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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 10.18

nanPride was not created for men,nor fierce anger for those born of women.

nanThere is a man who is rich through his diligence and self-denial,and this is the reward allotted to him:

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 18.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.20. But the prophet, that shall speak a word presumptuously in My name, which I have not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the name of other gods, that same prophet shall die.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.21. וַיֹּאמֶר עָרֹם יצתי [יָצָאתִי] מִבֶּטֶן אִמִּי וְעָרֹם אָשׁוּב שָׁמָה יְהוָה נָתַן וַיהוָה לָקָח יְהִי שֵׁם יְהוָה מְבֹרָךְ׃ 1.21. And he said; Naked came I out of my mother’s womb, And naked shall I return thither; The LORD gave, and the LORD hath taken away; Blessed be the name of the LORD."
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 11.7, 23.4-23.5, 27.23-27.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.7. בְּמוֹת אָדָם רָשָׁע תֹּאבַד תִּקְוָה וְתוֹחֶלֶת אוֹנִים אָבָדָה׃ 23.4. אַל־תִּיגַע לְהַעֲשִׁיר מִבִּינָתְךָ חֲדָל׃ 23.5. התעוף [הֲתָעִיף] עֵינֶיךָ בּוֹ וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי עָשֹׂה יַעֲשֶׂה־לּוֹ כְנָפַיִם כְּנֶשֶׁר ועיף [יָעוּף] הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 27.23. יָדֹעַ תֵּדַע פְּנֵי צֹאנֶךָ שִׁית לִבְּךָ לַעֲדָרִים׃ 27.24. כִּי לֹא לְעוֹלָם חֹסֶן וְאִם־נֵזֶר לְדוֹר דור [וָדוֹר׃] 11.7. When a wicked man dieth, his expectation shall perish, And the hope of strength perisheth." 23.4. Weary not thyself to be rich; Cease from thine own wisdom. ." 23.5. Wilt thou set thine eyes upon it? it is gone; For riches certainly make themselves wings, Like an eagle that flieth toward heaven." 27.23. Be thou diligent to know the state of thy flocks, And look well to thy herds;" 27.24. For riches are not for ever; And doth the crown endure unto all generations?"
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 37.7, 49.16-49.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

37.7. דּוֹם לַיהוָה וְהִתְחוֹלֵל לוֹ אַל־תִּתְחַר בְּמַצְלִיחַ דַּרְכּוֹ בְּאִישׁ עֹשֶׂה מְזִמּוֹת׃ 49.16. אַךְ־אֱלֹהִים יִפְדֶּה נַפְשִׁי מִיַּד־שְׁאוֹל כִּי יִקָּחֵנִי סֶלָה׃ 49.17. אַל־תִּירָא כִּי־יַעֲשִׁר אִישׁ כִּי־יִרְבֶּה כְּבוֹד בֵּיתוֹ׃ 37.7. Resign thyself unto the LORD, and wait patiently for Him; fret not thyself because of him who prospereth in his way, because of the man who bringeth wicked devices to pass." 49.16. But God will redeem my soul from the power of the nether-world; For He shall receive me. Selah" 49.17. Be not thou afraid when one waxeth rich, When the wealth of his house is increased;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 5.15 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.15. וְגַם־זֹה רָעָה חוֹלָה כָּל־עֻמַּת שֶׁבָּא כֵּן יֵלֵךְ וּמַה־יִּתְרוֹן לוֹ שֶׁיַּעֲמֹל לָרוּחַ׃ 5.15. And this also is a grievous evil, that in all points as he came, so shall he go; and what profit hath he that he laboureth for the wind?"
6. Anon., 1 Enoch, 94.8 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

94.8. Woe to you, ye rich, for ye have trusted in your riches, And from your riches shall ye depart, Because ye have not remembered the Most High in the days of your riches.
7. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 4.1-4.10, 5.8, 8.2, 9.1-9.16, 10.3-10.5, 10.9-10.17, 10.26-10.27, 10.30-10.31, 11.10, 11.12, 11.14, 11.17-11.28, 12.4, 12.10-12.12, 12.14, 12.16, 13.1-13.4, 13.7, 13.9-13.13, 13.15-13.24, 14.16, 15.7, 16.1-16.4, 19.2-19.3, 31.1-31.7, 34.24-34.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.1. My son, deprive not the poor of his living,and do not keep needy eyes waiting. 4.1. Be like a father to orphans,and instead of a husband to their mother;you will then be like a son of the Most High,and he will love you more than does your mother. 4.2. Do not grieve the one who is hungry,nor anger a man in want. 4.2. Observe the right time, and beware of evil;and do not bring shame on yourself. 4.3. Do not add to the troubles of an angry mind,nor delay your gift to a beggar. 4.3. Do not be like a lion in your home,nor be a faultfinder with your servants. 4.4. Do not reject an afflicted suppliant,nor turn your face away from the poor. 4.5. Do not avert your eye from the needy,nor give a man occasion to curse you; 4.6. for if in bitterness of soul he calls down a curse upon you,his Creator will hear his prayer. 4.7. Make yourself beloved in the congregation;bow your head low to a great man. 4.8. Incline your ear to the poor,and answer him peaceably and gently. 4.9. Deliver him who is wronged from the hand of the wrongdoer;and do not be fainthearted in judging a case. 5.8. Do not depend on dishonest wealth,for it will not benefit you in the day of calamity. 5.8. For there is a friend who is such at his own convenience,but will not stand by you in your day of trouble. 8.2. Do not quarrel with a rich man,lest his resources outweigh yours;for gold has ruined many,and has perverted the minds of kings. 9.1. Do not be jealous of the wife of your bosom,and do not teach her an evil lesson to your own hurt. 9.1. Forsake not an old friend,for a new one does not compare with him. A new friend is like new wine;when it has aged you will drink it with pleasure. 