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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 17.1

nanSome of the guards said that when she also was about to be seized and put to death she threw herself into the flames so that no one might touch her body.

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13 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.14 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.14. Thou knowest, O Lord, that I am innocent of any sin with man
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 12.10-12.20, 20.3-20.7, 26.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.11. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לָבוֹא מִצְרָיְמָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ הִנֵּה־נָא יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אִשָּׁה יְפַת־מַרְאֶה אָתְּ׃ 12.12. וְהָיָה כִּי־יִרְאוּ אֹתָךְ הַמִּצְרִים וְאָמְרוּ אִשְׁתּוֹ זֹאת וְהָרְגוּ אֹתִי וְאֹתָךְ יְחַיּוּ׃ 12.13. אִמְרִי־נָא אֲחֹתִי אָתְּ לְמַעַן יִיטַב־לִי בַעֲבוּרֵךְ וְחָיְתָה נַפְשִׁי בִּגְלָלֵךְ׃ 12.14. וַיְהִי כְּבוֹא אַבְרָם מִצְרָיְמָה וַיִּרְאוּ הַמִּצְרִים אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָפָה הִוא מְאֹד׃ 12.15. וַיִּרְאוּ אֹתָהּ שָׂרֵי פַרְעֹה וַיְהַלְלוּ אֹתָהּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וַתֻּקַּח הָאִשָּׁה בֵּית פַּרְעֹה׃ 12.16. וּלְאַבְרָם הֵיטִיב בַּעֲבוּרָהּ וַיְהִי־לוֹ צֹאן־וּבָקָר וַחֲמֹרִים וַעֲבָדִים וּשְׁפָחֹת וַאֲתֹנֹת וּגְמַלִּים׃ 12.17. וַיְנַגַּע יְהוָה אֶת־פַּרְעֹה נְגָעִים גְּדֹלִים וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ עַל־דְּבַר שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם׃ 12.18. וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה לְאַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂיתָ לִּי לָמָּה לֹא־הִגַּדְתָּ לִּי כִּי אִשְׁתְּךָ הִוא׃ 12.19. לָמָה אָמַרְתָּ אֲחֹתִי הִוא וָאֶקַּח אֹתָהּ לִי לְאִשָּׁה וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה אִשְׁתְּךָ קַח וָלֵךְ׃ 20.3. וַיָּבֹא אֱלֹהִים אֶל־אֲבִימֶלֶךְ בַּחֲלוֹם הַלָּיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הִנְּךָ מֵת עַל־הָאִשָּׁה אֲשֶׁר־לָקַחְתָּ וְהִוא בְּעֻלַת בָּעַל׃ 20.4. וַאֲבִימֶלֶךְ לֹא קָרַב אֵלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי הֲגוֹי גַּם־צַדִּיק תַּהֲרֹג׃ 20.5. הֲלֹא הוּא אָמַר־לִי אֲחֹתִי הִוא וְהִיא־גַם־הִוא אָמְרָה אָחִי הוּא בְּתָם־לְבָבִי וּבְנִקְיֹן כַּפַּי עָשִׂיתִי זֹאת׃ 20.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הָאֱלֹהִים בַּחֲלֹם גַּם אָנֹכִי יָדַעְתִּי כִּי בְתָם־לְבָבְךָ עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת וָאֶחְשֹׂךְ גַּם־אָנֹכִי אוֹתְךָ מֵחֲטוֹ־לִי עַל־כֵּן לֹא־נְתַתִּיךָ לִנְגֹּעַ אֵלֶיהָ׃ 20.7. וְעַתָּה הָשֵׁב אֵשֶׁת־הָאִישׁ כִּי־נָבִיא הוּא וְיִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַדְךָ וֶחְיֵה וְאִם־אֵינְךָ מֵשִׁיב דַּע כִּי־מוֹת תָּמוּת אַתָּה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ׃ 12.10. And there was a famine in the land; and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was sore in the land." 12.11. And it came to pass, when he was come near to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife: ‘Behold now, I know that thou art a fair woman to look upon." 12.12. And it will come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say: This is his wife; and they will kill me, but thee they will keep alive." 12.13. Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister; that it may be well with me for thy sake, and that my soul may live because of thee.’" 12.14. And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very fair." 12.15. And the princes of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s house." 12.16. And he dealt well with Abram for her sake; and he had sheep, and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and she-asses, and camels." 12.17. And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai Abram’s wife." 12.18. And Pharaoh called Abram, and said: ‘What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife?" 12.19. Why saidst thou: She is my sister? so that I took her to be my wife; now therefore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way.’" 12.20. And Pharaoh gave men charge concerning him; and they brought him on the way, and his wife, and all that he had." 20.3. But God came to Abimelech in a dream of the night, and said to him: ‘Behold, thou shalt die, because of the woman whom thou hast taken; for she is a man’s wife.’" 20.4. Now Abimelech had not come near her; and he said: ‘Lord, wilt Thou slay even a righteous nation?" 