Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



661
Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 9.11


nanThen it was that, broken in spirit, he began to lose much of his arrogance and to come to his senses under the scourge of God, for he was tortured with pain every moment.'


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

37 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.2, 9.16, 17.20, 25.2, 27.5, 28.15, 32.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.2. כַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה מַאֲבִיד מִפְּנֵיכֶם כֵּן תֹאבֵדוּן עֵקֶב לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּן בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 8.2. וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־כָּל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר הֹלִיכֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ זֶה אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בַּמִּדְבָּר לְמַעַן עַנֹּתְךָ לְנַסֹּתְךָ לָדַעַת אֶת־אֲשֶׁר בִּלְבָבְךָ הֲתִשְׁמֹר מצותו [מִצְוֺתָיו] אִם־לֹא׃ 9.16. וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה חֲטָאתֶם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם עֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה סַרְתֶּם מַהֵר מִן־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם׃ 25.2. וְהָיָה אִם־בִּן הַכּוֹת הָרָשָׁע וְהִפִּילוֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט וְהִכָּהוּ לְפָנָיו כְּדֵי רִשְׁעָתוֹ בְּמִסְפָּר׃ 27.5. וּבָנִיתָ שָּׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים לֹא־תָנִיף עֲלֵיהֶם בַּרְזֶל׃ 28.15. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתָיו וְחֻקֹּתָיו אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם וּבָאוּ עָלֶיךָ כָּל־הַקְּלָלוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְהִשִּׂיגוּךָ׃ 32.27. לוּלֵי כַּעַס אוֹיֵב אָגוּר פֶּן־יְנַכְּרוּ צָרֵימוֹ פֶּן־יֹאמְרוּ יָדֵינוּ רָמָה וְלֹא יְהוָה פָּעַל כָּל־זֹאת׃ 8.2. And thou shalt remember all the way which the LORD thy God hath led thee these forty years in the wilderness, that He might afflict thee, to prove thee, to know what was in thy heart, whether thou wouldest keep His commandments, or no." 9.16. And I looked, and, behold, ye had sinned against the LORD your God; ye had made you a molten calf; ye had turned aside quickly out of the way which the LORD had commanded you." 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel." 25.2. then it shall be, if the wicked man deserve to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten before his face, according to the measure of his wickedness, by number." 27.5. And there shalt thou build an altar unto the LORD thy God, an altar of stones; thou shalt lift up no iron tool upon them." 28.15. But it shall come to pass, if thou wilt not hearken unto the voice of the LORD thy God, to observe to do all His commandments and His statutes which I command thee this day; that all these curses shall come upon thee, and overtake thee." 32.27. Were it not that I dreaded the enemy’s provocation, Lest their adversaries should misdeem, Lest they should say: Our hand is exalted, And not the LORD hath wrought all this.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 7.10, 8.7, 9.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.7. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וּלְמָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי הִנֵּה בֵית־הָמָן נָתַתִּי לְאֶסְתֵּר וְאֹתוֹ תָּלוּ עַל־הָעֵץ עַל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁלַח יָדוֹ ביהודיים [בַּיְּהוּדִים׃] 9.27. קִיְּמוּ וקבל [וְקִבְּלוּ] הַיְּהוּדִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְעַל־זַרְעָם וְעַל כָּל־הַנִּלְוִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר לִהְיוֹת עֹשִׂים אֵת שְׁנֵי הַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּכְתָבָם וְכִזְמַנָּם בְּכָל־שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה׃ 7.10. So they hanged Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then was the king’s wrath assuaged." 8.7. Then the king Ahasuerus said unto Esther the queen and to Mordecai the Jew: ‘Behold, I have given Esther the house of Haman, and him they have hanged upon the gallows, because he laid his hand upon the Jews." 9.27. the Jews ordained, and took upon them, and upon their seed, and upon all such as joined themselves unto them, so as it should not fail, that they would keep these two days according to the writing thereof, and according to the appointed time thereof, every year;"
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 8.18, 14.31, 15.6-15.7, 15.9, 15.12, 15.17, 27.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.18. וְהִפְלֵיתִי בַיּוֹם הַהוּא אֶת־אֶרֶץ גֹּשֶׁן אֲשֶׁר עַמִּי עֹמֵד עָלֶיהָ לְבִלְתִּי הֱיוֹת־שָׁם עָרֹב לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃ 14.31. וַיַּרְא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַיָּד הַגְּדֹלָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה בְּמִצְרַיִם וַיִּירְאוּ הָעָם אֶת־יְהוָה וַיַּאֲמִינוּ בַּיהוָה וּבְמֹשֶׁה עַבְדּוֹ׃ 15.6. יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה נֶאְדָּרִי בַּכֹּחַ יְמִינְךָ יְהוָה תִּרְעַץ אוֹיֵב׃ 15.7. וּבְרֹב גְּאוֹנְךָ תַּהֲרֹס קָמֶיךָ תְּשַׁלַּח חֲרֹנְךָ יֹאכְלֵמוֹ כַּקַּשׁ׃ 15.9. אָמַר אוֹיֵב אֶרְדֹּף אַשִּׂיג אֲחַלֵּק שָׁלָל תִּמְלָאֵמוֹ נַפְשִׁי אָרִיק חַרְבִּי תּוֹרִישֵׁמוֹ יָדִי׃ 15.12. נָטִיתָ יְמִינְךָ תִּבְלָעֵמוֹ אָרֶץ׃ 15.17. תְּבִאֵמוֹ וְתִטָּעֵמוֹ בְּהַר נַחֲלָתְךָ מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ פָּעַלְתָּ יְהוָה מִקְּדָשׁ אֲדֹנָי כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ׃ 27.2. וְאַתָּה תְּצַוֶּה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זָךְ כָּתִית לַמָּאוֹר לְהַעֲלֹת נֵר תָּמִיד׃ 27.2. וְעָשִׂיתָ קַרְנֹתָיו עַל אַרְבַּע פִּנֹּתָיו מִמֶּנּוּ תִּהְיֶיןָ קַרְנֹתָיו וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ נְחֹשֶׁת׃ 8.18. And I will set apart in that day the land of Goshen, in which My people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the end that thou mayest know that I am the LORD in the midst of the earth." 14.31. And Israel saw the great work which the LORD did upon the Egyptians, and the people feared the LORD; and they believed in the LORD, and in His servant Moses." 15.6. Thy right hand, O LORD, glorious in power, Thy right hand, O LORD, dasheth in pieces the enemy." 15.7. And in the greatness of Thine excellency Thou overthrowest them that rise up against Thee; Thou sendest forth Thy wrath, it consumeth them as stubble." 