Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



5833
Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 1.1-1.12


nanThe subject that I am about to discuss is most philosophical, that is, whether devout reason is sovereign over the emotions. So it is right for me to advise you to pay earnest attention to philosophy.


nanOn this anniversary it is fitting for me to praise for their virtues those who, with their mother, died for the sake of nobility and goodness, but I would also call them blessed for the honor in which they are held.


nanFor all people, even their torturers, marveled at their courage and endurance, and they became the cause of the downfall of tyranny over their nation. By their endurance they conquered the tyrant, and thus their native land was purified through them.


nanI shall shortly have an opportunity to speak of this; but, as my custom is, I shall begin by stating my main principle, and then I shall turn to their story, giving glory to the all-wise God.


nanFor the subject is essential to everyone who is seeking knowledge, and in addition it includes the praise of the highest virtue -- I mean, of course, rational judgment.


nanIf, then, it is evident that reason rules over those emotions that hinder self-control, namely, gluttony and lust


nanit is also clear that it masters the emotions that hinder one from justice, such as malice, and those that stand in the way of courage, namely anger, fear, and pain.


nanSome might perhaps ask, "If reason rules the emotions, why is it not sovereign over forgetfulness and ignorance?" Their attempt at argument is ridiculous!


nanFor reason does not rule its own emotions, but those that are opposed to justice, courage, and self-control; and it is not for the purpose of destroying them, but so that one may not give way to them.


nanI could prove to you from many and various examples that reason is dominant over the emotions


nanbut I can demonstrate it best from the noble bravery of those who died for the sake of virtue, Eleazar and the seven brothers and their mother.


nanAll of these, by despising sufferings that bring death, demonstrated that reason controls the emotions.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

20 results
1. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 5.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.26. quare cum dicimus omnibus animalibus extremum esse secundum naturam vivere, non ita accipiendum est, quasi dicamus unum esse omnium extremum, sed ut omnium artium recte dici potest commune esse, ut in aliqua scientia versentur, scientiam autem suam cuiusque artis esse, sic commune animalium omnium secundum naturam vivere, sed naturas esse diversas, ut aliud equo sit e natura, aliud bovi, aliud homini. et tamen in omnibus est est V om. BERN 'Vellem in transitu ab infinita oratione ad finitam scriberetur : summa communis est et quidem cet.' Mdv. summa communis, et quidem non solum in animalibus, sed etiam in rebus omnibus iis, quas natura alit, auget, tuetur, in quibus videmus ea, quae gignuntur e terra, multa quodam modo efficere ipsa sibi per se, quae ad vivendum crescendumque valeant, ut ut ( ante suo) Bentl. et in suo genere 'in suo genere scribendum videtur' C.F. W. Mue. in adn. crit. perveniant ad extremum; ut iam liceat una comprehensione omnia complecti non dubitantemque dicere omnem naturam esse servatricem conservatricem R sui idque habere propositum quasi finem et extremum, se ut custodiat quam in optimo sui generis statu; ut necesse sit omnium rerum, quae natura vigeant, similem esse finem, non eundem. ex quo intellegi debet homini id esse in bonis ultimum, secundum naturam vivere, quod ita interpretemur: vivere ex hominis natura undique perfecta et nihil requirente. 5.26.  Hence when we say that the End of all living creatures is to live in accordance with nature, this must not be construed as meaning that all have one and the same end; but just as it is correct to say that all the arts and sciences have the common characteristic of occupying themselves with some branch of knowledge, while each art has its own particular branch of knowledge belonging to it, so all animals have the common End of living according to nature, but their natures are diverse, so that one thing is in accordance with nature for the horse, another for the ox, and another for man, and yet in all the Supreme End is common, and that not only in animals but also in all those things upon which nature bestows nourishment, increase and protection. Among these things we notice that plants can, in a sense, perform on their own behalf a number of actions conducive to their life and growth, so that they may attain their End after their kind. So that finally we may embrace all animate existence in one broad generalization, and say without hesitation, that all nature is self-preserving, and has before it the end and aim of maintaining itself in the best possible condition after its kind; and that consequently all things endowed by nature with life have a similar, but not an identical, End. This leads to the inference, that the ultimate Good of man is life in accordance with nature, which we may interpret as meaning life in accordance with human nature developed to its full perfection and supplied with all its needs.
3. Cicero, On Duties, 5.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

4. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 5.81-5.82 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

5.81. itaque eam tergiversari non sinent sinent s V rec Non. sinenti secumque rapient, itaque...6 rapienti Non.41,26 ad quemcumque ipsae ipse X dolorem cruciatumque ducentur. sapientis est enim proprium nihil quod paenitere possit possit add. G 2 facere, nihil invitum, splendide constanter graviter graviter c nstanter R honeste omnia, nihil ita expectare exspectare GRH ( alt.loco ) quasi certo incerto H (inc. alt.loco futurum, nihil, cum acciderit, admirari, ut inopinatum opinatum R 1 ac novum accidisse videatur, omnia ad suum arbitrium referre, suis stare iudiciis. quo quod G ( exp. 2 ) quid sit beatius, mihi certe in mentem venire non potest. numquam...441, 7 sapientis ( om. 441, 12 omnia...14 potest) H 5.82. Stoicorum quidem facilis conclusio est; qui cum finem bonorum esse esse om. H senserint congruere congruę G 1 naturae cumque ea convenienter vivere, cum id sit in sapientis sapientis Lb. sapiente situm non officio solum, verum etiam etiam om. H potestate, sequatur necesse est, ut, cuius in potestate summum bonum, in eiusdem vita beata ita ista V 1 sit. ita fit semper vita beata sapientis. Habes, quae fortissime de beata vita dici putem et, quo modo nunc est, nisi quid tu melius attuleris, etiam verissime. Melius equidem adferre nihil possum, sed a te impetrarim lubenter, ut, nisi molestum sit, sit est Ha. quoniam te nulla vincula impediunt ullius ullius V 3 B Corr s illius X certae disciplinae libasque ex omnibus, quodcumque te maxime specie veritatis movet,—quod paulo ante paulo ante 438,22 Peripateticos veteremque Academiam hortari videbare, ut sine retractatione libere dicere dicerent G ( corr. 1 ) RV ( corr. rec ) auderent audirent K sapientis esse semper beatissimos, id velim audire, quem ad modum his putes consentaneum esse id dicere. multa multi K 1 enim a te contra istam sententiam dicta sunt et Stoicorum ratione conclusa.
5. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.20, 7.20-7.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.20. as men ought to go who have the courage to refuse things that it is not right to taste, even for the natural love of life.' 7.20. The mother was especially admirable and worthy of honorable memory. Though she saw her seven sons perish within a single day, she bore it with good courage because of her hope in the Lord.' 7.21. She encouraged each of them in the language of their fathers. Filled with a noble spirit, she fired her woman's reasoning with a man's courage, and said to them,'
6. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 44.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 1.2-1.12, 1.16-1.18, 1.30, 1.33-1.34, 2.5-2.13, 2.21-2.23, 5.16-5.18, 6.35, 7.18-7.23, 9.6-9.10, 9.12-9.15, 9.17-9.21, 13.1-13.3, 14.20, 15.23, 15.29-15.30, 18.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.2. For the subject is essential to everyone who is seeking knowledge, and in addition it includes the praise of the highest virtue -- I mean, of course, rational judgment. 1.3. If, then, it is evident that reason rules over those emotions that hinder self-control, namely, gluttony and lust 1.4. it is also clear that it masters the emotions that hinder one from justice, such as malice, and those that stand in the way of courage, namely anger, fear, and pain. 1.5. Some might perhaps ask, "If reason rules the emotions, why is it not sovereign over forgetfulness and ignorance?" Their attempt at argument is ridiculous! 1.6. For reason does not rule its own emotions, but those that are opposed to justice, courage, and self-control; and it is not for the purpose of destroying them, but so that one may not give way to them. 1.7. I could prove to you from many and various examples that reason is domit over the emotions 1.8. but I can demonstrate it best from the noble bravery of those who died for the sake of virtue, Eleazar and the seven brothers and their mother. 1.9. All of these, by despising sufferings that bring death, demonstrated that reason controls the emotions. 1.10. On this anniversary it is fitting for me to praise for their virtues those who, with their mother, died for the sake of nobility and goodness, but I would also call them blessed for the honor in which they are held. 1.11. For all people, even their torturers, marveled at their courage and endurance, and they became the cause of the downfall of tyranny over their nation. By their endurance they conquered the tyrant, and thus their native land was purified through them. 1.12. I shall shortly have an opportunity to speak of this; but, as my custom is, I shall begin by stating my main principle, and then I shall turn to their story, giving glory to the all-wise God. 1.16. Wisdom, next, is the knowledge of divine and human matters and the causes of these. 1.17. This, in turn, is education in the law, by which we learn divine matters reverently and human affairs to our advantage. 1.18. Now the kinds of wisdom are rational judgment, justice, courage, and self-control. 1.30. For reason is the guide of the virtues, but over the emotions it is sovereign. Observe now first of all that rational judgment is sovereign over the emotions by virtue of the restraining power of self-control. 1.33. Otherwise how is it that when we are attracted to forbidden foods we abstain from the pleasure to be had from them? Is it not because reason is able to rule over appetites? I for one think so. 1.34. Therefore when we crave seafood and fowl and animals and all sorts of foods that are forbidden to us by the law, we abstain because of domination by reason. 