20.5. Said he not himself unto me: She is my sister? and she, even she herself said: He is my brother. In the simplicity of my heart and the innocency of my hands have I done this.’" 20.6. And God said unto him in the dream: ‘Yea, I know that in the simplicity of thy heart thou hast done this, and I also withheld thee from sinning against Me. Therefore suffered I thee not to touch her." 20.7. Now therefore restore the man’s wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live; and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine.’" 26.10. And Abimelech said: ‘What is this thou hast done unto us? one of the people might easily have lain with thy wife, and thou wouldest have brought guiltiness upon us.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.27, 16.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.27. בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפַל שָׁכָב בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפָל בַּאֲשֶׁר כָּרַע שָׁם נָפַל שָׁדוּד׃ 16.19. וַתְּיַשְּׁנֵהוּ עַל־בִּרְכֶּיהָ וַתִּקְרָא לָאִישׁ וַתְּגַלַּח אֶת־שֶׁבַע מַחְלְפוֹת רֹאשׁוֹ וַתָּחֶל לְעַנּוֹתוֹ וַיָּסַר כֹּחוֹ מֵעָלָיו׃ 5.27. At her feet he bent, he fell, he lay down: at her feet he bent, he fell: where he bowed, there he fell down, bereft of life." 16.19. And she made him sleep upon her knees; and she called for a man, and she caused him to shave off the seven locks of his head; and she began to torment him, and his strength went from him."
4. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.14 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.14. Thou knowest, O Lord, that I am innocent of any sin with man
5. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.41 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.41. Last of all, the mother died, after her sons.'
6. Septuagint, Judith, 4.12, 9.2, 9.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.12. They even surrounded the altar with sackcloth and cried out in unison, praying earnestly to the God of Israel not to give up their infants as prey and their wives as booty, and the cities they had inherited to be destroyed, and the sanctuary to be profaned and desecrated to the malicious joy of the Gentiles. 9.2. O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done' -- yet they did it. 9.8. Break their strength by thy might, and bring down their power in thy anger; for they intend to defile thy sanctuary, and to pollute the tabernacle where thy glorious name rests, and to cast down the horn of thy altar with the sword.
7. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 1.20-1.24, 9.17-9.18, 10.19, 11.3, 13.13, 13.19-13.22, 14.5, 15.29-15.30, 16.16-16.23, 17.9-17.12, 18.6-18.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.20. The two most comprehensive types of the emotions are pleasure and pain; and each of these is by nature concerned with both body and soul. 1.21. The emotions of both pleasure and pain have many consequences. 1.22. Thus desire precedes pleasure and delight follows it. 1.23. Fear precedes pain and sorrow comes after. 1.24. Anger, as a man will see if he reflects on this experience, is an emotion embracing pleasure and pain. 9.17. he replied, "You abominable lackeys, your wheel is not so powerful as to strangle my reason. Cut my limbs, burn my flesh, and twist my joints. 9.18. Through all these tortures I will convince you that sons of the Hebrews alone are invincible where virtue is concerned. 10.19. See, here is my tongue; cut it off, for in spite of this you will not make our reason speechless. 11.3. I have come of my own accord, so that by murdering me you will incur punishment from the heavenly justice for even more crimes. 13.13. Each of them and all of them together looking at one another, cheerful and undaunted, said, "Let us with all our hearts consecrate ourselves to God, who gave us our lives, and let us use our bodies as a bulwark for the law. 13.19. You are not ignorant of the affection of brotherhood, which the divine and all-wise Providence has bequeathed through the fathers to their descendants and which was implanted in the mother's womb. 13.20. There each of the brothers dwelt the same length of time and was shaped during the same period of time; and growing from the same blood and through the same life, they were brought to the light of day. 13.21. When they were born after an equal time of gestation, they drank milk from the same fountains. For such embraces brotherly-loving souls are nourished; 13.22. and they grow stronger from this common nurture and daily companionship, and from both general education and our discipline in the law of God. 14.5. but all of them, as though running the course toward immortality, hastened to death by torture. 15.29. O mother of the nation, vindicator of the law and champion of religion, who carried away the prize of the contest in your heart! 15.30. O more noble than males in steadfastness, and more manly than men in endurance! 16.16. My sons, noble is the contest to which you are called to bear witness for the nation. Fight zealously for our ancestral law. 16.17. For it would be shameful if, while an aged man endures such agonies for the sake of religion, you young men were to be terrified by tortures. 