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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



5833
Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 13-16


nanSince, then, the seven brothers despised sufferings even unto death, everyone must concede that devout reason is sovereign over the emotions.,For if they had been slaves to their emotions and had eaten defiling food, we would say that they had been conquered by these emotions.,But in fact it was not so. Instead, by reason, which is praised before God, they prevailed over their emotions.,The supremacy of the mind over these cannot be overlooked, for the brothers mastered both emotions and pains.,How then can one fail to confess the sovereignty of right reason over emotion in those who were not turned back by fiery agonies?,For just as towers jutting out over harbors hold back the threatening waves and make it calm for those who sail into the inner basin,,so the seven-towered right reason of the youths, by fortifying the harbor of religion, conquered the tempest of the emotions.,For they constituted a holy chorus of religion and encouraged one another, saying,,Brothers, let us die like brothers for the sake of the law; let us imitate the three youths in Assyria who despised the same ordeal of the furnace.,Let us not be cowardly in the demonstration of our piety.",While one said, "Courage, brother," another said, "Bear up nobly,",and another reminded them, "Remember whence you came, and the father by whose hand Isaac would have submitted to being slain for the sake of religion.",Each of them and all of them together looking at one another, cheerful and undaunted, said, "Let us with all our hearts consecrate ourselves to God, who gave us our lives, and let us use our bodies as a bulwark for the law.,Let us not fear him who thinks he is killing us,,for great is the struggle of the soul and the danger of eternal torment lying before those who transgress the commandment of God.,Therefore let us put on the full armor of self-control, which is divine reason.,For if we so die, Abraham and Isaac and Jacob will welcome us, and all the fathers will praise us.",Those who were left behind said to each of the brothers who were being dragged away, "Do not put us to shame, brother, or betray the brothers who have died before us.",You are not ignorant of the affection of brotherhood, which the divine and all-wise Providence has bequeathed through the fathers to their descendants and which was implanted in the mother's womb.,There each of the brothers dwelt the same length of time and was shaped during the same period of time; and growing from the same blood and through the same life, they were brought to the light of day.,When they were born after an equal time of gestation, they drank milk from the same fountains. For such embraces brotherly-loving souls are nourished;,and they grow stronger from this common nurture and daily companionship, and from both general education and our discipline in the law of God.,Therefore, when sympathy and brotherly affection had been so established, the brothers were the more sympathetic to one another.,Since they had been educated by the same law and trained in the same virtues and brought up in right living, they loved one another all the more.,A common zeal for nobility expanded their goodwill and harmony toward one another,,because, with the aid of their religion, they rendered their brotherly love more fervent.,But although nature and companionship and virtuous habits had augmented the affection of brotherhood, those who were left endured for the sake of religion, while watching their brothers being maltreated and tortured to death.


nanFurthermore, they encouraged them to face the torture, so that they not only despised their agonies, but also mastered the emotions of brotherly love.,O reason, more royal than kings and freer than the free!,O sacred and harmonious concord of the seven brothers on behalf of religion!,None of the seven youths proved coward or shrank from death,,but all of them, as though running the course toward immortality, hastened to death by torture.,Just as the hands and feet are moved in harmony with the guidance of the mind, so those holy youths, as though moved by an immortal spirit of devotion, agreed to go to death for its sake.,O most holy seven, brothers in harmony! For just as the seven days of creation move in choral dance around religion,,so these youths, forming a chorus, encircled the sevenfold fear of tortures and dissolved it.,Even now, we ourselves shudder as we hear of the tribulations of these young men; they not only saw what was happening, yes, not only heard the direct word of threat, but also bore the sufferings patiently, and in agonies of fire at that.,What could be more excruciatingly painful than this? For the power of fire is intense and swift, and it consumed their bodies quickly.,Do not consider it amazing that reason had full command over these men in their tortures, since the mind of woman despised even more diverse agonies,,for the mother of the seven young men bore up under the rackings of each one of her children.,Observe how complex is a mother's love for her children, which draws everything toward an emotion felt in her inmost parts.,Even unreasoning animals, like mankind, have a sympathy and parental love for their offspring.,For example, among birds, the ones that are tame protect their young by building on the housetops,,and the others, by building in precipitous chasms and in holes and tops of trees, hatch the nestlings and ward off the intruder.,If they are not able to keep him away, they do what they can to help their young by flying in circles around them in the anguish of love, warning them with their own calls.,And why is it necessary to demonstrate sympathy for children by the example of unreasoning animals,,since even bees at the time for making honeycombs defend themselves against intruders as though with an iron dart sting those who approach their hive and defend it even to the death?,But sympathy for her children did not sway the mother of the young men; she was of the same mind as Abraham.