2.5. Thus the law says, "You shall not covet your neighbor's wife...or anything that is your neighbor's. 2.6. In fact, since the law has told us not to covet, I could prove to you all the more that reason is able to control desires. Just so it is with the emotions that hinder one from justice. 2.8. Thus, as soon as a man adopts a way of life in accordance with the law, even though he is a lover of money, he is forced to act contrary to his natural ways and to lend without interest to the needy and to cancel the debt when the seventh year arrives. 2.9. If one is greedy, he is ruled by the law through his reason so that he neither gleans his harvest nor gathers the last grapes from the vineyard. In all other matters we can recognize that reason rules the emotions. 2.10. For the law prevails even over affection for parents, so that virtue is not abandoned for their sakes. 2.11. It is superior to love for one's wife, so that one rebukes her when she breaks the law. 2.12. It takes precedence over love for children, so that one punishes them for misdeeds. 2.13. It is sovereign over the relationship of friends, so that one rebukes friends when they act wickedly. 2.21. Now when God fashioned man, he planted in him emotions and inclinations 2.22. but at the same time he enthroned the mind among the senses as a sacred governor over them all. 2.23. To the mind he gave the law; and one who lives subject to this will rule a kingdom that is temperate, just, good, and courageous. 5.16. We, O Antiochus, who have been persuaded to govern our lives by the divine law, think that there is no compulsion more powerful than our obedience to the law. 5.17. Therefore we consider that we should not transgress it in any respect. 5.18. Even if, as you suppose, our law were not truly divine and we had wrongly held it to be divine, not even so would it be right for us to invalidate our reputation for piety. 6.35. And I have proved not only that reason has mastered agonies, but also that it masters pleasures and in no respect yields to them. 7.18. But as many as attend to religion with a whole heart, these alone are able to control the passions of the flesh 7.19. ince they believe that they, like our patriarchs Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, do not die to God, but live in God. 7.20. No contradiction therefore arises when some persons appear to be dominated by their emotions because of the weakness of their reason. 7.21. What person who lives as a philosopher by the whole rule of philosophy, and trusts in God 7.22. and knows that it is blessed to endure any suffering for the sake of virtue, would not be able to overcome the emotions through godliness? 7.23. For only the wise and courageous man is lord of his emotions. 9.6. And if the aged men of the Hebrews because of their religion lived piously while enduring torture, it would be even more fitting that we young men should die despising your coercive tortures, which our aged instructor also overcame. 9.7. Therefore, tyrant, put us to the test; and if you take our lives because of our religion, do not suppose that you can injure us by torturing us. 9.8. For we, through this severe suffering and endurance, shall have the prize of virtue and shall be with God, for whom we suffer; 9.9. but you, because of your bloodthirstiness toward us, will deservedly undergo from the divine justice eternal torment by fire. 9.10. When they had said these things the tyrant not only was angry, as at those who are disobedient, but also was enraged, as at those who are ungrateful. 9.12. When they had worn themselves out beating him with scourges, without accomplishing anything, they placed him upon the wheel. 9.13. When the noble youth was stretched out around this, his limbs were dislocated 9.14. and though broken in every member he denounced the tyrant, saying 9.15. Most abominable tyrant, enemy of heavenly justice, savage of mind, you are mangling me in this manner, not because I am a murderer, or as one who acts impiously, but because I protect the divine law. 9.17. he replied, "You abominable lackeys, your wheel is not so powerful as to strangle my reason. Cut my limbs, burn my flesh, and twist my joints. 9.18. Through all these tortures I will convince you that sons of the Hebrews alone are invincible where virtue is concerned. 9.19. While he was saying these things, they spread fire under him, and while fanning the flames they tightened the wheel further. 9.20. The wheel was completely smeared with blood, and the heap of coals was being quenched by the drippings of gore, and pieces of flesh were falling off the axles of the machine. 9.21. Although the ligaments joining his bones were already severed, the courageous youth, worthy of Abraham, did not groan 13.2. For if they had been slaves to their emotions and had eaten defiling food, we would say that they had been conquered by these emotions. 13.3. But in fact it was not so. Instead, by reason, which is praised before God, they prevailed over their emotions. 14.20. But sympathy for her children did not sway the mother of the young men; she was of the same mind as Abraham. 15.23. But devout reason, giving her heart a man's courage in the very midst of her emotions, strengthened her to disregard her temporal love for her children. 15.29. O mother of the nation, vindicator of the law and champion of religion, who carried away the prize of the contest in your heart! 15.30. O more noble than males in steadfastness, and more manly than men in endurance! 18.2. knowing that devout reason is master of all emotions, not only of sufferings from within, but also of those from without.
8. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 237-244, 236 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 41-63, 66-67, 7, 70-72, 8-9, 40 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