16.18. Remember that it is through God that you have had a share in the world and have enjoyed life 16.19. and therefore you ought to endure any suffering for the sake of God. 16.20. For his sake also our father Abraham was zealous to sacrifice his son Isaac, the ancestor of our nation; and when Isaac saw his father's hand wielding a sword and descending upon him, he did not cower. 16.21. And Daniel the righteous was thrown to the lions, and Haiah, Azariah, and Mishael were hurled into the fiery furnace and endured it for the sake of God. 16.22. You too must have the same faith in God and not be grieved. 16.23. It is unreasonable for people who have religious knowledge not to withstand pain. 17.9. Here lie buried an aged priest and an aged woman and seven sons, because of the violence of the tyrant who wished to destroy the way of life of the Hebrews. 17.10. They vindicated their nation, looking to God and enduring torture even to death. 17.11. Truly the contest in which they were engaged was divine 17.12. for on that day virtue gave the awards and tested them for their endurance. The prize was immortality in endless life. 18.6. The mother of seven sons expressed also these principles to her children: 18.7. I was a pure virgin and did not go outside my father's house; but I guarded the rib from which woman was made. 18.8. No seducer corrupted me on a desert plain, nor did the destroyer, the deceitful serpent, defile the purity of my virginity. 18.9. In the time of my maturity I remained with my husband, and when these sons had grown up their father died. A happy man was he, who lived out his life with good children, and did not have the grief of bereavement. 18.10. While he was still with you, he taught you the law and the prophets. 18.11. He read to you about Abel slain by Cain, and Isaac who was offered as a burnt offering, and of Joseph in prison. 18.12. He told you of the zeal of Phineas, and he taught you about Haiah, Azariah, and Mishael in the fire. 18.13. He praised Daniel in the den of the lions and blessed him. 18.14. He reminded you of the scripture of Isaiah, which says, `Even though you go through the fire, the flame shall not consume you.' 18.15. He sang to you songs of the psalmist David, who said, `Many are the afflictions of the righteous.' 18.16. He recounted to you Solomon's proverb, `There is a tree of life for those who do his will.' 18.17. He confirmed the saying of Ezekiel, `Shall these dry bones live?' 18.18. For he did not forget to teach you the song that Moses taught, which says 18.19. `I kill and I make alive: this is your life and the length of your days.'
8. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 21.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.8. τὰ τέκνα ἡμῶν τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ παιδείας μεταλαμβανέτωσαν: μαθέτωσαν, τί ταπεινοφροσύνη παρὰ θεῷ ἰσχύει, τί ἀγάπη ἁγνὴ παρὰ θεῷ δύναται, πῶς ὁ φόβος αὐτοῦ καλὸς καὶ μέγας καὶ σώζων πάντας τοὺς ἐν αὐτῷ ὁσίως ἀναστρεφομένους ἐν καθαρᾷ διανοίᾳ.
9. Musonius Rufus, Dissertationum A Lucio Digestarum Reliquiae, 3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10. New Testament, Hebrews, 2.9, 9.15-9.22, 12.1-12.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.9. But we see him who has been made a little lower than the angels, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that by the grace of God he should taste of death for everyone. 9.15. For this reason he is the mediator of a new covet, since a death has occurred for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first covet, that those who have been called may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance. 9.16. For where a last will and testament is, there must of necessity be the death of him who made it. 9.17. For a will is in force where there has been death, for it is never in force while he who made it lives. 9.18. Therefore even the first covet has not been dedicated without blood. 9.19. For when every commandment had been spoken by Moses to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of the calves and the goats, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people 9.20. saying, "This is the blood of the covet which God has commanded you. 9.21. Moreover he sprinkled the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry in like manner with the blood. 9.22. According to the law, nearly everything is cleansed with blood, and apart from shedding of blood there is no remission. 12.1. Therefore let us also, seeing we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, lay aside every weight and the sin which so easily entangles us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us 12.2. looking to Jesus, the author and perfecter of faith, who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.