nanO reason of the children, tyrant over the emotions! O religion, more desirable to the mother than her children!,Two courses were open to this mother, that of religion, and that of preserving her seven sons for a time, as the tyrant had promised.,She loved religion more, religion that preserves them for eternal life according to God's promise.,In what manner might I express the emotions of parents who love their children? We impress upon the character of a small child a wondrous likeness both of mind and of form. Especially is this true of mothers, who because of their birthpangs have a deeper sympathy toward their offspring than do the fathers.,Considering that mothers are the weaker sex and give birth to many, they are more devoted to their children.,The mother of the seven boys, more than any other mother, loved her children. In seven pregnancies she had implanted in herself tender love toward them,,and because of the many pains she suffered with each of them she had sympathy for them;,yet because of the fear of God she disdained the temporary safety of her children.,Not only so, but also because of the nobility of her sons and their ready obedience to the law she felt a greater tenderness toward them.,For they were righteous and self-controlled and brave and magnanimous, and loved their brothers and their mother, so that they obeyed her even to death in keeping the ordinances.,Nevertheless, though so many factors influenced the mother to suffer with them out of love for her children, in the case of none of them were the various tortures strong enough to pervert her reason.,Instead, the mother urged them on, each child singly and all together, to death for the sake of religion.,O sacred nature and affection of parental love, yearning of parents toward offspring, nurture and indomitable suffering by mothers!,This mother, who saw them tortured and burned one by one, because of religion did not change her attitude.,She watched the flesh of her children consumed by fire, their toes and fingers scattered on the ground, and the flesh of the head to the chin exposed like masks.,O mother, tried now by more bitter pains than even the birth-pangs you suffered for them!,O woman, who alone gave birth to such complete devotion!,When the first-born breathed his last it did not turn you aside, nor when the second in torments looked at you piteously nor when the third expired;,nor did you weep when you looked at the eyes of each one in his tortures gazing boldly at the same agonies, and saw in their nostrils the signs of the approach of death.,When you saw the flesh of children burned upon the flesh of other children, severed hands upon hands, scalped heads upon heads, and corpses fallen on other corpses and when you saw the place filled with many spectators of the torturings, you did not shed tears.,Neither the melodies of sirens nor the songs of swans attract the attention of their hearers as did the voices of the children in torture calling to their mother.,How great and how many torments the mother then suffered as her sons were tortured on the wheel and with the hot irons!,But devout reason, giving her heart a man's courage in the very midst of her emotions, strengthened her to disregard her temporal love for her children.,Although she witnessed the destruction of seven children and the ingenious and various rackings, this noble mother disregarded all these because of faith in God.,For as in the council chamber of her own soul she saw mighty advocates -- nature, family, parental love, and the rackings of her children --,this mother held two ballots, one bearing death and the other deliverance for her children.,She did not approve the deliverance which would preserve the seven sons for a short time,,but as the daughter of God-fearing Abraham she remembered his fortitude.,O mother of the nation, vindicator of the law and champion of religion, who carried away the prize of the contest in your heart!,O more noble than males in steadfastness, and more manly than men in endurance!,Just as Noah's ark, carrying the world in the universal flood, stoutly endured the waves,,so you, O guardian of the law, overwhelmed from every side by the flood of your emotions and the violent winds, the torture of your sons, endured nobly and withstood the wintry storms that assail religion.


nanIf, then, a woman, advanced in years and mother of seven sons, endured seeing her children tortured to death, it must be admitted that devout reason is sovereign over the emotions.,Thus I have demonstrated not only that men have ruled over the emotions, but also that a woman has despised the fiercest tortures.,The lions surrounding Daniel were not so savage, nor was the raging fiery furnace of Mishael so intensely hot, as was her innate parental love, inflamed as she saw her seven sons tortured in such varied ways.,But the mother quenched so many and such great emotions by devout reason.,Consider this also. If this woman, though a mother, had been fainthearted, she would have mourned over them and perhaps spoken as follows:,O how wretched am I and many times unhappy! After bearing seven children, I am now the mother of none!,O seven childbirths all in vain, seven profitless pregnancies, fruitless nurturings and wretched nursings!,In vain, my sons, I endured many birth-pangs for you, and the more grievous anxieties of your upbringing.,Alas for my children, some unmarried, others married and without offspring. I shall not see your children or have the happiness of being called grandmother.,Alas, I who had so many and beautiful children am a widow and alone, with many sorrows.,Nor when I die, shall I have any of my sons to bury me.",Yet the sacred and God-fearing mother did not wail with such a lament for any of them, nor did she dissuade any of them from dying, nor did she grieve as they were dying,,but, as though having a mind like adamant and giving rebirth for immortality to the whole number of her sons, she implored them and urged them on to death for the sake of religion.,O mother, soldier of God in the cause of religion, elder and woman! By steadfastness you have conquered even a tyrant, and in word and deed you have proved more powerful than a man.,For when you and your sons were arrested together, you stood and watched Eleazar being tortured, and said to your sons in the Hebrew language,,My sons, noble is the contest to which you are called to bear witness for the nation. Fight zealously for our ancestral law.,For it would be shameful if, while an aged man endures such agonies for the sake of religion, you young men were to be terrified by tortures.,Remember that it is through God that you have had a share in the world and have enjoyed life,,and therefore you ought to endure any suffering for the sake of God.,For his sake also our father Abraham was zealous to sacrifice his son Isaac, the ancestor of our nation; and when Isaac saw his father's hand wielding a sword and descending upon him, he did not cower.,And Daniel the righteous was thrown to the lions, and Hananiah, Azariah, and Mishael were hurled into the fiery furnace and endured it for the sake of God.,You too must have the same faith in God and not be grieved.,It is unreasonable for people who have religious knowledge not to withstand pain.",By these words the mother of the seven encouraged and persuaded each of her sons to die rather than violate God's commandment.,They knew also that those who die for the sake of God live in God, as do Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the patriarchs.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

