15-43.33, 44.1, 44.21, 45.5, 45.6, 45.7, 45.8, 46.1, 46.5, 47.5, 47.8, 47.20, 48.10, 48.15, 49.9, 50.1, 50.2, 50.3, 50.4, 50.5, 50.6, 50.7, 50.8, 50.9, 50.10, 50.11, 50.12, 50.13, 50.14, 50.15, 50.16, 50.17, 50.18, 50.19, 50.20, 50.21, 50.22, 50.23, 50.24, 51.14, 51.23, 51.24, 51.25, 51.26, 51.27, 51.28, 51.29, 51.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. All wisdom comes from the Lord and is with him for ever. 1.1. The fear of the Lord delights the heart,and gives gladness and joy and long life.
30. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 6.4, 7.24-7.27, 24.8-24.11, 24.21, 24.23, 34.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.4. Because as servants of his kingdom you did not rule rightly,nor keep the law,nor walk according to the purpose of God 7.24. For wisdom is more mobile than any motion;because of her pureness she pervades and penetrates all things. 7.25. For she is a breath of the power of God,and a pure emanation of the glory of the Almighty;therefore nothing defiled gains entrance into her. 7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 7.27. Though she is but one, she can do all things,and while remaining in herself, she renews all things;in every generation she passes into holy souls and makes them friends of God, and prophets;
31. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.2, 7.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.2. King of great power, Almighty God Most High, governing all creation with mercy 6.2. Even the king began to shudder bodily, and he forgot his sullen insolence. 7.9. For you should know that if we devise any evil against them or cause them any grief at all, we always shall have not man but the Ruler over every power, the Most High God, in everything and inescapably as an antagonist to avenge such acts. Farewell.
32. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.229, 3.584-3.590 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.229. With evils by a shameful covetousness 3.584. Shall come, but lamentable tribal blood 3.585. 585 Not easily exhausted, much renowned 3.586. Shall make thee, impudent one, desolate. 3.587. And thou thyself beside hot ashes stretched 3.588. As thou in thine own heart didst not foresee 3.589. Shalt slay thyself. And thou shalt not of men 3.590. 590 Be mother, but a nurse of beasts of prey.
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 95, 97, 147 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

147. For which reason I was induced a little while ago to praise the principles of those who said, "We are all one man's Sons." For even if we are not yet suitable to be called the sons of God, still we may deserve to be called the children of his eternal image, of his most sacred word; for the image of God is his most ancient word.
34. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 101-129, 13, 130-133, 14-100 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

100. for Moses," says the scripture, "having taken his own tent, fixed it outside the camp," and that too not near it, but a long way off, and at a great distance from the camp. And by these statements he tells us, figuratively, that the wise man is but a sojourner, and a person who leaves war and goes over to peace, and who passes from the mortal and disturbed camp to the undisturbed and peaceful and divine life of rational and happy souls. XXVI.
35. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 59-64, 58 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

58. And there were giants on the earth in those Days." Perhaps some one may here think, that the lawgiver is speaking enigmatically and alluding to the fables handed down by the poets about giants, though he is a man as far removed as possible from any invention of fables, and one who thinks fit only to walk in the paths of truth itself;
36. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 134-146, 25, 68-72, 128 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

128. These things, and more still are said in a philosophical spirit about the number seven, on account of which it has received the highest honours, in the highest nature. And it is honoured by those of the highest reputation among both Greeks and barbarians, who devote themselves to mathematical sciences. It was also greatly honoured by Moses, a man much attached to excellence of all sorts, who described its beauty on the most holy pillars of the law, and wrote it in the hearts of all those who were subject to him, commanding them at the end of each period of six days to keep the seventh holy; abstaining from all other works which are done in the seeking after and providing the means of life, devoting that day to the single object of philosophizing with a view to the improvement of their morals, and the examination of their consciences: for conscience being seated in the soul as a judge, is not afraid to reprove men, sometimes employing pretty vehement threats; at other times by milder admonitions, using threats in regard to matters where men appear to be disobedient, of deliberate purpose, and admonitions when their offences seem involuntary, through want of foresight, in order to prevent their hereafter offending in a similar manner. XLIV.
37. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 50 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

38. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 13, 168-169, 12 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

12. Therefore punishment which is the chastiser of impious men, will await Cain who has now departed from before the face of God, but Moses will suggest to those who know God, a most excellent suggestion, to love God and to obey him, and cleave to him, for he tells men that this is the life which in truth is tranquil and lasting, and he very emphatically invites us to the honour of the one being who is above all others to be beloved and honoured, bidding us cleave to him, recommending to us a continual and constant and inseparable harmony and union of friendship with him.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 44-46, 43 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

43. The race of these men is difficult to trace, since they show a life of plotting, and cunning, and wickedness, and dissoluteness, full of passion and wickednesses, as such a life must be. For all those whom God, since they pleased him well, has caused to quit their original abode, and has transformed from the race of perishable beings to that of immortals, are no longer found among the common multitude. XIII.
40. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.45, 2.127 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

2.45. for God gives to the soul a seal, a very beautiful gift, to show that he has invested with shape the essence of all things which was previously devoid of shape, and has stamped with a particular character that which previously had no character, and has endowed with form that which had previously no distinctive form, and having perfected the entire world, he has impressed upon it an image and appearance, namely, his own word. 2.127. And would you still sit down in your synagogues, collecting your ordinary assemblies, and reading your sacred volumes in security, and explaining whatever is not quite clear, and devoting all your time and leisure with long discussions to the philosophy of your ancestors?
41. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 16, 2, 25-26, 28, 30, 34, 64, 67, 75, 14 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

