|1. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 53.7, 66.24 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 53.7. נִגַּשׂ וְהוּא נַעֲנֶה וְלֹא יִפְתַּח־פִּיו כַּשֶּׂה לַטֶּבַח יוּבָל וּכְרָחֵל לִפְנֵי גֹזְזֶיהָ נֶאֱלָמָה וְלֹא יִפְתַּח פִּיו׃ 66.24. וְיָצְאוּ וְרָאוּ בְּפִגְרֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים הַפֹּשְׁעִים בִּי כִּי תוֹלַעְתָּם לֹא תָמוּת וְאִשָּׁם לֹא תִכְבֶּה וְהָיוּ דֵרָאוֹן לְכָל־בָּשָׂר׃
| 53.7. He was oppressed, though he humbled himself And opened not his mouth; As a lamb that is led to the slaughter, And as a sheep that before her shearers is dumb; Yea, he opened not his mouth." 66.24. And they shall go forth, and look Upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against Me; For their worm shall not die, Neither shall their fire be quenched; And they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh. "
|2. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 38.22 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
| 38.22. וְנִשְׁפַּטְתִּי אִתּוֹ בְּדֶבֶר וּבְדָם וְגֶשֶׁם שׁוֹטֵף וְאַבְנֵי אֶלְגָּבִישׁ אֵשׁ וְגָפְרִית אַמְטִיר עָלָיו וְעַל־אֲגַפָּיו וְעַל־עַמִּים רַבִּים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ׃
| 38.22. And I will plead against him with pestilence and with blood; and I will cause to rain upon him, and upon his bands, and upon the many peoples that are with him, an overflowing shower, and great hailstones, fire, and brimstone."
|3. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 24.17-24.25 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
| 24.17. וְאַחֲרֵי מוֹת יְהוֹיָדָע בָּאוּ שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַמֶּלֶךְ אָז שָׁמַע הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 24.18. וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרִים וְאֶת־הָעֲצַבִּים וַיְהִי־קֶצֶף עַל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם בְּאַשְׁמָתָם זֹאת׃ 24.19. וַיִּשְׁלַח בָּהֶם נְבִאִים לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֶל־יְהוָה וַיָּעִידוּ בָם וְלֹא הֶאֱזִינוּ׃ 24.21. וַיִּקְשְׁרוּ עָלָיו וַיִּרְגְּמֻהוּ אֶבֶן בְּמִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֲצַר בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 24.22. וְלֹא־זָכַר יוֹאָשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוֹיָדָע אָבִיו עִמּוֹ וַיַּהֲרֹג אֶת־בְּנוֹ וּכְמוֹתוֹ אָמַר יֵרֶא יְהוָה וְיִדְרֹשׁ׃ 24.23. וַיְהִי לִתְקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה עָלָה עָלָיו חֵיל אֲרָם וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּשְׁחִיתוּ אֶת־כָּל־שָׂרֵי הָעָם מֵעָם וְכָל־שְׁלָלָם שִׁלְּחוּ לְמֶלֶךְ דַּרְמָשֶׂק׃ 24.24. כִּי בְמִצְעַר אֲנָשִׁים בָּאוּ חֵיל אֲרָם וַיהוָה נָתַן בְּיָדָם חַיִל לָרֹב מְאֹד כִּי עָזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וְאֶת־יוֹאָשׁ עָשׂוּ שְׁפָטִים׃ 24.25. וּבְלֶכְתָּם מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי־עָזְבוּ אֹתוֹ במחליים [בְּמַחֲלוּיִם] רַבִּים הִתְקַשְּׁרוּ עָלָיו עֲבָדָיו בִּדְמֵי בְּנֵי יְהוֹיָדָע הַכֹּהֵן וַיַּהַרְגֻהוּ עַל־מִטָּתוֹ וַיָּמֹת וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בְּעִיר דָּוִיד וְלֹא קְבָרֻהוּ בְּקִבְרוֹת הַמְּלָכִים׃
| 24.17. Now after the death of Jehoiada came the princes of Judah, and prostrated themselves before the king. Then the king hearkened unto them." 24.18. And they forsook the house of the LORD, the God of their fathers, and served the Asherim and the idols; and wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for this their guiltiness." 24.19. Yet He sent prophets to them, to bring them back unto the LORD; and they admonished them, but they would not give ear." 24.20. And the spirit of God clothed Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest; and he stood above the people, and said unto them: ‘Thus saith God: Why transgress ye the commandments of the LORD, that ye cannot prosper? because ye have forsaken the LORD, He hath also forsaken you.’" 24.21. And they conspired against him, and stoned him with stones at the commandment of the king in the court of the house of the LORD." 24.22. Thus Joash the king remembered not the kindness which Jehoiada his father had done to him, but slew his son. And when he died, he said: ‘The LORD look upon it, and require it.’" 24.23. And it came to pass, when the year was come about, that the army of the Arameans came up against him; and they came to Judah and Jerusalem, and destroyed all the princes of the people from among the people, and sent all the spoil of them unto the king of Damascus." 24.24. For the army of the Arameans came with a small company of men; and the LORD delivered a very great host into their hand, because they had forsaken the LORD, the God of their fathers. So they executed judgment upon Joash." 24.25. And when they were departed from him—for they left him in great diseases—his own servants conspired against him for the blood of the sons of Jehoiada the priest, and slew him on his bed, and he died; and they buried him in the city of David, but they buried him not in the sepulchres of the kings."
