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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



673
Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 17.1-17.14


nanThe Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again.


nanAnd they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works.
NaN


nanHe bestowed knowledge upon them,and allotted to them the law of life.


nanHe established with them an eternal covenant,and showed them his judgments.


nanTheir eyes saw his glorious majesty,and their ears heard the glory of his voice.


nanAnd he said to them, "Beware of all unrighteousness." And he gave commandment to each of them concerning his neighbor.


nanHe gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth.


nanTheir iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord.


nanHe endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image.


nanHe placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds.
NaN


nanHe made for them tongue and eyes;he gave them ears and a mind for thinking.


nanHe filled them with knowledge and understanding,and showed them good and evil.


nanHe set his eye upon their hearts to show them the majesty of his works.
NaN


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

23 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.6, 13.2 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me. 13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand.
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.1-20.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

20.1. וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ 20.1. וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר׃ 20.2. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 20.2. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃ 20.3. לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ 20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃ 20.6. וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָי׃ 20.7. לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא׃ 20.8. זָכוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ 20.1. And God spoke all these words, saying:" 20.2. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 20.3. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." 20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;" 20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;" 20.6. and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments." 20.7. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain." 20.8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.4, 1.6-1.7, 1.14, 1.18, 1.24-1.25, 1.28, 1.30-1.31, 2.1, 2.7, 2.14, 2.19-2.20, 3.1, 3.17, 3.19, 6.13, 9.1-9.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.4. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃ 1.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃ 1.7. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃ 1.18. וְלִמְשֹׁל בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה וּלֲהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.24. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ בְּהֵמָה וָרֶמֶשׂ וְחַיְתוֹ־אֶרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 1.25. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֵת כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.31. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה־טוֹב מְאֹד וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי׃ 2.1. וְנָהָרּ יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת־הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים׃ 2.1. וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָם׃ 2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 2.14. וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשְּׁלִישִׁי חִדֶּקֶל הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ קִדְמַת אַשּׁוּר וְהַנָּהָר הָרְבִיעִי הוּא פְרָת׃ 2.19. וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃ 3.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־קֹלְךָ שָׁמַעְתִּי בַּגָּן וָאִירָא כִּי־עֵירֹם אָנֹכִי וָאֵחָבֵא׃ 3.1. וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אַף כִּי־אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן׃ 3.17. וּלְאָדָם אָמַר כִּי־שָׁמַעְתָּ לְקוֹל אִשְׁתֶּךָ וַתֹּאכַל מִן־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לֵאמֹר לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ בְּעִצָּבוֹן תֹּאכֲלֶנָּה כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃ 3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃ 6.13. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים לְנֹחַ קֵץ כָּל־בָּשָׂר בָּא לְפָנַי כִּי־מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ חָמָס מִפְּנֵיהֶם וְהִנְנִי מַשְׁחִיתָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.1. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.1. וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם בָּעוֹף בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אִתְּכֶם מִכֹּל יֹצְאֵי הַתֵּבָה לְכֹל חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ׃ 9.2. וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם׃ 9.2. וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה עַל כָּל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְעַל כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה וּבְכָל־דְּגֵי הַיָּם בְּיֶדְכֶם נִתָּנוּ׃ 1.4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness." 1.6. And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’" 1.7. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so." 1.14. And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;" 1.18. and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good." 1.24. And God said: ‘Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind.’ And it was so." 1.25. And God made the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good." 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’" 1.30. and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is a living soul, [I have given] every green herb for food.’ And it was so." 1.31. And God saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day." 2.1. And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them." 2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul." 2.14. And the name of the third river is Tigris; that is it which goeth toward the east of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates." 2.19. And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof." 2.20. And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him." 3.1. Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman: ‘Yea, hath God said: Ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden?’" 3.17. And unto Adam He said: ‘Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying: Thou shalt not eat of it; cursed is the ground for thy sake; in toil shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life." 3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’" 6.13. And God said unto Noah: ‘The end of all flesh is come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth." 9.1. And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them: ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth." 9.2. And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all wherewith the ground teemeth, and upon all the fishes of the sea: into your hand are they delivered."
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 10.9, 33.6, 34.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.9. זְכָר־נָא כִּי־כַחֹמֶר עֲשִׂיתָנִי וְאֶל־עָפָר תְּשִׁיבֵנִי׃ 33.6. הֵן־אֲנִי כְפִיךָ לָאֵל מֵחֹמֶר קֹרַצְתִּי גַם־אָנִי׃ 34.15. יִגְוַע כָּל־בָּשָׂר יָחַד וְאָדָם עַל־עָפָר יָשׁוּב׃ 10.9. Remember, I beseech Thee, that Thou hast fashioned me as clay; And wilt Thou bring me into dust again?" 33.6. Behold, I am toward God even as thou art; I also am formed out of the clay." 34.15. All flesh shall perish together, And man shall return unto dust."
5. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22-8.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24. בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25. בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃ 8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old." 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was." 8.24. When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water." 8.25. Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;"
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.4-8.8, 90.3, 103.14, 104.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.4. כִּי־אֶרְאֶה שָׁמֶיךָ מַעֲשֵׂי אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנָנְתָּה׃ 8.5. מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃ 8.6. וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.7. תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 8.8. צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃ 90.3. תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד־דַּכָּא וַתֹּאמֶר שׁוּבוּ בְנֵי־אָדָם׃ 103.14. כִּי־הוּא יָדַע יִצְרֵנוּ זָכוּר כִּי־עָפָר אֲנָחְנוּ׃ 104.29. תַּסְתִּיר פָּנֶיךָ יִבָּהֵלוּן תֹּסֵף רוּחָם יִגְוָעוּן וְאֶל־עֲפָרָם יְשׁוּבוּן׃ 8.4. When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, The moon and the stars, which Thou hast established;" 8.5. What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?" 8.6. Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour." 8.7. Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:" 8.8. Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;" 90.3. Thou turnest man to contrition; And sayest: 'Return, ye children of men.'" 103.14. For He knoweth our frame; He remembereth that we are dust." 104.29. Thou hidest Thy face, they vanish; Thou withdrawest their breath, they perish, And return to their dust."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 14.21, 26.5, 29.16, 45.9, 64.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.21. הָכִינוּ לְבָנָיו מַטְבֵּחַ בַּעֲוֺן אֲבוֹתָם בַּל־יָקֻמוּ וְיָרְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וּמָלְאוּ פְנֵי־תֵבֵל עָרִים׃ 26.5. כִּי הֵשַׁח יֹשְׁבֵי מָרוֹם קִרְיָה נִשְׂגָּבָה יַשְׁפִּילֶנָּה יַשְׁפִּילָהּ עַד־אֶרֶץ יַגִּיעֶנָּה עַד־עָפָר׃ 29.16. הַפְכְּכֶם אִם־כְּחֹמֶר הַיֹּצֵר יֵחָשֵׁב כִּי־יֹאמַר מַעֲשֶׂה לְעֹשֵׂהוּ לֹא עָשָׂנִי וְיֵצֶר אָמַר לְיוֹצְרוֹ לֹא הֵבִין׃ 45.9. הוֹי רָב אֶת־יֹצְרוֹ חֶרֶשׂ אֶת־חַרְשֵׂי אֲדָמָה הֲיֹאמַר חֹמֶר לְיֹצְרוֹ מַה־תַּעֲשֶׂה וּפָעָלְךָ אֵין־יָדַיִם לוֹ׃ 64.7. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אָבִינוּ אָתָּה אֲנַחְנוּ הַחֹמֶר וְאַתָּה יֹצְרֵנוּ וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ כֻּלָּנוּ׃ 14.21. Prepare ye slaughter for his children For the iniquity of their fathers; That they rise not up, and possess the earth, And fill the face of the world with cities." 26.5. For He hath brought down them that dwell on high, The lofty city, laying it low, laying it low even to the ground, Bringing it even to the dust." 29.16. O your perversity! Shall the potter be esteemed as clay; that the thing made should say of him that made it: ‘He made me not’; Or the thing framed say of him that framed it: ‘He hath no understanding?’" 45.9. Woe unto him that striveth with his Maker, as a potsherd with the potsherds of the earth! Shall the clay say to him that fashioned it: ‘What makest thou?’ Or: ‘Thy work, it hath no hands’?" 64.7. But now, O LORD, Thou art our Father; we are the clay, and Thou our potter, and we all are the work of Thy hand."