14. The Greeks celebrate Anaxagoras and Democritus, because they, being smitten with a desire for philosophy, allowed all their estates to be devoured by cattle. I myself admire the men who thus showed themselves superior to the attractions of money; but how much better were those who have not permitted cattle to devour their possessions, but have supplied the necessities of mankind, of their own relations and friends, and have made them rich though they were poor before? For surely that was inconsiderate conduct (that I may avoid saying that any action of men whom Greece has agreed to admire was a piece of insanity); but this is the act of sober men, and one which has been carefully elaborated by exceeding prudence.
42. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.211, 2.215-2.216 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

2.211. For this reason the all-great Moses thought fit that all who were enrolled in his sacred polity should follow the laws of nature and meet in a solemn assembly, passing the time in cheerful joy and relaxation, abstaining from all work, and from all arts which have a tendency to the production of anything; and from all business which is connected with the seeking of the means of living, and that they should keep a complete truce, abstaining from all laborious and fatiguing thought and care, and devoting their leisure, not as some persons scoffingly assert, to sports, or exhibitions of actors and dancers, for the sake of which those who run madly after theatrical amusements suffer disasters and even encounter miserable deaths, and for the sake of these the most domit and influential of the outward senses, sight and hearing, make the soul, which should be the heavenly nature, the slave of these senses. 2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
43. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.13, 2.96, 3.46, 3.96 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.13. Again, the secretions are seven--tears, mucus from the nose, saliva, the generative fluid, the two excremental discharges, and the sweat that proceeds from every part of the body. Moreover, in diseases the seventh day is the most critical period--and in women the catamenial purifications extend to the seventh day. V.
44. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.4, 1.8 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

45. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 50 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

50. And accordingly what is said afterwards is in strict agreement with what is said before, namely, that the world is the beautiful and properly prepared house of God, appreciable by the external senses; and that he himself made it and that it is not uncreated, as some persons have thought. And he uses the word "sanctuary," as meaning a splendour emitted from holy objects, an imitation of the archetypal model; since those things which are beautiful to the external senses are to the intellectual senses models of what is beautiful. The expression that "it was prepared by the hands of God," means that it was made by his worldcreating powers.
46. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14.260 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

47. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.33. Don't be deceived! "Evil companionships corrupt good morals.
48. New Testament, Acts, 8.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8.10. to whom they all listened, from the least to the greatest, saying, "This man is that great power of God.
49. New Testament, Colossians, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.8. Be careful that you don't let anyone rob you through his philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the elements of the world, and not after Christ.
50. New Testament, Galatians, 3.13-3.19, 3.25, 4.7, 4.21-4.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree 3.14. that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentilesthrough Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spiritthrough faith. 3.15. Brothers, I speak like men. Though it is only aman's covet, yet when it has been confirmed, no one makes it void,or adds to it. 3.16. Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and tohis seed. He doesn't say, "To seeds," as of many, but as of one, "Toyour seed," which is Christ. 3.17. Now I say this. A covetconfirmed beforehand by God in Christ, the law, which came four hundredand thirty years after, does not annul, so as to make the promise of noeffect. 3.18. For if the inheritance is of the law, it is no more ofpromise; but God has granted it to Abraham by promise. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 3.25. But now that faithis come, we are no longer under a tutor. 4.7. Soyou are no longer a bondservant, but a son; and if a son, then an heirof God through Christ. 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband. 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman. 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman.
51. New Testament, Romans, 1.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools
52. New Testament, John, 1.14, 6.35, 11.27, 12.34, 15.4-15.10, 20.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 6.35. Jesus said to them. "I am the bread of life. He who comes to me will not be hungry, and he who believes in me will never be thirsty. 11.27. She said to him, "Yes, Lord. I have come to believe that you are the Christ, God's Son, he who comes into the world. 12.34. The multitude answered him, "We have heard out of the law that the Christ remains forever. How do you say, 'The Son of Man must be lifted up?' Who is this Son of Man? 15.4. Remain in me, and I in you. As the branch can't bear fruit by itself, unless it remains in the vine, so neither can you, unless you remain in me. 15.5. I am the vine. You are the branches. He who remains in me, and I in him, the same bears much fruit, for apart from me you can do nothing. 15.6. If a man doesn't remain in me, he is thrown out as a branch, and is withered; and they gather them, throw them into the fire, and they are burned. 15.7. If you remain in me, and my words remain in you, you will ask whatever you desire, and it will be done to you. 15.8. In this is my Father glorified, that you bear much fruit; and so you will be my disciples. 15.9. Even as the Father has loved me, I also have loved you. Remain in my love. 15.10. If you keep my commandments, you will remain in my love; even as I have kept my Father's commandments, and remain in his love. 20.31. but these are written, that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name.
53. New Testament, Luke, 7.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.28. For I tell you, among those who are born of women there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptizer, yet he who is least in the Kingdom of God is greater than he.
54. New Testament, Mark, 8.11-8.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.11. The Pharisees came out and began to question him, seeking from him a sign from heaven, and testing him. 8.12. He sighed deeply in his spirit, and said, "Why does this generation seek a sign? Most assuredly I tell you, no sign will be given to this generation.
55. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 49 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

