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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



673
Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 22.11-22.12


nanWeep for the dead, for he lacks the light;and weep for the fool, for he lacks intelligence;weep less bitterly for the dead, for he has attained rest;but the life of the fool is worse than death.


nanA man who swears many oaths will be filled with iniquity,and the scourge will not leave his house;if he offends, his sin remains on him,and if he disregards it, he sins doubly;if he has sworn needlessly, he will not be justified,for his house will be filled with calamities.


nanMourning for the dead lasts seven days,but for a fool or an ungodly man it lasts all his life.


nanThere is an utterance which is comparable to death;may it never be found in the inheritance of Jacob!For all these errors will be far from the godly,and they will not wallow in sins.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 19.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.1. וַיִּרְגַּז הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּעַל עַל־עֲלִיַּת הַשַּׁעַר וַיֵּבְךְּ וְכֹה אָמַר בְּלֶכְתּוֹ בְּנִי אַבְשָׁלוֹם בְּנִי בְנִי אַבְשָׁלוֹם מִי־יִתֵּן מוּתִי אֲנִי תַחְתֶּיךָ אַבְשָׁלוֹם בְּנִי בְנִי׃ 19.1. וַיְהִי כָל־הָעָם נָדוֹן בְּכָל־שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר הַמֶּלֶךְ הִצִּילָנוּ מִכַּף אֹיְבֵינוּ וְהוּא מִלְּטָנוּ מִכַּף פְּלִשְׁתִּים וְעַתָּה בָּרַח מִן־הָאָרֶץ מֵעַל אַבְשָׁלוֹם׃ 19.1. And the king was much moved, and went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept: and as he went, thus he said, O my son Avshalom, my son, my son Avshalom! would I had died instead of thee, O Avshalom, my son, my son!"
2. Homer, Iliad, 18.22-18.31 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

18.22. /Low lies Patroclus, and around his corpse are they fighting—his naked corpse; but his armour is held by Hector of the flashing helm. 18.23. /Low lies Patroclus, and around his corpse are they fighting—his naked corpse; but his armour is held by Hector of the flashing helm. 18.24. /Low lies Patroclus, and around his corpse are they fighting—his naked corpse; but his armour is held by Hector of the flashing helm. So spake he, and a black cloud of grief enwrapped Achilles, and with both his hands he took the dark dust 18.25. /and strewed it over his head and defiled his fair face, and on his fragrant tunic the black ashes fell. And himself in the dust lay outstretched, mighty in his mightiness, and with his own hands he tore and marred his hair. And the handmaidens, that Achilles and Patroclus had got them as booty, shrieked aloud in anguish of heart 18.26. /and strewed it over his head and defiled his fair face, and on his fragrant tunic the black ashes fell. And himself in the dust lay outstretched, mighty in his mightiness, and with his own hands he tore and marred his hair. And the handmaidens, that Achilles and Patroclus had got them as booty, shrieked aloud in anguish of heart 18.27. /and strewed it over his head and defiled his fair face, and on his fragrant tunic the black ashes fell. And himself in the dust lay outstretched, mighty in his mightiness, and with his own hands he tore and marred his hair. And the handmaidens, that Achilles and Patroclus had got them as booty, shrieked aloud in anguish of heart 18.28. /and strewed it over his head and defiled his fair face, and on his fragrant tunic the black ashes fell. And himself in the dust lay outstretched, mighty in his mightiness, and with his own hands he tore and marred his hair. And the handmaidens, that Achilles and Patroclus had got them as booty, shrieked aloud in anguish of heart 18.29. /and strewed it over his head and defiled his fair face, and on his fragrant tunic the black ashes fell. And himself in the dust lay outstretched, mighty in his mightiness, and with his own hands he tore and marred his hair. And the handmaidens, that Achilles and Patroclus had got them as booty, shrieked aloud in anguish of heart 18.30. /and ran forth around wise-hearted Achilles, and all beat their breasts with their hands, and the knees of each one were loosed be-neath her. And over against them Antilochus wailed and shed tears, holding the hands of Achilles, that in his noble heart was moaning mightily; for he feared lest he should cut his throat asunder with the knife. 18.31. /and ran forth around wise-hearted Achilles, and all beat their breasts with their hands, and the knees of each one were loosed be-neath her. And over against them Antilochus wailed and shed tears, holding the hands of Achilles, that in his noble heart was moaning mightily; for he feared lest he should cut his throat asunder with the knife.