|4. Anon., 1 Enoch, 10.6, 18.15, 21.3-21.10, 54.1-54.2, 54.6, 90.24-90.25, 91.9, 98.3, 99.6, 99.8-99.9, 99.14, 100.7, 100.9, 103.8, 104.9, 108.3-108.5 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
| 21.3. a heaven above nor a firmly founded earth, but a place chaotic and horrible. And there I saw 21.4. even stars of the heaven bound together in it, like great mountains and burning with fire. Then 21.5. I said: 'For what sin are they bound, and on what account have they been cast in hither' Then said Uriel, one of the holy angels, who was with me, and was chief over them, and said: 'Enoch, why 21.6. dost thou ask, and why art thou eager for the truth These are of the number of the stars of heaven, which have transgressed the commandment of the Lord, and are bound here till ten thousand years 21.7. the time entailed by their sins, are consummated.' And from thence I went to another place, which was still more horrible than the former, and I saw a horrible thing: a great fire there which burnt and blazed, and the place was cleft as far as the abyss, being full of great descending columns of 21.8. fire: neither its extent or magnitude could I see, nor could I conjecture. Then I said: 'How 21.9. fearful is the place and how terrible to look upon!' Then Uriel answered me, one of the holy angels who was with me, and said unto me: 'Enoch, why hast thou such fear and affright' And 54.1. And I looked and turned to another part of the earth, and saw there a deep valley with burning 54.1. on the earth and those who dwell under the ends of the heaven. And when they have recognized their unrighteousness which they have wrought on the earth, then by these shall they perish. 54.2. fire. And they brought the kings and the mighty, and began to cast them into this deep valley. 54.6. And Michael, and Gabriel, and Raphael, and Phanuel shall take hold of them on that great day, and cast them on that day into the burning furnace, that the Lord of Spirits may take vengeance on them for their unrighteousness in becoming subject to Satan and leading astray those who dwell on the earth.' 90.24. And the judgement was held first over the stars, and they were judged and found guilty, and went to the place of condemnation, and they were cast into an abyss, full of fire and flaming, and full 90.25. of pillars of fire. And those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty, and they were cast 91.9. And all the idols of the heathen shall be abandoned, And the temples burned with fire, And they shall remove them from the whole earth,And they (i.e. the heathen) shall be cast into the judgement of fire, And shall perish in wrath and in grievous judgement for ever. 98.3. Therefore they shall be wanting in doctrine and wisdom, And they shall perish thereby together with their possessions; And with all their glory and their splendour, And in shame and in slaughter and in great destitution, Their spirits shall be cast into the furnace of fire. 98.3. off your necks and slay you, and have no mercy upon you. Woe to you who rejoice in the tribulation of the righteous; for no grave shall be dug for you. Woe to you who set at nought the words of 99.8. And they shall become godless by reason of the folly of their hearts, And their eyes shall be blinded through the fear of their hearts And through visions in their dreams. 99.9. Through these they shall become godless and fearful; For they shall have wrought all their work in a lie, And shall have worshiped a stone: Therefore in an instant shall they perish. 99.14. Woe to them who reject the measure and eternal heritage of their fathers And whose souls follow after idols; For they shall have no rest. 100.7. Woe to you, Sinners, on the day of strong anguish, Ye who afflict the righteous and burn them with fire: Ye shall be requited according to your works. 100.9. Woe to you, ye sinners, on account of the words of your mouth, And on account of the deeds of your hands which your godlessness as wrought, In blazing flames burning worse than fire shall ye burn. 103.8. And into darkness and chains and a burning flame where there is grievous judgement shall your spirits enter; And the great judgement shall be for all the generations of the world. Woe to you, for ye shall have no peace. 104.9. day and night, see all your sins. Be not godless in your hearts, and lie not and alter not the words of uprightness, nor charge with lying the words of the Holy Great One, nor take account of your 108.5. mountains circling and sweeping to and fro. And I asked one of the holy angels who was with me and said unto him: ' What is this shining thing for it is not a heaven but only the flame of a blazing
|5. Anon., Testament of Moses, 9.6-9.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)
|6. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.2-12.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
| 12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 12.3. וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃
| 12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence." 12.3. And they that are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn the many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever."