49. And he laid his hands on them and blessed them, saying: The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ shall be upon you for ever. And they said, Amen. And the woman besought him, saying: O apostle of the Most High, give me the seal, that that enemy return not again unto me. Then he caused her to come near unto him (Syr. went to a river which was close by there), and laid his hands upon her and sealed her in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost; and many others also were sealed with her. And the apostle bade his minister (deacon) to set forth a table; and he set forth a stool which they found there, and spread a linen cloth upon it and set on the bread of blessing; and the apostle stood by it and said: Jesu, that hast accounted us worthy to partake of the eucharist of thine holy body and blood, lo, we are bold to draw near unto thine eucharist and to call upon thine holy name: come thou and communicate unto us (Syr. adds more).
56. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.1-1.4, 1.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.1. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה פָּתַח (משלי ח, ל): וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים יוֹם יוֹם וגו', אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, וְאִית דַּאֲמַר אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא. אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר יא, יב): כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָֹּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת הַיֹּנֵק. אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ד, ה): הָאֱמֻנִים עֲלֵי תוֹלָע וגו'. אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (אסתר ב, ז): וַיְהִי אֹמֵן אֶת הֲדַסָּה. אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא, כְּמָא דְתֵימָא (נחום ג, ח): הֲתֵיטְבִי מִנֹּא אָמוֹן, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן הַאַתְּ טָבָא מֵאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָא רַבָּתָא דְּיָתְבָא בֵּין נַהֲרוֹתָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמוֹן, אֻמָּן. הַתּוֹרָה אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי הָיִיתִי כְּלִי אֻמְנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם בּוֹנֶה פָּלָטִין, אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת אֻמָּן, וְהָאֻמָּן אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא דִּפְתְּרָאוֹת וּפִנְקְסָאוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ, לָדַעַת הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה חֲדָרִים, הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה פִּשְׁפְּשִׁין. כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַבִּיט בַּתּוֹרָה וּבוֹרֵא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. 1.1. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה סָתוּם מִכָּל צְדָדָיו וּפָתוּחַ מִלְּפָנָיו, כָּךְ אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לוֹמַר, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּפָנִים, מַה לְּאָחוֹר, אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וּלְהַבָּא. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, לְמִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ וְחוֹקֵר, וְאִי אַתָּה חוֹקֵר לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פָּזִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בַּהֲדֵיהּ דְּבַר קַפָּרָא, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלָמָּה בְּב' שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְלָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁלֹא לִתֵּן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לָאֶפִּיקוֹרְסִין לוֹמַר הֵיאַךְ הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד שֶׁהוּא נִבְרָא בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה בְּב' אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עוֹקְצִין, אֶחָד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְאֶחָד מִלְּמַטָּה מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹמְרִים לַב' מִי בְּרָאֲךָ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה בְּעוּקְצוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאוֹמֵר זֶה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה בְּרָאָנִי. וּמַה שְּׁמוֹ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה לָהֶן בְּעוּקְצוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו, וְאוֹמֵר ה' שְׁמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר חֲנִינָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲחָא, עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דוֹרוֹת הָיְתָה הָאָלֶ"ף קוֹרֵא תִּגָּר לִפְנֵי כִסְאוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אוֹתִיּוֹת וְלֹא בָּרָאתָ עוֹלָמְךָ בִּי, אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אָרֶץ וגו', לְמָחָר אֲנִי בָּא לִתֵּן תּוֹרָה בְּסִינַי וְאֵינִי פּוֹתֵחַ תְּחִלָה אֶלָּא בָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אוֹמֵר לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אָלֶ"ף, שֶׁהוּא מַסְכִּים מֵאָלֶ"ף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, ח): דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר. 1.2. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי פָּתַח (תהלים קיא, ו): כֹּחַ מַעֲשָׂיו הִגִּיד לְעַמּוֹ לָתֵת לָהֶם נַחֲלַת גּוֹיִם, מַה טַּעַם גִּלָּה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל מַה שֶּׁנִּבְרָא בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וּמַה שֶּׁנִּבְרָא בַּיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי, מִפְּנֵי עוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים וּמַזָּלוֹת, שֶׁלֹא יִהְיוּ מוֹנִין אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאוֹמְרִין לָהֶם הֲלֹא אֻמָּה שֶׁל בְּזוּזִים אַתֶּם, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל מְשִׁיבִין אוֹתָן וְאוֹמְרִין לָהֶם, וְאַתֶּם הֲלֹא בְּזוּזָה הִיא בְּיֶדְכֶם, הֲלֹא (דברים ב, כג): כַּפְתֹּרִים הַיֹּצְאִים מִכַּפְתֹּר הִשְׁמִידֻם וַיֵּשְׁבוּ תַחְתָּם, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, כְּשֶׁרָצָה נְתָנָהּ לָכֶם, וּכְשֶׁרָצָה נְטָלָהּ מִכֶּם וּנְתָנָהּ לָנוּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב: לָתֵת לָהֶם נַחֲלַת גּוֹיִם וגו', הִגִּיד לָהֶם אֶת כָּל הַדּוֹרוֹת. 1.3. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא פָּתַח (תהלים פו, י): כִּי גָדוֹל אַתָּה וְעֹשֵׂה נִפְלָאוֹת, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם הַנּוֹד הַזֶּה אִם יִהְיֶה בּוֹ נֶקֶב כְּחֹד שֶׁל מַחַט, כָּל רוּחוֹ יוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ, וְהָאָדָם עָשׂוּי מְחִלִּים מְחִלִּים, נְקָבִים נְקָבִים, וְאֵין רוּחוֹ יוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ, מִי יַעֲשֶׂה כֵן (תהלים פו, י): אַתָּה אֱלֹהִים לְבַדֶּךָ. אֵימָתַי נִבְרְאוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר בַּשֵּׁנִי נִבְרְאוּ הַמַּלְאָכִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (תהלים קד, ג): הַמְקָרֶה בַמַּיִם עֲלִיּוֹתָיו וגו', וּכְתִיב (תהלים קד, ד): עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמַר בַּחֲמִישִׁי נִבְרְאוּ מַלְאָכִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית א, כ): וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל הָאָרֶץ וגו', וּכְתִיב (ישעיה ו, ב): וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְעוֹפֵף, רַבִּי לוּלְיָנָא בַּר טַבְרִין אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק בֵּין עַל דַּעְתֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֵּין עַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, הַכֹּל מוֹדִים שֶׁלֹא נִבְרָא בְּיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן כְּלוּם, שֶׁלֹא יֹאמְרוּ מִיכָאֵל הָיָה מוֹתֵחַ בִּדְרוֹמוֹ שֶׁל רָקִיעַ, וְגַבְרִיאֵל בִּצְפוֹנוֹ, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְמַדֵּד בְּאֶמְצָעוֹ, אֶלָּא (ישעיה מד, כד): אָנֹכִי ה' עֹשֶׂה כֹּל נֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם לְבַדִּי וגו' מֵאִתִּי, מִי אִתִּי כְּתִיב, מִי הָיָה שֻׁתָּף עִמִּי בִּבְרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם. דָּבָר אַחֵר כִּי גָדוֹל אַתָּה וְעֹשֵׂה נִפְלָאוֹת, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם מִתְקַלֵּס בַּמְּדִינָה, וּגְדוֹלֵי הַמְּדִינָה מִתְקַלְּסִין עִמּוֹ, שֶׁנּוֹשְׂאִין עִמּוֹ בְּמַשָֹּׂאוֹ, אֲבָל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֵינוֹ כֵן, אֶלָּא הוּא לְבַדּוֹ בָּרָא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, הוּא לְבַדּוֹ מִתְקַלֵּס בָּעוֹלָם, הוּא לְבַדּוֹ מִתְהַדֵּר בְּעוֹלָמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא, כִּי גָדוֹל אַתָּה וְעֹשֵׂה נִפְלָאוֹת, לָמָּה, כִּי אַתָּה אֱלֹהִים לְבַדֶּךָ, אַתָּה לְבַדְךָ בָּרָאתָ אֶת הָעוֹלָם. 1.4. בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים קָדְמוּ לִבְרִיאַת הָעוֹלָם, יֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶן שֶׁעָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת. הַתּוֹרָה וְהַכִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, נִבְרְאוּ. תּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד מִנַּיִן, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז וגו'. הָאָבוֹת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּשְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, עָלוּ בַּמַּחֲשָׁבָה לְהִבָּרְאוֹת, הָאָבוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (הושע ט, י): כַּעֲנָבִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וגו'. יִשְׂרָאֵל מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עד, ב): זְכֹר עֲדָתְךָ קָנִיתָ קֶדֶם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן וגו'. שְׁמוֹ שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים עב, יז): יְהִי שְׁמוֹ לְעוֹלָם וגו'. רַבִּי אַהֲבָה בְּרַבִּי זְעִירָא אָמַר אַף הַתְּשׁוּבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צ, ב): בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים יֻלָּדוּ, וְאוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא וגו', אֲבָל אֵינִי יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה מֵהֶם קֹדֶם, אִם הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד וְאִם כִּסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד קֹדֶם לַתּוֹרָה, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא הַתּוֹרָה קָדְמָה לְכִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ וגו', קוֹדֵם לְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (תהלים צג, ב): נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז. רַבִּי הוּנָא וְרַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמְרוּ, מַחְשַׁבְתָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל קָדְמָה לְכָל דָּבָר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לְמַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת, וְלֹא הָיָה לוֹ מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן, פַּעַם אַחַת נִמְצָא הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹבֵר בַּשּׁוּק, אָמַר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, וְהָיוּ הַכֹּל אוֹמְרִין, בֵּן אֵין לוֹ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין זוֹ לִבְנִי, חָזְרוּ וְאָמְרוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ אַסְטְרוֹלוֹגוּס גָּדוֹל הוּא, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַמֶּלֶךְ שֶׁהוּא עָתִיד לְהַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנָּה בֵּן לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר טְלוּ מִילָנִין וְקַלְמִין לִבְנִי. כָּךְ אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁצָּפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שֶׁאַחַר עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דּוֹרוֹת יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲתִידִין לְקַבֵּל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, לֹא הָיָה כּוֹתֵב בַּתּוֹרָה צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, דַּבֵּר אֶל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי בַּנָאי, הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אֶרֶץ וגו'. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה אָמַר בִּזְכוּת משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כא): וַיַּרְא רֵאשִׁית לוֹ. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב מַתְנָה אָמַר, בִּזְכוּת שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, בִּזְכוּת חַלָּה, וּבִזְכוּת מַעַשְׂרוֹת, וּבִזְכוּת בִּכּוּרִים, וּמַה טַּעַם, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָא חַלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טו, כ): רֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם, אֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא מַעַשְׂרוֹת, הֵיךְ דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (דברים יח, ד): רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ, וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא בִּכּוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג, יט): רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ וגו'. 1.9. פִּילוֹסוֹפִי אֶחָד שָׁאַל אֶת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, אֲמַר לֵיהּ צַיָּר גָּדוֹל הוּא אֱלֹהֵיכֶם, אֶלָּא שֶׁמָּצָא סַמְּמָנִים טוֹבִים שֶׁסִּיְּעוּ אוֹתוֹ, תֹּהוּ, וָבֹהוּ, וְחשֶׁךְ, וְרוּחַ, וּמַיִם, וּתְהוֹמוֹת. אֲמַר לֵיהּ תִּפַּח רוּחֵיהּ דְּהַהוּא גַּבְרָא, כּוּלְּהוֹן כְּתִיב בָּהֶן בְּרִיאָה, תֹּהוּ וָבֹהוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מה, ז): עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם וּבוֹרֵא רָע. חשֶׁךְ (ישעיה מה, ז): יוֹצֵר אוֹר וגו', מַיִם (תהלים קמח, ד): הַלְּלוּהוּ שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם וְהַמַּיִם, לָמָּה, שֶׁצִּוָּה וְנִבְרָאוּ. רוּחַ (עמוס ד, יג): כִּי הִנֵּה יוֹצֵר הָרִים וּבֹרֵא רוּחַ. תְּהוֹמוֹת (משלי ח, כד): בְּאֵין תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי. 1.1. The great Rabbi Hoshaya opened [with the verse (Mishlei 8:30),] \"I [the Torah] was an amon to Him and I was a plaything to Him every day.