15.9. The enemy said: ‘I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; My lust shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them.’" 15.12. Thou stretchedst out Thy right hand— The earth swallowed them." 15.17. Thou bringest them in, and plantest them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, The place, O LORD, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, The sanctuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established." 27.2. And thou shalt make the horns of it upon the four corners thereof; the horns thereof shall be of one piece with it; and thou shalt overlay it with brass."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 15.6, 17.11, 17.14, 17.24-17.25, 34.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 17.11. וּנְמַלְתֶּם אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלַתְכֶם וְהָיָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם׃ 17.14. וְעָרֵל זָכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמּוֹל אֶת־בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי הֵפַר׃ 17.24. וְאַבְרָהָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים וָתֵשַׁע שָׁנָה בְּהִמֹּלוֹ בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ׃ 17.25. וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּנוֹ בֶּן־שְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה בְּהִמֹּלוֹ אֵת בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ׃ 34.24. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־חֲמוֹר וְאֶל־שְׁכֶם בְּנוֹ כָּל־יֹצְאֵי שַׁעַר עִירוֹ וַיִּמֹּלוּ כָּל־זָכָר כָּל־יֹצְאֵי שַׁעַר עִירוֹ׃ 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness." 17.11. And ye shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of a covet betwixt Me and you." 17.14. And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken My covet.’" 17.24. And Abraham was ninety years old and nine, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin." 17.25. And Ishmael his son was thirteen years old, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin." 34.24. And unto Hamor and unto Shechem his son hearkened all that went out of the gate of his city; and every male was circumcised, all that went out of the gate of his city."
5. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 3.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.5. וַיַּאֲמִינוּ אַנְשֵׁי נִינְוֵה בֵּאלֹהִים וַיִּקְרְאוּ־צוֹם וַיִּלְבְּשׁוּ שַׂקִּים מִגְּדוֹלָם וְעַד־קְטַנָּם׃ 3.5. And the people of Nineveh believed God; and they proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest of them even to the least of them."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 12.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

12.3. וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִמּוֹל בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ׃ 12.3. And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 44.21, 104.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

44.21. אִם־שָׁכַחְנוּ שֵׁם אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַנִּפְרֹשׂ כַּפֵּינוּ לְאֵל זָר׃ 104.4. עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃ 44.21. If we had forgotten the name of our God, or spread forth our hands to a strange god; ." 104.4. Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 2.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.28. וְהַשְּׁמֻעָה בָּאָה עַד־יוֹאָב כִּי יוֹאָב נָטָה אַחֲרֵי אֲדֹנִיָּה וְאַחֲרֵי אַבְשָׁלוֹם לֹא נָטָה וַיָּנָס יוֹאָב אֶל־אֹהֶל יְהוָה וַיַּחֲזֵק בְּקַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 2.28. And the tidings came to Joab; for Joab had turned after Adonijah, though he turned not after Absalom. And Joab fled unto the Tent of the LORD, and caught hold on the horns of the altar."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 19.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.19. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ הוֹשִׁיעֵנוּ נָא מִיָּדוֹ וְיֵדְעוּ כָּל־מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ כִּי אַתָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לְבַדֶּךָ׃ 19.19. Now therefore, O LORD our God, save Thou us, I beseech Thee, out of his hand, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that Thou art the LORD God, even Thou only.’"
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 20.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 3.15 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)

3.15. וְהִכֵּיתִי בֵית־הַחֹרֶף עַל־בֵּית הַקָּיִץ וְאָבְדוּ בָּתֵּי הַשֵּׁן וְסָפוּ בָּתִּים רַבִּים נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 3.15. And I will smite the winter-house with the summer-house; And the houses of ivory shall perish, And the great houses shall have an end, Saith the LORD."
12. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 11.12, 14.1, 37.20, 45.3, 49.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.12. וְנָשָׂא נֵס לַגּוֹיִם וְאָסַף נִדְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּנְפֻצוֹת יְהוּדָה יְקַבֵּץ מֵאַרְבַּע כַּנְפוֹת הָאָרֶץ׃ 14.1. כֻּלָּם יַעֲנוּ וְיֹאמְרוּ אֵלֶיךָ גַּם־אַתָּה חֻלֵּיתָ כָמוֹנוּ אֵלֵינוּ נִמְשָׁלְתָּ׃ 14.1. כִּי יְרַחֵם יְהוָה אֶת־יַעֲקֹב וּבָחַר עוֹד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִנִּיחָם עַל־אַדְמָתָם וְנִלְוָה הַגֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם וְנִסְפְּחוּ עַל־בֵּית יַעֲקֹב׃ 45.3. וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ אוֹצְרוֹת חֹשֶׁךְ וּמַטְמֻנֵי מִסְתָּרִים לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה הַקּוֹרֵא בְשִׁמְךָ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 49.7. כֹּה אָמַר־יְהוָה גֹּאֵל יִשְׂרָאֵל קְדוֹשׁוֹ לִבְזֹה־נֶפֶשׁ לִמְתָעֵב גּוֹי לְעֶבֶד מֹשְׁלִים מְלָכִים יִרְאוּ וָקָמוּ שָׂרִים וְיִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְמַעַן יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נֶאֱמָן קְדֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּבְחָרֶךָּ׃ 11.12. And He will set up an ensign for the nations, And will assemble the dispersed of Israel, And gather together the scattered of Judah From the four corners of the earth." 14.1. For the LORD will have compassion on Jacob, and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land; and the stranger shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave to the house of Jacob." 37.20. Now therefore, O LORD our God, save us from his hand, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that Thou art the LORD, even Thou only.’" 45.3. And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I am the LORD, who call thee by thy name, even the God of Israel." 49.7. Thus saith the LORD, The Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One, To him who is despised of men, To him who is abhorred of nations, To a servant of rulers: Kings shall see and arise, Princes, and they shall prostrate themselves; Because of the LORD that is faithful, Even the Holy One of Israel, who hath chosen thee."