9.2. Do not give yourself to a woman so that she gains mastery over your strength. 9.3. Do not go to meet a loose woman,lest you fall into her snares. 9.4. Do not associate with a woman singer,lest you be caught in her intrigues. 9.5. Do not look intently at a virgin,lest you stumble and incur penalties for her. 9.6. Do not give yourself to harlots lest you lose your inheritance. 9.7. Do not look around in the streets of a city,nor wander about in its deserted sections. 9.8. Turn away your eyes from a shapely woman,and do not look intently at beauty belonging to another;many have been misled by a womans beauty,and by it passion is kindled like a fire. 9.9. Never dine with another mans wife,nor revel with her at wine;lest your heart turn aside to her,and in blood you be plunged into destruction. 9.11. Do not envy the honors of a sinner,for you do not know what his end will be. 9.12. Do not delight in what pleases the ungodly;remember that they will not be held guiltless as long as they live. 9.13. Keep far from a man who has the power to kill,and you will not be worried by the fear of death. But if you approach him, make no misstep,lest he rob you of your life. Know that you are walking in the midst of snares,and that you are going about on the city battlements. 9.14. As much as you can, aim to know your neighbors,and consult with the wise. 9.15. Let your conversation be with men of understanding,and let all your discussion be about the law of the Most High. 9.16. Let righteous men be your dinner companions,and let your glorying be in the fear of the Lord. 10.3. An undisciplined king will ruin his people,but a city will grow through the understanding of its rulers. 10.3. A poor man is honored for his knowledge,while a rich man is honored for his wealth. 10.3. The bee is small among flying creatures,but her product is the best of sweet things. 10.3. Like a decoy partridge in a cage, so is the mind of a proud man,and like a spy he observes your weakness; 10.4. The government of the earth is in the hands of the Lord,and over it he will raise up the right man for the time. 10.4. Do not boast about wearing fine clothes,nor exalt yourself in the day that you are honored;for the works of the Lord are wonderful,and his works are concealed from men. 10.5. The success of a man is in the hands of the Lord,and he confers his honor upon the person of the scribe. 10.5. Many kings have had to sit on the ground,but one who was never thought of has worn a crown. 10.9. How can he who is dust and ashes be proud?for even in life his bowels decay. 10.9. Do not argue about a matter which does not concern you,nor sit with sinners when they judge a case. 10.11. For when a man is dead,he will inherit creeping things, and wild beasts, and worms. 10.11. There is a man who works, and toils, and presses on,but is so much the more in want. 10.12. The beginning of mans pride is to depart from the Lord;his heart has forsaken his Maker. 10.12. There is another who is slow and needs help,who lacks strength and abounds in poverty;but the eyes of the Lord look upon him for his good;he lifts him out of his low estate 10.13. For the beginning of pride is sin,and the man who clings to it pours out abominations. Therefore the Lord brought upon them extraordinary afflictions,and destroyed them utterly. 10.13. and raises up his head,so that many are amazed at him. 10.14. The Lord has cast down the thrones of rulers,and has seated the lowly in their place. 10.14. Good things and bad, life and death,poverty and wealth, come from the Lord. 10.15. The Lord has plucked up the roots of the nations,and has planted the humble in their place. 10.16. The Lord has overthrown the lands of the nations,and has destroyed them to the foundations of the earth. 10.17. He has removed some of them and destroyed them,and has extinguished the memory of them from the earth. 10.17. The gift of the Lord endures for those who are godly,and what he approves will have lasting success. 10.26. Do not make a display of your wisdom when you do your work,nor glorify yourself at a time when you are in want. 10.26. For it is easy in the sight of the Lord to reward a man on the day of death according to his conduct. 10.27. Better is a man who works and has an abundance of everything,than one who goes about boasting, but lacks bread. 10.27. The misery of an hour makes one forget luxury,and at the close of a mans life his deeds will be revealed. 10.31. A man honored in poverty, how much more in wealth!And a man dishonored in wealth, how much more in poverty!Sir.11 10.31. for he lies in wait, turning good into evil,and to worthy actions he will attach blame. 12.4. Give to the godly man, but do not help the sinner. 12.11. Even if he humbles himself and goes about cringing,watch yourself, and be on your guard against him;and you will be to him like one who has polished a mirror,and you will know that it was not hopelessly tarnished. 12.12. Do not put him next to you,lest he overthrow you and take your place;do not have him sit at your right,lest he try to take your seat of honor,and at last you will realize the truth of my words,and be stung by what I have said. 12.14. So no one will pity a man who associates with a sinner and becomes involved in his sins. 12.16. An enemy will speak sweetly with his lips,but in his mind he will plan to throw you into a pit;an enemy will weep with his eyes,but if he finds an opportunity his thirst for blood will be insatiable. 