\" Amon means \"pedagogue\" (i.e. ny). Amon means \"covered.\" Amon means \"hidden.\" And there is one who says amon means \"great.\" Amon means \"ny,\" as in (Bamidbar 11:12) “As a ny (omein) carries the suckling child.\" Amon means \"covered,\" as in (Eichah 4:5) \"Those who were covered (emunim) in scarlet have embraced refuse heaps.\" Amon means \"hidden,\" as in (Esther 2:7) \"He hid away (omein) Hadassah.\" Amon means \"great,\" as in (Nahum 3:8) \"Are you better than No-amon [which dwells in the rivers]?\" which the Targum renders as, \"Are you better than Alexandria the Great (amon), which dwells between the rivers?\" Alternatively, amon means \"artisan.\" The Torah is saying, \"I was the artisan's tool of Hashem.\" In the way of the world, a king of flesh and blood who builds a castle does not do so from his own knowledge, but rather from the knowledge of an architect, and the architect does not build it from his own knowledge, but rather he has scrolls and books in order to know how to make rooms and doorways. So too Hashem gazed into the Torah and created the world. Similarly the Torah says, \"Through the reishis Hashem created [the heavens and the earth],\" and reishis means Torah, as in \"Hashem made me [the Torah] the beginning (reishis) of His way\" (Mishlei 8:22)." 1.2. Rabbi Yehoshua of Sichnin in the name of Rabbi Levi opened [with the verse (Tehillim 111:6),] \"The power of His works he told to His people [Yisrael].\" Why did Hashem reveal to Yisrael that which was created on the first day, and the second day [and so forth]? Because of the idolaters - so that they will not embitter Yisrael and say to them, \"Are you not a nation of thieves?\" And Yisrael would reply to them, saying, \"Aren't your own lands stolen? Didn't (Devarim 2:23) 'The Caphtorim emerge from Caphtor and destroy [the Aviyim] and settle in their stead?' [Furthermore,] the entire world belongs to Hashem; thus, when it pleased Him, He gave it to you, and when it pleased Him, He took it from you and gave it to us.\" As it is written (Tehillim 111:6), \"[In order] to give them an inheritance of the nations,\" He told [Yisrael] all of the generations." 1.3. \"In the beginning God created...\" Rabbi Tanchuma opened [with the verse (Psalms 86:10),] \"For You are great, and you perform wonders....\" Rabbi Tanchum said: with a pouch, if you puncture a hole in its side with a pin, all its air comes out of it. Whereas the person is made with all kinds of hollows and holes, and his air does not leave his body. Who could make such a thing? \"....You, God, alone.\"[the second half of the verse] When were the angels created? Rabbi Yocha said: the angels were created on the second day. Just as it says (in Psalms 104:4), \"He sets the rafters of the upper chambers in the water...\" [creating the sky in the upper waters which God does on the second day] and then it is written, \"He makes the winds his messengers (or, 'his angels').\" Rabbi Chanina said: the angels were created on the fifth day, where it is written \"and let the bird fly (ye-ofef) across the earth,\" and (in Isaiah 6:2) it is written, \"and with two [wings] he (the Seraphic angel) would fly (ye-ofef).\" Rabbi Luliana bar Tavrin said in the name of Rabbi Yitzchak: whether according to the opinion of Rabbi Chanina, or whether according to the opinion of Rabbi Yocha, all agree that they were not created on the first day - so that they could not say that the angl Michael stretched out the south end of the sky and Gabriel the north end, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, measured out the middle. Rather, (as it says in Isaiah 44:24), \"I am God who makes all, and who alone stretches out the heavens...with only Myself (me-iti)\" 'Mi iti' (who, with me) is written, meaning, \"WHO partnered WITH ME in the creation of the world?!?\" Another interpretation: \"For You are great and You do wonders...\" It is the way of the world that a king of flesh and blood is praised in the land, and the great men of the land are praised with him, for they carry his burden with him. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like this. Rather, He alone created the world. He alone is praised in the world. He alone is glorified in his world. Rabbi Tanchuma said: \"For you are great and You do wonders...\" Why? Because, \"...You, God, alone.\" You, alone, created the world." 1.4. \"In the beginning of God's creating...\" - Six things preceded the creation of the world; some of them were created and some of them were decided to be created. The Torah and the Throne of Glory were created. How do we know the Torah was? As it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way.\" How do we know the Throne of Glory was? As it says (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old etc.\" The Patriarchs, Israel, the Temple, and the name of the Messiah were decided to be created. How do we know the Patriarchs were? As it says (Hosea 9:10): \"Like grapes in the wilderness etc.\" How do we know Israel was? As it says (Psalms 74:2): \"Remember your congregation, whom you purchased from old.\" How do we know the Temple was? As it says (Jeremiah 17:12): \"Your throne of glory, on high from the beginning etc.\" How do we know the name of the Messiah was? As it says (Psalms 72:17): \"May his name exist forever etc. [his name shall be Yinnon as long as the sun].\" Rabbi Ahavah said in the name of Rabbi Ze'ira: Even repentance was, as it says (Psalms 90:2): \"Before the mountains were birthed,\" and at the same time (Psalms 90:3), \"You turned man to contrition etc.\" However, I do not know which was first--if the Torah preceded the Throne of Glory or the Throne of Glory preceded the Torah. Rabbi Abba Bar Cahana said: The Torah preceded the Throne of Glory, as it says (Proverbs 8:22): \"God made me at the beginning of his way, the first of his works of old.\" This is before that of which it is written (Psalms 93:2): \"Your throne is established as of old.\" Rabbi Hunna and Rabbi Yirmiyah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel the son of Rabbi Yitzchak said: The thought of Israel was before everything. This is like a king who was married to a woman and did not have a son. One time the king was in the market and said: \"Take this ink and pen for my son.\" They said: \"He does not have a son.\" He replied: \"Take them; the king must expect a son, because otherwise he would not command that the ink and pen be taken.