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 11.20, 17.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.20. But, O LORD of hosts, that judgest righteously, That triest the reins and the heart, Let me see Thy vengeance on them; For unto Thee have I revealed my cause." 17.10. I the LORD search the heart, I try the reins, Even to give every man according to his ways, According to the fruit of his doings."
14. Aeschylus, Persians, 745-751, 820, 744 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

744. παῖς δʼ ἐμὸς τάδʼ οὐ κατειδὼς ἤνυσεν νέῳ θράσει·
15. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 24.31, 28.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.31. וַיַּפִּילוּ גַם־הֵם גּוֹרָלוֹת לְעֻמַּת אֲחֵיהֶם בְּנֵי־אַהֲרֹן לִפְנֵי דָוִיד הַמֶּלֶךְ וְצָדוֹק וַאֲחִימֶלֶךְ וְרָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת לַכֹּהֲנִים וְלַלְוִיִּם אָבוֹת הָרֹאשׁ לְעֻמַּת אָחִיו הַקָּטָן׃ 28.9. וְאַתָּה שְׁלֹמֹה־בְנִי דַּע אֶת־אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ וְעָבְדֵהוּ בְּלֵב שָׁלֵם וּבְנֶפֶשׁ חֲפֵצָה כִּי כָל־לְבָבוֹת דּוֹרֵשׁ יְהוָה וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחֲשָׁבוֹת מֵבִין אִם־תִּדְרְשֶׁנּוּ יִמָּצֵא לָךְ וְאִם־תַּעַזְבֶנּוּ יַזְנִיחֲךָ לָעַד׃ 24.31. These likewise cast lots even as their brethren the sons of Aaron in the presence of David the king, and Zadok, and Ahimelech, and the heads of the fathers’houses of the priests and of the Levites; the fathers’houses of the chief even as those of his younger brother." 28.9. And thou, Solomon my son, know thou the God of thy father, and serve Him with a whole heart and with a willing mind; for the LORD searcheth all hearts, and understandeth all the imaginations of the thoughts; if thou seek Him, He will be found of thee; but if thou forsake Him, He will cast thee off for ever."
16. Herodotus, Histories, 6.134, 7.22, 7.33-7.36 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

6.134. All the Greeks tell the same story up to this point; after this the Parians themselves say that the following happened: as Miltiades was in a quandary, a captive woman named Timo, Parian by birth and an under-priestess of the goddesses of the dead, came to talk with him. ,Coming before Miltiades, she advised him, if taking Paros was very important to him, to do whatever she suggested. Then, following her advice, he passed through to the hill in front of the city and jumped over the fence of the precinct of Demeter the Lawgiver, since he was unable to open the door. After leaping over, he went to the shrine, whether to move something that should not be moved, or with some other intention. When he was right at the doors, he was immediately seized with panic and hurried back by the same route; leaping down from the wall he twisted his thigh, but some say he hit his knee. 7.22. Since those who had earlier attempted to sail around Athos had suffered shipwreck, for about three years preparations had been underway there. Triremes were anchored off Elaeus in the Chersonese; with these for their headquarters, all sorts of men in the army were compelled by whippings to dig a canal, coming by turns to the work; the inhabitants about Athos also dug. ,Bubares son of Megabazus and Artachaees son of Artaeus, both Persians, were the overseers of the workmen. Athos is a great and famous mountain, running out into the sea and inhabited by men. At the mountain's landward end it is in the form of a peninsula, and there is an isthmus about twelve stadia wide; here is a place of level ground or little hills, from the sea by Acanthus to the sea opposite Torone. ,On this isthmus which is at the end of Athos, there stands a Greek town, Sane; there are others situated seaward of Sane and landward of Athos, and the Persian now intended to make them into island and not mainland towns; they are Dion, Olophyxus, Acrothoum, Thyssus, and Cleonae. 7.33. After this he prepared to march to Abydos; meanwhile his men were bridging the Hellespont from Asia to Europe. On the Chersonese, which is on the Hellespont, between the city of Sestus and Madytus there is a broad headland running out into the sea opposite Abydos. It was here that not long afterwards the Athenians, when Xanthippus son of Ariphron was their general, took Artayctes, a Persian and the governor of Sestus, and crucified him alive; he had been in the habit of bringing women right into the temple of Protesilaus at Elaeus and doing impious deeds there. 7.34. The men who had been given this assignment made bridges starting from Abydos across to that headland; the Phoenicians one of flaxen cables, and the Egyptians a papyrus one. From Abydos to the opposite shore it is a distance of seven stadia. But no sooner had the strait been bridged than a great storm swept down, breaking and scattering everything. 7.35. When Xerxes heard of this, he was very angry and commanded that the Hellespont be whipped with three hundred lashes, and a pair of fetters be thrown into the sea. I have even heard that he sent branders with them to brand the Hellespont. ,He commanded them while they whipped to utter words outlandish and presumptuous, “Bitter water, our master thus punishes you, because you did him wrong though he had done you none. Xerxes the king will pass over you, whether you want it or not; in accordance with justice no one offers you sacrifice, for you are a turbid and briny river.” ,He commanded that the sea receive these punishments and that the overseers of the bridge over the Hellespont be beheaded. 7.36. So this was done by those who were appointed to the thankless honor, and new engineers set about making the bridges. They made the bridges as follows: in order to lighten the strain of the cables, they placed fifty-oared ships and triremes alongside each other, three hundred and sixty to bear the bridge nearest the Euxine sea, and three hundred and fourteen to bear the other; all lay obliquely to the line of the Pontus and parallel with the current of the Hellespont. ,After putting the ships together they let down very great anchors, both from the end of the ships on the Pontus side to hold fast against the winds blowing from within that sea, and from the other end, towards the west and the Aegean, to hold against the west and south winds. They left a narrow opening to sail through in the line of fifty-oared ships and triremes, that so whoever wanted to could sail by small craft to the Pontus or out of it. ,After doing this, they stretched the cables from the land, twisting them taut with wooden windlasses; they did not as before keep the two kinds apart, but assigned for each bridge two cables of flax and four of papyrus. ,All these had the same thickness and fine appearance, but the flaxen were heavier in proportion, for a cubit of them weighed a talent. ,When the strait was thus bridged, they sawed logs of wood to a length equal to the breadth of the floating supports, and laid them in order on the taut cables; after placing them together they then made them fast. After doing this, they carried brushwood onto the bridge; when this was all laid in order they heaped earth on it and stamped it down; then they made a fence on either side, so that the beasts of burden and horses not be frightened by the sight of the sea below them.