11. New Testament, Romans, 2.28-2.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God.
12. Babylonian Talmud, Nazir, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

23b. ומדינים כבריח ארמון אח נפשע מקרית עוז זה לוט שפירש מאברהם ומדינים כבריח ארמון שהטיל מדינים כבריחין וארמון (דברים כג, ד) לא יבא עמוני ומואבי בקהל ה',דרש רבא ואיתימא רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב (משלי יח, א) לתאוה יבקש נפרד ובכל תושיה יתגלע לתאוה יבקש נפרד זה לוט ובכל תושיה יתגלע שנתגלה קלונו בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות דתנן עמוני ומואבי אסורין ואיסורן איסור עולם,אמר עולא תמר זינתה זמרי זינה,תמר זינתה יצאו ממנה מלכים ונביאים זמרי זינה נפלו עליו כמה רבבות מישראל,אמר ר"נ בר יצחק גדולה עבירה לשמה ממצוה שלא לשמה והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ובמצות אפי' שלא לשמן שמתוך שלא לשמן בא לשמן,אלא אימא כמצוה שלא לשמה דכתיב (שופטים ה, כד) תבורך מנשים יעל אשת חבר הקני מנשים באהל תבורך מאן נשים שבאהל שרה רבקה רחל ולאה,א"ר יוחנן שבע בעילות בעל אותו רשע באותה שעה שנאמר (שופטים ה, כז) בין רגליה כרע נפל שכב וגו',והא קא מתהניא מבעילה דיליה א"ר יוחנן כל טובתן של רשעים אינה אלא רעה אצל צדיקים,שנאמר (בראשית לא, כט) השמר לך מדבר עם יעקב מטוב ועד רע בשלמא רע שפיר אלא טוב אמאי לא אלא לאו ש"מ טובתו רעה היא ש"מ:,גופא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ובמצות אפי' שלא לשמן שמתוך שלא לשמן בא לשמן שבשכר מ"ב קרבנות שהקריב בלק הרשע זכה ויצאה ממנו רות וא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא רות בת בנו של עגלון מלך מואב היתה,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מנין שאין הקב"ה מקפח אפי' שכר שיחה נאה דאילו בכירה דקריתיה מואב א"ל רחמנא (דברים ב, ט) אל תצר את מואב ואל תתגר בם מלחמה מלחמה הוא דלא אבל צעורי צערינן,ואילו צעירה דקריתיה בן עמי אמר ליה (דברים ב, יט) אל תצורם ואל תתגר בם אפילו צעורי לא תצערינן כלל,א"ר חייא בר אבין א"ר יהושע בן קרחה לעולם יקדים אדם לדבר מצוה שבשכר לילה אחת שקדמתה בכירה לצעירה 23b. band their contentions are like the bars of a castle”(Proverbs 18:19)? b“A brother offended is harder to be won than a strong city,” this is Lot,called Abraham’s brother (see Genesis 14:14), bwho separated from Abraham. “And their contentions are like the bars of a castle,”this is bbecauseLot bbrought contentionbetween the Jewish people and his own descendants blike bars,which lock the gates of ba castle.Just as no one can enter a locked castle, so too Lot’s descendants, Ammon and Moab, were prevented from joining the Jewish people, as it states: b“An Ammonite and a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord”(Deuteronomy 23:4).,On the same issue, bRava expoundeda verse bhomiletically, and some sayit was bRabbi Yitzḥak: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “He who separates himself seeks his own desire, and snarls against all sound wisdom”(Proverbs 18:1)? b“He who separates himself seeks his own desire,” this is Lot,who separated from Abraham. b“And snarls [ iyitgala /i] against all sound wisdom,”this too describes Lot, bas his shame waseventually brevealed [ initgala /i] in the synagogues,when his actions recorded in the Torah are read in public, band in the study halls,where the ihalakhotof his descendants are taught. bAs we learnedin a mishna: bAn Ammonite and a Moabite are prohibitedfrom entering the congregation by marrying a Jewish woman, band their prohibition is permanent. /b,§ In relation to the preceding discussion with regard to the daughters of Lot, who acted in a wanton manner for the sake of a mitzva, the Gemara cites that which bUlla said: Tamar engaged in licentioussexual intercourse with her father-in-law, Judah (see Genesis, chapter 38), and bZimriben Salu also bengaged in licentioussexual intercourse with a Midianite woman (see Numbers, chapter 25).,Yet despite the similarity between their actions, bTamar engaged in licentioussexual intercourse for the sake of a mitzva, to have children, and therefore she merited that bkingsof the House of David bdescended from her.King David’s lineage traces back to Tamar’s son Peretz (see Ruth 4:18–22). bAndshe also merited to be the ancestor of bprophets,e.g., Isaiah, who was related to the royal family. Conversely, with regard to bZimri,who bengaged in licentioussexual intercourse for the purpose of a transgression, bseveral multitudes of Israel fell due to him;twenty-four thousand in a plague (see Numbers 25:9). This shows that a great deal depends on one’s intentions.,§ bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Greater is a transgressioncommitted bfor its own sake,i.e., for the sake of Heaven, bthan a mitzvaperformed bnot for its own sake.The Gemara questions this comparison: bBut didn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bRav said: A person should always occupy himself with Torah and mitzvot even not for their own sake, asit