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 14.14, 18.6, 23.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי שֶׁקֶר הַנְּבִאִים נִבְּאִים בִּשְׁמִי לֹא שְׁלַחְתִּים וְלֹא צִוִּיתִים וְלֹא דִבַּרְתִּי אֲלֵיהֶם חֲזוֹן שֶׁקֶר וְקֶסֶם ואלול [וֶאֱלִיל] ותרמות [וְתַרְמִית] לִבָּם הֵמָּה מִתְנַבְּאִים לָכֶם׃ 18.6. הֲכַיּוֹצֵר הַזֶּה לֹא־אוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת לָכֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם־יְהוָה הִנֵּה כַחֹמֶר בְּיַד הַיּוֹצֵר כֵּן־אַתֶּם בְּיָדִי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 23.26. עַד־מָתַי הֲיֵשׁ בְּלֵב הַנְּבִאִים נִבְּאֵי הַשָּׁקֶר וּנְבִיאֵי תַּרְמִת לִבָּם׃ 14.14. Then the LORD said unto me: ‘The prophets prophesy lies in My name; I sent them not, neither have I commanded them, neither spoke I unto them; they prophesy unto you a lying vision, and divination, and a thing of nought, and the deceit of their own heart." 18.6. ’O house of Israel, cannot I do with you as this potter? saith the LORD. Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are ye in My hand, O house of Israel." 23.26. How long shall this be? Is it in the heart of the prophets that prophesy lies, And the prophets of the deceit of their own heart?"
9. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.19-3.22, 4.2-4.3, 12.7-12.8 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.19. כִּי מִקְרֶה בְנֵי־הָאָדָם וּמִקְרֶה הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִקְרֶה אֶחָד לָהֶם כְּמוֹת זֶה כֵּן מוֹת זֶה וְרוּחַ אֶחָד לַכֹּל וּמוֹתַר הָאָדָם מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אָיִן כִּי הַכֹּל הָבֶל׃ 3.21. מִי יוֹדֵעַ רוּחַ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם הָעֹלָה הִיא לְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ הַבְּהֵמָה הַיֹּרֶדֶת הִיא לְמַטָּה לָאָרֶץ׃ 3.22. וְרָאִיתִי כִּי אֵין טוֹב מֵאֲשֶׁר יִשְׂמַח הָאָדָם בְּמַעֲשָׂיו כִּי־הוּא חֶלְקוֹ כִּי מִי יְבִיאֶנּוּ לִרְאוֹת בְּמֶה שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אַחֲרָיו׃ 4.2. וְשַׁבֵּחַ אֲנִי אֶת־הַמֵּתִים שֶׁכְּבָר מֵתוּ מִן־הַחַיִּים אֲשֶׁר הֵמָּה חַיִּים עֲדֶנָה׃ 4.3. וְטוֹב מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עֲדֶן לֹא הָיָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־רָאָה אֶת־הַמַּעֲשֶׂה הָרָע אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 12.7. וְיָשֹׁב הֶעָפָר עַל־הָאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁהָיָה וְהָרוּחַ תָּשׁוּב אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר נְתָנָהּ׃ 12.8. הֲבֵל הֲבָלִים אָמַר הַקּוֹהֶלֶת הַכֹּל הָבֶל׃ 3.19. For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them; as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that man hath no pre-eminence above a beast; for all is vanity." 3.20. All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all return to dust." 3.21. Who knoweth the spirit of man whether it goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast whether it goeth downward to the earth?" 3.22. Wherefore I perceived that there is nothing better, than that a man should rejoice in his works; for that is his portion; for who shall bring him to see what shall be after him?" 4.2. Wherefore I praised the dead that are already dead more than the living that are yet alive;" 4.3. but better than they both is he that hath not yet been, who hath not seen the evil work that is done under the sun." 12.7. And the dust returneth to the earth as it was, and the spirit returneth unto God who gave it." 12.8. Vanity of vanities, saith Koheleth; all is vanity."
10. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.6, 13.2 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me. 13.2. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy;he leads down to Hades, and brings up again,and there is no one who can escape his hand.
11. Anon., Jubilees, 2.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.14. These four great works God created on the third day.