40. I wish also to speak of their common assemblies, and their very cheerful meetings at convivial parties, setting them in opposition and contrast to the banquets of others, for others, when they drink strong wine, as if they had been drinking not wine but some agitating and maddening kind of liquor, or even the most formidable thing which can be imagined for driving a man out of his natural reason, rage about and tear things to pieces like so many ferocious dogs, and rise up and attack one another, biting and gnawing each other's noses, and ears, and fingers, and other parts of their body, so as to give an accurate representation of the story related about the Cyclops and the companions of Ulysses, who ate, as the poet says, fragments of human flesh, and that more savagely than even he himself;
10. Diogenes of Oenoanda, Fragments, 29 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

11. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.10, 2.14, 2.16, 3.1, 13.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.10. But to us, God revealed them through the Spirit. For theSpirit searches all things, yes, the deep things of God. 2.14. Now thenatural man doesn't receive the things of God's Spirit, for they arefoolishness to him, and he can't know them, because they arespiritually discerned. 2.16. For who has knownthe mind of the Lord, that he should instruct him?" But we haveChrist's mind. 3.1. Brothers, I couldn't speak to you as to spiritual, but as tofleshly, as to babies in Christ. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known.
12. New Testament, John, 3.8, 16.12-16.13, 19.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.8. The wind blows where it wants to, and you hear its sound, but don't know where it comes from and where it is going. So is everyone who is born of the Spirit. 16.12. I have yet many things to tell you, but you can't bear them now. 16.13. However when he, the Spirit of truth, has come, he will guide you into all truth, for he will not speak from himself; but whatever he hears, he will speak. He will declare to you things that are coming. 19.35. He who has seen has testified, and his testimony is true. He knows that he tells the truth, that you may believe.
13. New Testament, Matthew, 7.24-7.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.24. Everyone therefore who hears these words of mine, and does them, I will liken him to a wise man, who built his house on a rock. 7.25. The rain came down, the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat on that house; and it didn't fall, for it was founded on the rock. 7.26. Everyone who hears these words of mine, and doesn't do them will be like a foolish man, who built his house on the sand.
14. Plutarch, On The Delays of Divine Vengeance, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