\" Similarly, if there was no expectation of Israel receiving it after 26 generations, God would not have written in the Torah: \"Command the children of Israel\" or \"Speak to the children of Israel.\" Rabbi Bannai said: The world and its contents were only created in the merit of the Torah, as it says (Proverbs 3:19): \"God founded the world with wisdom etc.\" Rabbi Berachiyah said: In the merit of Moses, as it says (Deuteronomy 33:21): \"He saw a first part for himself.\" Rabbi Hunna said in the name of Rabbi Matanah: The world was created in the merit of three things--challah, tithes, and first fruits. The verse \"In the beginning God created\" refers to challah, as it says (Numbers 15:20): \"The beginning of your doughs.\" It also refers to tithes, as it says (Deuteronomy 18:4): \"The beginning of your grains.\" It also refers to first fruits, as it says (Exodus 23:19): \"The beginning of the fruits of the land.\"" 1.9. A philosopher once asked Rabbah Gamliel and said to him, ''Your God is only a great artist because he found great materials that helped him: tohu and vohu, darkness, spirit, water, and the depths.\" Rabbi Gamliel responded to him: \"Your spirit should blow! Regarding all of them, the term 'creation' is written: tohu and vohu, as it says (Isaiah 45:7), 'He makes peace and creates evil'; darkness, 'He fashions light and creates darkness'; water (Tehillim 148:5), 'Praise the heavens and the waters' - why? - for 'He commanded and they were created'; spirit (Amos 4:13), 'For behold he fashions mountains and creates spirit'; the depths (Mishlei 8:24), 'When there were no depths, I was created.'\""
57. Origen, On First Principles, 1.2.3, 1.2.6 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2.3. Now, in the same way in which we have understood that Wisdom was the beginning of the ways of God, and is said to be created, forming beforehand and containing within herself the species and beginnings of all creatures, must we understand her to be the Word of God, because of her disclosing to all other beings, i.e., to universal creation, the nature of the mysteries and secrets which are contained within the divine wisdom; and on this account she is called the Word, because she is, as it were, the interpreter of the secrets of the mind. And therefore that language which is found in the Acts of Paul, where it is said that here is the Word a living being, appears to me to be rightly used. John, however, with more sublimity and propriety, says in the beginning of his Gospel, when defining God by a special definition to be the Word, And God was the Word, and this was in the beginning with God. Let him, then, who assigns a beginning to the Word or Wisdom of God, take care that he be not guilty of impiety against the unbegotten Father Himself, seeing he denies that He had always been a Father, and had generated the Word, and had possessed wisdom in all preceding periods, whether they be called times or ages, or anything else that can be so entitled. 1.2.6. Let us now see how we are to understand the expression invisible image, that we may in this way perceive how God is rightly called the Father of His Son; and let us, in the first place, draw our conclusions from what are customarily called images among men. That is sometimes called an image which is painted or sculptured on some material substance, such as wood or stone; and sometimes a child is called the image of his parent, when the features of the child in no respect belie their resemblance to the father. I think, therefore, that that man who was formed after the image and likeness of God may be fittingly compared to the first illustration. Respecting him, however, we shall see more precisely, God willing, when we come to expound the passage in Genesis. But the image of the Son of God, of whom we are now speaking, may be compared to the second of the above examples, even in respect of this, that He is the invisible image of the invisible God, in the same manner as we say, according to the sacred history, that the image of Adam is his son Seth. The words are, And Adam begot Seth in his own likeness, and after his own image. Now this image contains the unity of nature and substance belonging to Father and Son. For if the Son do, in like manner, all those things which the Father does, then, in virtue of the Son doing all things like the Father, is the image of the Father formed in the Son, who is born of Him, like an act of His will proceeding from the mind. And I am therefore of opinion that the will of the Father ought alone to be sufficient for the existence of that which He wishes to exist. For in the exercise of His will He employs no other way than that which is made known by the counsel of His will. And thus also the existence of the Son is generated by Him. For this point must above all others be maintained by those who allow nothing to be unbegotten, i.e., unborn, save God the Father only. And we must be careful not to fall into the absurdities of those who picture to themselves certain emanations, so as to divide the divine nature into parts, and who divide God the Father as far as they can, since even to entertain the remotest suspicion of such a thing regarding an incorporeal being is not only the height of impiety, but a mark of the greatest folly, it being most remote from any intelligent conception that there should be any physical division of any incorporeal nature. Rather, therefore, as an act of the will proceeds from the understanding, and neither cuts off any part nor is separated or divided from it, so after some such fashion is the Father to be supposed as having begotten the Son, His own image; namely, so that, as He is Himself invisible by nature, He also begot an image that was invisible. For the Son is the Word, and therefore we are not to understand that anything in Him is cognisable by the senses. He is wisdom, and in wisdom there can be no suspicion of anything corporeal. He is the true light, which enlightens every man that comes into this world; but He has nothing in common with the light of this sun. Our Saviour, therefore, is the image of the invisible God, inasmuch as compared with the Father Himself He is the truth: and as compared with us, to whom He reveals the Father, He is the image by which we come to the knowledge of the Father, whom no one knows save the Son, and he to whom the Son is pleased to reveal Him. And the method of revealing Him is through the understanding. For He by whom the Son Himself is understood, understands, as a consequence, the Father also, according to His own words: He that has seen Me, has seen the Father also.
58. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 31, 137

