Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



5833
Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 1


nanThe subject that I am about to discuss is most philosophical, that is, whether devout reason is sovereign over the emotions. So it is right for me to advise you to pay earnest attention to philosophy.,For the subject is essential to everyone who is seeking knowledge, and in addition it includes the praise of the highest virtue -- I mean, of course, rational judgment.,If, then, it is evident that reason rules over those emotions that hinder self-control, namely, gluttony and lust,,it is also clear that it masters the emotions that hinder one from justice, such as malice, and those that stand in the way of courage, namely anger, fear, and pain.,Some might perhaps ask, "If reason rules the emotions, why is it not sovereign over forgetfulness and ignorance?" Their attempt at argument is ridiculous!,For reason does not rule its own emotions, but those that are opposed to justice, courage, and self-control; and it is not for the purpose of destroying them, but so that one may not give way to them.,I could prove to you from many and various examples that reason is dominant over the emotions,,but I can demonstrate it best from the noble bravery of those who died for the sake of virtue, Eleazar and the seven brothers and their mother.,All of these, by despising sufferings that bring death, demonstrated that reason controls the emotions.,On this anniversary it is fitting for me to praise for their virtues those who, with their mother, died for the sake of nobility and goodness, but I would also call them blessed for the honor in which they are held.,For all people, even their torturers, marveled at their courage and endurance, and they became the cause of the downfall of tyranny over their nation. By their endurance they conquered the tyrant, and thus their native land was purified through them.,I shall shortly have an opportunity to speak of this; but, as my custom is, I shall begin by stating my main principle, and then I shall turn to their story, giving glory to the all-wise God.,Our inquiry, accordingly, is whether reason is sovereign over the emotions.,We shall decide just what reason is and what emotion is, how many kinds of emotions there are, and whether reason rules over all these.,Now reason is the mind that with sound logic prefers the life of wisdom.,Wisdom, next, is the knowledge of divine and human matters and the causes of these.,This, in turn, is education in the law, by which we learn divine matters reverently and human affairs to our advantage.,Now the kinds of wisdom are rational judgment, justice, courage, and self-control.,Rational judgment is supreme over all of these, since by means of it reason rules over the emotions.,The two most comprehensive types of the emotions are pleasure and pain; and each of these is by nature concerned with both body and soul.,The emotions of both pleasure and pain have many consequences.,Thus desire precedes pleasure and delight follows it.,Fear precedes pain and sorrow comes after.,Anger, as a man will see if he reflects on this experience, is an emotion embracing pleasure and pain.,In pleasure there exists even a malevolent tendency, which is the most complex of all the emotions.,In the soul it is boastfulness, covetousness, thirst for honor, rivalry, and malice;,in the body, indiscriminate eating, gluttony, and solitary gormandizing.,Just as pleasure and pain are two plants growing from the body and the soul, so there are many offshoots of these plants,,each of which the master cultivator, reason, weeds and prunes and ties up and waters and thoroughly irrigates, and so tames the jungle of habits and emotions.,For reason is the guide of the virtues, but over the emotions it is sovereign. Observe now first of all that rational judgment is sovereign over the emotions by virtue of the restraining power of self-control.,Self-control, then, is dominance over the desires.,Some desires are mental, others are physical, and reason obviously rules over both.,Otherwise how is it that when we are attracted to forbidden foods we abstain from the pleasure to be had from them? Is it not because reason is able to rule over appetites? I for one think so.,Therefore when we crave seafood and fowl and animals and all sorts of foods that are forbidden to us by the law, we abstain because of domination by reason.,For the emotions of the appetites are restrained, checked by the temperate mind, and all the impulses of the body are bridled by reason.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