is bthroughacts performed bnot for their own sakethat good deeds bfor their own sake comeabout? How, then, can any transgression be considered greater than a mitzva not for the sake of Heaven?, bRather,one must emend the above statement and bsayas follows: A transgression for the sake of Heaven is bequivalent to a mitzva not for its own sake.The proof is bas it is written: “Blessed above women shall Yael be, the wife of Hever the Kenite, above women in the tent she shall be blessed”(Judges 5:24), and it is taught: bWho arethese b“women in the tent?”They are bSarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah.Yael’s forbidden intercourse with Sisera for the sake of Heaven is compared to the sexual intercourse in which the Matriarchs engaged.,The Gemara asks: How is it derived that Yael engaged in sexual intercourse with Sisera? As bRabbi Yoḥa said: That wicked one,Sisera, bengaged in seven acts of sexual intercoursewith Yael bat that time, as it is stated: “Between her feet he sunk, he fell, he lay;between her feet he sunk, he fell; where he sunk, there he fell down dead” (Judges 5:27). Each mention of falling is referring to another act of intercourse.,The Gemara asks: bButYael at least benjoyed the sexual intercoursewith bhim;why is the verse so effusive in her praise? bRabbi Yoḥa said: All the good of the wicked,i.e., anything good received from wicked people, bis nothing otherthan bevil for the righteous,and therefore she certainly derived no pleasure from the act.,The Gemara asks: From where is this principle derived? bAsit bis statedin the verse that God warned Laban the Aramean, when he was chasing Jacob: b“Guard yourself from speaking to Jacob, from good to evil”(Genesis 31:24). bGranted,with regard to the warning against speaking bevil,it is bfinethat Laban was warned not to harm Jacob. bHowever, why shouldn’the say anything bgoodto Jacob? bRather,must one bnot conclude fromthis verse that even Laban’s bgood is badin Jacob’s eyes? The Gemara concludes: bLearn from thisthat it is so.,§ The Gemara returns to analyze in greater detail btheabove matter bitself. Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: A person should always occupy himself with Torah and mitzvot even not for their own sake, as throughthese acts performed bnot for their own sake,good deeds bfor their own sake comeabout. The proof for this is bthat in reward for the forty-two offerings that the wicked Balak sacrificed(see Numbers, chapter 23), although he did not do so for the sake of Heaven but to facilitate the cursing of the Jewish people, nevertheless bhe merited that Ruth descended from him.Not only was he the forebear of a righteous convert, but also of King David. bAndthis is as bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Ruth was the daughter of the son of Eglon, king of Moab,who descended from Balak, king of Moab., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not depriveone of beventhe breward for proper speech,i.e., for speaking in a refined manner? bAs whilethere is the case of Lot’s belderdaughter, bwho calledher son bMoab [ imo’av /i],which alludes to his shameful origins, as ime’avmeans: From father, band the Merciful One says toMoses: b“Do not besiege Moab, nor contend with them in war”(Deuteronomy 2:9), which indicates: It is bwar that is notpermitted; bhowever,with regard to bharassing,the Jews were permitted bto harass them. /b, bAnd whilethere is the case of Lot’s byoungerdaughter, bwho calledher son bBen-Ami,son of my people, without explicitly mentioning her father. With regard to her descendants, God bsaid toMoses: b“Do not harass them, nor contend with them”(Deuteronomy 2:19), which means bevenas far as bharassingis concerned, byou may not harass them at all. /b, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: A person should always come firstwith regard bto a matter of a mitzva, as in reward ofthe bone night that the elderdaughter of Lot bpreceded the youngerfor the sake of a mitzva
13. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

103a. בין עומד בין יושב בין מוטה והחולצת מן הסומא חליצתה כשרה אבל במנעל הנפרם שאין חופה את רוב הרגל בסנדל הנפחת שאינו מקבל את רוב הרגל ובסמיכת הידים ובאנפיליא של בגד וחולצת מן הקטן חליצתה פסולה,קב הקיטע מני רבי מאיר היא דתנן הקיטע יוצא בקב שלו דברי רבי מאיר ר' יוסי אוסר,באנפיליא של בגד אתאן לרבנן,אמר אביי מדסיפא רבנן רישא נמי רבנן ורישא במחופה עור,אמר ליה רבא אבל אין מחופה עור מאי פסול אי הכי אדתני סיפא באנפיליא של בגד ליפלוג בדידה בד"א במחופה עור אבל אין מחופה עור פסול,אלא אמר רבא מדרישא רבי מאיר סיפא נמי רבי מאיר האי מגין והאי לא מגין,אמר אמימר האי מאן דחליץ צריך למדחסיה לכרעיה,אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והתניא בין עומד בין יושב בין מוטה אימא ולעולם דדחיס לכרעיה,ואמר אמימר האי מאן דמסגי על ליחתא דכרעיה לא