12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 15.14, 15.17, 16.30, 17.2-17.14, 17.17, 24.28, 25.24, 33.7-33.15, 37.3, 40.1, 49.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.14. It was he who created man in the beginning,and he left him in the power of his own inclination. 15.17. Before a man are life and death,and whichever he chooses will be given to him. 17.2. He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 17.2. Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 17.3. He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 17.4. He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds. 17.6. He made for them tongue and eyes;he gave them ears and a mind for thinking. 17.7. He filled them with knowledge and understanding,and showed them good and evil. 17.8. He set his eye upon their hearts to show them the majesty of his works. 17.11. He bestowed knowledge upon them,and allotted to them the law of life. 17.12. He established with them an eternal covet,and showed them his judgments. 17.13. Their eyes saw his glorious majesty,and their ears heard the glory of his voice. 17.14. And he said to them, "Beware of all unrighteousness." And he gave commandment to each of them concerning his neighbor. 17.17. He appointed a ruler for every nation,but Israel is the Lords own portion. 24.28. Just as the first man did not know her perfectly,the last one has not fathomed her; 25.24. From a woman sin had its beginning,and because of her we all die. 33.7. Why is any day better than another,when all the daylight in the year is from the sun? 33.8. By the Lords decision they were distinguished,and he appointed the different seasons and feasts; 33.9. some of them he exalted and hallowed,and some of them he made ordinary days. 33.11. In the fulness of his knowledge the Lord distinguished them and appointed their different ways; 33.12. some of them he blessed and exalted,and some of them he made holy and brought near to himself;but some of them he cursed and brought low,and he turned them out of their place. 33.13. As clay in the hand of the potter -- for all his ways are as he pleases -- so men are in the hand of him who made them,to give them as he decides. 33.14. Good is the opposite of evil,and life the opposite of death;so the sinner is the opposite of the godly. 33.15. Look upon all the works of the Most High;they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other. 37.3. O evil imagination, why were you formed to cover the land with deceit? 37.3. for overeating brings sickness,and gluttony leads to nausea. 40.1. Much labor was created for every man,and a heavy yoke is upon the sons of Adam,from the day they come forth from their mothers womb till the day they return to the mother of all. 40.1. All these were created for the wicked,and on their account the flood came. 49.16. Shem and Seth were honored among men,and Adam above every living being in the creation.
13. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.23, 7.26, 15.7-15.13, 17.1-17.8, 25.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.23. for God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity 7.26. For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 15.7. For when a potter kneads the soft earth and laboriously molds each vessel for our service,he fashions out of the same clay both the vessels that serve clean uses and those for contrary uses, making all in like manner;but which shall be the use of each of these the worker in clay decides. 15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him. 15.9. But he is not concerned that he is destined to die or that his life is brief,but he competes with workers in gold and silver,and imitates workers in copper;and he counts it his glory that he molds counterfeit gods. 15.10. His heart is ashes, his hope is cheaper than dirt,and his life is of less worth than clay 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit. 15.12. But he considered our existence an idle game,and life a festival held for profit,for he says one must get money however one can, even by base means. 15.13. For this man, more than all others, knows that he sins when he makes from earthy matter fragile vessels and graven images. 17.1. Great are thy judgments and hard to describe;therefore unintructed souls have gone astray. 17.2. For when lawless men supposed that they held the holy nation in their power,they themselves lay as captives of darkness and prisoners of long night,shut in under their roofs, exiles from eternal providence. 17.3. For thinking that in their secret sins they were unobserved behind a dark curtain of forgetfulness,they were scattered, terribly alarmed,and appalled by specters. 17.4. For not even the inner chamber that held them protected them from fear,but terrifying sounds rang out around them,and dismal phantoms with gloomy faces appeared. 17.5. And no power of fire was able to give light,nor did the brilliant flames of the stars avail to illumine that hateful night. 17.6. Nothing was shining through to them except a dreadful, self-kindled fire,and in terror they deemed the things which they saw to be worse than that unseen appearance. 17.7. The delusions of their magic art lay humbled,and their boasted wisdom was scornfully rebuked. 17.8. For those who promised to drive off the fears and disorders of a sick soul were sick themselves with ridiculous fear.
14. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.18, 4.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.18. The virgins who had been enclosed in their chambers rushed out with their mothers, sprinkled their hair with dust, and filled the streets with groans and lamentations. 4.6. And young women who had just entered the bridal chamber to share married life exchanged joy for wailing, their myrrh-perfumed hair sprinkled with ashes, and were carried away unveiled, all together raising a lament instead of a wedding song, as they were torn by the harsh treatment of the heathen.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 152, 165, 24-25, 77-88, 151 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