|7. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.6, 7.14-7.16, 7.19, 7.31-7.36, 9.1-9.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
| 7.6. The Lord God is watching over us and in truth has compassion on us, as Moses declared in his song which bore witness against the people to their faces, when he said, `And he will have compassion on his servants.'' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 7.15. Next they brought forward the fifth and maltreated him. 7.16. But he looked at the king, and said, 'Because you have authority among men, mortal though you are, you do what you please. But do not think that God has forsaken our people.' 7.19. But do not think that you will go unpunished for having tried to fight against God!' 7.31. But you, who have contrived all sorts of evil against the Hebrews, will certainly not escape the hands of God.' 7.32. For we are suffering because of our own sins. 7.33. And if our living Lord is angry for a little while, to rebuke and discipline us, he will again be reconciled with his own servants.' 7.34. But you, unholy wretch, you most defiled of all men, do not be elated in vain and puffed up by uncertain hopes, when you raise your hand against the children of heaven.' 7.35. You have not yet escaped the judgment of the almighty, all-seeing God.' 7.36. For our brothers after enduring a brief suffering have drunk of everflowing life under God's covet; but you, by the judgment of God, will receive just punishment for your arrogance.' 9.1. About that time, as it happened, Antiochus had retreated in disorder from the region of Persia.' 9.2. For he had entered the city called Persepolis, and attempted to rob the temples and control the city. Therefore the people rushed to the rescue with arms, and Antiochus and his men were defeated, with the result that Antiochus was put to flight by the inhabitants and beat a shameful retreat.' 9.3. While he was in Ecbatana, news came to him of what had happened to Nicanor and the forces of Timothy.' 9.4. Transported with rage, he conceived the idea of turning upon the Jews the injury done by those who had put him to flight; so he ordered his charioteer to drive without stopping until he completed the journey. But the judgment of heaven rode with him! For in his arrogance he said, 'When I get there I will make Jerusalem a cemetery of Jews.' 9.5. But the all-seeing Lord, the God of Israel, struck him an incurable and unseen blow. As soon as he ceased speaking he was seized with a pain in his bowels for which there was no relief and with sharp internal tortures --' 9.6. and that very justly, for he had tortured the bowels of others with many and strange inflictions.' 9.7. Yet he did not in any way stop his insolence, but was even more filled with arrogance, breathing fire in his rage against the Jews, and giving orders to hasten the journey. And so it came about that he fell out of his chariot as it was rushing along, and the fall was so hard as to torture every limb of his body.' 9.8. Thus he who had just been thinking that he could command the waves of the sea, in his superhuman arrogance, and imagining that he could weigh the high mountains in a balance, was brought down to earth and carried in a litter, making the power of God manifest to all.' 9.9. And so the ungodly man's body swarmed with worms, and while he was still living in anguish and pain, his flesh rotted away, and because of his stench the whole army felt revulsion at his decay.' 9.10. Because of his intolerable stench no one was able to carry the man who a little while before had thought that he could touch the stars of heaven. 9.11. Then it was that, broken in spirit, he began to lose much of his arrogance and to come to his senses under the scourge of God, for he was tortured with pain every moment.' 9.12. And when he could not endure his own stench, he uttered these words: 'It is right to be subject to God, and no mortal should think that he is equal to God.' 9.13. Then the abominable fellow made a vow to the Lord, who would no longer have mercy on him, stating' 9.14. that the holy city, which he was hastening to level to the ground and to make a cemetery, he was now declaring to be free;' 9.15. and the Jews, whom he had not considered worth burying but had planned to throw out with their children to the beasts, for the birds to pick, he would make, all of them, equal to citizens of Athens;' 9.16. and the holy sanctuary, which he had formerly plundered, he would adorn with the finest offerings; and the holy vessels he would give back, all of them, many times over; and the expenses incurred for the sacrifices he would provide from his own revenues;' 9.17. and in addition to all this he also would become a Jew and would visit every inhabited place to proclaim the power of God. 9.18. But when his sufferings did not in any way abate, for the judgment of God had justly come upon him, he gave up all hope for himself and wrote to the Jews the following letter, in the form of a supplication. This was its content:' 9.19. To his worthy Jewish citizens, Antiochus their king and general sends hearty greetings and good wishes for their health and prosperity.' 9.20. If you and your children are well and your affairs are as you wish, I am glad. As my hope is in heaven,' 9.21. I remember with affection your esteem and good will. On my way back from the region of Persia I suffered an annoying illness, and I have deemed it necessary to take thought for the general security of all.' 9.22. I do not despair of my condition, for I have good hope of recovering from my illness,' 9.23. but I observed that my father, on the occasions when he made expeditions into the upper country, appointed his successor,' 9.24. o that, if anything unexpected happened or any unwelcome news came, the people throughout the realm would not be troubled, for they would know to whom the government was left.' 9.25. Moreover, I understand how the princes along the borders and the neighbors to my kingdom keep watching for opportunities and waiting to see what will happen. So I have appointed my son Antiochus to be king, whom I have often entrusted and commended to most of you when I hastened off to the upper provinces; and I have written to him what is written here.' 9.26. I therefore urge and beseech you to remember the public and private services rendered to you and to maintain your present good will, each of you, toward me and my son.' 9.27. For I am sure that he will follow my policy and will treat you with moderation and kindness.' 9.28. So the murderer and blasphemer, having endured the more intense suffering, such as he had inflicted on others, came to the end of his life by a most pitiable fate, among the mountains in a strange land.'
|8. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 21.9, 44.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
| 21.9. An assembly of the wicked is like tow gathered together,and their end is a flame of fire.
|9. Septuagint, Judith, 16.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
| 16.17. Woe to the nations that rise up against my people! The Lord Almighty will take vengeance on them in the day of judgment; fire and worms he will give to their flesh; they shall weep in pain for ever.