חליץ אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והתניא סמוכות הרגלים לאו דחליץ בה איהו לא דיהיב ליה לאחר וחליץ,אמר רב אשי למאי דקאמר אמימר לאו בר אובא חליץ ולאו בר קיפוף חליץ:,מן הארכובה ולמטה כו': ורמינהי רגלים פרט לבעלי קבין,שאני הכא דכתיב (דברים כה, ט) מעל רגלו אי הכי למעלה מן הארכובה נמי מעל ולא מעל דמעל,אמר רב פפא שמע מינה האי איסתוירא עד ארעא נחית דאי סלקא דעתך מיפסק פסיק הוה ליה איהו מעל ושוקא מעל דמעל אמר רב אשי אפילו תימא מיפסק פסיק כל דבהדי כרעא ככרעא דמי:,מן הארכובה ולמעלה: מתיב רב כהנא (דברים כח, נז) ובשליתה היוצאת מבין רגליה אמר אביי בשעה שכורעת לילד נועצת עקביה בירכותיה ויולדת,ת"ש (שמואל ב יט, כה) לא עשה רגליו ולא עשה שפמו לישנא מעליא תא שמע (שמואל א כד, ד) ויבא שאול להסך את רגליו לישנא מעליא,ת"ש (שופטים ג, כד) אך מסיך הוא רגליו בחדר המקירה לישנא מעליא בין רגליה כו' לישנא מעליא,אמר רבי יוחנן שבע בעילות בעל אותו רשע באותו היום שנאמר (שופטים ה, כז) בין רגליה כרע נפל שכב בין רגליה כרע נפל באשר כרע שם נפל שדוד והא קא מתהניא מעבירה אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יוחי כל טובתן של רשעים 103a. bwhetherthe iyavamis bstanding or sitting or leaning; anda woman bwho performs iḥalitza /ion a bblind iyavam /i; in all of these cases bher iḥalitzais valid. Butif she performs iḥalitzawhen he is wearing ba shoethat is so btorn that it does not cover most of the foot; or using a broken sandal that does not hold most of the foot; or using a hand blanketthat the amputee wears on his hands, similar to a leather shoe, in order to drag himself using them; bor using a soft shoe [ ianpileya /i]made bof cloth; ora woman bwho performs ihalitzawitha iyavamwho is ba minor;in all these cases bher iḥalitzais disqualified. /b,The Gemara comments: bWho isthe itannawho holds that ban amputee’s prostheticis considered a shoe? bIt is Rabbi Meir, as we learnedin a mishna ( iShabbat65b): bOne with an amputated leg may go outon Shabbat bwith his wooden leg,as it has the legal status of a shoe; this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir.He reasons that the prosthesis functions like the shoe of any other person, indicating that Rabbi Meir is not especially concerned about the material from which the shoe is made. And bRabbi Yosei,on the other hand, bprohibitsthe amputee from going out on Shabbat with his wooden leg, as he does not consider it a shoe that is being worn, but rather a wooden object that is being carried.,The Gemara asks how Rabbi Meir can be the itannaof the ibaraita /i, as the continuation of the ibaraitastates iḥalitzais disqualified if performed bwith an ianpileya /imade bof cloth,as this cloth shoe is not to be considered a shoe. If so, have bwe come tothe opinion of bthe Rabbis,who rule in accordance with Rabbi Yosei, and render it prohibited to use any shoes for iḥalitzathat are not made of leather?,In an attempt to resolve the contradiction bAbaye said: Since the latter clauseof the ibaraita bisin accordance with bthe Rabbis,who rule like Rabbi Yosei, bthe first clause is alsoin accordance with bthe Rabbis. Andtherefore bthe first clause,which permits the amputee’s prosthesis, is breferring toa prosthetic foot bcovered in leather,as it constitutes a shoe due to its leather exterior., bRava said to him: Butaccording to your explanation, if the prosthesis is bnot covered in leather, whatwould its status be? It would be bunfit. If so, rather than teachingin the blatter clause: iAnpileya /imade bof clothis invalid for iḥalitza /i, bletit bdistinguish withinthe matter bitselfand say: bIn whatcase bis this statementthat a wooden prosthesis is fit bsaid?It is binthe case of a prosthetic leg bcovered in leather, butif it is bnot covered in leather, it is unfit. /b, bRather,the fact that the ibaraitawas not taught in that manner indicates that Abaye’s explanation is incorrect. Therefore, bRava saidthat the contradiction should be reconciled in another way: bSince the first clauseof the ibaraitais in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Meir,that the shoes need not be made of leather, bthe latter clause is alsotaught in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Meir /b, and the distinction between a wooden prosthetic and an ianpileyaof cloth is: bThisprosthesis bprotectsthe foot, band thatsoft shoe bdoes not protectthe foot, as it does not have a hard sole. Rabbi Meir does not require that the shoe be of leather, but he does require that it be protective footwear.,With regard to the statement in the ibaraitathat indicates that iḥalitzamay be performed even if the iyavamis not standing, bAmeimar said: The one who performs iḥalitza /iby having his iyevamaremove his shoe bmust press his footto the ground, and while in this position the iyevamawill remove his shoe., bRav Ashi said to Ameimar: But isn’t it taughtin the ibaraitaabove: She may perform