17. Anon., 1 Enoch, 51.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

51.1. And in those days shall the earth also give back that which has been entrusted to it, And Sheol also shall give back that which it has received, And hell shall give back that which it owes.
18. Anon., Testament of Moses, 9.6-9.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.2-12.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 12.3. וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence." 12.3. And they that are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn the many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever."
20. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.21-1.24, 6.43-6.46, 7.34, 7.36-7.38, 7.47 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.21. He arrogantly entered the sanctuary and took the golden altar, the lampstand for the light, and all its utensils. 1.22. He took also the table for the bread of the Presence, the cups for drink offerings, the bowls, the golden censers, the curtain, the crowns, and the gold decoration on the front of the temple; he stripped it all off. 1.23. He took the silver and the gold, and the costly vessels; he took also the hidden treasures which he found. 1.24. Taking them all, he departed to his own land. He committed deeds of murder,and spoke with great arrogance. 6.43. And Eleazar, called Avaran, saw that one of the beasts was equipped with royal armor. It was taller than all the others, and he supposed that the king was upon it. 6.44. So he gave his life to save his people and to win for himself an everlasting name. 6.45. He courageously ran into the midst of the phalanx to reach it; he killed men right and left, and they parted before him on both sides. 6.46. He got under the elephant, stabbed it from beneath, and killed it; but it fell to the ground upon him and he died. 7.34. But he mocked them and derided them and defiled them and spoke arrogantly 7.36. Then the priests went in and stood before the altar and the temple, and they wept and said 7.37. Thou didst choose this house to be called by thy name,and to be for thy people a house of prayer and supplication. 7.38. Take vengeance on this man and on his army,and let them fall by the sword;remember their blasphemies,and let them live no longer. 7.47. Then the Jews seized the spoils and the plunder, and they cut off Nicanors head and the right hand which he so arrogantly stretched out, and brought them and displayed them just outside Jerusalem.
21. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.21, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.17, 2.18, 2.20, 2.21, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 3.30, 3.31, 3.32, 3.33, 3.34, 3.35, 3.36, 3.37, 3.38, 3.39, 3.40, 4.1, 4.16, 4.17, 4.38, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.11, 5.11-6.11, 5.12, 5.13, 5.14, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 6, 6.4, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.18, 6.18-7.42, 7, 7.9, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.19, 7.23, 7.28, 7.29, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.10, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.38, 11.3, 11.4, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.13, 12.11, 12.15, 12.16, 12.22, 12.28, 12.40, 12.43, 12.44, 12.45, 13.4, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 14, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.23, 14.24, 14.25, 14.26, 14.27, 14.28, 14.29, 14.30, 14.31, 14.32, 14.33, 14.34, 14.35, 14.36, 14.41, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 15.33, 15.34, 15.35, 15.36 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.11. Having been saved by God out of grave dangers we thank him greatly for taking our side against the king.
22. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 36.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

36.11. Gather all the tribes of Jacob,and give them their inheritance, as at the beginning.
23. Septuagint, Judith, 4.3, 5.6-5.9, 6.19, 8.24, 9.2, 14.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.3. For they had only recently returned from the captivity, and all the people of Judea were newly gathered together, and the sacred vessels and the altar and the temple had been consecrated after their profanation. 5.6. This people is descended from the Chaldeans. 5.7. At one time they lived in Mesopotamia, because they would not follow the gods of their fathers who were in Chaldea. 5.8. For they had left the ways of their ancestors, and they worshiped the God of heaven, the God they had come to know; hence they drove them out from the presence of their gods; and they fled to Mesopotamia, and lived there for a long time. 5.9. Then their God commanded them to leave the place where they were living and go to the land of Canaan. There they settled, and prospered, with much gold and silver and very many cattle. 6.19. O Lord God of heaven, behold their arrogance, and have pity on the humiliation of our people, and look this day upon the faces of those who are consecrated to thee. 8.24. Now therefore, brethren, let us set an example to our brethren, for their lives depend upon us, and the sanctuary and the temple and the altar rest upon us. 9.2. O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done' -- yet they did it. 14.7. And when they raised him up he fell at Judith's feet, and knelt before her, and said, "Blessed are you in every tent of Judah! In every nation those who hear your name will be alarmed.
24. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.9, 2.17, 2.25-2.30, 3.21, 3.25, 4.5, 5.31, 5.47, 5.51, 6.18, 6.20, 6.22, 6.33, 6.39, 7.3-7.6, 7.10-7.15, 7.20, 7.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.9. After he had arrived in Jerusalem, he offered sacrifice to the supreme God and made thank-offerings and did what was fitting for the holy place. Then, upon entering the place and being impressed by its excellence and its beauty 2.17. Do not punish us for the defilement committed by these men, or call us to account for this profanation, lest the transgressors boast in their wrath or exult in the arrogance of their tongue, saying 2.25. When he arrived in Egypt, he increased in his deeds of malice, abetted by the previously mentioned drinking companions and comrades, who were strangers to everything just. 2.26. He was not content with his uncounted licentious deeds, but he also continued with such audacity that he framed evil reports in the various localities; and many of his friends, intently observing the king's purpose, themselves also followed his will. 2.27. He proposed to inflict public disgrace upon the Jewish community, and he set up a stone on the tower in the courtyard with this inscription: 2.28. None of those who do not sacrifice shall enter their sanctuaries, and all Jews shall be subjected to a registration involving poll tax and to the status of slaves. Those who object to this are to be taken by force and put to death; 2.29. those who are registered are also to be branded on their bodies by fire with the ivy-leaf symbol of Dionysus, and they shall also be reduced to their former limited status. 3.21. Among other things, we made known to all our amnesty toward their compatriots here, both because of their alliance with us and the myriad affairs liberally entrusted to them from the beginning; and we ventured to make a change, by deciding both to deem them worthy of Alexandrian citizenship and to make them participants in our regular religious rites. 3.25. Therefore we have given orders that, as soon as this letter shall arrive, you are to send to us those who live among you, together with their wives and children, with insulting and harsh treatment, and bound securely with iron fetters, to suffer the sure and shameful death that befits enemies. 4.5. For a multitude of gray-headed old men, sluggish and bent with age, was being led away, forced to march at a swift pace by the violence with which they were driven in such a shameful manner. 5.31. Were your parents or children present, I would have prepared them to be a rich feast for the savage beasts instead of the Jews, who give me no ground for complaint and have exhibited to an extraordinary degree a full and firm loyalty to my ancestors. 