15 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 30.20, 32.39 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.39. רְאוּ עַתָּה כִּי אֲנִי אֲנִי הוּא וְאֵין אֱלֹהִים עִמָּדִי אֲנִי אָמִית וַאֲחַיֶּה מָחַצְתִּי וַאֲנִי אֶרְפָּא וְאֵין מִיָּדִי מַצִּיל׃ 30.20. to love the LORD thy God, to hearken to His voice, and to cleave unto Him; for that is thy life, and the length of thy days; that thou mayest dwell in the land which the LORD swore unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them." 32.39. See now that I, even I, am He, And there is no god with Me; I kill, and I make alive; I have wounded, and I heal; And there is none that can deliver out of My hand."
2. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.18, 6.33, 28.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.18. עֵץ־חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ וְתֹמְכֶיהָ מְאֻשָּׁר׃ 6.33. נֶגַע־וְקָלוֹן יִמְצָא וְחֶרְפָּתוֹ לֹא תִמָּחֶה׃ 28.4. עֹזְבֵי תוֹרָה יְהַלְלוּ רָשָׁע וְשֹׁמְרֵי תוֹרָה יִתְגָּרוּ בָם׃ 3.18. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her, And happy is every one that holdest her fast." 6.33. Wounds and dishonour shall he get, And his reproach shall not be wiped away. ." 28.4. They that forsake the law praise the wicked; But such as keep the law contend with them."
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 43.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

43.2. כִּי־תַעֲבֹר בַּמַּיִם אִתְּךָ־אָנִי וּבַנְּהָרוֹת לֹא יִשְׁטְפוּךָ כִּי־תֵלֵךְ בְּמוֹ־אֵשׁ לֹא תִכָּוֶה וְלֶהָבָה לֹא תִבְעַר־בָּךְ׃ 43.2. תְּכַבְּדֵנִי חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה תַּנִּים וּבְנוֹת יַעֲנָה כִּי־נָתַתִּי בַמִּדְבָּר מַיִם נְהָרוֹת בִּישִׁימֹן לְהַשְׁקוֹת עַמִּי בְחִירִי׃ 43.2. When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee, And through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee; When thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned, Neither shall the flame kindle upon thee."
4. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 37.4 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

37.4. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא עַל־הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם הָעֲצָמוֹת הַיְבֵשׁוֹת שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃ 37.4. Then He said unto me: ‘Prophesy over these bones, and say unto them: O ye dry bones, hear the word of the LORD:"
5. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 6.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.21. Therefore if you delight in thrones and scepters,O monarchs over the peoples,honor wisdom, that you may reign for ever.
7. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 5.16-5.24, 18.6-18.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.16. We, O Antiochus, who have been persuaded to govern our lives by the divine law, think that there is no compulsion more powerful than our obedience to the law. 5.17. Therefore we consider that we should not transgress it in any respect. 5.18. Even if, as you suppose, our law were not truly divine and we had wrongly held it to be divine, not even so would it be right for us to invalidate our reputation for piety. 5.19. Therefore do not suppose that it would be a petty sin if we were to eat defiling food; 5.20. to transgress the law in matters either small or great is of equal seriousness 5.21. for in either case the law is equally despised. 5.22. You scoff at our philosophy as though living by it were irrational 5.23. but it teaches us self-control, so that we master all pleasures and desires, and it also trains us in courage, so that we endure any suffering willingly; 5.24. it instructs us in justice, so that in all our dealings we act impartially, and it teaches us piety, so that with proper reverence we worship the only real God. 18.6. The mother of seven sons expressed also these principles to her children: 18.7. I was a pure virgin and did not go outside my father's house; but I guarded the rib from which woman was made. 18.8. No seducer corrupted me on a desert plain, nor did the destroyer, the deceitful serpent, defile the purity of my virginity. 18.9. In the time of my maturity I remained with my husband, and when these sons had grown up their father died. A happy man was he, who lived out his life with good children, and did not have the grief of bereavement. 18.10. While he was still with you, he taught you the law and the prophets. 18.11. He read to you about Abel slain by Cain, and Isaac who was offered as a burnt offering, and of Joseph in prison. 18.12. He told you of the zeal of Phineas, and he taught you about Haiah, Azariah, and Mishael in the fire. 18.13. He praised Daniel in the den of the lions and blessed him. 18.14. He reminded you of the scripture of Isaiah, which says, `Even though you go through the fire, the flame shall not consume you.' 18.15. He sang to you songs of the psalmist David, who said, `Many are the afflictions of the righteous.' 18.16. He recounted to you Solomon's proverb, `There is a tree of life for those who do his will.' 18.17. He confirmed the saying of Ezekiel, `Shall these dry bones live?' 18.18. For he did not forget to teach you the song that Moses taught, which says 18.19. `I kill and I make alive: this is your life and the length of your days.'
8. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.30, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.30. But of him, you are in ChristJesus, who was made to us wisdom from God, and righteousness andsanctification, and redemption: 2.16. For who has knownthe mind of the Lord, that he should instruct him?" But we haveChrist's mind.
9. New Testament, Philippians, 2.2-2.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.2. make my joy full, by being like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind; 2.3. doing nothing through rivalry or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 2.4. each of you not just looking to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 2.5. Have this in your mind, which was also in Christ Jesus
10. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 45.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 6.32.5-6.32.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

12. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.4.1-1.4.5, 6.32.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

13. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

14. Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History, 7.13 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

7.13. About this same time it happened that the Jewish inhabitants were driven out of Alexandria by Cyril the bishop on the following account. The Alexandrian public is more delighted with tumult than any other people: and if at any time it should find a pretext, breaks forth into the most intolerable excesses; for it never ceases from its turbulence without bloodshed. It happened on the present occasion that a disturbance arose among the populace, not from a cause of any serious importance, but out of an evil that has become very popular in almost all cities, viz. a fondness for dancing exhibitions. In consequence of the Jews being disengaged from business on the Sabbath, and spending their time, not in hearing the Law, but in theatrical amusements, dancers usually collect great crowds on that day, and disorder is almost invariably produced. And although this was in some degree controlled by the governor of Alexandria, nevertheless the Jews continued opposing these measures. And although they are always hostile toward the Christians they were roused to still greater opposition against them on account of the dancers. When therefore Orestes the prefect was publishing an edict - for so they are accustomed to call public notices - in the theatre for the regulation of the shows, some of the bishop Cyril's party were present to learn the nature of the orders about to be issued. There was among them a certain Hierax, a teacher of the rudimental branches of literature, and one who was a very enthusiastic listener of the bishop Cyril's sermons, and made himself conspicuous by his forwardness in applauding. When the Jews observed this person in the theatre, they immediately cried out that he had come there for no other purpose than to excite sedition among the people. Now Orestes had long regarded with jealousy the growing power of the bishops, because they encroached on the jurisdiction of the authorities appointed by the emperor, especially as Cyril wished to set spies over his proceedings; he therefore ordered Hierax to be seized, and publicly subjected him to the torture in the theatre. Cyril, on being informed of this, sent for the principal Jews, and threatened them with the utmost severities unless they desisted from their molestation of the Christians. The Jewish populace on hearing these menaces, instead of suppressing their violence, only became more furious, and were led to form conspiracies for the destruction of the Christians; one of these was of so desperate a character as to cause their entire expulsion from Alexandria; this I shall now describe. Having agreed that each one of them should wear a ring on his finger made of the bark of a palm branch, for the sake of mutual recognition, they determined to make a nightly attack on the Christians. They therefore sent persons into the streets to raise an outcry that the church named after Alexander was on fire. Thus many Christians on hearing this ran out, some from one direction and some from another, in great anxiety to save their church. The Jews immediately fell upon and slew them; readily distinguishing each other by their rings. At daybreak the authors of this atrocity could not be concealed: and Cyril, accompanied by an immense crowd of people, going to their synagogues- for so they call their house of prayer- took them away from them, and drove the Jews out of the city, permitting the multitude to plunder their goods. Thus the Jews who had inhabited the city from the time of Alexander the Macedonian were expelled from it, stripped of all they possessed, and dispersed some in one direction and some in another. One of them, a physician named Adamantius, fled to Atticus bishop of Constantinople, and professing Christianity, some time afterwards returned to Alexandria and fixed his residence there. But Orestes the governor of Alexandria was filled with great indignation at these transactions, and was excessively grieved that a city of such magnitude should have been suddenly bereft of so large a portion of its population; he therefore at once communicated the whole affair to the emperor. Cyril also wrote to him, describing the outrageous conduct of the Jews; and in the meanwhile sent persons to Orestes who should mediate concerning a reconciliation: for this the people had urged him to do. And when Orestes refused to listen to friendly advances, Cyril extended toward him the book of gospels, believing that respect for religion would induce him to lay aside his resentment. When, however, even this had no pacific effect on the prefect, but he persisted in implacable hostility against the bishop, the following event afterwards occurred.
15. Anon., Esther Rabbah, 1.3