|10. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.10-3.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
| 3.10. But the ungodly will be punished as their reasoning deserves,who disregarded the righteous man and rebelled against the Lord; 3.11. for whoever despises wisdom and instruction is miserable. Their hope is vain, their labors are unprofitable,and their works are useless. 3.12. Their wives are foolish, and their children evil; 3.13. their offspring are accursed. For blessed is the barren woman who is undefiled,who has not entered into a sinful union;she will have fruit when God examines souls. 3.14. Blessed also is the eunuch whose hands have done no lawless deed,and who has not devised wicked things against the Lord;for special favor will be shown him for his faithfulness,and a place of great delight in the temple of the Lord. 3.15. For the fruit of good labors is renowned,and the root of understanding does not fail. 3.16. But children of adulterers will not come to maturity,and the offspring of an unlawful union will perish. 3.17. Even if they live long they will be held of no account,and finally their old age will be without honor. 3.18. If they die young, they will have no hope and no consolation in the day of decision. 3.19. For the end of an unrighteous generation is grievous.
|11. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 1.1, 6.17-6.22, 6.28-6.29, 9.6-9.8, 9.10, 9.12-9.15, 9.17-9.21, 9.24, 9.32, 10.11, 10.16, 10.21, 11.3, 12.12, 12.18, 13.12, 13.14-13.15, 13.17, 14.20, 15.29, 17.6, 17.12, 17.21, 18.5, 18.11-18.19, 18.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
| 1.1. The subject that I am about to discuss is most philosophical, that is, whether devout reason is sovereign over the emotions. So it is right for me to advise you to pay earnest attention to philosophy. 6.17. May we, the children of Abraham, never think so basely that out of cowardice we feign a role unbecoming to us! 6.18. For it would be irrational if we, who have lived in accordance with truth to old age and have maintained in accordance with law the reputation of such a life, should now change our course 6.19. become a pattern of impiety to the young, in becoming an example of the eating of defiling food. 6.20. It would be shameful if we should survive for a little while and during that time be a laughing stock to all for our cowardice 6.21. and if we should be despised by the tyrant as unmanly, and not protect our divine law even to death. 6.22. Therefore, O children of Abraham, die nobly for your religion! 6.28. Be merciful to your people, and let our punishment suffice for them. 6.29. Make my blood their purification, and take my life in exchange for theirs. 9.6. And if the aged men of the Hebrews because of their religion lived piously while enduring torture, it would be even more fitting that we young men should die despising your coercive tortures, which our aged instructor also overcame. 9.7. Therefore, tyrant, put us to the test; and if you take our lives because of our religion, do not suppose that you can injure us by torturing us. 9.8. For we, through this severe suffering and endurance, shall have the prize of virtue and shall be with God, for whom we suffer; 9.10. When they had said these things the tyrant not only was angry, as at those who are disobedient, but also was enraged, as at those who are ungrateful. 9.12. When they had worn themselves out beating him with scourges, without accomplishing anything, they placed him upon the wheel. 9.13. When the noble youth was stretched out around this, his limbs were dislocated 9.14. and though broken in every member he denounced the tyrant, saying 9.15. Most abominable tyrant, enemy of heavenly justice, savage of mind, you are mangling me in this manner, not because I am a murderer, or as one who acts impiously, but because I protect the divine law. 9.17. he replied, "You abominable lackeys, your wheel is not so powerful as to strangle my reason. Cut my limbs, burn my flesh, and twist my joints. 9.18. Through all these tortures I will convince you that sons of the Hebrews alone are invincible where virtue is concerned. 9.19. While he was saying these things, they spread fire under him, and while fanning the flames they tightened the wheel further. 9.20. The wheel was completely smeared with blood, and the heap of coals was being quenched by the drippings of gore, and pieces of flesh were falling off the axles of the machine. 9.21. Although the ligaments joining his bones were already severed, the courageous youth, worthy of Abraham, did not groan 9.24. Fight the sacred and noble battle for religion. Thereby the just Providence of our ancestors may become merciful to our nation and take vengeance on the accursed tyrant. 9.32. but you suffer torture by the threats that come from impiety. You will not escape, most abominable tyrant, the judgments of the divine wrath. 10.11. but you, because of your impiety and bloodthirstiness, will undergo unceasing torments. 10.16. Contrive tortures, tyrant, so that you may learn from them that I am a brother to those who have just been tortured. 10.21. God will visit you swiftly, for you are cutting out a tongue that has been melodious with divine hymns. 11.3. I have come of my own accord, so that by murdering me you will incur punishment from the heavenly justice for even more crimes. 12.12. Because of this, justice has laid up for you intense and eternal fire and tortures, and these throughout all time will never let you go. 12.18. but on you he will take vengeance both in this present life and when you are dead. 13.12. and another reminded them, "Remember whence you came, and the father by whose hand Isaac would have submitted to being slain for the sake of religion. 13.14. Let us not fear him who thinks he is killing us 13.15. for great is the struggle of the soul and the danger of eternal torment lying before those who transgress the commandment of God. 13.17. For if we so die, Abraham and Isaac and Jacob will welcome us, and all the fathers will praise us. 14.20. But sympathy for her children did not sway the mother of the young men; she was of the same mind as Abraham. 15.29. O mother of the nation, vindicator of the law and champion of religion, who carried away the prize of the contest in your heart! 17.6. For your children were true descendants of father Abraham. 