5.47. So he, when he had filled his impious mind with a deep rage, rushed out in full force along with the beasts, wishing to witness, with invulnerable heart and with his own eyes, the grievous and pitiful destruction of the aforementioned people. 5.51. and cried out in a very loud voice, imploring the Ruler over every power to manifest himself and be merciful to them, as they stood now at the gates of death. 6.18. Then the most glorious, almighty, and true God revealed his holy face and opened the heavenly gates, from which two glorious angels of fearful aspect descended, visible to all but the Jews. 6.22. Then the king's anger was turned to pity and tears because of the things that he had devised beforehand. 6.33. Likewise also the king, after convening a great banquet to celebrate these events, gave thanks to heaven unceasingly and lavishly for the unexpected rescue which he had experienced. 6.39. on which the Lord of all most gloriously revealed his mercy and rescued them all together and unharmed. 7.3. Certain of our friends, frequently urging us with malicious intent, persuaded us to gather together the Jews of the kingdom in a body and to punish them with barbarous penalties as traitors; 7.4. for they declared that our government would never be firmly established until this was accomplished, because of the ill-will which these people had toward all nations. 7.5. They also led them out with harsh treatment as slaves, or rather as traitors, and, girding themselves with a cruelty more savage than that of Scythian custom, they tried without any inquiry or examination to put them to death. 7.6. But we very severely threatened them for these acts, and in accordance with the clemency which we have toward all men we barely spared their lives. Since we have come to realize that the God of heaven surely defends the Jews, always taking their part as a father does for his children 7.11. For they declared that those who for the belly's sake had transgressed the divine commandments would never be favorably disposed toward the king's government. 7.12. The king then, admitting and approving the truth of what they said, granted them a general license so that freely and without royal authority or supervision they might destroy those everywhere in his kingdom who had transgressed the law of God. 7.13. When they had applauded him in fitting manner, their priests and the whole multitude shouted the Hallelujah and joyfully departed. 7.14. And so on their way they punished and put to a public and shameful death any whom they met of their fellow-countrymen who had become defiled. 7.15. In that day they put to death more than three hundred men; and they kept the day as a joyful festival, since they had destroyed the profaners. 7.23. Blessed be the Deliverer of Israel through all times! Amen.
25. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 190-191, 189 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

189. for he, turning round them and clinging to his executioners, who were hindered in their aims which they took at him with their swords, and who thus struck him with oblique blows, was the cause of his own sufferings being more severe; for he was in consequence mutilated and cut about the hands, and feet, and head, and breast, and sides, so that he was mangled like a victim, and thus he fell, justice righteously inflicting on his own body wounds equal in number to the murders of the Jews whom he had unlawfully put to death.
26. Anon., 2 Baruch, 6.7-6.9, 80.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

27. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 2.284-2.292, 2.330, 2.344, 6.187, 10.242, 12.358-12.359, 16.179, 18.306, 19.4-19.6, 19.155-19.156 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.284. 3. But when the king derided Moses; he made him in earnest see the signs that were done at Mount Sinai. Yet was the king very angry with him and called him an ill man, who had formerly run away from his Egyptian slavery, and came now back with deceitful tricks, and wonders, and magical arts, to astonish him. 2.285. And when he had said this, he commanded the priests to let him see the same wonderful sights; as knowing that the Egyptians were skillful in this kind of learning, and that he was not the only person who knew them, and pretended them to be divine; as also he told him, that when he brought such wonderful sights before him, he would only be believed by the unlearned. Now when the priests threw down their rods, they became serpents. 2.286. But Moses was not daunted at it; and said, “O king, I do not myself despise the wisdom of the Egyptians, but I say that what I do is so much superior to what these do by magic arts and tricks, as divine power exceeds the power of man: but I will demonstrate that what I do is not done by craft, or counterfeiting what is not really true, but that they appear by the providence and power of God.” 2.287. And when he had said this, he cast his rod down upon the ground, and commanded it to turn itself into a serpent. It obeyed him, and went all round, and devoured the rods of the Egyptians, which seemed to be dragons, until it had consumed them all. It then returned to its own form, and Moses took it into his hand again. 2.288. 4. However, the king was no more moved when was done than before; and being very angry, he said that he should gain nothing by this his cunning and shrewdness against the Egyptians;—and he commanded him that was the chief taskmaster over the Hebrews, to give them no relaxation from their labors, but to compel them to submit to greater oppressions than before; 2.289. and though he allowed them chaff before for making their bricks, he would allow it them no longer, but he made them to work hard at brick-making in the day-time, and to gather chaff in the night. Now when their labor was thus doubled upon them, they laid the blame upon Moses, because their labor and their misery were on his account become more severe to them. 2.291. So he went to the king, and persuaded him to let the Hebrews go to Mount Sinai, and there to sacrifice to God, because God had enjoined them so to do. He persuaded him also not to counterwork the designs of God, but to esteem his favor above all things, and to permit them to depart, lest, before he be aware, he lay an obstruction in the way of the divine commands, and so occasion his own suffering such punishments as it was probable any one that counterworked the divine commands should undergo 2.292. ince the severest afflictions arise from every object to those that provoke the divine wrath against them; for such as these have neither the earth nor the air for their friends; nor are the fruits of the womb according to nature, but every thing is unfriendly and adverse towards them. He said further, that the Egyptians should know this by sad experience; and that besides, the Hebrew people should go out of their country without their consent. 2.344. Nor was there any thing which used to be sent by God upon men, as indications of his wrath, which did not happen at this time, for a dark and dismal night oppressed them. And thus did all these men perish, so that there was not one man left to be a messenger of this calamity to the rest of the Egyptians. 6.187. To whom David answered, “Thou comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, and with a breastplate; but I have God for my armor in coming against thee, who will destroy thee and all thy army by my hands for I will this day cut off thy head, and cast the other parts of thy body to the dogs, and all men shall learn that God is the protector of the Hebrews, and that our armor and our strength is in his providence; and that without God’s assistance, all other warlike preparations and power are useless.” 