3. Anon., Jubilees, 22.10-22.11, 22.27, 30.19, 31.13, 31.32 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

22.10. behold, I am one hundred three score and fifteen years, an old man and full of days, and all my days have been unto me peace. 22.11. The sword of the adversary hath not overcome me in all that Thou hast given me and my children all the days of my life until this day. 22.27. Be thou ware, my son Jacob, of taking a wife from any seed of the daughters of Canaan; For all his seed is to be rooted out of the earth. 30.19. and how the sons of Jacob spake, saying: "We shall not give our daughter to a man who is uncircumcised; 31.13. and he took the hand of his father, and stooping down he kissed him, and Isaac clung to the neck of Jacob his son, and wept upon his neck. 31.32. And when thou sittest on the throne of the honour of thy righteousness, There will be great peace for all the seed of the sons of the beloved
4. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Qpsa, 28.7-28.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

5. Dead Sea Scrolls, Compositions 11Q5, 28.7-28.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 3.1-3.15, 15.9-15.10, 17.19-17.27, 21.1-21.2, 21.6, 22.10, 22.12, 22.27, 24.1-24.30, 28.2-28.5, 30.19, 31.32, 36.1, 37.21, 38.9-38.24, 39.20-39.35, 45.5-45.8, 50.22-50.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. Listen to me your father, O children;and act accordingly, that you may be kept in safety. 3.1. Do not glorify yourself by dishonoring your father,for your fathers dishonor is no glory to you. 3.2. For the Lord honored the father above the children,and he confirmed the right of the mother over her sons. 3.2. For great is the might of the Lord;he is glorified by the humble. 3.3. Whoever honors his father atones for sins 3.3. Water extinguishes a blazing fire:so almsgiving atones for sin. 3.4. and whoever glorifies his mother is like one who lays up treasure. 3.5. Whoever honors his father will be gladdened by his own children,and when he prays he will be heard. 3.6. Whoever glorifies his father will have long life,and whoever obeys the Lord will refresh his mother; 3.7. he will serve his parents as his masters. 3.8. Honor your father by word and deed,that a blessing from him may come upon you. 3.9. For a fathers blessing strengthens the houses of the children,but a mothers curse uproots their foundations. 3.11. For a mans glory comes from honoring his father,and it is a disgrace for children not to respect their mother. 3.12. O son, help your father in his old age,and do not grieve him as long as he lives; 3.13. even if he is lacking in understanding, show forbearance;in all your strength do not despise him. 3.14. For kindness to a father will not be forgotten,and against your sins it will be credited to you; 3.15. in the day of your affliction it will be remembered in your favor;as frost in fair weather, your sins will melt away. 15.9. A hymn of praise is not fitting on the lips of a sinner,for it has not been sent from the Lord. 17.19. All their works are as the sun before him,and his eyes are continually upon their ways. 17.22. A mans almsgiving is like a signet with the Lord and he will keep a persons kindness like the apple of his eye. 17.23. Afterward he will arise and requite them,and he will bring their recompense on their heads. 17.24. Yet to those who repent he grants a return,and he encourages those whose endurance is failing. 17.25. Turn to the Lord and forsake your sins;pray in his presence and lessen your offenses. 17.26. Return to the Most High and turn away from iniquity,and hate abominations intensely. 17.27. Who will sing praises to the Most High in Hades,as do those who are alive and give thanks? 21.1. Have you sinned, my son? Do so no more,but pray about your former sins. 21.1. The way of sinners is smoothly paved with stones,but at its end is the pit of Hades. 21.2. Flee from sin as from a snake;for if you approach sin, it will bite you. Its teeth are lions teeth,and destroy the souls of men. 21.2. A fool raises his voice when he laughs,but a clever man smiles quietly. 