151. But since nothing in creation lasts for ever, but all mortal things are liable to inevitable changes and alterations, it was unavoidable that the first man should also undergo some disaster. And the beginning of his life being liable to reproach, was his wife. For, as long as he was single, he resembled, as to his creation, both the world and God; and he represented in his soul the characteristics of the nature of each, I do not mean all of them, but such as a mortal constitution was capable of admitting. But when woman also was created, man perceiving a closely connected figure and a kindred formation to his own, rejoiced at the sight, and approached her and embraced her.
16. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 7 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. When therefore is it proper for the servant of God to use freedom of speech to the ruler and master of himself, and of the whole word? Is it not when he is free from all sins, and is aware in his conscience that he loves his master, feeling more joy at the fact of being a servant of God, than he would if he were sovereign over the whole race of mankind, and were invested without any effort on his part with the supreme authority over land and sea.
17. Anon., 2 Baruch, 14.17-14.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

18. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 15.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly.
19. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

20. New Testament, Colossians, 1.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.15. who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.
21. New Testament, Romans, 8.19-8.21, 8.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers.
22. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.15.5, 4.4.3, 4.37-4.39 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.37. And they make moon and stars appear on the ceiling after this manner. In the central part of the ceiling, having fastened a mirror, placing a dish full of water equally (with the mirror) in the central portion of the floor, and setting in a central place likewise a candle, emitting a faint light from a higher position than the dish - in this way, by reflection, (the magician) causes the moon to appear by the mirror. But frequently, also, they suspend on high from the ceiling, at a distance, a drum, but which, being covered with some garment, is concealed by the accomplice, in order that (the heavenly body) may not appear before the (proper) time. And afterwards placing a candle (within the drum), when the magician gives the signal to the accomplice, he removes so much of the covering as may be sufficient for effecting an imitation representing the figure of the moon as it is at that particular time. He smears, however, the luminous parts of the drum with cinnabar and gum; and having pared around the neck and bottom of a flagon of glass ready behind, he puts a candle in it, and places around it some of the requisite contrivances for making the figures shine, which some one of the accomplices has concealed on high; and on receiving the signal, he throws down from above the contrivances, so to make the moon appear descending from the sky. And the same result is achieved by means of a jar in sylvan localities. For it is by means of a jar that the tricks in a house are performed. For having set up an altar, subsequently is (placed upon it) the jar, having a lighted lamp; when, however, there are a greater number of lamps, no such sight is displayed. After then the enchanter invokes the moon, he orders all the lights to be extinguished, yet that one be left faintly burning; and then the light, that which streams from the jar, is reflected on the ceiling, and furnishes to those present a representation of the moon; the mouth of the jar being kept covered for the time which it would seem to require, in order that the representation of full moon should be exhibited on the ceiling. 4.38. But the scales of fishes - for instance, the seahorse - cause the stars to appear to be; the scales being steeped in a mixture of water and gum, and fastened on the ceiling at intervals. 4.39. The sensation of an earthquake they cause in such a way, as that all things seem set in motion; ordure of a weasel burned with a magnet upon coals (has this effect).
23. Anon., 4 Ezra, 6.49-6.59, 8.44-8.45