10.242. and because he had quite forgotten how Nebuchadnezzar was removed to feed among wild beasts for his impieties, and did not recover his former life among men and his kingdom, but upon God’s mercy to him, after many supplications and prayers; who did thereupon praise God all the days of his life, as one of almighty power, and who takes care of mankind. [He also put him in mind] how he had greatly blasphemed against God, and had made use of his vessels amongst his concubines; 12.358. Whence one may wonder at Polybius of Megalopolis, who, though otherwise a good man, yet saith that “Antiochus died because he had a purpose to plunder the temple of Diana in Persia;” for the purposing to do a thing, but not actually doing it, is not worthy of punishment. 12.359. But if Polybius could think that Antiochus thus lost his life on that account, it is much more probable that this king died on account of his sacrilegious plundering of the temple at Jerusalem. But we will not contend about this matter with those who may think that the cause assigned by this Polybius of Megalopolis is nearer the truth than that assigned by us. 16.179. 1. As for Herod, he had spent vast sums about the cities, both without and within his own kingdom; and as he had before heard that Hyrcanus, who had been king before him, had opened David’s sepulcher, and taken out of it three thousand talents of silver, and that there was a much greater number left behind, and indeed enough to suffice all his wants, he had a great while an intention to make the attempt; 18.306. for God would not forget the dangers Petronius had undertaken on account of the Jews, and of his own honor. But when he had taken Caius away, out of his indignation of what he had so insolently attempted in assuming to himself divine worship, both Rome and all that dominion conspired with Petronius, especially those that were of the senatorian order, to give Caius his due reward, because he had been unmercifully severe to them; 19.4. He also asserted his own divinity, and insisted on greater honors to be paid him by his subjects than are due to mankind. He also frequented that temple of Jupiter which they style the Capitol, which is with them the most holy of all their temples, and had boldness enough to call himself the brother of Jupiter. 19.4. Upon which Cherea took courage, and spake to him without fear of the dangers that were before him, and discoursed largely of the sore calamities under which the city and the government then labored, and said, “We may indeed pretend in words that Caius is the person unto whom the cause of such miseries ought to be imputed; 19.5. And other pranks he did like a madman; as when he laid a bridge from the city Dicearchia, which belongs to Campania, to Misenum, another city upon the sea-side 19.5. for Caius was terrible to all the great men, as appearing ready to act a mad part towards each of them in particular, and towards all of: them in general; 19.6. from one promontory to another, of the length of thirty furlongs, as measured over the sea. And this was done because he esteemed it to be a most tedious thing to row over it in a small ship, and thought withal that it became him to make that bridge, since he was lord of the sea, and might oblige it to give marks of obedience as well as the earth; so he enclosed the whole bay within his bridge, and drove his chariot over it; and thought that, as he was a god, it was fit for him to travel over such roads as this was. 19.6. and some affirm that he thereby confirmed Minuclanus in the prosecution of what had been agreed among them; for as Cherea entered into the court, the report runs, that a voice came from among the multitude to encourage him, which bid him finish what he was about, and take the opportunity that Providence afforded; 19.155. “tyrants do indeed please themselves and look big for a while, upon having the power to act unjustly; but do not however go happily out of the world, because they are hated by the virtuous; 19.156. and that Caius, together with all his unhappiness, was become a conspirator against himself, before these other men who attacked him did so; and by becoming intolerable, in setting aside the wise provision the laws had made, taught his dearest friends to treat him as an enemy; insomuch that although in common discourse these conspirators were those that slew Caius, yet that, in reality, he lies now dead as perishing by his own self.”
28. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.358, 5.19, 5.378, 7.453 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.358. While those Athenians, who, in order to preserve the liberty of Greece, did once set fire to their own city; who pursued Xerxes, that proud prince, when he sailed upon the land, and walked upon the sea, and could not be contained by the seas, but conducted such an army as was too broad for Europe; and made him run away like a fugitive in a single ship, and brake so great a part of Asia as the Lesser Salamis; are yet at this time servants to the Romans; and those injunctions which are sent from Italy become laws to the principal governing city of Greece. 5.19. And now, “O most wretched city, what misery so great as this didst thou suffer from the Romans, when they came to purify thee from thy intestine hatred! For thou couldst be no longer a place fit for God, nor couldst thou long continue in being, after thou hadst been a sepulchre for the bodies of thy own people, and hadst made the holy house itself a burying-place in this civil war of thine. Yet mayst thou again grow better, if perchance thou wilt hereafter appease the anger of that God who is the author of thy destruction.” 5.19. 2. Now, for the works that were above these foundations, these were not unworthy of such foundations; for all the cloisters were double, and the pillars to them belonging were twenty-five cubits in height, and supported the cloisters. These pillars were of one entire stone each of them, and that stone was white marble; 5.378. I even tremble myself in declaring the works of God before your ears, that are unworthy to hear them; however, hearken to me, that you may be informed how you fight not only against the Romans, but against God himself. 7.453. This his distemper grew still a great deal worse and worse continually, and his very entrails were so corroded, that they fell out of his body, and in that condition he died. Thus he became as great an instance of Divine Providence as ever was, and demonstrated that God punishes wicked men.
29. New Testament, Acts, 1.3, 1.15-1.26, 5.39, 12.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.3. To these he also showed himself alive after his suffering by many proofs, appearing to them over a period of forty days, and spoke about God's Kingdom. 1.15. In these days, Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples (and the number of names was about one hundred twenty), and said 1.16. Brothers, it was necessary that this Scripture should be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who was guide to those who took Jesus. 1.17. For he was numbered with us, and received his portion in this ministry. 1.18. Now this man obtained a field with the reward for his wickedness, and falling headlong, his body burst open, and all his intestines gushed out. 1.19. It became known to everyone who lived in Jerusalem that in their language that field was called 'Akeldama,' that is, 'The field of blood.' 1.20. For it is written in the book of Psalms, 'Let his habitation be made desolate, Let no one dwell therein,' and, 'Let another take his office.' 1.21. of the men therefore who have accompanied us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and went out among us 1.22. beginning from the baptism of John, to the day that he was received up from us, of these one must become a witness with us of his resurrection. 1.23. They put forward two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias. 1.24. They prayed, and said, "You, Lord, who know the hearts of all men, show which one of these two you have chosen 1.25. to take part in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas fell away, that he might go to his own place. 1.26. They drew lots for them, and the lot fell on Matthias, and he was numbered with the eleven apostles. 5.39. But if it is of God, you will not be able to overthrow it, and you would be found even to be fighting against God! 12.23. Immediately an angel of the Lord struck him, because he didn't give God the glory, and he was eaten by worms, and he died.