17.12. for on that day virtue gave the awards and tested them for their endurance. The prize was immortality in endless life. 17.21. the tyrant was punished, and the homeland purified -- they having become, as it were, a ransom for the sin of our nation. 18.5. The tyrant Antiochus was both punished on earth and is being chastised after his death. Since in no way whatever was he able to compel the Israelites to become pagans and to abandon their ancestral customs, he left Jerusalem and marched against the Persians. 18.11. He read to you about Abel slain by Cain, and Isaac who was offered as a burnt offering, and of Joseph in prison. 18.12. He told you of the zeal of Phineas, and he taught you about Haiah, Azariah, and Mishael in the fire. 18.13. He praised Daniel in the den of the lions and blessed him. 18.14. He reminded you of the scripture of Isaiah, which says, `Even though you go through the fire, the flame shall not consume you.' 18.15. He sang to you songs of the psalmist David, who said, `Many are the afflictions of the righteous.' 18.16. He recounted to you Solomon's proverb, `There is a tree of life for those who do his will.' 18.17. He confirmed the saying of Ezekiel, `Shall these dry bones live?' 18.18. For he did not forget to teach you the song that Moses taught, which says 18.19. `I kill and I make alive: this is your life and the length of your days.' 18.22. For these crimes divine justice pursued and will pursue the accursed tyrant.
|12. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 2.303-2.305 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)
| 2.303. of impious men. And Moses, the great friend 2.304. of the Most High, shall come enrobed in flesh 2.305. 305 Also great Abraham himself shall come
|13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 9.169 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 9.169. for when God had appointed him to prophesy, he stood in the midst of the multitude, and gave this counsel to them and to the king: That they should act righteously; and foretold to them, that if they would not hearken to his admonitions, they should suffer a heavy punishment. But as Zechariah was ready to die, he appealed to God as a witness of what he suffered for the good counsel he had given them, and how he perished after a most severe and violent manner for the good deeds his father had done to Jehoash.
|14. New Testament, 2 Peter, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 3.10. But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will be dissolved with fervent heat, and the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up.
|15. New Testament, Acts, 5.41 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
| 5.41. They therefore departed from the presence of the council, rejoicing that they were counted worthy to suffer dishonor for Jesus' name.
|16. New Testament, Colossians, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 2.15. having stripped the principalities and the powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it.
|17. New Testament, John, 8.39, 19.25-19.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 8.39. They answered him, "Our father is Abraham."Jesus said to them, "If you were Abraham's children, you would do the works of Abraham. 19.25. But there were standing by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene. 19.26. Therefore when Jesus saw his mother, and the disciple whom he loved standing there, he said to his mother, "Woman, behold your son! 19.27. Then he said to the disciple, "Behold, your mother!" From that hour, the disciple took her to his own home.
|18. New Testament, Luke, 2.35, 3.8-3.9, 3.17, 16.24, 24.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 2.35. Yes, a sword will pierce through your own soul, that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed. 3.8. Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and don't begin to say among yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father;' for I tell you that God is able to raise up children to Abraham from these stones! 3.9. Even now the ax also lies at the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. 3.17. whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor, and will gather the wheat into his barn; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire. 16.24. He cried and said, 'Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue! For I am in anguish in this flame.' 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled.
|19. New Testament, Matthew, 3.10, 3.12, 13.50, 25.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
| 3.10. Even now the ax lies at the root of the trees. Therefore, every tree that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and cast into the fire. 3.12. His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his threshing floor. He will gather his wheat into the barn, but the chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire. 13.50. and will cast them into the furnace of fire. There will be the weeping and the gnashing of teeth. 25.41. Then he will say also to those on the left hand, 'Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels;
|20. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 1.16 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
| 1.16. חַד מִתַּלְמִידוֹי דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֲוָה יָתֵיב קוֹמֵיהּ מִיסְבַּר לֵיהּ וְלָא סְבַר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה לֵית אַתְּ סָבַר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלַת מִילִין קַשְׁיָן חֲמֵית בַּהֲדֵין לֵילְיָא וְלֵית אֲנָא יָדַע מָה אִינוּן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵימָא לִי מָה אִינוּן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי דְּאָמְרִין לִי בַּאֲדָר אַתְּ מַיְית, וְנִיסָן לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי, וְזָרַע וְלָא חָצַד. אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלָתֵיהוֹן הֵן טָבִין, בַּאֲדָר אַתְּ מַיְית, בְּהִדּוּרָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אַתְּ מַיְית, [פרוש מתגבר], וְנִיסָן לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי, נִסְיוֹנִין לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי. וְזָרַע וְלָא חֲצָד, מַה דִּילֵידִית לֵית אַתְּ קָבֵיר. אֲמַר לוֹ חוֹרָן חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי דְּלָא הֲוָה בְּרַגְלִי פְּטִישׁ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַיֶּיךָ לֵית הָא בִּישָׁא אֶלָּא טָבָא, דְּמָטֵי חַגָּא וְלָא הֲוָה לֵיהּ לְהַהוּא גַבְרָא כְּלוּם, מִן הָן יְלִיף רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, רֶגֶל בְּרָגֶל.