13.1. Whoever touches pitch will be defiled,and whoever associates with a proud man will become like him. 13.1. Do not push forward, lest you be repulsed;and do not remain at a distance, lest you be forgotten. 13.2. Do not lift a weight beyond your strength,nor associate with a man mightier and richer than you. How can the clay pot associate with the iron kettle?The pot will strike against it, and will itself be broken. 13.2. Humility is an abomination to a proud man;likewise a poor man is an abomination to a rich one. 13.3. A rich man does wrong, and he even adds reproaches;a poor man suffers wrong, and he must add apologies. 13.4. A rich man will exploit you if you can be of use to him,but if you are in need he will forsake you. 13.7. He will shame you with his foods,until he has drained you two or three times;and finally he will deride you. Should he see you afterwards, he will forsake you,and shake his head at you. 13.9. When a powerful man invites you, be reserved;and he will invite you the more often. 13.11. Do not try to treat him as an equal,nor trust his abundance of words;for he will test you through much talk,and while he smiles he will be examining you. 13.12. Cruel is he who does not keep words to himself;he will not hesitate to injure or to imprison. 13.13. Keep words to yourself and be very watchful,for you are walking about with your own downfall. 13.15. Every creature loves its like,and every person his neighbor; 13.16. all living beings associate by species,and a man clings to one like himself. 13.17. What fellowship has a wolf with a lamb?No more has a sinner with a godly man. 13.18. What peace is there between a hyena and a dog?And what peace between a rich man and a poor man? 13.19. Wild asses in the wilderness are the prey of lions;likewise the poor are pastures for the rich. 13.21. When a rich man totters, he is steadied by friends,but when a humble man falls, he is even pushed away by friends. 13.22. If a rich man slips, his helpers are many;he speaks unseemly words, and they justify him. If a humble man slips, they even reproach him;he speaks sensibly, and receives no attention. 13.23. When the rich man speaks all are silent,and they extol to the clouds what he says. When the poor man speaks they say, "Who is this fellow?" And should he stumble, they even push him down. 13.24. Riches are good if they are free from sin,and poverty is evil in the opinion of the ungodly. 14.16. Give, and take, and beguile yourself,because in Hades one cannot look for luxury. 15.7. Foolish men will not obtain her,and sinful men will not see her. 16.1. Do not desire a multitude of useless children,nor rejoice in ungodly sons. 16.1. nor for the six hundred thousand men on foot,who rebelliously assembled in their stubbornness. 16.2. If they multiply, do not rejoice in them,unless the fear of the Lord is in them. 16.2. And no mind will reflect on this. Who will ponder his ways? 16.3. Do not trust in their survival,and do not rely on their multitude;for one is better than a thousand,and to die childless is better than to have ungodly children. 16.3. with all kinds of living beings he covered its surface,and to it they return. 16.4. For through one man of understanding a city will be filled with people,but through a tribe of lawless men it will be made desolate. 19.2. Wine and women lead intelligent men astray,and the man who consorts with harlots is very reckless. 19.2. All wisdom is the fear of the Lord,and in all wisdom there is the fulfilment of the law. 19.3. Decay and worms will inherit him,and the reckless soul will be snatched away. 19.3. A mans attire and open-mouthed laughter,and a mans manner of walking, show what he is. 31.1. Wakefulness over wealth wastes away ones flesh,and anxiety about it removes sleep. 31.1. Who has been tested by it and been found perfect?Let it be for him a ground for boasting. Who has had the power to transgress and did not transgress,and to do evil and did not do it? 31.2. Wakeful anxiety prevents slumber,and a severe illness carries off sleep. 31.2. Healthy sleep depends on moderate eating;he rises early, and feels fit. The distress of sleeplessness and of nausea and colic are with the glutton. 31.3. The rich man toils as his wealth accumulates,and when he rests he fills himself with his dainties. 31.3. Drunkenness increases the anger of a fool to his injury,reducing his strength and adding wounds. 31.4. The poor man toils as his livelihood diminishes,and when he rests he becomes needy. 31.5. He who loves gold will not be justified,and he who pursues money will be led astray by it. 31.6. Many have come to ruin because of gold,and their destruction has met them face to face. 31.7. It is a stumbling block to those who are devoted to it,and every fool will be taken captive by it. 34.24. When one prays and another curses,to whose voice will the Lord listen? 34.25. If a man washes after touching a dead body,and touches it again,what has he gained by his washing? 34.26. So if a man fasts for his sins,and goes again and does the same things,who will listen to his prayer?And what has he gained by humbling himself?
8. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 6.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.7. For we brought nothing into the world, and we certainly can't carry anything out.
9. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 102.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

11. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. יכשל בו דאמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב בשביל משקל שני סלעים מילת שהוסיף יעקב ליוסף משאר אחיו נתגלגל הדבר וירדו אבותינו למצרים אמר רבי בנימן בר יפת רמז רמז לו שעתיד בן לצאת ממנו שיצא מלפני המלך בחמשה לבושי מלכות שנאמר ומרדכי יצא בלבוש מלכות תכלת וגו',(בראשית מה, יד) ויפול על צוארי בנימן אחיו כמה צוארין הוו ליה לבנימין אמר רבי אלעזר בכה על שני מקדשים שעתידין להיות בחלקו של בנימין ועתידין ליחרב ובנימין בכה על צואריו בכה על משכן שילה שעתיד להיות בחלקו של יוסף ועתיד ליחרב,(בראשית מה, יב) והנה עיניכם רואות ועיני אחי בנימין אמר רבי אלעזר אמר להם כשם שאין בלבי על בנימין אחי שלא היה במכירתי כך אין בלבי עליכם כי פי המדבר אליכם כפי כן לבי,(בראשית מה, כג) ולאביו שלח כזאת עשרה חמורים נושאים מטוב מצרים מאי מטוב מצרים אמר ר' בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר שלח לו יין [ישן] שדעת זקנים נוחה הימנו,(בראשית נ, יח) וילכו גם אחיו ויפלו לפניו אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר היינו דאמרי אינשי תעלא בעידניה סגיד ליה,תעלא מאי בצירותיה מאחווה אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר (בראשית מז, לא) וישתחו ישראל על ראש המטה אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר תעלא בעידניה סגיד ליה,(בראשית נ, כא) וינחם אותם וידבר על לבם אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שאמר להם דברים שמתקבלין על הלב ומה עשרה נרות לא יכלו לכבות נר אחד נר אחד היאך יכול לכבות עשרה נרות,(אסתר ח, טז) ליהודים היתה אורה ושמחה וששון ויקר אמר רב יהודה אורה זו תורה וכן הוא אומר (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור שמחה זה יום טוב וכן הוא אומר (דברים טז, יד) ושמחת בחגך ששון זו מילה וכן הוא אומר (תהלים קיט, קסב) שש אנכי על אמרתך,ויקר אלו תפלין וכן הוא אומר (דברים כח, י) וראו כל עמי הארץ כי שם ה' נקרא עליך ויראו ממך ותניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר אלו תפלין שבראש,ואת פרשנדתא וגו' עשרת בני המן אמר רב אדא דמן יפו עשרת בני המן ועשרת צריך לממרינהו בנשימה אחת מאי טעמא כולהו בהדי הדדי נפקו נשמתייהו אמר רבי יוחנן ויו דויזתא צריך למימתחה בזקיפא כמורדיא דלברות מאי טעמא כולהו בחד זקיפא אזדקיפו,אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דרש ר' שילא איש כפר תמרתא כל השירות כולן נכתבות אריח על גבי לבינה ולבינה על גבי אריח,חוץ משירה זו ומלכי כנען שאריח על גבי אריח ולבינה על גבי לבינה מ"ט שלא תהא תקומה למפלתן,ויאמר המלך לאסתר המלכה בשושן הבירה הרגו היהודים אמר רבי אבהו מלמד שבא מלאך וסטרו על פיו,ובבאה לפני המלך אמר עם הספר אמר אמרה מיבעי ליה אמר רבי יוחנן אמרה לו יאמר בפה מה שכתוב בספר,דברי שלום ואמת אמר רבי תנחום ואמרי לה אמר רבי אסי מלמד שצריכה שרטוט כאמיתה של תורה,ומאמר אסתר קיים מאמר אסתר אין דברי הצומות לא אמר רבי יוחנן דברי הצומות ומאמר אסתר קיים (את ימי) הפורים האלה,כי מרדכי היהודי משנה למלך אחשורוש וגדול ליהודים ורצוי לרוב אחיו לרוב אחיו ולא לכל אחיו מלמד שפירשו ממנו מקצת סנהדרין,אמר רב יוסף גדול ת"ת יותר מהצלת נפשות דמעיקרא חשיב ליה למרדכי בתר ד' ולבסוף בתר חמשה מעיקרא כתיב (עזרא ב, ב) אשר באו עם זרובבל ישוע נחמיה שריה רעליה מרדכי בלשן ולבסוף כתיב (נחמיה ז, ז) הבאים עם זרובבל ישוע נחמיה עזריה רעמיה נחמני מרדכי בלשן,אמר רב ואיתימא רב שמואל בר מרתא גדול תלמוד תורה יותר מבנין בית המקדש שכל זמן שברוך בן נריה קיים לא הניחו עזרא ועלה,אמר רבה אמר רב יצחק בר שמואל בר מרתא גדול תלמוד תורה יותר מכבוד אב ואם שכל אותן שנים שהיה יעקב אבינו בבית עבר לא נענש דאמר מר 16b. bhehimself bshould stumbleby showing favoritism to Benjamin? bAs Rava bar Meḥaseyya saidthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya saidthat bRav said: Due tothe weight of btwo sela of fine wool that Jacobgave to Joseph, which he badded towhat he gave bJoseph beyondwhat he gave bthe rest of his brothers,as he made him his special coat, bthe story progressed and our forefathers went down to Egypt.How then could Joseph have displayed similar favoritism toward Benjamin? bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said: Hewas not showing favoritism. Rather, he bintimated to him that a descendant was destined to issue from him who would go out from the presence of the kingwearing bfive royal garments, as it is stated: “And Mordecai went forthfrom the presence of the king bin royal apparel of sky blueand white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a wrap of fine linen and purple” (Esther 8:15).,The Gemara elaborates on certain elements in the story of Joseph and his brothers. The verse states with regard to Joseph: b“And he fell on his brother Benjamin’s neck [ itzavarei/b] and wept” (Genesis 45:14). The wording of the verse gives rise to a question, as the word itzavareiis plural, meaning necks: bHow many necks did Benjamin have,such that the verse should use the plural itzavareirather than the singular itzavar /i? bRabbi Elazar said:This intimates bthatJoseph bcried over the two Temples that were destined to be in thetribal bterritory of Benjamin and were destined to be destroyed.The same verse continues: b“And Benjamin wept on his neck”(Genesis 45:14); bhe cried over the tabernacle of Shiloh that was destined to be in thetribal bterritory of Joseph and was destined to be destroyed. /b,The verse states: b“And behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin”(Genesis 45:12). bRabbi Elazar said:Joseph bsaid tohis brothers as follows: bJust as Icertainly bharbor noresentment bin my heart toward my brother Benjamin, for he was noteven bpresent when I was sold, so too, I harbor noresentment btoward you.The verse continues: b“That it is my mouth [ iki fi /i] that speaks to you”(Genesis 45:12), i.e., bAs my mouth [ ikefi /i] is, so is my heart. /b,The verse states: b“And to his father he sent after this manner ten donkeys laden with the good things of Egypt”(Genesis 45:23). The Gemara asks: bWhat are “the good things of Egypt”that are mentioned but not specified here? bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: He sent him aged wine, which the elderly find pleasing. /b,Following Jacob’s death, it states concerning Joseph: b“And his brothers even went and fell down before him”(Genesis 50:18). bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: Thisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: When the fox is in its hour, bow down to it,i.e., if a fox is appointed king, one must bow down before and submit oneself to it.,The Gemara expresses astonishment at the use of this parable: Are you calling Joseph ba fox? What, was he inferior to his brotherssuch that in relation to them you call him a fox? bRather, if such a statement was stated, it was stated as follows,not in connection with this verse, but rather in connection with a different verse. The verse states: b“And Israel bowed himself upon the head of the bed”(Genesis 47:31). With regard to this, bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: When the fox is in its hour, bow down to it,as Jacob had to bow down before his son Joseph, who had reached greatness.,It says with regard to Joseph’s remarks to his brothers: b“And he comforted them and spoke to their hearts”(Genesis 50:21). bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said:This bteaches that he spoke to them words that are acceptable to the heart,and alleviated their fears. This is what he said: bIf ten lights could not put out one light,as all of you were unable to do me harm, bhow can one light put out ten lights? /b,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the Megilla. The verse states: b“The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honor”(Esther 8:16). bRav Yehuda said: “Light”; thisis referring to the bTorahthat they once again studied. bAnd similarly it says: “For the mitzva is a lamp and the Torah is light”(Proverbs 6:23). b“Gladness” [ isimḥa /i]; thisis referring to bthe Festivalsthat they once again observed. bAnd similarly it says: “And you shall be glad [ ivesamakhta /i] on your Festival”(Deuteronomy 16:14). b“Joy” [ isasson /i]; thisis referring to bcircumcision,as they once again circumcised their sons. bAnd similarly it says: “I rejoice [ isas /i] at Your word”(Psalms 119:162), which the Sages understood as referring to David’s rejoicing over the mitzva of circumcision., b“Honor”; this isreferring to bphylacteries,which they once again donned. bAnd similarly it says: “And all peoples of the earth will see that you are called by the name of the Lord; and they will be afraid of you”(Deuteronomy 28:10). bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer the Great said: Thisis referring to bthe phylacteries worn on the head.Haman had banned the fulfillment of all the mitzvot mentioned, but upon Haman’s demise the Jews returned to their observance.,The verse states: “And in Shushan the capital the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men. bAnd Parshandatha… /band Vaizatha, bthe ten sons of Haman”(Esther 9:6–10). bRav Adda from Jaffa said:When reading the Megilla, the names of bthe ten sons of Haman andthe word b“ten” must be said in one breath. What is the reasonfor this? It is that btheir souls all departed together. Rabbi Yoḥa said:The letter ivavinthe name b“Vaizatha”is a lengthened ivavand bmust be elongated as a pole, like a steering oar of a ship [ iliberot /i]. What is the reasonfor this? To indicate that bthey were all hanged on one pole. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa saidthat bRabbi Sheila, a man of the village of Timarta, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Allof bthe songsin the Bible bare writtenin the form of ba half brick arranged upon a whole brick and a whole brick arranged upon a half brick,i.e., each line of the song is divided into a stitch of text, referred to as a half brick, which is separated by a blank space, referred to as a whole brick, from the concluding stitch of that line of text.,The next line of the song inverts the sequence. bThis is the principle for all songs in the Bible exceptfor bthis song,referring to the list of Haman’s sons, bandthe song listing bthe kings of Canaanwho were defeated by Joshua. These two songs are written in the form of ba half brick arranged upon a half brick and a whole brick arranged upon a whole brick,i.e., one stitch of text over another, and one blank space over another. bWhat is the reasonthat these two songs are written in this anomalous fashion? bSo that they should never rise from their downfall.Just as a wall that is built in this manner will not stand, so too, these individuals should have no resurgence.,The verse states: b“And the king said to Esther the queen: The Jews have slainand destroyed five hundred men bin Shushan the capital,and also the ten sons of Haman; what have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces? Now what is your petition and it shall be granted to you; and what more do you request, and it shall be done” (Esther 9:12). bRabbi Abbahu said: This teaches that an angel came and slapped him on his mouth,so that he was unable to finish what he was saying; he started with a complaint about what the Jews were doing, but ended on an entirely different note.,The verse states: b“But when she came before the king, he said with a letter”(Esther 9:25). Why does it say: b“He said”? It should have said: “She said,”as it was Esther who changed the decree. bRabbi Yoḥa said: She said toAhasuerus: bLet it be said byword of bmouth,indicating that bthat which is written in the lettershould also be ordered verbally.,With regard to what is stated: b“Words of peace and truth”(Esther 9:30), bRabbi Tanḥum said, and some saythat bRabbi Asisaid: This bteaches thata Megilla scroll brequires scoring,i.e., that the lines for the text must be scored onto the parchment, bas the Torah itself,i.e., as is done in a Torah scroll.,The verses say: “The matters of the fasts and their cry. bAnd the decree of Esther confirmedthese matters of Purim” (Esther 9:31–32). The Gemara asks: Should we say that b“the decree of Esther” indeedconfirmed these matters of Purim, but b“the matters of the fasts”did bnot?But didn’t the fasts also contribute to the miracle? bRabbi Yoḥa said:These two verses, b“The matters of the fastsand their cry. bAnd the decree of Esther confirmed these matters of Purim,”should be read as one.,The verse states: b“For Mordecai the Jew was second to the king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted by the majority of his brethren”(Esther 10:3). The Gemara comments: The verse indicates that Mordecai was accepted only b“By the majority of his brethren,” but not by all his brethren.This bteaches that somemembers bof the Sanhedrin parted from him,because he occupied himself with community needs, and was therefore compelled to neglect his Torah study. They felt that this was a mistake and that he should have remained active on the Sanhedrin., bRav Yosef said: Studying Torah is greater than saving lives, as initially,when listing the Jewish leaders who came to Eretz Yisrael, bMordecai was mentioned after fourother people, bbut at the endhe was listed bafter five.This is taken to indicate that his involvement in governmental affairs instead of in Torah study lowered his stature one notch. The Gemara proves this: bAt first it is written: “Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai, Bilshan”(Ezra 2:2); bbut in the endin a later list bit is written: “Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Azariah, Raamiah, Nahmani, Mordecai, Bilshan”(Nehemiah 7:7)., bRav said, and some saythat bRav Shmuel bar Martasaid: bStudying Torah is greaterand more important bthan building the Temple.A proof of this is that bfor as long as Baruch ben Neriah was alivein Babylonia, bEzra,who was his disciple, bdid not leave him and go upto Eretz Yisrael to build the Temple., bRabba saidthat bRav Yitzḥak bar Shmuel bar Marta said: Studying Torah isgreater and bmoreimportant bthan honoring one’s father and mother,and a proof of this is bthat for all those years that our father Jacob spent in the house of Eberand studied Torah there bhe was not punishedfor having neglected to fulfill the mitzva of honoring one’s parents. bAs the Master said: /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29a. אנת צבית לחרובי ביתא ידך אשלימת ליה,בתשעה באב נגזר על אבותינו שלא יכנסו לארץ מנלן דכתיב (שמות מ, יז) ויהי בחדש הראשון בשנה השנית באחד לחדש הוקם המשכן ואמר מר שנה ראשונה עשה משה את המשכן שניה הקים משה את המשכן ושלח מרגלים וכתיב (במדבר י, יא) ויהי בשנה השנית בחדש השני בעשרים בחדש נעלה הענן מעל משכן העדות,וכתיב (במדבר י, לג) ויסעו מהר ה' דרך שלשת ימים אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא אותו היום סרו מאחרי ה' וכתיב (במדבר יא, ד) והאספסוף אשר בקרבו התאוו תאוה וישובו ויבכו גם בני ישראל וגו' וכתיב (במדבר יא, כ) עד חדש ימים וגו' דהוו להו עשרין ותרתין בסיון,וכתיב (במדבר יב, טו) ותסגר מרים שבעת ימים דהוו להו עשרין ותשעה בסיון וכתיב (במדבר יג, ב) שלח לך אנשים,ותניא בעשרים ותשעה בסיון שלח משה מרגלים וכתיב (במדבר יג, כה) וישובו מתור הארץ מקץ ארבעים יום הני ארבעים יום נכי חד הוו,אמר אביי תמוז דההיא שתא מלויי מליוה דכתיב (איכה א, טו) קרא עלי מועד לשבור בחורי,וכתיב (במדבר יד, א) ותשא כל העדה ויתנו את קולם ויבכו העם בלילה ההוא אמר רבה אמר ר' יוחנן (אותו היום ערב) תשעה באב היה אמר להם הקב"ה אתם בכיתם בכיה של חנם ואני קובע לכם בכיה לדורות,חרב הבית בראשונה דכתיב (מלכים ב כה, ח) ובחדש החמישי בשבעה לחדש היא שנת תשע עשרה [שנה] למלך נבוכדנצר מלך בבל בא נבוזראדן רב טבחים עבד מלך בבל ירושלם וישרוף את בית ה' וגו' וכתיב (ירמיהו נב, יב) ובחדש החמישי בעשור לחדש היא שנת תשע עשרה [שנה] למלך נבוכדנצר מלך בבל בא נבוזראדן רב טבחים עמד לפני מלך בבל בירושלם וגו',ותניא אי אפשר לומר בשבעה שהרי כבר נאמר בעשור ואי אפשר לומר בעשור שהרי כבר נאמר בשבעה הא כיצד בשבעה נכנסו נכרים להיכל ואכלו וקלקלו בו שביעי שמיני,ותשיעי סמוך לחשכה הציתו בו את האור והיה דולק והולך כל היום כולו שנאמר (ירמיהו ו, ד) אוי לנו כי פנה היום כי ינטו צללי ערב והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן אלמלי הייתי באותו הדור לא קבעתיו אלא בעשירי מפני שרובו של היכל בו נשרף ורבנן אתחלתא דפורענותא עדיפא,ובשניה מנלן דתניא מגלגלין זכות ליום זכאי וחובה ליום חייב,אמרו כשחרב בית המקדש בראשונה אותו היום ערב תשעה באב היה ומוצאי שבת היה ומוצאי שביעית היתה ומשמרתה של יהויריב היתה והלוים היו אומרי' שירה ועומדין על דוכנם ומה שירה היו אומרים (תהלים צד, כג) וישב עליהם את אונם וברעתם יצמיתם ולא הספיקו לומר יצמיתם ה' אלהינו עד שבאו נכרים וכבשום וכן בשניה,נלכדה ביתר גמרא,נחרשה העיר תניא כשחרב טורנוסרופוס הרשע את ההיכל נגזרה גזרה על רבן גמליאל להריגה בא אדון אחד ועמד בבית המדרש ואמר בעל החוטם מתבקש בעל החוטם מתבקש שמע רבן גמליאל אזל טשא מינייהו,אזל לגביה בצנעא א"ל אי מצילנא לך מייתית לי לעלמא דאתי א"ל הן א"ל אשתבע לי אשתבע ליה סליק לאיגרא נפיל ומית וגמירי דכי גזרי גזירתא ומית חד מינייהו מבטלי לגזרתייהו יצתה בת קול ואמרה אדון זה מזומן לחיי העולם הבא,תנו רבנן משחרב הבית בראשונה נתקבצו כיתות כיתות של פרחי כהונה ומפתחות ההיכל בידן ועלו לגג ההיכל ואמרו לפניו רבונו של עולם הואיל ולא זכינו להיות גזברין נאמנים יהיו מפתחות מסורות לך וזרקום כלפי מעלה ויצתה כעין פיסת יד וקיבלתן מהם והם קפצו ונפלו לתוך האור,ועליהן קונן ישעיהו הנביא (ישעיהו כב, א) משא גיא חזיון מה לך איפוא כי עלית כולך לגגות תשואות מלאה עיר הומיה קריה עליזה חלליך לא חללי חרב ולא מתי מלחמה אף בהקב"ה נאמר (ישעיהו כב, ה) מקרקר קיר ושוע אל ההר:,משנכנס אב ממעטין בשמחה כו' אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב כשם שמשנכנס אב ממעטין בשמחה כך משנכנס אדר מרבין בשמחה 29a. bYou want to destroy the Temple; I have given you your hand.It is as though one idol said to the other: You are seeking to destroy the Temple by causing Israel to pray to you; I, too, give you a hand to assist you.,§ The mishna taught: bOn the Ninth of Av, it was decreed upon our ancestors that they would not enter EretzYisrael. The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bAs it is written: “And it came to pass in the first month in the second year, on the first day of the month, that the Tabernacle was erected”(Exodus 40:17). bAnd the Master said:In the bfirst yearafter leaving Egypt, bMoses built the Tabernacle.At the beginning of the bsecondyear, bMoses erected the Tabernacle and sentthe bspies. And it is written: “And it came to pass in the second year in the second month, on the twentieth day of the month, that the cloud was taken up from the Tabernacle of the Testimony”(Numbers 10:11)., bAnd it isfurther bwritten: “And they set forward from the mount of the Lord three days’ journey”(Numbers 10:33). bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: Thatvery bday, they turned away from Godby displaying their anxiety about leaving Mount