30. New Testament, Mark, 1.10-1.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.
31. New Testament, Matthew, 3.16-3.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. Jesus, when he was baptized, went up directly from the water: and behold, the heavens were opened to him. He saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on him. 3.17. Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.
32. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

19b. נפנה לימינו כבשו פניהם בקרקע נפנה לשמאלו וכבשו פניהם בקרקע אמר להן שמעון בן שטח בעלי מחשבות אתם יבא בעל מחשבות ויפרע מכם מיד בא גבריאל וחבטן בקרקע ומתו באותה שעה אמרו מלך לא דן ולא דנין אותו לא מעיד ולא מעידין אותו:,לא חולץ ולא חולצין וכו': איני והאמר רב אשי אפילו למאן דאמר נשיא שמחל על כבודו כבודו מחול מלך שמחל על כבודו אין כבודו מחול שנאמר (דברים יז, טו) שום תשים עליך מלך שתהא אימתו עליך מצוה שאני:,ואין נושאין כו': תניא אמרו לו לר' יהודה נשים הראויות לו מבית המלך ומאי נינהו מירב ומיכל,שאלו תלמידיו את ר' יוסי היאך נשא דוד שתי אחיות בחייהן אמר להן מיכל אחר מיתת מירב נשאה ר' יהושע בן קרחה אומר קידושי טעות היו לו במירב שנאמר (שמואל ב ג, יד) תנה את אשתי את מיכל אשר ארסתי לי במאה ערלות פלשתים,מאי תלמודא אמר רב פפא מיכל אשתי ולא מירב אשתי,מאי קידושי טעות דכתיב (שמואל א יז, כה) והיה האיש אשר יכנו יעשרנו המלך עושר גדול וגו' אזל קטליה אמר לו מלוה אית לך גבאי והמקדש במלוה אינה מקודשת,אזל יהבה לעדריאל דכתיב (שמואל א יח, יט) ויהי בעת תת את מירב בת שאול לדוד וגו' א"ל אי בעית דאתן לך מיכל זיל אייתי לי מאה ערלות פלשתים אזל אייתי ליה א"ל מלוה ופרוטה אית לך גבאי,שאול סבר מלוה ופרוטה דעתיה אמלוה ודוד סבר מלוה ופרוטה דעתיה אפרוטה,ואיבעית אימא דכולי עלמא מלוה ופרוטה דעתיה אפרוטה שאול סבר לא חזו ולא מידי ודוד סבר חזו לכלבי ושונרי,ור' יוסי האי תנה את אשתי את מיכל מאי דריש ביה ר' יוסי לטעמיה דתניא רבי יוסי היה דורש מקראות מעורבין,כתיב (שמואל ב כא, ח) ויקח המלך את שני בני רצפה בת איה אשר ילדה לשאול את אדמוני ואת מפיבושת ואת חמשת בני מיכל אשר ילדה לעדריאל המחולתי וגו' וכי לעדריאל נתנה והלא לפלטי בן ליש נתנה דכתיב (שמואל א כה, מד) ושאול נתן את מיכל בתו אשת דוד לפלטי בן ליש וגו',אלא מקיש קידושי מירב לעדריאל לקידושי מיכל לפלטי מה קידושי מיכל לפלטי בעבירה אף קידושי מירב לעדריאל בעבירה,ור' יהושע בן קרחה נמי הכתיב את חמשת בני מיכל בת שאול אמר לך רבי יהושע וכי מיכל ילדה והלא מירב ילדה מירב ילדה ומיכל גידלה לפיכך נקראו על שמה ללמדך שכל המגדל יתום בתוך ביתו מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו ילדו:,(חנינא קרא יוחנן ואשתו אלעזר וגאולה ושמואל בלימודי סימן): רבי חנינא אומר מהכא (רות ד, יז) ותקראנה לו השכנות שם לאמר יולד בן לנעמי וכי נעמי ילדה והלא רות ילדה אלא רות ילדה ונעמי גידלה לפיכך נקרא על שמה,רבי יוחנן אמר מהכא (דברי הימים א ד, יח) ואשתו היהודית ילדה את ירד אביגדור וגו' אלה בני בתיה בת פרעה אשר לקח (לו) מרד מרד זה כלב ולמה נקרא שמו מרד שמרד בעצת מרגלים וכי בתיה ילדה והלא יוכבד ילדה אלא יוכבד ילדה ובתיה גידלה לפיכך נקרא על שמה,רבי אלעזר אמר מהכא (תהלים עז, טז) גאלת בזרוע עמך בני יעקב ויוסף סלה וכי יוסף ילד והלא יעקב ילד אלא יעקב ילד ויוסף כילכל לפיכך נקראו על שמו,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל המלמד בן חבירו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו ילדו שנאמר (במדבר ג, א) ואלה תולדות אהרן ומשה וכתיב ואלה שמות בני אהרן לומר לך אהרן ילד ומשה לימד לפיכך נקראו על שמו,(ישעיהו כט, כב) לכן כה אמר ה' אל בית יעקב אשר פדה את אברהם וכי היכן מצינו ביעקב שפדאו לאברהם אמר רב יהודה שפדאו מצער גידול בנים והיינו דכתיב (ישעיהו כט, כב) לא עתה יבוש יעקב וגו' לא עתה יבוש יעקב מאביו ולא עתה פניו יחוורו מאבי אביו,כתיב פלטי וכתיב פלטיאל אמר ר' יוחנן פלטי שמו ולמה נקרא שמו פלטיאל שפלטו אל מן העבירה מה עשה נעץ חרב בינו לבינה אמר כל העוסק בדבר זה ידקר בחרב זה,והכתיב (שמואל ב ג, טז) וילך אתה אישה שנעשה לה כאישה והכתיב (שמואל ב ג, טז) הלך ובכה על המצוה דאזיל מיניה עד בחורים שנעשו שניהם כבחורים שלא טעמו טעם ביאה,אמר רבי יוחנן תוקפו של יוסף ענוותנותו של בועז תוקפו של בועז ענוותנותו של פלטי בן ליש תוקפו של יוסף ענוותנותו של בועז דכתיב (רות ג, ח) ויהי בחצי הלילה ויחרד האיש וילפת מאי וילפת אמר רב שנעשה בשרו כראשי לפתות 19b. Shimon ben Shataḥ bturned to his right.The judges bforced their faces to the groundout of fear and said nothing. bHe turned to his left, and they forced their faces to the groundand said nothing. bShimon ben Shataḥ said to them: You are masters of thoughts,enjoying your private thoughts, and not speaking. bMay the Master of thoughts,God, bcome and punish you. Immediately,the angel bGabriel came and struckthose judges bto the ground, and they died. At that moment,when they saw that the Sanhedrin does not have power to force the king to heed its instructions, the Sages bsaid: A king does not judgeothers bandothers bdo not judge him,and bhe does not testify andothers bdo not testify concerning him,due to the danger of the matter.,The mishna teaches that the king bdoes not perform iḥalitza /iwith his brother’s widow bandhis brother bdoes not perform iḥalitza /iwith his wife, and Rabbi Yehuda says that he may do so if he wishes. The Gemara challenges Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion: bIs that so? But doesn’t Rav Ashi say: Even according to the one who saysthat with regard to ba iNasiwho relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is relinquished,nevertheless, with regard to ba king who relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is not relinquished, as it is stated: “You shall set a king over you”(Deuteronomy 17:15), meaning bthat his fear should be upon you.The preservation of a king’s honor is mandated by the Torah. How could Rabbi