21.6. Whoever hates reproof walks in the steps of the sinner,but he that fears the Lord will repent in his heart. 22.12. Mourning for the dead lasts seven days,but for a fool or an ungodly man it lasts all his life. 22.12. There is an utterance which is comparable to death;may it never be found in the inheritance of Jacob!For all these errors will be far from the godly,and they will not wallow in sins. 22.27. O that a guard were set over my mouth,and a seal of prudence upon my lips,that it may keep me from falling,so that my tongue may not destroy me!Sir.23 22.27. Those who survive her will recognize that nothing is better than the fear of the Lord,and nothing sweeter than to heed the commandments of the Lord. 24.1. Wisdom will praise herself,and will glory in the midst of her people. 24.1. In the holy tabernacle I ministered before him,and so I was established in Zion. 24.2. In the assembly of the Most High she will open her mouth,and in the presence of his host she will glory: 24.2. For the remembrance of me is sweeter than honey,and my inheritance sweeter than the honeycomb. 24.3. I came forth from the mouth of the Most High,and covered the earth like a mist. 24.3. I went forth like a canal from a river and like a water channel into a garden. 24.4. I dwelt in high places,and my throne was in a pillar of cloud. 24.5. Alone I have made the circuit of the vault of heaven and have walked in the depths of the abyss. 24.6. In the waves of the sea, in the whole earth,and in every people and nation I have gotten a possession. 24.7. Among all these I sought a resting place;I sought in whose territory I might lodge. 24.8. Then the Creator of all things gave me a commandment,and the one who created me assigned a place for my tent. And he said, `Make your dwelling in Jacob,and in Israel receive your inheritance. 24.9. From eternity, in the beginning, he created me,and for eternity I shall not cease to exist. 24.11. In the beloved city likewise he gave me a resting place,and in Jerusalem was my dominion. 24.12. So I took root in an honored people,in the portion of the Lord, who is their inheritance. 24.13. I grew tall like a cedar in Lebanon,and like a cypress on the heights of Hermon. 24.14. I grew tall like a palm tree in En-gedi,and like rose plants in Jericho;like a beautiful olive tree in the field,and like a plane tree I grew tall. 24.15. Like cassia and camels thorn I gave forth the aroma of spices,and like choice myrrh I spread a pleasant odor,like galbanum, onycha, and stacte,and like the fragrance of frankincense in the tabernacle. 24.16. Like a terebinth I spread out my branches,and my branches are glorious and graceful. 24.17. Like a vine I caused loveliness to bud,and my blossoms became glorious and abundant fruit. 24.19. Come to me, you who desire me,and eat your fill of my produce. 24.21. Those who eat me will hunger for more,and those who drink me will thirst for more. 24.22. Whoever obeys me will not be put to shame,and those who work with my help will not sin. 24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob. 24.25. It fills men with wisdom, like the Pishon,and like the Tigris at the time of the first fruits. 24.26. It makes them full of understanding, like the Euphrates,and like the Jordan at harvest time. 24.27. It makes instruction shine forth like light,like the Gihon at the time of vintage. 24.28. Just as the first man did not know her perfectly,the last one has not fathomed her; 24.29. for her thought is more abundant than the sea,and her counsel deeper than the great abyss. 28.2. Forgive your neighbor the wrong he has done,and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray. 28.2. for its yoke is a yoke of iron,and its fetters are fetters of bronze; 28.3. Does a man harbor anger against another,and yet seek for healing from the Lord? 28.4. Does he have no mercy toward a man like himself,and yet pray for his own sins? 28.5. If he himself, being flesh, maintains wrath,who will make expiation for his sins? 30.19. of what use to an idol is an offering of fruit?For it can neither eat nor smell. So is he who is afflicted by the Lord; 36.1. Have mercy upon us, O Lord, the God of all, and look upon us 36.1. Crush the heads of the rulers of the enemy,who say, "There is no one but ourselves. 