|21. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
| 15b. לינוקא פסוק לי פסוקך א"ל (ירמיהו ד, ל) ואת שדוד מה תעשי כי תלבשי שני כי תעדי עדי זהב כי תקרעי בפוך עיניך לשוא תתיפי וגו',עייליה לבי כנישתא אחריתי עד דעייליה לתליסר בי כנישתא כולהו פסקו ליה כי האי גוונא לבתרא א"ל פסוק לי פסוקך א"ל (תהלים נ, טז) ולרשע אמר אלהים מה לך לספר חקי וגו' ההוא ינוקא הוה מגמגם בלישניה אשתמע כמה דאמר ליה ולאלישע אמר אלהים איכא דאמרי סכינא הוה בהדיה וקרעיה ושדריה לתליסר בי כנישתי ואיכא דאמרי אמר אי הואי בידי סכינא הוה קרענא ליה,כי נח נפשיה דאחר אמרי לא מידן לידייניה ולא לעלמא דאתי ליתי לא מידן לידייניה משום דעסק באורייתא ולא לעלמא דאתי ליתי משום דחטא אמר ר"מ מוטב דלידייניה וליתי לעלמא דאתי מתי אמות ואעלה עשן מקברו כי נח נפשיה דר' מאיר סליק קוטרא מקבריה דאחר,אמר ר' יוחנן גבורתא למיקלא רביה חד הוה ביננא ולא מצינן לאצוליה אי נקטיה ביד מאן מרמי ליה מאן אמר מתי אמות ואכבה עשן מקברו כי נח נפשיה דר' יוחנן פסק קוטרא מקבריה דאחר פתח עליה ההוא ספדנא אפילו שומר הפתח לא עמד לפניך רבינו,בתו של אחר אתיא לקמיה דרבי אמרה ליה רבי פרנסני אמר לה בת מי את אמרה לו בתו של אחר אני אמר לה עדיין יש מזרעו בעולם והא כתיב (איוב יח, יט) לא נין לו ולא נכד בעמו ואין שריד במגוריו אמרה לו זכור לתורתו ואל תזכור מעשיו מיד ירדה אש וסכסכה ספסלו של רבי בכה ואמר רבי ומה למתגנין בה כך למשתבחין בה על אחת כמה וכמה,ור"מ היכי גמר תורה מפומיה דאחר והאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (מלאכי ב, ז) כי שפתי כהן ישמרו דעת ותורה יבקשו מפיהו כי מלאך ה' צבאות הוא אם דומה הרב למלאך ה' צבאות יבקשו תורה מפיהו ואם לאו אל יבקשו תורה מפיהו,אמר ר"ל ר"מ קרא אשכח ודרש (משלי כב, יז) הט אזנך ושמע דברי חכמים ולבך תשית לדעתי לדעתם לא נאמר אלא לדעתי,רב חנינא אמר מהכא (תהלים מה, יא) שמעי בת וראי והטי אזנך ושכחי עמך ובית אביך וגו',קשו קראי אהדדי לא קשיא הא בגדול הא בקטן,כי אתא רב דימי אמר אמרי במערבא ר"מ אכל תחלא ושדא שיחלא לברא דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים ו, יא) אל גנת אגוז ירדתי לראות באבי הנחל וגו' למה נמשלו ת"ח לאגוז לומר לך מה אגוז זה אע"פ שמלוכלך בטיט ובצואה אין מה שבתוכו נמאס אף ת"ח אע"פ שסרח אין תורתו נמאסת,אשכחיה רבה בר שילא לאליהו א"ל מאי קא עביד הקב"ה א"ל קאמר שמעתא מפומייהו דכולהו רבנן ומפומיה דר"מ לא קאמר א"ל אמאי משום דקא גמר שמעתא מפומיה דאחר א"ל אמאי ר"מ רמון מצא תוכו אכל קליפתו זרק א"ל השתא קאמר מאיר בני אומר בזמן שאדם מצטער שכינה מה לשון אומרת קלני מראשי קלני מזרועי אם כך הקב"ה מצטער על דמן של רשעים ק"ו על דמן של צדיקים שנשפך,אשכחיה שמואל לרב יהודה דתלי בעיברא דדשא וקא בכי א"ל שיננא מאי קא בכית א"ל מי זוטרא מאי דכתיב בהו ברבנן (ישעיהו לג, יח) איה סופר איה שוקל איה סופר את המגדלים איה סופר שהיו סופרים כל אותיות שבתורה איה שוקל שהיו שוקלים קלין וחמורין שבתורה איה סופר את המגדלים שהיו שונין ג' מאות הלכות במגדל הפורח באויר,ואמר רבי אמי תלת מאה בעיי בעו דואג ואחיתופל במגדל הפורח באויר ותנן ג' מלכים וארבעה הדיוטות אין להם חלק לעולם הבא אנן מה תהוי עלן א"ל שיננא טינא היתה בלבם,אחר מאי זמר יווני לא פסק מפומיה אמרו עליו על אחר בשעה שהיה עומד מבית המדרש הרבה ספרי מינין נושרין מחיקו,שאל נימוס הגרדי את ר"מ כל עמר דנחית ליורה סליק א"ל כל מאן דהוה נקי אגב אימיה סליק כל דלא הוה נקי אגב אימיה לא סליק,ר"ע עלה בשלום וירד בשלום ועליו הכתוב אומר (שיר השירים א, ד) משכני אחריך נרוצה ואף רבי עקיבא בקשו מלאכי השרת לדוחפו אמר להם הקב"ה הניחו לזקן זה שראוי להשתמש בכבודי
| 15b. ba child: Recite your verse to me. He recited to him: “And you, spoiled one, what are you doing, that you clothe yourself with scarlet, that you deck yourself with ornaments of gold, that you enlarge your eyes with paint? In vain you make yourself fair”(Jeremiah 4:30)., bHe brought him to another synagogue, until he had brought him into thirteen synagogues,where ballthe children brecited to him similarverses that speak of the hopeless situation of the wicked. bAt the last one, he said to him: Recite your verse to me. He recited to him: “And to the wicked [ ivelerasha /i] God says, what is it for you to declare My statutes”(Psalms 50:16). The Gemara relates: bThat child had a stutter,so bit sounded as though he were saying to him: iVele’elisha /i,i.e., and to Elisha, bGod says.This made Elisha think the child was deliberately insulting him. bSome say iAḥer bhad a knife, and he torethe child bapart and sent him tothe bthirteen synagogues. And others saythat iAḥermerely bsaid: Had I a knife, I would have torn him apart. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen iAḥer bpassed away,the Heavenly Court bdeclaredthat bhe should not be judged, nor brought into the World-to-Come. He should not be judgedin a manner befitting his deeds, bbecause he occupiedhimself bwith Torah,whose merit protects him. bAnd he should not be brought into the World-to-Come because he sinned. Rabbi Meir said: It is better that he be judgedproperly band be brought into the World-to-Come. When I dieI will request this of Heaven, band I will cause smoke to rise up from his grave,as a sign that he is being sentenced in Gehenna. The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Meir passed away, smoke rose up fromthe bgrave of iAḥer /i,implying that Rabbi Meir’s wish was granted., bRabbi Yoḥa said:Was this ba mightydeed on Rabbi Meir’s part, bto burn his teacher?Was this the only remedy available? Can it be that there bwas oneSage bamong uswho left the path band we cannot save him? If we hold him by the hand, who will remove himfrom our protection; bwho?Rabbi Yoḥa continued and bsaid: When I die I will havethe bsmoke extinguished from his grave,as a sign that he has been released from the sentence of Gehenna and brought to the World-to-Come. Indeed, bwhen Rabbi Yoḥa passed away,the bsmoke ceasedto rise up bfromthe bgrave of iAḥer /i. A certain eulogizerbegan his eulogy of Rabbi Yoḥa with the following: bEven the guard at the entrance could not stand before you, our rabbi.The guard at the entrance to Gehenna could not prevent Rabbi Yoḥa from arranging the release of iAḥer /i.,The Gemara relates: bThe daughter of iAḥercame before RabbiYehuda HaNasi and bsaid to him: Rabbi, provide me with sustece,as she was in need of food. bHe said to her: Whose daughter are you? She said to him: I am the daughter of iAḥer /i. He said to her,angrily: bIs there still of his seedremaining bin the world? But isn’t it stated: “He shall have neither son nor grandson among his people or any remaining in his dwellings”(Job 18:19)? bShe said to him: Remember his Torah, and do not remember his deeds. Immediately, fire descended and licked RabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bbench. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwept and said: IfGod protects the honor of bthose who treatthe Torah bwith contemptin bsucha manner, as iAḥerdespised the Torah and relinquished its teachings, bhow much more sowould He do bfor those who treat it with honor. /b,The Gemara poses a question: bAnd Rabbi Meir, how could he learn Torah fromthe bmouth of iAḥer /i? But didn’t Rabba bar bar Ḥana saythat bRabbi Yoḥa said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek Torah from his mouth; for he is an angel of the Lord of hosts”(Malachi 2:7)? The verse teaches: bIf the rabbi is similar to an angel of the Lord of hosts,perfect in his ways, bthey should seek Torah from his mouth; but if not, they should not seek Torah from his mouth. /b, bReish Lakish said: Rabbi Meir found a verse and interpreted it homiletically: “Incline your ear, and hear the words of the wise, and apply your heart to My knowledge”(Proverbs 22:17). bIt does not state “to their knowledge,” but “to My knowledge.”In other words, one must listen to the words of bthe Sages,despite their flaws, provided that their opinion concurs with that of God., bRav Ḥanina saidthat one can find support for this idea bfrom here: “Listen, daughter and consider, and incline your ear; forget also your own people and your father’s house”(Psalms 45:11), which likewise indicates that one must listen to the words of a Sage while forgetting, i.e., ignoring, the faulty aspects of his teachings.,The Gemara asks: If so, bthe verses contradict each other,for one source states that one may learn only from a scholar who is perfect in his ways, while the other indicates that it is permitted even to learn from one whose character is flawed. The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thiscase, in which it is permitted to a flawed scholar, is referring bto an adult;whereas bthatcase, which prohibits doing so, is referring bto a minor,who should learn only from a righteous person, so that his ways are not corrupted by a teacher with flawed character., bWhen Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said: In the West,Eretz Yisrael, they bsay: Rabbi Meir ate a half-ripe date and threw the peel away.In other words, he was able to extract the important content from the inedible shell. bRava taught: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “I went down into the garden of nuts, to look at the green plants of the valley”(Song of Songs 6:11)? bWhy are Torah scholars compared to nuts? To tell you: Just as this nut, despite being soiled with mud and excrement, its content is not made repulsive,as only its shell is soiled; bso too a Torah scholar, although he has sinned, his Torah is not made repulsive. /b,The Gemara relates: bRabba bar Sheila found Elijahthe