Sinai. bAnd it is written: “And the mixed multitude that was among them fell a lusting, and the children of Israel also wept on their part,and said: Would that we were given flesh to eat” (Numbers 11:4). bAnd it is writtenthat the Jews ate the meat b“for an entire month”(Numbers 11:20). If one adds to the first twenty days an additional three days’ journey, bthese aretwenty-three days. Consequently, the subsequent month of twenty-nine days of eating meat ended bon the twenty-second of Sivan. /b,After this, the Jews traveled to Hazeroth, where Miriam was afflicted with leprosy, band it is written: “And Miriam was shut out of the camp for seven days,and the people did not journey until Miriam was brought in again” (Numbers 12:15). Including btheseseven days, they remained in Hazeroth until bthe twenty-ninth of Sivanbefore traveling on to Paran, band it is writtenimmediately afterward: b“Send you men, that they may spy out the land of Canaan”(Numbers 13:2)., bAndthis calculation bis taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOn the twenty-ninth of Sivan, Moses sentthe bspies. And it is written: “And they returned from spying out the land at the end of forty days”(Numbers 13:25), which means that they came back on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara asks: bThese are forty days minus one.The remaining days of the days of Sivan, the entire month of Tammuz, and eight days of Av add up to a total of thirty-nine days, not forty., bAbaye said: The month of Tammuz of that year was a fullmonth of thirty days. Accordingly, there are exactly forty days until the Ninth of Av. bAndthis is alluded to in the following verse, bas it is written: “He has called an appointed time against me to crush my young men”(Lamentations 1:15). This indicates that an additional appointed day, i.e., a New Moon, was added so that this calamity would fall specifically on the Ninth of Av., bAnd it isfurther bwritten: “And all the congregation lifted up their voice and cried and the people wept that night”(Numbers 14:1). bRabba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: That night was the night of the Ninth of Av. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: You wept needlesslythat night, band Iwill therefore bestablish for youa true tragedy over which there will be bweeping infuture bgenerations. /b,§ The mishna further taught that on the Ninth of Av bthe Temple was destroyed the first time.The Gemara explains that this is bas it is written: “And in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, a servant of the King of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. And he burnt the house of the Lord”(II Kings 25:8–9). bAnd it isalso bwritten: “And in the fifth month, on the tenth day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan, captain of the guard, who served the king of Babylon, came into Jerusalem.And he burnt the house of the Lord” (Jeremiah 52:12–13)., bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIt is impossible to saythat the Temple was burned bon the seventhof Av, bas it has already been stated,in Jeremiah, that it was destroyed bon the tenth. And it isalso bimpossible to saythat the Temple was burned bon the tenthof Av, bas it has already been statedthat it was destroyed bon the seventh,in II Kings 25:8–9. bHow so;what actually occurred? bOn the seventhof Av, bgentiles entered the Sanctuary, and on the seventh and the eighth they atethere band desecrated it,by engaging in acts of fornication., bAndon bthe ninth, adjacent to nightfall, they set fire to it, and it continuously burned the entire day, as it is stated: “Woe unto us, for the day has declined, for the shadows of the evening are stretched out”(Jeremiah 4:6). This verse is interpreted as a prophecy about the evening when the Temple was burned. bAnd this iswhat bRabbi Yoḥameant when he bsaid: Had I beenalive bin that generation, I would have establishedthe fast bonly on the tenthof Av bbecause most of the Sanctuary was burned on thatday. bAnd the Sages,who established the fast on the ninth, how do they respond to that comment? They maintain that it is bpreferableto mark bthe beginning of the tragedy. /b, bAndthe mishna further taught that the Temple was destroyed bfor the second timealso on the Ninth of Av. The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive that the Second Temple was destroyed on this date? bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA meritoriousmatter bis brought about on an auspicious day, and a deleteriousmatter bon an inauspicious day,e.g., the Ninth of Av, on which several tragedies had already occurred.,The Sages bsaid: When the Temple was destroyed for the first time, that day was the Ninth of Av; and it was the conclusion of Shabbat; and it was the year after a Sabbatical Year; and it was the week of the priestly watch of Jehoiarib; and the Levites were singingthe bsong and standing on their platform. And what song were they singing?They were singing the verse: b“And He brought upon them their own iniquity, and He will cut them off in their own evil”(Psalms 94:23). bAnd they did not manage to recitethe end of the verse: b“The Lord our God will cut them off,” before gentiles came and conquered them. And likewise,the same happened bwhen the SecondTemple was destroyed.,The mishna teaches that bBeitar was capturedon the Ninth of Av. The Gemara explains that this is known by btradition. /b,§ The mishna taught that on the Ninth of Av bthe cityof Jerusalem bwas plowed. It is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhen the wicked Turnus Rufus plowed the Sanctuary, a decree was issued against Rabban Gamliel for execution. A certain Roman officer came and stood in the study hall and saidsurreptitiously: bThe man with the nose is wanted; the man with the nose is wanted.This was a hint that Rabban Gamliel, who stood out in his generation like a nose protruding from a face, was sought by the government. Rabban Gamliel bheard and went into hiding. /b,The Roman officer bwent to him in private, and said to him: If I save youfrom death, will byou bring me into the World-to-Come?Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: Yes.The officer bsaid toRabban Gamliel: bSwear to me. He swore to him.The officer bascended to the roof, fell, and died. Andthe Romans had ba tradition that when they issued a decree and oneof their advisors bdied, they would cancel the decree.The officer’s sacrifice saved Rabban Gamliel’s life. bA Divine Voice emerged and said: That officer is designated forthe blife of the World-to-Come. /b, bThe Sages taught: When the Temple was destroyed for the first time, many groups of young priests gathered together with the Temple keys in their hands. And they ascended to the roof of the Sanctuary and said beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, since we did not merit to be faithful treasurers,and the Temple is being destroyed, bletthe Temple bkeys be handed to You. And they threw them upward, and a kind of palm of a hand emerged and receivedthe keys bfrom them. And the young priests jumpedfrom the roof band fell into the fireof the burning Temple., bAnd the prophet Isaiah lamented over them: “The burden of the Valley of Vision. What ails you now that you have all gone up to the roofs? You that were full of uproar, a tumultuous city, a joyous town, your slain are not slain with the sword, nor dead in battle”(Isaiah 22:1–2). This is referring to the young priests who died by throwing themselves off the roof into the fire. bAnd even with regard to the Holy One, Blessed be He, it is stated:“For it is a day of trouble, and of trampling, and of confusion for the Lord of hosts, in the Valley of Vision; ba shouting over walls and a cry to the mountain”(Isaiah 22:5). This verse indicates that even God shouts over the destruction of the Temple.,§ The mishna teaches that bfrom whenthe month of bAv begins, one decreasesacts of brejoicing. Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: Just as when Av begins one decreases rejoicing, so too whenthe month of bAdar begins, one increases rejoicing. /b
13. Pseudo-Phocylides, The Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides, 110

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
apocalypticism Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 289
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, 2 baruch Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 289
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, rabbinic allusions and informal borrowing Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 289
cattle, as possessions Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
children Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 101
death, of sinners Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
death Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 94, 101
envy Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 94, 101
evil Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 94, 101
fear Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
fear of god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 94, 101
glory Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
god, most high Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
god Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 94, 101, 140
hades Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
heart Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
hellenism/hellenization Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
jerusalem Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
justice Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 94
law of moses Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 101
life / afterlife Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
messianism, apocalyptic Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 289
motifs, shared, second temple and rabbinic literature Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 289
mountains Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
mythology, greek Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 289
palestine Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
parallelism Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 94, 101
poor Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
pride Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 94, 101, 140
priesthood Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
prophets Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 101
prosperity Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 101
ptolemies Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
remember Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
rich Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
rulers Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
sacrifice Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
sapiential (wisdom) literature Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
satan, scribe, retainer class of Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 70
second temple literature, allusions in rabbinic works Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 289
second temple literature Hayes, The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning (2022) 289
seleucids Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
sheol Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
sin/sinners Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 101
taxation Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
theology, of retribution Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 70
tobiads Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 140
waters Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
wealth/prosperity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
wealth Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 70
wife Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 94, 101
wine Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 94
wisdom/wise Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 101
wisdom Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
woman/women, mothers' Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 264
word-pairs Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 101