37.21. for grace was not given him by the Lord,since he is lacking in all wisdom. 38.9. My son, when you are sick do not be negligent,but pray to the Lord, and he will heal you. 38.11. offer a sweet-smelling sacrifice, and a memorial portion of fine flour,and pour oil on your offering, as much as you can afford. 38.12. And give the physician his place, for the Lord created him;let him not leave you, for there is need of him. 38.13. There is a time when success lies in the hands of physicians 38.14. for they too will pray to the Lord that he should grant them success in diagnosis and in healing, for the sake of preserving life. 38.15. He who sins before his Maker,may he fall into the care of a physician. 38.16. My son, let your tears fall for the dead,and as one who is suffering grievously begin the lament. Lay out his body with the honor due him,and do not neglect his burial. 38.17. Let your weeping be bitter and your wailing fervent;observe the mourning according to his merit,for one day, or two, to avoid criticism;then be comforted for your sorrow. 38.18. For sorrow results in death,and sorrow of heart saps ones strength. 38.19. In calamity sorrow continues,and the life of the poor man weighs down his heart. 38.21. Do not forget, there is no coming back;you do the dead no good, and you injure yourself. 38.22. Remember my doom, for yours is like it:yesterday it was mine, and today it is yours. 38.23. When the dead is at rest, let his remembrance cease,and be comforted for him when his spirit is departed. 38.24. The wisdom of the scribe depends on the opportunity of leisure;and he who has little business may become wise. 39.21. No one can say, "What is this?" "Why is that?" for everything has been created for its use. 39.22. His blessing covers the dry land like a river,and drenches it like a flood. 39.23. The nations will incur his wrath,just as he turns fresh water into salt. 39.24. To the holy his ways are straight,just as they are obstacles to the wicked. 39.25. From the beginning good things were created for good people,just as evil things for sinners. 39.26. Basic to all the needs of mans life are water and fire and iron and salt and wheat flour and milk and honey,the blood of the grape, and oil and clothing. 39.27. All these are for good to the godly,just as they turn into evils for sinners. 39.28. There are winds that have been created for vengeance,and in their anger they scourge heavily;in the time of consummation they will pour out their strength and calm the anger of their Maker. 39.29. Fire and hail and famine and pestilence,all these have been created for vengeance; 39.31. they will rejoice in his commands,and be made ready on earth for their service,and when their times come they will not transgress his word. 39.32. Therefore from the beginning I have been convinced,and have thought this out and left it in writing: 39.33. The works of the Lord are all good,and he will supply every need in its hour. 39.34. And no one can say, "This is worse than that," for all things will prove good in their season. 39.35. So now sing praise with all your heart and voice,and bless the name of the Lord. 45.5. He made him hear his voice,and led him into the thick darkness,and gave him the commandments face to face,the law of life and knowledge,to teach Jacob the covet,and Israel his judgments. 45.6. He exalted Aaron, the brother of Moses,a holy man like him, of the tribe of Levi. 45.7. He made an everlasting covet with him,and gave him the priesthood of the people. He blessed him with splendid vestments,and put a glorious robe upon him. 45.8. He clothed him with superb perfection,and strengthened him with the symbols of authority,the linen breeches, the long robe, and the ephod. 50.22. And now bless the God of all,who in every way does great things;who exalts our days from birth,and deals with us according to his mercy. 50.23. May he give us gladness of heart,and grant that peace may be in our days in Israel,as in the days of old. 50.24. May he entrust to us his mercy!And let him deliver us in our days!
7. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 36.1, 50.22, 50.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Ovid, Amores, 2.6.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.22-18.25, 18.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.22. They also appoint certain stewards to receive the incomes of their revenues, and of the fruits of the ground; such as are good men and priests, who are to get their corn and their food ready for them. They none of them differ from others of the Essenes in their way of living, but do the most resemble those Dacae who are called Polistae [dwellers in cities]. 18.22. and I desire thee never to be unmindful when thou comest to it, either of my kindness to thee, who set thee in so high a dignity 18.23. 6. But of the fourth sect of Jewish philosophy, Judas the Galilean was the author. These men agree in all other things with the Pharisaic notions; but they have an inviolable attachment to liberty, and say that God is to be their only Ruler and Lord. They also do not value dying any kinds of death, nor indeed do they heed the deaths of their relations and friends, nor can any such fear make them call any man lord. 18.23. Now the centurion who was set to keep Agrippa, when he saw with what haste Marsyas came, and what joy Agrippa had from what he said, he had a suspicion that his words implied some great innovation of affairs, and he asked them about what was said. 18.24. And since this immovable resolution of theirs is well known to a great many, I shall speak no further about that matter; nor am I afraid that any thing I have said of them should be disbelieved, but rather fear, that what I have said is beneath the resolution they show when they undergo pain. 18.24. 1. But Herodias, Agrippa’s sister, who now lived as wife to that Herod who was tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, took this authority of her brother in an envious manner, particularly when she saw that he had a greater dignity bestowed on him than her husband had; since, when he ran away, it was because he was not able to pay his debts; and now he was come back, it was because he was in a way of dignity, and of great good fortune. 18.25. And it was in Gessius Florus’s time that the nation began to grow mad with this distemper, who was our procurator, and who occasioned the Jews to go wild with it by the abuse of his authority, and to make them revolt from the Romans. And these are the sects of Jewish philosophy. 18.25. Now Caius saluted Herod, for he first met with him, and then looked upon the letters which Agrippa had sent him, and which were written in order to accuse Herod; wherein he accused him, that he had been in confederacy with Sejanus against Tiberius’s and that he was now confederate with Artabanus, the king of Parthia, in opposition to the government of Caius;
10. Mishnah, Maasrot, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. New Testament, John, 11.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.44. He who was dead came out, bound hand and foot with wrappings, and his face was wrapped around with a cloth. Jesus said to them, "Free him, and let him go.
12. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27b. בכליכה והיו עניים מתביישין התקינו שיהו הכל מוציאין בכליכה מפני כבודן של עניים,בראשונה היו מניחין את המוגמר תחת חולי מעים מתים והיו חולי מעים חיים מתביישין התקינו שיהו מניחין תחת הכל מפני כבודן של חולי מעים חיים,בראשונה היו מטבילין את הכלים על גבי נדות מתות והיו נדות חיות מתביישות התקינו שיהו מטבילין על גבי כל הנשים מפני כבודן של נדות חיות בראשונה מטבילין על גבי זבין מתים והיו זבין חיים מתביישין התקינו שיהו מטבילין על גב הכל מפני כבודן של זבין חיים,בראשונה היתה הוצאת המת קשה לקרוביו יותר ממיתתו עד שהיו קרוביו מניחין אותו ובורחין עד שבא רבן גמליאל ונהג קלות ראש בעצמו ויצא בכלי פשתן ונהגו העם אחריו לצאת בכלי פשתן אמר רב פפא והאידנא נהוג עלמא אפילו בצרדא בר זוזא:,אין מניחין את המטה ברחוב: אמר רב פפא אין מועד בפני תלמיד חכם וכל שכן חנוכה ופורים,והני מילי בפניו אבל שלא בפניו לא איני והא רב כהנא ספדיה לרב זביד מנהרדעא בפום נהרא אמר רב פפי יום שמועה הוה וכבפניו דמי,אמר עולא הספד על לב דכתיב (ישעיהו לב, יב) על שדים סופדים טיפוח ביד קילוס ברגל,תנו רבנן המקלס לא יקלס בסנדל אלא במנעל מפני הסכנה,אמר רבי יוחנן אבל כיון שניענע ראשו שוב אין מנחמין רשאין לישב אצלו,ואמר רבי יוחנן הכל חייבין לעמוד מפני נשיא חוץ מאבל וחולה ואמר ר' יוחנן לכל אומרים להם שבו חוץ מאבל וחולה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אבל יום ראשון אסור לאכול לחם משלו מדאמר ליה רחמנא ליחזקאל (יחזקאל כד, יז) ולחם אנשים לא תאכל רבה ורב יוסף מחלפי סעודתייהו להדדי,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב מת בעיר כל בני העיר אסורין בעשיית מלאכה,רב המנונא איקלע לדרומתא שמע קול שיפורא דשכבא חזא הנך אינשי דקא עבדי עבידתא אמר להו ליהוו הנך אינשי בשמתא לא שכבא איכא במתא אמרו ליה חבורתא איכא במתא אמר להו אי הכי שריא לכו,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל המתקשה על מתו יותר מדאי על מת