15. Alcinous, Handbook of Platonism, 28.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.87 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.87. This is why Zeno was the first (in his treatise On the Nature of Man) to designate as the end life in agreement with nature (or living agreeably to nature), which is the same as a virtuous life, virtue being the goal towards which nature guides us. So too Cleanthes in his treatise On Pleasure, as also Posidonius, and Hecato in his work On Ends. Again, living virtuously is equivalent to living in accordance with experience of the actual course of nature, as Chrysippus says in the first book of his De finibus; for our individual natures are parts of the nature of the whole universe.
17. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 3.10.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

3.10.6. Another work of no little merit has been produced by the same writer, On the Supremacy of Reason, which some have called Maccabaicum, because it contains an account of the struggles of those Hebrews who contended manfully for the true religion, as is related in the books called Maccabees.
18. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

19. Epicurus, Letter To Herodotus, 82

20. Epicurus, Kuriai Doxai, 1



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, faithfulness of Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 58
abraham, obedience of Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 58
abraham Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 209
academic / academy, the Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
agency / agent, human Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
alcinous Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
andreia Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208
antiochus, power struggles of Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 33
antiochus Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 209
antiochus epiphanes Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 58
apollonius of tyana Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 397
aristotle Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 143
assimilation, to god (homoiōsis theōi) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
ben sira Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 58
chaeremon the stoic, on the egyptian priests Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 15
chaeremon the stoic Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 15
cicero Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
damis Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 397
david Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 209; Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 397, 398
deliberative genre Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 143
demetrius Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 397
diaspora judaism Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
eleazar Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208, 209
eliezer (martyr in 2 maccabees) Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 397, 398
emotion, in the hebrew bible Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 33
emotional counter-discourse, as source of power Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 33
emotions / passions (pathē, pathēmata) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
endurance, in 2 maccabees and 4 maccabees Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 126
endurance, of mother of jewish martyrs Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 126
epicurus Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
epideictic genre Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 143
ethics / ethical theory Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
eudaimonia (flourishing, happiness) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
eusebius Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 143
fourth maccabees Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
goal (telos) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
god (theos) ix Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
gods / goddesses Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
holy spirit Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 243, 244
integrity Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208, 244
jesus Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 209, 243, 244
knowledge Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 143
logos Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 209
martyrdom, emotions and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 33
martyrdom Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 58
moral / morality, values Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 143
mothers, endurance of Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 126
nature (phusis) / natural, human Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
new testament Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208, 209, 243, 244
passions Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 143
paul Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 243, 244
philo Kessler, Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac (2004) 58
philo of alexandria Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
philosophy, and ancient judaism Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208, 209
philostratus' Levine Allison and Crossan, The Historical Jesus in Context (2006) 397
phronēsis Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208
plato Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
platonism (middle / imperial) vi–viii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
plutarch Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
reason Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 143
reason (human) / rational faculty (logos, logistikon) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
resistance, emotional Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 33
resistance, in martyrdom Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 33
resistance, power-to and Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 33
rhetorical genres Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 143
school (scholē) / sect (hairesis) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
self-mastery (enkrateia) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
social bonding Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 143
socrates Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208
sophia Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208
soul / mind (psuchē, animus) vii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
stoicism, outlook on emotion Mermelstein, Power and Emotion in Ancient Judaism: Community and Identity in Formation (2021) 33
stoicism Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208
stoicism / stoic / stoa Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
strength (ischus) / strengthen Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
sōphrosunē Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208
torah, and wisdom Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208, 209
tranquility (ataraxia) Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
values Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 143
vii–viii Lee, Moral Transformation in Greco-Roman Philosophy of Mind: Mapping the Moral Milieu of the Apostle Paul and His Diaspora Jewish Contemporaries (2020) 44
virtue Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 143
wisdom, in 1 corinthians Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 243, 244
wisdom, in 4 maccabees Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 208, 209
wisdom, in new testament Legaspi, Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition (2018) 243, 244