28 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 30.20, 32.39 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.39. רְאוּ עַתָּה כִּי אֲנִי אֲנִי הוּא וְאֵין אֱלֹהִים עִמָּדִי אֲנִי אָמִית וַאֲחַיֶּה מָחַצְתִּי וַאֲנִי אֶרְפָּא וְאֵין מִיָּדִי מַצִּיל׃ 30.20. to love the LORD thy God, to hearken to His voice, and to cleave unto Him; for that is thy life, and the length of thy days; that thou mayest dwell in the land which the LORD swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them." 32.39. See now that I, even I, am He, And there is no god with Me; I kill, and I make alive; I have wounded, and I heal; And there is none that can deliver out of My hand."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.1. וְנָהָרּ יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת־הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים׃ 2.1. וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָם׃ 2.1. And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them."
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.18, 6.33, 28.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.18. עֵץ־חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ וְתֹמְכֶיהָ מְאֻשָּׁר׃ 6.33. נֶגַע־וְקָלוֹן יִמְצָא וְחֶרְפָּתוֹ לֹא תִמָּחֶה׃ 28.4. עֹזְבֵי תוֹרָה יְהַלְלוּ רָשָׁע וְשֹׁמְרֵי תוֹרָה יִתְגָּרוּ בָם׃ 3.18. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her, And happy is every one that holdest her fast." 6.33. Wounds and dishonour shall he get, And his reproach shall not be wiped away. ." 28.4. They that forsake the law praise the wicked; But such as keep the law contend with them."
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 43.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

43.2. כִּי־תַעֲבֹר בַּמַּיִם אִתְּךָ־אָנִי וּבַנְּהָרוֹת לֹא יִשְׁטְפוּךָ כִּי־תֵלֵךְ בְּמוֹ־אֵשׁ לֹא תִכָּוֶה וְלֶהָבָה לֹא תִבְעַר־בָּךְ׃ 43.2. תְּכַבְּדֵנִי חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה תַּנִּים וּבְנוֹת יַעֲנָה כִּי־נָתַתִּי בַמִּדְבָּר מַיִם נְהָרוֹת בִּישִׁימֹן לְהַשְׁקוֹת עַמִּי בְחִירִי׃ 43.2. When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee, And through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee; When thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned, Neither shall the flame kindle upon thee."
5. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 37.4 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

37.4. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא עַל־הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם הָעֲצָמוֹת הַיְבֵשׁוֹת שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃ 37.4. Then He said unto me: ‘Prophesy over these bones, and say unto them: O ye dry bones, hear the word of the LORD:"
6. Anon., Jubilees, 49, 13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Anon., Testament of Solomon, 13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

9. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.9, 7.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.9. And when he was at his last breath, he said, 'You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.' 7.20. The mother was especially admirable and worthy of honorable memory. Though she saw her seven sons perish within a single day, she bore it with good courage because of her hope in the Lord.'
10. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 6.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.21. Therefore if you delight in thrones and scepters,O monarchs over the peoples,honor wisdom, that you may reign for ever.
11. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 6.17-6.22, 7.19, 9.21, 13.12, 16.20, 18.6-18.20, 18.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.17. May we, the children of Abraham, never think so basely that out of cowardice we feign a role unbecoming to us! 6.18. For it would be irrational if we, who have lived in accordance with truth to old age and have maintained in accordance with law the reputation of such a life, should now change our course 6.19. become a pattern of impiety to the young, in becoming an example of the eating of defiling food. 6.20. It would be shameful if we should survive for a little while and during that time be a laughing stock to all for our cowardice 6.21. and if we should be despised by the tyrant as unmanly, and not protect our divine law even to death. 6.22. Therefore, O children of Abraham, die nobly for your religion! 7.19. ince they believe that they, like our patriarchs Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, do not die to God, but live in God. 9.21. Although the ligaments joining his bones were already severed, the courageous youth, worthy of Abraham, did not groan 13.12. and another reminded them, "Remember whence you came, and the father by whose hand Isaac would have submitted to being slain for the sake of religion. 16.20. For his sake also our father Abraham was zealous to sacrifice his son Isaac, the ancestor of our nation; and when Isaac saw his father's hand wielding a sword and descending upon him, he did not cower. 18.6. The mother of seven sons expressed also these principles to her children: 18.7. I was a pure virgin and did not go outside my father's house; but I guarded the rib from which woman was made. 18.8. No seducer corrupted me on a desert plain, nor did the destroyer, the deceitful serpent, defile the purity of my virginity. 18.9. In the time of my maturity I remained with my husband, and when these sons had grown up their father died. A happy man was he, who lived out his life with good children, and did not have the grief of bereavement. 18.10. While he was still with you, he taught you the law and the prophets. 18.11. He read to you about Abel slain by Cain, and Isaac who was offered as a burnt offering, and of Joseph in prison. 18.12. He told you of the zeal of Phineas, and he taught you about Haiah, Azariah, and Mishael in the fire. 18.13. He praised Daniel in the den of the lions and blessed him. 18.14. He reminded you of the scripture of Isaiah, which says, `Even though you go through the fire, the flame shall not consume you.' 18.15. He sang to you songs of the psalmist David, who said, `Many are the afflictions of the righteous.' 18.16. He recounted to you Solomon's proverb, `There is a tree of life for those who do his will.' 18.17. He confirmed the saying of Ezekiel, `Shall these dry bones live?' 18.18. For he did not forget to teach you the song that Moses taught, which says 18.19. `I kill and I make alive: this is your life and the length of your days.' 18.20. O bitter was that day -- and yet not bitter -- when that bitter tyrant of the Greeks quenched fire with fire in his cruel caldrons, and in his burning rage brought those seven sons of the daughter of Abraham to the catapult and back again to more tortures 18.23. But the sons of Abraham with their victorious mother are gathered together into the chorus of the fathers, and have received pure and immortal souls from God
12. Strabo, Geography, 2.3.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.3.4. Posidonius, in speaking of those who have sailed round Africa, tells us that Herodotus was of opinion that some of those sent out by Darius actually performed this enterprise; and that Heraclides of Pontus, in a certain dialogue, introduces one of the Magi presenting himself to Gelon, and declaring that he had performed this voyage; but he remarks that this wants proof. He also narrates how a certain Eudoxus of Cyzicus, sent with sacrifices and oblations to the Corean games, travelled into Egypt in the reign of Euergetes II.; and being a learned man, and much interested in the peculiarities of different countries, he made interest with the king and his ministers on the subject, but especially for exploring the Nile. It chanced that a certain Indian was brought to the king by the [coast]-guard of the Arabian Gulf. They reported that they had found him in a ship, alone, and half dead: but that they neither knew who he was, nor where he came from, as he spoke a language they could not understand. He was placed in the hands of preceptors appointed to teach him the Greek language. On acquiring which, he related how he had started from the coasts of India, but lost his course, and reached Egypt alone, all his companions having perished with hunger; but that if he were restored to his country he would point out to those sent with him by the king, the route by sea to India. Eudoxus was of the number thus sent. He set sail with a good supply of presents, and brought back with him in exchange aromatics and precious stones, some of which the Indians collect from amongst the pebbles of the rivers, others they dig out of the earth, where they have been formed by the moisture, as crystals are formed with us. [He fancied that he had made his fortune], however, he was greatly deceived, for Euergetes took possession of the whole treasure. On the death of that prince, his widow, Cleopatra, assumed the reins of government, and Eudoxus was again despatched with a richer cargo than before. On his journey back, he was carried by the winds above Ethiopia, and being thrown on certain [unknown] regions, he conciliated the inhabitants by presents of grain, wine, and cakes of pressed figs, articles which they were without; receiving in exchange a supply of water, and guides for the journey. He also wrote down several words of their language, and having found the end of a prow, with a horse carved on it, which he was told formed part of the wreck of a vessel coming from the west, he took it with him, and proceeded on his homeward course. He arrived safely in Egypt, where no longer Cleopatra, but her son, ruled; but he was again stripped of every thing on the accusation of having appropriated to his own uses a large portion of the merchandise sent out. However, he carried the prow into the market-place, and exhibited it to the pilots, who recognised it as being come from Gades. The merchants [of that place] employing large vessels, but the lesser traders small ships, which they style horses, from the figures of that animal borne on the prow, and in which they go out fishing around Maurusia, as far as the Lixus. Some of the pilots professed to recognise the prow as that of a vessel which had sailed beyond the river Lixus, but had not returned. From this Eudoxus drew the conclusion, that it was possible to circumnavigate Libya; he therefore returned home, and having collected together the whole of his substance, set out on his travels. First he visited Dicaearchia, and then Marseilles, and afterwards traversed the whole coast as far as Gades. Declaring his enterprise everywhere as he journeyed, he gathered money sufficient to equip a great ship, and two boats, resembling those used by pirates. On board these he placed singing girls, physicians, and artisans of various kinds, and launching into open sea, was carried towards India by steady westerly winds. However, they who accompanied him becoming wearied with the voyage, steered their course towards land, but much against his will, as he dreaded the force of the ebb and flow. What he feared actually occurred. The ship grounded, but gently, so that it did not break up at once, but fell to pieces gradually, the goods and much of the timber of the ship being saved. With these he built a third vessel, closely resembling a ship of fifty oars, and continuing his voyage, came amongst a people who spoke the same language as that some words of which he had on a former occasion committed to writing. He further discovered, that they were men of the same stock as those other Ethiopians, and also resembled those of the kingdom of Bogus. However, he abandoned his [intended] voyage to India, and returned home. On his voyage back he observed an uninhabited island. well watered and wooded, and carefully noted its position. Having reached Maurusia in safety, he disposed of his vessels, and travelled by land to the court of Bogus. He recommended that sovereign to undertake an expedition thither. This, however, was prevented on account of the fear of the [king's] advisers, lest the district should chance to expose then to treachery, by making known a route by which foreigners might come to attack them. Eudoxus, however, became aware, that although it was given out that he was himself to be sent on this proposed expedition, the real intent was to abandon him on some desert island. He therefore fled to the Roman territory, and passed thence into Iberia. Again, he equipped two vessels, one round and the other long, furnished with fifty oars, the latter framed for voyaging in the high seas. the other for coasting along the shores. He placed on board agricultural implements, seed, and builders, and hastened on the same voyage, determined, if it should prove too long, to winter on the island he had before observed, sow his seed. and leaving reaped the harvest, complete the expedition he had intended from the beginning.
13. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 49 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 1.16 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.16. חַד מִתַּלְמִידוֹי דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֲוָה יָתֵיב קוֹמֵיהּ מִיסְבַּר לֵיהּ וְלָא סְבַר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה לֵית אַתְּ סָבַר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלַת מִילִין קַשְׁיָן חֲמֵית בַּהֲדֵין לֵילְיָא וְלֵית אֲנָא יָדַע מָה אִינוּן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵימָא לִי מָה אִינוּן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי דְּאָמְרִין לִי בַּאֲדָר אַתְּ מַיְית, וְנִיסָן לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי, וְזָרַע וְלָא חָצַד. אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלָתֵיהוֹן הֵן טָבִין, בַּאֲדָר אַתְּ מַיְית, בְּהִדּוּרָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אַתְּ מַיְית, [פרוש מתגבר], וְנִיסָן לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי, נִסְיוֹנִין לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי. וְזָרַע וְלָא חֲצָד, מַה דִּילֵידִית לֵית אַתְּ קָבֵיר. אֲמַר לוֹ חוֹרָן חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי דְּלָא הֲוָה בְּרַגְלִי פְּטִישׁ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַיֶּיךָ לֵית הָא בִּישָׁא אֶלָּא טָבָא, דְּמָטֵי חַגָּא וְלָא הֲוָה לֵיהּ לְהַהוּא גַבְרָא כְּלוּם, מִן הָן יְלִיף רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, רֶגֶל בְּרָגֶל.
15. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 45.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 6.32.5-6.32.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

17. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.4.1-1.4.5, 6.32.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

18. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

19. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 8.7 (2nd cent. CE

20. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57b. אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה סח לי זקן אחד מאנשי ירושלים בבקעה זו הרג נבוזראדן רב טבחים מאתים ואחת עשרה רבוא ובירושלים הרג תשעים וארבע רבוא על אבן אחת עד שהלך דמן ונגע בדמו של זכריה לקיים מה שנאמר (הושע ד, ב) ודמים בדמים נגעו,אשכחיה לדמיה דזכריה דהוה קא מרתח וסליק אמר מאי האי אמרו ליה דם זבחים דאשתפוך אייתי דמי ולא אידמו,אמר להו אי אמריתו לי מוטב ואי לאו מסריקנא לבשרייכו במסרקי דפרזלי אמרי ליה מאי נימא לך נבייא הוה בן דהוה קא מוכח לן במילי דשמיא קמינן עילויה וקטלינן ליה והא כמה שנין דלא קא נייח דמיה,אמר להו אנא מפייסנא ליה אייתי סנהדרי גדולה וסנהדרי קטנה קטל עילויה ולא נח בחורים ובתולות קטל עילויה ולא נח אייתי תינוקות של בית רבן קטל עילויה ולא נח א"ל זכריה זכריה טובים שבהן איבדתים ניחא לך דאבדינהו לכולהו כדאמר ליה הכי נח,בההיא שעתא הרהר תשובה בדעתיה אמר ומה אם על נפש אחת כך ההוא גברא דקטל כל הני נשמתא על אחת כמה וכמה ערק אזל שדר שטר פרטתא בביתיה ואגייר,תנא נעמן גר תושב היה נבוזראדן גר צדק היה,מבני בניו של המן למדו תורה בבני ברק מבני בניו של סיסרא למדו תינוקות בירושלים מבני בניו של סנחריב למדו תורה ברבים מאן אינון שמעיה ואבטליון,היינו דכתיב (יחזקאל כד, ח) נתתי את דמה על צחיח סלע לבלתי הכסות,(בראשית כז, כב) הקול קול יעקב והידים ידי עשו הקול זה אדריינוס קיסר שהרג באלכסנדריא של מצרים ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא כפלים כיוצאי מצרים קול יעקב זה אספסיינוס קיסר שהרג בכרך ביתר ארבע מאות רבוא ואמרי לה ארבעת אלפים רבוא והידים ידי עשו זו מלכות הרשעה שהחריבה את בתינו ושרפה את היכלנו והגליתנו מארצנו,דבר אחר הקול קול יעקב אין לך תפלה שמועלת שאין בה מזרעו של יעקב והידים ידי עשו אין לך מלחמה שנוצחת שאין בה מזרעו של עשו,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר (איוב ה, כא) בשוט לשון תחבא בחירחורי לשון תחבא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלז, א) על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בזכרנו את ציון מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה לדוד חורבן בית ראשון וחורבן בית שני חורבן בית ראשון שנאמר על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בית שני דכתיב (תהלים קלז, ז) זכור ה' לבני אדום את יום ירושלים האומרים ערו ערו עד היסוד בה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ואיתימא רבי אמי ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מעשה בד' מאות ילדים וילדות שנשבו לקלון הרגישו בעצמן למה הן מתבקשים אמרו אם אנו טובעין בים אנו באין לחיי העולם הבא דרש להן הגדול שבהן (תהלים סח, כג) אמר ה' מבשן אשיב אשיב ממצולות ים מבשן אשיב מבין שיני אריה אשיב ממצולות ים אלו שטובעין בים,כיון ששמעו ילדות כך קפצו כולן ונפלו לתוך הים נשאו ילדים ק"ו בעצמן ואמרו מה הללו שדרכן לכך כך אנו שאין דרכנו לכך על אחת כמה וכמה אף הם קפצו לתוך הים ועליהם הכתוב אומר (תהלים מד, כג) כי עליך הורגנו כל היום נחשבנו כצאן טבחה,ורב יהודה אמר זו אשה ושבעה בניה אתיוהו קמא לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) אנכי ה' אלהיך אפקוהו וקטלוהו,ואתיוהו לאידך לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים על פני אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כב, יט) זובח לאלהים יחרם אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות לד, יד) לא תשתחוה לאל אחר אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ד, לט) וידעת היום והשבות אל לבבך כי ה' הוא האלהים בשמים ממעל ועל הארץ מתחת אין עוד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים כו, יז) את ה' האמרת וגו' וה' האמירך היום כבר נשבענו להקדוש ברוך הוא שאין אנו מעבירין אותו באל אחר ואף הוא נשבע לנו שאין מעביר אותנו באומה אחרת,א"ל קיסר אישדי לך גושפנקא וגחין ושקליה כי היכי דלימרו קביל עליה הרמנא דמלכא א"ל חבל עלך קיסר חבל עלך קיסר על כבוד עצמך כך על כבוד הקב"ה על אחת כמה וכמה,אפקוהו למיקטליה אמרה להו אימיה יהבוהו ניהלי ואינשקיה פורתא אמרה לו בניי לכו ואמרו לאברהם אביכם אתה עקדת מזבח אחד ואני עקדתי שבעה מזבחות אף היא עלתה לגג ונפלה ומתה יצתה בת קול ואמרה (תהלים קיג, ט) אם הבנים שמחה,ר' יהושע בן לוי אמר זו מילה שניתנה בשמיני ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר אלו ת"ח שמראין הלכות שחיטה בעצמן דאמר רבא כל מילי ליחזי איניש בנפשיה בר משחיטה ודבר אחר,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אלו תלמידי חכמים שממיתין עצמן על דברי תורה כדר' שמעון בן לקיש דאמר ר"ש בן לקיש אין דברי תורה מתקיימין אלא במי שממית עצמו עליהם שנאמר (במדבר יט, יד) זאת התורה אדם כי ימות באהל וגו' אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן ארבעים סאה 57b. § With regard to the Babylonian exile following the destruction of the First Temple, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saysthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: An old man fromamong bthe inhabitants of Jerusalem related to me: In this valleythat lies before you, bNebuzaradan, captain of the guardof the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, bkilled 2,110,000people. bAnd in Jerusalemitself bhe killed 940,000people bon one stone, until the bloodof his victims bflowed and touched the blood of Zechariah to fulfill what is stated: “And blood touches blood”(Hosea 4:2).,The Gemara clarifies the details of what happened: Nebuzaradan bfound the blood of Zechariah,the son of Jehoiada the priest, and saw bthat it was bubbling upfrom the ground, and bhe said: What is this?Those in the Temple bsaid to him:It is bsacrificial blood that had been pouredthere. bHe broughtanimal bblood,compared it to the blood bubbling up from the ground, bandsaw that bit was not similarto it.,Nebuzaradan bsaid tothem: bIf you tell mewhose blood this is, it will be bwellfor you. bBut if not, I will comb your flesh with iron combs. They said to him: What shall we say to you? He was a prophet among us, who used to rebuke us about heavenly matters,and bwe rose up against him, and killed him(II Chronicles 24:20–22), band for many yearsnow bhis blood has not settled. /b,Nebuzaradan bsaid to them: I will appeaseZechariah. bHe broughtthe members of bthe Great Sanhedrin andof ba lesser Sanhedrinand bkilled them alongsidethe bubbling blood, bbutit still bdid not settle.He then brought byoung men and virgins and killed them alongside it, butit still bdid not settle. Hethen bbrought schoolchildren and killed them alongside it, butit still bdid not settle.Finally Nebuzaradan bsaid to him: Zechariah, Zechariah, I have killed the best of them.Would it bplease you if I destroyed them all? When he said this,the blood at last bsettled. /b, bAt that momentNebuzaradan bcontemplatedthe idea of brepentanceand bsaidto himself: bIf, forthe death of bone soul,that of Zechariah, God punishes the Jewish