iḥalitza bwhether he was standing or sitting or leaning?One who is leaning cannot easily press his foot into the ground. He answered him: bSaythat the man may perform iḥalitzawhile in any of these positions, but that bactuallythis is true only if bhe presses his footto the ground, which is admittedly more difficult to do while leaning., bAnd Ameimaralso bsaidabout this issue: bSomeone who walks on the backs of his feet,meaning he is clubfooted and his foot is twisted upside down, bcannot perform iḥalitza /i. Rav Ashi said to Ameimar: But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bLeg supportscan be used for iḥalitza /i. bDoes this not mean thatthis lame individual bperforms iḥalitzausing thesesupports on his knees? This would indicate that even one with twisted feet can perform iḥalitza /i. The Gemara answers: bNo,the intention is that if bhe gave these supports to anotherwhose foot is shaped normally band hewore them while bperforming iḥalitza /i,it is valid. That other one is allowed to perform iḥalitzawhile wearing these supports because they are also considered shoes, but one whose foot is misshapen may not perform iḥalitzawith them, as it functions for him as a foot, not a shoe., bRav Ashi said: According to what Ameimar said, bar Uva cannot perform iḥalitzaand bar Kipof cannot perform iḥalitza /i,as these two, who were famous eulogizers in Rav Ashi’s generation, had feet that became so crooked that they were unable to walk normally.,It was taught in the mishna that if one’s leg was amputated bfrom the knee downand his iyevamaperformed iḥalitzawith him, the iḥalitzais valid. The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraitathat comments on the pilgrimage one makes to Jerusalem during a Festival. The Torah states: “Three bFestivals [ iregalim /i]you shall celebrate for Me in the year” (Exodus 23:14). The ibaraitacomments on the verse: Festivals are referred to in the verse as iregalim /i, which literally means feet, indicating that one must actually make the pilgrimage to Jerusalem by foot [ iregel /i] during the Festival, which comes to bexclude people who have prostheses.This indicates that a prosthetic foot is not called a iregel /i, which seems to contradict the mishna that allows iḥalitzaon a prosthetic from the knee down.,The Gemara answers: bIt is different here,with respect to iḥalitza /i, bas it is written:“She removes the shoe bfrom on his foot [ ime’al raglo /i]”(Deuteronomy 25:9), which indicates that not only can his actual foot be used for performing iḥalitza /i, but also the part above it, i.e., the calf. The Gemara objects: bIf that is so,that one may use a part of his leg above his foot to perform iḥalitza /i, then if one’s leg was amputated bfrom above the knee,he should balsobe eligible for iḥalitza /i; and yet, the same mishna taught that only one with a leg amputated from below the knee is eligible for iḥalitza /i. The Gemara answers that the verse states: b“From onhis foot,” meaning above his foot, bbut not: From on that which is onhis foot; the wording indicates that it can be above his foot until the knee, but not any further above that., bRav Pappa said: Learn from here that the heel bone [ iistavira /i] reaches to the groundwhere it connects to the foot, bfor if it enters your mindto say bthat it is separate and divided,and there is another bone in between, bthen thatankle bone bis “from onthe foot” band the calfwould be prohibited for iḥalitza /i, as it would be considered: bFrom on that which is onhis foot. bRav Ashi said: Evenif byou say that it is separate and dividedfrom the calf, because banything that is connected with thesole of the bfoot is considered like the foot,then the ankle is certainly part of the foot, making the calf the area that is “from on the foot.”,It was taught in the mishna that if one’s legs were amputated bfrom the knee and above,the iḥalitzais invalid. This implies that the iregelincludes the calf but not the thigh. bRav Kahana raised an objectionfrom the verse: b“And against her afterbirth that emerges from between her legs [ iragleha /i]”(Deuteronomy 28:57), implying that iregelincludes even the thighs. bAbaye said:The verse actually means between her feet, as bwhena woman bcrouches to give birth, she pushes her heels into her thighs and she gives birth,so it appears as if the fetus emerges from between her feet.,The Gemara continues its challenge. bComeand bhearanother verse: b“He had neither dressed his feet [ iraglav /i], nor trimmed his beard”(II Samuel 19:25). The phrase “dressed his feet [ iraglav /i]” is referring to treating his pubic hair, implying that even the area around the thigh is referred to as iregel /i. The Gemara answers: This is ba euphemism.The Gemara attempts another challenge: bComeand bhearfrom another