137. did not themselves create the substance of the thing, and so it is a vain and foolish thing for people to make gods of men like themselves. For in our times there are many who are much more inventive and much more learned than the men of former days who have been deified, and yet they would never come to worship them. The makers and authors of these myths think that they are
59. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 5.25, 11.5

5.25. Therefore we do not eat defiling food; for since we believe that the law was established by God, we know that in the nature of things the Creator of the world in giving us the law has shown sympathy toward us. 11.5. Is it because we revere the Creator of all things and live according to his virtuous law?


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aberkios (bishop) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
abigail Gera (2014), Judith, 408
abraham Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 203
acrostic,nonalphabetic Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 179
aelius aristides Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
age/era,present Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
agency,all things McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 80
alexandria Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
allegoresis,symbolism and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 144
allegory Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 224
alliteration Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 32
almsgiving Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 112
altars Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
angels,instruction from Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
animal imagery Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 33
apocalypse of baruch Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 127
apocalyptic literature Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
apophatic approach Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 224
apostles,and liturgies Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
aratus Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
assonance Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 32
banquets Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 112, 179
bauckmann,e. g. Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 96
ben sira Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12; Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 210; Gera (2014), Judith, 408; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198; Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 66
benedictions/blessings Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 66
bethulia,people of Gera (2014), Judith, 408
bipartite (jewish) bible Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 210
bishops,epitaph of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
blenkinsopp,joseph Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 96, 126
blessings Gera (2014), Judith, 408
body of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
book access Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12
bread,as food Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
bread,as species of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
chaeremon the stoic,on the egyptian priests Taylor and Hay (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 183
classical world Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 66
cloud man,merkavah imagery related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 285
conzelmann,h. Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 126
covenant,book of the Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
covenant,mosaic Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 203
covenant McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 80
creation Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 183, 184; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 23; Gera (2014), Judith, 408
cup Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
david Gera (2014), Judith, 408
death,of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
decalogue Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 33
deception/deceit Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
dedications,temple Gera (2014), Judith, 408
delphi Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
didactic poem Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16
dissimulation,didactic Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 235
dissimulation,socratic Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 235
divine essence,divine immanence and transcendence related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 285
divine essence,sefirot related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 224
divine essence Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 285
divine essence and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 285
divine logos Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 149, 224
divine speech,enigmatic Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 235
dreams/dream visions Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
dreams Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
earth,edges of Gera (2014), Judith, 408
epitaphs Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
eschatology Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 409
esoteric and exoteric wisdom Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 127
ethnicity (common features),ancestry van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 84
ethnicity (common features),homeland van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 84
ethnicity (common features),religion van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 84
eucharist,elements Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
eucharist,eucharistic,community practice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
eucharist,space Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
evil Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 112, 179
exercises,student Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 210
ezra Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
faith,in early christian literature Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
fear of god Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 112; Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
fire Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
fish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
food,earthly Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
food,spiritual Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
fulfilment Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 203
giving Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 112
glory McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 80
god,celebrated Gera (2014), Judith, 408
god,most high Gera (2014), Judith, 408; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
god Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16, 112
good Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 23, 112
grandson of ben sira Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 32, 33
greek logos,jewish wisdom and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 142, 144, 149
health Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 66
heart Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 112
heavens,and earth Gera (2014), Judith, 408
hellenism/hellenistic period Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 409
hellenistic Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12
hellenistic kings/rulers,antiochus iii the great Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 409
high priest Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 144
historical setting Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16
holophernes,death and decapitation Gera (2014), Judith, 408
homer Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12
hymn Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 66
hymn of praise Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16, 179
idumeans van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 84
image,of god McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 80
incarnation Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
inspiration Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
instruction/teaching,by angels Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
israel/israelite Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16, 112
israelites,celebrate Gera (2014), Judith, 408
israelites,prayers and blessings Gera (2014), Judith, 408
jacob Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 66
jerusalem,earthly Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
jerusalem,heavenly Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
jerusalem,temple Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
jerusalem Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16
jerusalem temple Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
jesus,son of god as Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 224
jesus,son of man as Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 224
jesus Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 33
jew/jewish,literature/ authors Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
jewish scribe x Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12
jewish wisdom,greek logos and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 142, 144, 149
johannine logos,firstborn (or son) image of Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 224
john,of jesus Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
kafr kanna,church Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
knowledge,of god's wisdom/secrets/glory" Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
knowledge,spiritgiven' "151.0_198.0@law,god's" Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
language and style,book of judith,septuagint influence Gera (2014), Judith, 408
last supper Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
lateran basilica,rome Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
latin Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
law,torah' "151.0_198.0@memory,ezra's" Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
law Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 203
law of moses/torah McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 80
law of moses Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 112
life Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 179
light McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 80
literature Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
loans Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 179
logos,in wisdom of solomon' McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 80
logos Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 96, 127
logos of god,man Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 144