6.53. On the sixth day thou didst command the earth to bring forth before thee cattle, beasts, and creeping things; 6.54. and over these thou didst place Adam, as ruler over all the works which thou hadst made; and from him we have all come, the people whom thou hast chosen. 6.55. All this I have spoken before thee, O Lord, because thou hast said that it was for us that thou didst create this world. 6.56. As for the other nations which have descended from Adam, thou hast said that they are nothing, and that they are like spittle, and thou hast compared their abundance to a drop from a bucket. 6.57. And now, O Lord, behold, these nations, which are reputed as nothing, domineer over us and devour us. 6.58. But we thy people, whom thou hast called thy first-born, only begotten, zealous for thee, and most dear, have been given into their hands. 6.59. If the world has indeed been created for us, why do we not possess our world as an inheritance? How long will this be so? 8.44. But man, who has been formed by thy hands and is called thy own image because he is made like thee, and for whose sake thou hast formed all things -- hast thou also made him like the farmer's seed? 8.45. No, O Lord who art over us! But spare thy people and have mercy on thy inheritance, for thou hast mercy on thy own creation.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
afterlife Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 63, 65
all men Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
animating breath Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 65
ash(es) Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 63
authority Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411, 469
beast, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
beast Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415, 469
birds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415, 469
capability (human) Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 38, 40, 65, 66
cattle Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
children, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
choices, freedom of Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 325
clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47, 48, 66
collective humanity Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 40
creation Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
creation topoi Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 37, 38, 40, 42, 48, 63, 65, 66
creator Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 42
death Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31, 63, 65
deceased Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 63
deception, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
determinism, determinists, necessity (of nature) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 325
determinism Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
divine, image Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 65
dominion of death Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 469
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31, 38, 40, 42, 48, 63, 65, 66; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
earth, from (out of) the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 37, 38, 42
earth Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31, 38
earthly origin Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 65
eternality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
everlasting covenant Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 40
evil Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
faculty (dênamiw and similar terms) (of the soul) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 325
faithfulness Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
fate Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31
fear of god Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
fish Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
flesh Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 39; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415, 469
foot/feet Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
forgiveness Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
futility Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31
general humanity Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 42, 65
gentile Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 39
gnosis, gnostics, gnosticism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 325
god, children of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
god, goodness of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
god, hands of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
god, likeness of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
good Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
grandson of ben sira Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
grief Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
ground, from the Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31, 47, 65, 66
hands, god, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411, 415
heart Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
human, existence Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 38, 65
idolatry Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
idols Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
image of god Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 37, 38, 39, 40, 65, 66; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411, 415
image of god (in man) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 325
imago dei Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 40
immortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66; Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
immutability, immutable (of god) Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 325
incorruption Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
intention Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 325
israel-specific Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 42, 66
jerusalem Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
jews, jewish, judaism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 325
justice Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
knowledge Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 39
law Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 42, 66
lawgiving Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 42
lot Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31
mankind Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 37
meaningless Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31
meaninglessness Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31, 65
mortal Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 39, 63
mortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 42, 47, 48, 66
pessimism Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31
physical Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 38, 39
pleasure Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 469
potter Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76; Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
priestly tradition Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
prophets Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
righteousness Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 63, 66
rule/ruler Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411, 469
sheep Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
sin, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 469
sin/sinners Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 63
spirit, of man Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31
spirit Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 31, 63, 65
strength Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 469
submission Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
synods, first ecumenical, in nicaea Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 325
teeth Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 415
temporal Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 63
temporality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 65
terrestrial nature Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 65
tongue Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
topoi, creation Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 37, 38, 40, 42, 48, 63, 65, 66
treachery Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
two ways Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 66
valentinians, valentinianism Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 325
vessel of Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
vessels, of clay Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
vessels, of dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
vessels Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 47
wife Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 76
will, volition, freedom of will Pedersen, Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos (2004) 325
wisdom' Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 411
woman Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 38, 42