verse: b“And Saul went in to cover his feet [ iraglav /i]”(I Samuel 24:3), meaning: To urinate, implying that iregelrefers even to the thighs. The Gemara answers: This is also ba euphemism. /b, bComeand bhearthe meaning of: His feet, from the following verse regarding the Moabite king, Eglon, which states: b“Surely he is covering his feet [ iraglav /i] in the cabinet of the cool chamber”(Judges 3:24). The Gemara answers: This is ba euphemism.The Gemara attempts another proof from a verse regarding Sisera’s encounter with Yael: b“At her feet [ iragleha /i]he sunk, he fell” (Judges 5:27), which indicates that they had sexual intercourse, and implies that iregelincludes the thigh. The Gemara answers: This is also ba euphemism. /b,The Gemara elaborates on what happened when Sisera was in Yael’s tent. bRabbi Yoḥa said: That wickedman, Sisera, bhadsexual bintercoursewith Yael bseven times that day, as it is stated: “At her feet he sunk, he fell, he lay; at her feet he sunk, he fell; where he sunk, there he fell down dead”(Judges 5:27). Each instance of the terms “sunk,” “fell,” or “lay” in the verse indicates an act of intercourse, as Yael sought to tire and weaken Sisera to enable her to kill him. The Gemara asks: bButhow could Yael do this even for the noble purpose of killing the wicked Sisera, as bshe derived pleasure fromthe btransgressionof licentious sexual relations with a gentile? bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Everyact that is a bbenefit for the wicked /b

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech, king of gerar Gera, Judith (2014) 406
anaphora Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 420
attridge, h. w. Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 37
bethulia, people of Gera, Judith (2014) 406
blessings Gera, Judith (2014) 406
body, in jewish sources Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 196
body Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 196
circumcision Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 196
clusters Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 420
crucifixion Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 37
delilah Gera, Judith (2014) 406
delphic wisdom Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 420
dinah Gera, Judith (2014) 406
emotion, in the hebrew bible Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 31
endurance Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 37
esther, in lxx / additions Gera, Judith (2014) 406
faith Moss, The Other Christs: Imitating Jesus in Ancient Christian Ideologies of Martyrdom (2010) 37; Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 420
food Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 196
gender, in jewish views Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 196
gender Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 196
gendered expectations, challenges to Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 129
gentiles Gera, Judith (2014) 406
god, celebrated Gera, Judith (2014) 406
governance Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 420
holiness Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 420
jael, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 406
jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 406
joseph Gera, Judith (2014) 406
judith, symbolic figure Gera, Judith (2014) 406
martyrdom, martyrdom, and role of mothers, in 2 and 4 maccabees Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 129
martyrs as gladiators, power-over and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 31
martyrs as gladiators, power-to and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 31
medieval hebrew tales of judith Gera, Judith (2014) 406
mother of seven sons Gera, Judith (2014) 406
neusner, j. Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 196
nobility' Wilson, The Sentences of Sextus (2012) 420
penitence and sins Gera, Judith (2014) 406
philistines Gera, Judith (2014) 406
potiphars wife Gera, Judith (2014) 406
prayers and praying, in post-biblical literature Gera, Judith (2014) 406
purity Gera, Judith (2014) 406
rabbis, on women Gera, Judith (2014) 406
resistance, in martyrdom Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 31
rooms, inner/ closed Gera, Judith (2014) 406
samson Gera, Judith (2014) 406
sarah, abrahams wife Gera, Judith (2014) 406
sarah, tobias wife Gera, Judith (2014) 406
sexual encounters Gera, Judith (2014) 406
shame and disgrace Gera, Judith (2014) 406
sisera, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 406
temple in jerusalem Gera, Judith (2014) 406
testament of joseph Gera, Judith (2014) 406
women, in jewish sources Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 196
women Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 196