logos of god Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 144
magdala Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
manuscripts,torah scrolls Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
marble Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
marböck,j. Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 127
maundy thursday Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
meal,eucharistic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
meal,jewish Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
melchizedek Gera (2014), Judith, 408
merkavah imagery,devekut to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 285
mesopotamian literature Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 66
moses Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 112; Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
mystery/mysteries Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
nabateans van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 84
nabratein Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
nous Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 285
orpheus Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
orthodox judaism Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 66
parallelism Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 32
particularism Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 127
passover Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
paul,on the law and virtue Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 96
paul,pauline corpus Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 203
paul Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 96
personified wisdom,teacher (or sage) images of Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 66
peter (apostle),table of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
philo judaeus Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
philosophy,and ancient judaism Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
philosophy Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 28
phoenicians van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 84
plato,on positive laws need for a savior Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 96
prayer Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16, 112
priest Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12
priesthood Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16
private (collection,property,goods) Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12
promise Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 203
prophecy Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 144
prophets,as category of books Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 210
pseudo-justinus Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
pseudo-philo Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
ptolemy Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12
purity Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
quarreling Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 179
qumran Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 66
repentance/penitence Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 66
reproof Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 23
rhetoric,critique of Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 28
rhetorical devices Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 28
rhyme Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 32
righteousness Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 112
sabbath Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 183, 184
sacrifice,animal Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
sacrifices/cult Reif (2006), Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy, 66
saint-victor,marseille Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
salvation Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 203
santa pudenziana,rome Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
schnabel,eckhard,j. Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 96, 127
school Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16
schools Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12
schüssler fiorenza,elisabeth Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 126
scribal education Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12
second god Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 149
secrets/confidences,keeping/betraying Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 23
sefirot,divine essence related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 224
sharing (goods in common) Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 112
shechem van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 84
simeon ii (high priest) Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16
similitudes of enoch,righteousness in Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 226
similitudes of enoch,son of man title Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 226
similitudes of enoch Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 226
sirach,book of Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
sirach,on esoteric and exoteric wisdom Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 126, 127
sirach,on universalism and particularism Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 126, 127
sirach Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 96
slander Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 23
social relationships Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 179
social status Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 28
son of god,jesus as Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 224
son of man,in the similitudes of enoch Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 226
son of man Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 224
sophia Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 96
speech Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 23
spirit,characterizations as,breath (life itself) Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,characterizations as,fire Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,effects of,ecstasy/frenzy Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,effects of,knowledge/understanding Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,effects of,memory,loss of Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,effects of,memory,retained Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,effects of,mental control,loss of Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,effects of,mind enlightened Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,effects of,wisdom Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,effects of,writing,inspired Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,holy Vanhoye, Moore, Ounsworth (2018), A Perfect Priest: Studies in the Letter to the Hebrews. 203
spirit,modes of presence,indwelling Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,modes of presence,possessing Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,modes of presence,poured out upon Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
spirit,modes of presence,receiving of Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 198
stoic logos,nomos related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 142
stoic logos Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 149
stoics Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 127
suffering,of christ Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
symbolism,allegory and Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 144
synagogue (συναγωγή) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
table (τράπεζα) Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
teacher,images (or sage-) of personified wisdom related to Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 66
teacher Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16
teachers Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12
temple van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 84
temple (jerusalem) Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16
torah,and wisdom Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
torah Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 183; van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 84
torah focus Carr (2004), Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature, 210
torah niches Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
tradition Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
truth Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
two spirits treatise Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
universalism Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 127
uriel Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 246
uzziah,admires/blesses judith Gera (2014), Judith, 408
virtue Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 179
visio dei Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 285
visions,skepticism toward Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
visions Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
water,for the eucharist Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401
ways/paths,of wrongdoing/iniquity Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
wife Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 33
wine Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 401; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 112, 179
wisdom,and/or correlation with torah and natural order Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 96
wisdom,and torah Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
wisdom,belonging to a collective Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
wisdom,esoteric and exoteric Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 126, 127
wisdom,habitation in the temple Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
wisdom,in sirach Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 96, 126, 127; Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
wisdom,personified Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
wisdom,perversion of by sinners Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
wisdom/wise Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 16, 23, 112, 179
wisdom Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 12; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
wisdom of solomon,book of Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
wisdom of solomon Hayes (2015), What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives, 96
wisdom tradition,jewish Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 28
withdrawal/rejection of/without Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255
word-pairs Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 32
zeus Gera (2014), Judith, 408; Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199
zion Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 255