אחר הוא בוכה ההיא איתתא דהות בשיבבותיה דרב הונא הוו לה שבעה בני מת חד מינייהו הוות קא בכיא ביתירתא עליה שלח לה רב הונא לא תעבדי הכי לא אשגחה ביה שלח לה אי צייתת מוטב ואי לא צבית זוודתא לאידך מית ומיתו כולהו לסוף אמר לה תימוש זוודתא לנפשיך ומיתא,(ירמיהו כב, י) אל תבכו למת ואל תנודו לו אל תבכו למת יותר מדאי ואל תנודו לו יותר מכשיעור הא כיצד שלשה ימים לבכי ושבעה להספד ושלשים לגיהוץ ולתספורת מכאן ואילך אמר הקדוש ברוך הוא אי אתם רחמנים בו יותר ממני,(ירמיהו כב, י) בכו בכו להולך אמר רב יהודה להולך בלא בנים רבי יהושע בן לוי לא אזל לבי אבלא אלא למאן דאזיל בלא בני דכתיב בכו בכו להולך כי לא ישוב עוד וראה את ארץ מולדתו רב הונא אמר זה שעבר עבירה ושנה בה,רב הונא לטעמיה דאמר רב הונא כיון שעבר אדם עבירה ושנה בה הותרה לו הותרה לו סלקא דעתך אלא אימא נעשית לו כהיתר,אמר רבי לוי אבל שלשה ימים הראשונים יראה את עצמו כאילו חרב מונחת לו בין שתי (יריכותיו) משלשה עד שבעה כאילו מונחת לו כנגדו בקרן זוית מכאן ואילך כאילו עוברת כנגדו בשוק:,ולא של נשים לעולם מפני הכבוד: אמרי נהרדעי לא שנו 27b. bon a plain biermade from poles that were strapped together, band the poor were embarrassed.The Sages binstituted that everyone should be taken outfor burial bon a plain bier, due to the honor of the poor. /b,Similarly, bat first they would place incense underthe beds of bthose who died with an intestinal disease,because the body emitted an especially unpleasant odor. bAnd those who were alive with an intestinal disease were embarrassedwhen they understood that they, too, would be treated in this manner after their death, and that everyone would know the cause of their death. The Sages binstituted that incense should be placed under everyone, due to the honor of those with an intestinal disease who werestill bliving. /b,Moreover, bat first they wouldritually bimmerseall bthe utensilsthat had been used bbywomen who bdiedwhile bmenstruating,which had thereby contracted ritual impurity. bAnddue to this, bthe living menstruating women were embarrassed.The Sages binstituted thatthe utensils that had been used bby alldying bwomen must be immersed, due to the honor of living menstruating women.And, bat first they wouldritually bimmerseall bthe utensilsthat had been used by izavin /i,men suffering from gonorrhea, bwho died,as the utensils had thereby contracted ritual impurity. bAnddue to this bthe living izavinfelt embarrassed.The Sages binstituted thatthe utensils that had been used bby allmen bmust be immersed, due to the honor of the living izavin /i. /b,Likewise, bat first taking the dead outfor burial bwas more difficult for the relatives than theactual bdeath,because it was customary to bury the dead in expensive shrouds, which the poor could not afford. The problem grew bto the point that relatives wouldsometimes babandonthe corpse band run away.This lasted buntil Rabban Gamliel came and actedwith bfrivolity,meaning that he waived his dignity, by leaving instructions that he be btaken outfor burial bin linen garments. And the peopleadopted this bpractice after himand had themselves btaken outfor burial bin linen garments. Rav Pappa said: And nowadays, everyone follows the practiceof taking out the dead for burial beven inplain bhemp garments [ itzerada /i]that cost only ba dinar. /b,It is taught in the mishna: bThe bierof the deceased bis not set down in the streetduring the intermediate days of a Festival, bso as not to encourage eulogies. Rav Pappa said:There are bnorestrictions on eulogizing on the intermediate days of ba Festival in the presenceof a deceased bTorah scholar,and therefore he may be eulogized in the ordinary manner during the Festival week. bAnd all the more soa Torah scholar may be eulogized on the days of bHanukkah and Purim,which have less sanctity than the intermediate days of a Festival.,The Gemara comments: bBut thisallowance to eulogize a Torah scholar during the intermediate days of a Festival bapplies onlywhen the eulogy is binthe bpresenceof the deceased, before the bier. bHowever,giving a eulogy that is bnot in his presenceis bnotpermitted. The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But didn’t Rav Kahana eulogize Rav Zevid from Neharde’a inhis city bPum Naharaduring the intermediate days of a Festival? bRav Pappa said: It was the dayon which Rav Kahana received the bnewsof Rav Zevid’s death, banda eulogy in such a situation bis considered asif it is bin his presence. /b,The Gemara continues its discussion of the ihalakhotof mourning: bUlla said:Although ihespedusually refers to a eulogy, strictly speaking, ihesped /iis referring to striking oneself bon the heart, as it is written: “Striking [ isofedim /i] the breasts”(Isaiah 32:12). The term itipuaḥ /iis referring to striking bwithone bhandagainst the other hand, i.e., clapping. The term ikillus /iis referring to stomping bwithone’s bfooton the ground., bThe Sages taughta ibaraita /i: bOne who stomps his foot on the groundas a sign of mourning bshould not stomp with a sandal, but ratherhe should do