prophet, who had appeared to him. He bsaid toElijah: bWhat is the Holy One, Blessed be He, doing?Elijah bsaid to him: He is stating ihalakhottransmitted by all of the Sages, but in the name of Rabbi Meir He will not speak. He said to him: Why?He replied: bBecause he learned ihalakhotfrom the mouth of iAḥer /i. He said to him: Whyshould he be judged unfavorably for that? bRabbi Meir found a pomegranateand bate its contentswhile bthrowing away its peel. He said to him:Indeed, your defense has been heard above. bNowGod bis saying: My son, Meir, says: When a person suffers,e.g., by receiving lashes or the death penalty at the hands of the court, bhow does the Divine Presence express itself? Woe is Me from My head, woe is Me from My arm,as God empathizes with the sufferer. bIf the Holy One, Blessed be He, suffersto bsuchan extent bover the blood of the wicked, how much more sodoes He suffer bover the blood of the righteous that is spilled. /b,The Gemara relates: bShmuel found Rav Yehuda leaning on the bar of the door, crying. He said to him: Long-toothed one [ ishina /i], what are you cryingfor? bHe said to him: Isit ba smallmatter, bthat which is written with regard to Sageswho have sinned: b“Where is he who counted, where is he who weighed? Where is he who counted the towers?”(Isaiah 33:18). He proceeded to explain: b“Where is he who counted”; for they would count all the letters of the Torah. “Where is he who weighed”; for they would weighand compare the bminor and majortransgressions bof the Torah. “Where is he who counted the towers”; for they would teach three hundred ihalakhot /iconcerning the details of tent impurity binvolvinga wooden bcloset floating in the air.If they studied a subject so removed from reality in such depths, how much more so did they analyze other issues., bAnd Rabbi Ami said: Doeg asked Ahithophel three hundred questions with regard to a closet floating in the air,as they were both great Torah scholars. bAnd we learnedin a mishna ( iSanhedrin90a): bThree kings and four commoners have no portion in the World-to-Come,a list that includes Doeg and Ahithophel. If such great Sages could sin and forfeit their share in the World-to-Come, bwe,who are less knowledgeable than they, bwhat will be of us? He said to him: Long-toothed one, there was mud [ itina /i] in their hearts,i.e., they had certain flaws that prevented their Torah learning from protecting them.,The Gemara explains: iAḥer /i, whatwas his failing? bGreek tunes never ceased from his mouth.He would constantly hum Greek songs, even when he was among the Sages. This shows that from the outset he was drawn to gentile culture and beliefs. Similarly, bthey said about iAḥer /i: When he would standafter learning bin the study hall, many heretical books,which he had been reading, would bfall from his lap.Therefore, he was somewhat unsound even when among the Sages.,The gentile philosopher, bNimos HaGardi, asked Rabbi Meir:Does ball wool that enters the cauldronto be dyed bemerge colored?In other words, do all those who learn Torah emerge as decent and worthy? bHe said to him: Whoever was clean whenhe was bwith his mother,from the outset, will bemergedecent and worthy, but ballthose who were bnot clean whenthey were bwith their motherwill bnot emergeworthy. One who approaches Torah study having been flawed from the outset will not be properly influenced by it.,§ The Gemara returns to the four who entered the orchard. It is stated above that bRabbi Akiva ascended in safety and descended safely. With regard to him, the verse states: “Draw me, we will run after you;the king has brought me into his chambers” (Song of Songs 1:4). The Gemara relates: bAnd even Rabbi Akiva, the ministering angels sought to pushhim out of the orchard. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Leave this Elder, for he is fit to serve My glory. /b
|22. Anon., 3 Baruch, 4.16
|23. Anon., 4 Ezra, 7.33, 7.36-7.38
| 7.33. And the Most High shall be revealed upon the seat of judgment, and compassion shall pass away, and patience shall be withdrawn; 7.36. Then the pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight. 7.37. Then the Most High will say to the nations that have been raised from the dead, `Look now, and understand whom you have denied, whom you have not served, whose commandments you have despised! 7.38. Look on this side and on that; here are delight and rest, and there are fire and torments!' Thus he will speak to them on the day of judgment --
|24. Anon., Leges Publicae, 1.16
|25. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 12.11