people in bthismanner, then bthat man,that is to say, I, bwho has killed all of those souls, all the more sowill be I be subject to great punishment from God. bHe fled, sent to his house a document detailingwhat was to be done with his property, band convertedto Judaism.,A Sage btaughta ibaraitarelating to this matter: bNaaman,commander of the army of the king of Aram (see II Kings, chapter 5), was not a convert, as he did not accept all of the mitzvot, but rather he bwas a iger toshav /i, a gentile who resides in Eretz Israel and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot. Nebuzaradan,by contrast, bwas a convert,as explained previously.,The Gemara adds that some bof Haman’s descendants studied Torah in Bnei Brak,and some bof Sisera’s descendants taught childrenTorah bin Jerusalem,and some bof Sennacherib’s descendants taught Torah in public. Who are they?They are bShemaya and Avtalyon,the teachers of Hillel the Elder.,As for the incident involving the blood of Zechariah, bthis isalluded to by bthat which is written: “I have set her blood upon the bare rock that it should not be covered”(Ezekiel 24:8).,§ Apropos its discussion of the destruction of the Temple and the calamities that befell Israel, the Gemara cites the verse: b“The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau”(Genesis 27:22), which the Sages expounded as follows: b“The voice”; thisis the cry stirred up by bthe emperor Hadrian, whocaused the Jewish people to cry out when he bkilled six hundred thousand on six hundred thousand in Alexandria of Egypt, twicethe number of men bwho left Egypt. “The voice of Jacob”; this isthe cry aroused by bthe emperor Vespasian, who killed four millionpeople bin the city of Beitar. And some say:He killed bforty millionpeople. b“And the hands are the hands of Esau”; this is the wicked kingdomof Rome bthat destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land. /b, bAlternatively, “the voice is the voice of Jacob”means that bno prayer is effectivein the world bunlesssome member of bthe seed of Jacob hasa part bin it.The second clause in the verse, b“and the hands are the hands of Esau,”means that bno war grants victory unlesssome member of bthe seed of Esau hasa part bin it. /b, bAnd this iswhat bRabbi Elazar says:The verse that says: b“You shall be hid from the scourge of the tongue”(Job 5:21), means: bYou shallneed to bhide on account of quarrelsprovoked bby the tongue. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “By the rivers of Babylonia, there we sat down and wept, when we remembered Zion”(Psalms 137:1)? This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed David the destruction of the First Temple and the destruction of the Second Temple.He saw the destruction of bthe First Temple, as it is stated: “By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept.”He saw the destruction of the bSecond Temple, as it is writtenlater in that same psalm: b“Remember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, when they said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundation”(Psalms 137:7), as the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, “the children of Edom.”, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says, and some saythat it was bRabbi Amiwho says this, band some saythat bit was taught in a ibaraita /i:There was ban incident involving four hundred boys and girls who were taken as captives forthe purpose of bprostitution.These children bsensed on their own what they were expectedto do, and bthey said: If wecommit suicide and bdrown in the sea,will bwe come toeternal blife in the World-to-Come? The oldestchild bamong them expoundedthe verse: b“The Lord said, I will bring back from Bashan, I will bring them back from the depths of the sea”(Psalms 68:23). b“I will bring back from Bashan,”i.e., bfrom between the teeth [ ibein shen /i] of the lion,and b“I will bring them back from the depths of the sea”is referring to bthose who drown in the seafor the sake of Heaven., bWhen the girls heard this, they all leapt and fell into the sea. The boysthen bdrew an ia fortiori /iinference bwith regard to themselves and said: If thesegirls, bfor whomsexual intercourse with men bis their natural way,act in bsucha manner, then bwe, for whomsexual intercourse with men bis not our natural way,should ball the more soconduct ourselves likewise. bThey too leapt into the sea. Concerning themand others like them bthe verse states: “As For Your sake we are killed all the day long; we are reckoned as sheep for the slaughter”(Psalms 44:23)., bAnd Rav Yehuda said: Thisverse applies to the bwoman and her seven sonswho died as martyrs for the sake of the sanctification of God’s name. The incident occurred as follows: bThey broughtin bthe firstof the woman’s sons bbefore the emperorand bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “I am the Lord your God”(Exodus 20:2). bTheyimmediately btook him out and killed him. /b, bAnd theythen bbroughtin banotherson bbefore the emperor,and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You shall have no other gods beside Me”(Exodus 20:3). And so bthey took him out and killed him. Theythen bbrought inyet banotherson before the emperor, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “He that sacrifices to any god,save to the Lord only, bhe shall be utterly destroyed”(Exodus 22:19). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You shall not bow down to any other god”(Exodus 34:14). And so bthey took him out and killed him. Theythen bbroughtin yet banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One”(Deuteronomy 6:4). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “Know therefore this today, and consider it in your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is no other”(Deuteronomy 4:39). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin yet banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You have avouched the Lordthis day to be your God… band the Lord has avouched you this dayto be a people for His own possession” (Deuteronomy 26:17–18). bWe already took an oath to the Holy One, Blessed be He, that we will not exchange Him for a different god, and He too has taken an oath to us that He will not exchange us for another nation. /b,It was the youngest brother who had said this, and the emperor pitied him. Seeking a way to spare the boy’s life, bthe emperor said to him: I will throw down my seal before you; bend over and pick it up, so thatpeople bwill saythat bhe has accepted the king’s authority [ iharmana /i].The boy bsaid to him: Woe [ iḥaval /i] to you, Caesar, woe to you, Caesar.If you think that bfor the sake of your honorI should fulfill your command and do bthis,then bfor the sake of the honor of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more soshould I fulfill His command.,As bthey were taking him out to be killed, his mother said to them: Give him to me so that I may give him a small kiss. She said to him: My son, go and say to your father Abraham, You bound oneson to the baltar, but I bound seven altars. She tooin the end bwent up to the roof, fell, and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: “A joyful mother of children”(Psalms 113:9), as she raised her children to be devoted in their service of God., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saysconcerning the verse: “For Your sake we are killed all the day long” (Psalms 44:23), that bthisis referring to bcircumcision, which was given for the eighthday, as the blood of our newborn sons is spilled for the sake of the covet with God. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says:This verse was stated in reference to bTorah scholars who demonstrate the ihalakhotof slaughter on themselves,meaning that they demonstrate on their own bodies how ritual slaughter should be performed and occasionally injure themselves in the process. This is bas Rava says: A person may demonstrate anything using himselfto illustrate the act bexcept for slaughter and another matter,a euphemism for sexual intercourse., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: Thesepeople in the verse bare Torah scholars who kill themselves over the words of Torah, in accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The words of the Torah endure only for one who kills himself over them, as it is stated: “This is the Torah, when a man dies in a tent”(Numbers 19:14). bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Forty ise’a/b
21. Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, 7.13 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7.13. About this same time it happened that the Jewish inhabitants were driven out of Alexandria by Cyril the bishop on the following account. The Alexandrian public is more delighted with tumult than any other people: and if at any time it should find a pretext, breaks forth into the most intolerable excesses; for it never ceases from its turbulence without bloodshed. It happened on the present occasion that a disturbance arose among the populace, not from a cause of any serious importance, but out of an evil that has become very popular in almost all cities, viz. a fondness for dancing exhibitions. In consequence of the Jews being disengaged from business on the Sabbath, and spending their time, not in hearing the Law, but in theatrical amusements, dancers usually collect great crowds on that day, and disorder is almost invariably produced. And although this was in some degree controlled by the governor of Alexandria, nevertheless the Jews continued opposing these measures. And although they are always hostile toward the Christians they were roused to still greater opposition against them on account of the dancers. When therefore Orestes the prefect was publishing an edict - for so they are accustomed to call public notices - in the theatre for the regulation of the shows, some of the bishop Cyril's party were present to learn the nature of the orders about to be issued. There was among them a certain Hierax, a teacher of the rudimental branches of literature, and one who was a very enthusiastic listener of the bishop Cyril's sermons, and made himself conspicuous by his forwardness in applauding. When the Jews observed this person in the theatre, they immediately cried out that he had come there for no other purpose than to excite sedition among the people. Now Orestes had long regarded with jealousy the growing power of the bishops, because they encroached on the jurisdiction of the authorities appointed by the emperor, especially as Cyril wished to set spies over his proceedings; he therefore ordered Hierax to be seized, and publicly subjected him to the torture in the theatre. Cyril, on being informed of this, sent for the principal Jews, and threatened them with the utmost severities unless they desisted from their molestation of the Christians. The Jewish populace on hearing these menaces, instead of suppressing their violence, only became more furious, and were led to form conspiracies for the destruction of the Christians; one of these was of so desperate a character as to cause their entire expulsion from Alexandria; this I shall now describe. Having agreed that each one of them should wear a ring on his finger made of the bark of a palm branch, for the sake of mutual recognition, they determined to make a nightly attack on the Christians. They therefore sent persons into the streets to raise an outcry that the church named after Alexander was on fire. Thus many Christians on hearing this ran out, some from one direction and some from another, in great anxiety to save their church. The Jews immediately fell upon and slew them; readily distinguishing each other by their rings. At daybreak the authors of this atrocity could not be concealed: and Cyril, accompanied by an immense crowd of people, going to their synagogues- for so they call their house of prayer- took them away from them, and drove the Jews out of the city, permitting the multitude to plunder their goods. Thus the Jews who had inhabited the city from the time of Alexander the Macedonian were expelled from it, stripped of all they possessed, and dispersed some in one direction and some in another. One of them, a physician named Adamantius, fled to Atticus bishop of Constantinople, and professing Christianity, some time afterwards returned to Alexandria and fixed his residence there. But Orestes the governor of Alexandria was filled with great indignation at these transactions, and was excessively grieved that a city of such magnitude should have been suddenly bereft of so large a portion of its population; he therefore at once communicated the whole affair to the emperor. Cyril also wrote to him, describing the outrageous conduct of the Jews; and in the meanwhile sent persons to Orestes who should mediate concerning a reconciliation: for this the people had urged him to do. And when Orestes refused to listen to friendly advances, Cyril extended toward him the book of gospels, believing that respect for religion would induce him to lay aside his resentment. When, however, even this had no pacific effect on the prefect, but he persisted in implacable hostility against the bishop, the following event afterwards occurred.
22. Anon., 4 Ezra, 13