so wearing ba shoe, due to the dangerof being hurt. Because a sandal is easily torn, it is possible that something sharp on the ground will puncture his foot, or that he will suffer some other injury., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Once a mourner nods his headto show that his grief has slightly diminished, bthe consolers may no longer sit next to him,as with his action the mourner shows that he no longer desires their presence., bRabbi Yoḥa further said: All are obligated to standin the bpresence of the iNasi /i, except for a mourner and one who is sick. Rabbi Yoḥa said: To allwho stand before a great person bone says: Be seated,and only then may they sit down, bexcept for a mourner and one who is sick.If they stood up they do not need permission to sit down, but rather they may do so if they wish., bRav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: A mourneron the bfirst dayof his mourning bis prohibited from eating of his own bread.From where is this derived? bFromwhat bthe Merciful One says to Ezekielwhen the latter is in mourning: b“Nor eat the bread of men”(Ezekiel 24:17), which indicates that other mourners must eat bread made by others. It was related that when bRabba and Rav Yosefwere in mourning they bwould exchange their meals with each other. /b, bAnd Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav:When a person bdies in a city, all of the residents of that city are prohibited from performing workuntil he has been buried.,The Gemara relates that when bRav Hamnunaonce bhappenedto come to a place called bDarumata he heard the sound of a ishofar /iannouncing that a person bhad diedin the town. When bhe saw some people doing work he said to them: Let these people be under an excommunication. Is there not a deadperson bin town? They said to him: There areseparate bgroups in the town,each one responsible for its own dead. Knowing that the deceased was not from our group, we continued our work. bHe said to them: If so, it is permittedto you, and he revoked his excommunication., bAnd Rav Yehuda said further in the name of Rav: Anyone who grieves excessively over his deadand does not allow himself to be consoled bwillin the end bweep for anotherperson. The Gemara relates that ba certain womanwho lived bin the neighborhood of Rav Huna had seven sons. One of them died and she wept for him excessively. Rav Huna senta message bto her: Do not do this.But bshe took no heed of him. Hethen bsentanother message bto her: If you listen to me, it is well, but if not, prepare shrouds for another death.But she would not listen band they all died. In the end,when she continued with her excessive mourning, bhe said to her:Since you are acting in this way, bprepare shrouds for yourself, andsoon thereafter bshe died. /b,The Sages taught in a ibaraitawith regard to the verse that states: b“Weep not for the dead, neither bemoan him”(Jeremiah 22:10): b“Weep not for the dead”is referring to bexcessivemourning; b“neither bemoan him” more than theappropriate bmeasureof time. bHow so?What is the appropriate measure? bThree days for weeping, and seven for eulogizing, and thirty forthe prohibition against bironingclothing band forthe prohibition against bcutting hair. From thispoint bforward the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: Do not be more merciful withthe deceased bthan I am.If the Torah commands one to mourn for a certain period of time, then that suffices.,It is stated in the continuation of the verse: b“Weep sore for him that goes away.” Rav Yehuda said:This is referring bto one who leavesthe world bwithout childrento survive him, since mourning for him is much more intense. It was related that bRabbi Yehoshua ben Leviwould bgo to a house of mourning only for one who passed away without children, as it is written: “Weep sore for him that goes away; for he shall return [ iyashuv /i] no more, nor see his native land”(Jeremiah 22:10). bRav Hunadisagreed with the interpretation of the verse and bsaid:“Him that goes” bisone bwho committed a transgression andthen brepeated it,i.e., one who sins constantly and does not repent [ iyashav /i], and therefore loses his portion in the World-to-Come, his “native land.”,The Gemara notes that bRav Hunaconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning,as bRav Huna said: Once a person commits a transgression and repeats it, it becomes permitted to him.The Gemara questions the wording used here: bDoes it enter your mindthat it is actually bpermitted?How could it possibly be permitted for him to sin? bRather, sayinstead: bIt becomes as though it were permitted,for after doing it twice he no longer relates to his action as the violation of a serious prohibition., bRabbi Levi said: A mournerduring bthe first three daysof his mourning bshould see himself as though a sword were lying between his two thighs,meaning that he too may be facing imminent death. During this period he should live in dread. bFrom the third to the seventhdays he should conduct himself bas ifthe sword bwere lying opposite him in the corner,but still threatening him. bFrom thispoint bforward it is as ifthe sword bwas moving before him in the marketplace,and the fear is not as great.,§ The mishna teaches: bAndthe biers bof womenare bneverset down, bdue totheir bhonor.The Sages of bNeharde’a say: They only taughtthi