1.3. אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ הוּא אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁזּוֹכְרוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ. לָמָּה קְרָאוֹ הַכָּתוּב אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא, שֶׁהָיָה מַרְתִּיחַ וְתָשׁ. אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, רַבִּי יִצְחָק וְרַבָּנִין, רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ שֶׁבָּאוּ כָּל הַצָּרוֹת בְּיָמָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אֵבֶל גָּדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים. הוּא אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, שֶׁבָּאוּ כָּל הַטּוֹבוֹת בְּיָמָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשׂוֹן לַיְּהוּדִים מִשְׁתֶּה וְיוֹם טוֹב. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ עַד שֶׁלֹא נִכְנְסָה אֶסְתֵּר אֶצְלוֹ, הוּא אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, מִשֶּׁנִּכְנְסָה אֶסְתֵּר אֶצְלוֹ לֹא הָיָה בּוֹעֵל נִדּוֹת.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aeons Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
alexander (iii) the great Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
alexandria, jewish writings of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 146
alexandria, jews of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
alexandria, rabbinic views of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 146, 387
antioch Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 146
aristeas, letter of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 143, 146
body Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
christianity Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
cleanthes, as author of the hymn Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 192
clementine homilies Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
cognitive theory Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
cosmology, cosmogony Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
cyril of alexandria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
demiurge Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
elders and synagogue, and amidah, seating Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 567
emotions passions Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
epictetus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 192
gymnasiarch, babylonia Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 567
gymnasiarch, blessings Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 567, 591
jews hebrew Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
judaea (judea), refugees from Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
judaea (judea) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
lamentations rabbah Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
law of christ Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 192
maccabees Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
martyr, martyrs, jewish Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 142, 143, 387
memory, cultural Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
messianism in egypt Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
moses, as lawgiver Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 143, 146
nabonidus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 553
papyri, greek Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
passions emotions Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
passover, hallel Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 591
platonism Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 192
prayer, babylonia Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 567, 591
prayer, biblical models Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 553
prayer, communal, public Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 553
prayer, formalization Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 591
provence, proverbs, book of Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 142, 143, 146
psalms Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 591
purim Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 591
qaddish, geulah prayer Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 591
r. amram gaon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 591
r. aqiva Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 553
r. judah i (the prince), i Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 553
r. yohanan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 567, 591
rabbis Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
reading, and qaddish Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 591
reading, reading cycle (triennial vs. annual) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 567
sacramentum Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 553
savior jesus, christ, and son Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
septuagint (lxx) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 142, 143, 146
sethianism Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
sheliah tzibbur, prayer leader' Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 553
shema, and amidah Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 591
shema, blessings Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 567
shema, reciting antiphonally Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 553
shema, standing Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 553, 567, 591
shema, themes Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 553
shimon bar-yoḥai Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
socrates (christian) Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
song of the sea Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 553
stoicism Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
syria Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
talmud, palestinian Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
telos Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 192
therapeia\u2003 Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
tractate soferim Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 591
trajan, jewish revolts under Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 363
trajan Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
valentinian/valentinians Linjamaa, The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics (2019) 72
wisdom Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 143
wisdom of solomon Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 142
women, jewish Salvesen et al., Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period (2020) 387
zeus Wilson, Paul and the Jewish Law: A Stoic Ethical Perspective on his Inconsistency (2022) 192