23. Anon., Esther Rabbah, 1.3

1.3. אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הוּא אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁזּוֹכְרוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ. לָמָּה קְרָאוֹ הַכָּתוּב אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא, שֶׁהָיָה מַרְתִּיחַ וְתָשׁ. אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, רַבִּי יִצְחָק וְרַבָּנִין, רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ שֶׁבָּאוּ כָּל הַצָּרוֹת בְּיָמָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אֵבֶל גָּדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים. הוּא אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, שֶׁבָּאוּ כָּל הַטּוֹבוֹת בְּיָמָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשׂוֹן לַיְּהוּדִים מִשְׁתֶּה וְיוֹם טוֹב. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ עַד שֶׁלֹא נִכְנְסָה אֶסְתֵּר אֶצְלוֹ, הוּא אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, מִשֶּׁנִּכְנְסָה אֶסְתֵּר אֶצְלוֹ לֹא הָיָה בּוֹעֵל נִדּוֹת.
24. Anon., Leges Publicae, 1.16

25. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 43

26. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 13

27. Anon., Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer, 13

28. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 49, 13

13. for when by a combination of good fortune and courage he had brought his attack on the whole district of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia to a successful issue, in the process of terrorizing the country into subjection, he transported some of his foes and others he reduced to captivity. The number of those whom he transported from the country of the Jews to Egypt amounted to no less than a hundred thousand. of these he armed thirty thousand picked men and settled them in garrisons in the country districts. (And even before this time large numbers of Jews had come into Egypt with the Persian, and in an earlier period still others had been sent to Egypt to help Psammetichus in his campaign against the king of the Ethiopians. But these were nothing like so numerous as the captives whom Ptolemy the son of Lagus transported.)


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abramidae Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 123
aeons Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
alexander (iii) the great Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
alexandria, jewish writings of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 146
alexandria, jews of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
alexandria, rabbinic views of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 146, 387
antioch Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 146
antiochus iv epiphanes Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 105, 106
aristeas, letter of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 143, 146
body Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
child, children Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 123
christianity Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
classical historiography Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 123
clementine homilies Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
cognitive theory Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
cognomina Tacoma, Models from the Past in Roman Culture: A World of Exempla (2016) 51
cosmic Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 106
cosmology, cosmogony Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
creation topoi Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 106
creator Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 106
cross-border migration Tacoma, Models from the Past in Roman Culture: A World of Exempla (2016) 51
cyril of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
death Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 105, 106
demiurge Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
dust Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 105, 106
emotions passions Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
eternal life Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 105
ethnic argumentation, greek ethnonyms Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 123
ethnicity, ethnography Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 123
fides Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 123
first-generation migrants Tacoma, Models from the Past in Roman Culture: A World of Exempla (2016) 51
frontiers Tacoma, Models from the Past in Roman Culture: A World of Exempla (2016) 51
god-given Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 106
greek language Tacoma, Models from the Past in Roman Culture: A World of Exempla (2016) 51
immortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 105
jews hebrew Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
judaea (judea), refugees from Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
judaea (judea) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
lamentations rabbah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
latin language Tacoma, Models from the Past in Roman Culture: A World of Exempla (2016) 51
law Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 106
maccabees Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
martyr, martyrs, jewish Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 142, 143, 387
martyrdom Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 123
memory, cultural Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
messianism in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
molded Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 106
moses, as lawgiver Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 143, 146
noble death Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 123
papyri, greek Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
passions emotions Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
physical Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 106
provence, proverbs, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 142, 143, 146
rabbis Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
religio Bay, Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus (2022) 123
resurrection Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 106
savior jesus, christ, and son Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
septuagint (lxx) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 142, 143, 146
sethianism Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
shimon bar-yoḥai Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
slave society Tacoma, Models from the Past in Roman Culture: A World of Exempla (2016) 51
socrates (christian) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 106
spirit Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 106
stoicism Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
syria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
talmud, palestinian Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
therapeia\u2003' Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
topoi, creation Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 106
trajan, jewish revolts under Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
trajan Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
valentinian/valentinians Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
vernae Tacoma, Models from the Past in Roman Culture: A World of Exempla (2016) 51
wisdom Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 143
wisdom of solomon Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 142
women, jewish Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387