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
accessories Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
achilles Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
acrostic, nonalphabetic Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 159
ben sira Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
benedictions/blessings Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
bier Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
birds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
blessing Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
bones Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
burial customs Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
cemetery, cemeteries Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
classical world Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
coffins Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
david Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
death Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 159, 198
dust Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
eve, grief of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
evil Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 198
fool Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 159, 198
funeral Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
god, all, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
god, all virtue, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
god, father of all, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
god, master, as Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
hair Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
hands, patroklos, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
head Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
health Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
heart Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 159, 198
helping friends Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 198
hymn Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
inclusio Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 159
israel Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
jacob Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
jericho Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
jews Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
keening, keeners Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
leather Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
link word Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 198
mattresses Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
moses Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
mourning Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
neck Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
orthodox judaism Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
ossuary, ossuaries Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
prayer Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 198
qumran Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
repentance/penitence Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
righteousness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
roman Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
sacrifices/cult' "204.0_481.0@'en gedi" Reif, Problems with Prayers: Studies in the Textual History of Early Rabbinic Liturgy (2006) 66
sarcophagus, sarcophagi Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
secrets/confidences, keeping/betraying Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 198
shame Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 198
shrouds Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
sin/sinners Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 159
skulls Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
slander Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 198
sorrow Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
speech Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 159, 198
strength Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
textiles Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481
theodicy Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 159
trust (between friends) Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 159
wing Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1046
wisdom/wise Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 159, 198
wooden' Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 481