Yehuda allow him to waive it? The Gemara answers: bA mitzva is different;a king is not disgraced if he relinquishes his honor to perform a mitzva.,The mishna teaches: bAnd no one may marrythe king’s widow, and Rabbi Yehuda says that a king may marry another king’s widow, as proven by King David, who was promised with regard to King Saul after his death: “And I have given you the house of your master and the wives of your master” (II Samuel 12:8). bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The Sages bsaid to Rabbi Yehuda:The meaning of the verse is not that David married Saul’s widows, but that he married bwomen appropriate for him from the house of the king. And who are they? Merab and Michal,the daughters of Saul.,The Gemara relates a discussion about David’s marriage to Merab and Michal from a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iSota11:9): bRabbi Yosei’s students asked him: How did David marry two sisters while they wereboth balive?Rabbi Yosei bsaid to them: He married Michalonly bafter the death of Merab,which is permitted. bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa saysa different explanation: bHis betrothal to Merab was in errorand therefore void from the outset, and so Michal was permitted to him. This is bas it is statedin the words of King David to Saul’s son Ish-bosheth: b“Deliver me my wife Michal, whom I betrothed to me for one hundred foreskins of the Philistines”(II Samuel 3:14).,The Gemara asks: bWhatis bthebiblical bderivationhere? How does Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa learn from this verse that King David’s betrothal to Merab was in error? bRav Pappa says:In the verse, David indicates: bMichalis bmy wife but Merabis bnot my wife. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhatcaused the betrothal between David and Merab to be ba mistaken betrothal?The Gemara responds: bAs it is writtenabout Israel’s war against the Philistines and Goliath: b“And it shall be that the man who kills him, the king will enrich him with great richesand will give him his daughter, and make his father’s house free in Israel” (I Samuel 17:25). David bwentand bkilledGoliath. King Saul bsaid to him: You have a loanin bmypossession, as I owe you the great wealth that I promised, though David had not given him an actual monetary loan. bAndthe ihalakhais that with regard to bone who betrothsa woman bbyforgiving ba loan, she is not betrothed,and therefore David’s betrothal of Merab did not take effect.,Saul bwentand bgaveMerab bto Adriel, as it is written: “But it came to pass at the time when Merab, Saul’s daughter, should have been given to David,that she was given to Adriel the Meholathite as a wife” (I Samuel 18:19). Saul bsaid toDavid: bIf you want me to give you Michal, go bring me one hundred foreskins of the Philistines(see I Samuel 18:25–27). David bwentand bbroughtSaul two hundred foreskins. Saul bsaid to him:Even though you brought the foreskins, the betrothal is not valid, as byou,David, bhave a loan andone iperuta /iin bmypossession, i.e., the wealth Saul owed him for slaying Goliath as well as the item of lesser monetary value, the foreskins of the Philistines.,Saul and David had a halakhic dispute on this point: bSaul reasonedthat in the case of one who betroths a woman bbyforgiving ba loan andgiving her one iperuta /i, his mindis focused bon the loanand not on the additional iperuta /i, and therefore the betrothal is not valid. bAnd David reasonedthat in the case of one who betroths a woman bbyforgiving ba loan andgiving her one iperuta /i, his mindis focused bon the iperuta /iand therefore the betrothal is valid., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: bEveryonereasons that in the case of one who betroths a woman bbyforgiving ba loan andgiving her one iperuta /i, his mindis focused bon the iperuta /i. Saul reasonedthat foreskins of Philistines bare not fit for anypurpose and as such are worth not even one iperuta /i, and that consequently the betrothal did not take effect. bAnd David reasonedthat bthey are fit for dogs and catsas food and as such are worth at least one iperuta /i, and therefore the betrothal takes effect.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Yosei,who explains that David married Michal after the death of Merab, with regard to bthisverse: b“Deliver me my wife Michal”(II Samuel 3:14), bwhatdoes he bderive from it?The Gemara answers: bRabbi Yoseiconforms bto hisstandard line of breasoning, as it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iSota11:8): bRabbi Yosei would derivemeaning from bmixed versesthat seem contradictory.,The iToseftacontinues. bIt is written: “But the king took the two sons of Rizpah, daughter of Aiah, whom she bore unto Saul, Armoni and Mephibosheth, and the five sons of Michal,daughter of Saul, bwhom she bore to Adriel,son of Barzillai bthe Meholathite”(II Samuel 21:8). bBut didSaul bgiveMichal bto Adriel? But didn’t he give her to Palti, son of Laish, as it is written: “Now Saul had given Michal his daughter, David’s wife, to Palti, son of Laish”(I Samuel 25:44)?,The iToseftacontinues: The first verse does not mean, then, that Michal married Adriel. bRather,the verse bcompares Merab’s betrothal to Adriel to Michal’s betrothal to Palti: Just as Michal’s betrothal to Paltiwas effected bin transgression,according to all opinions, since she was already married to David, bso, too, Merab’s betrothal to Adrielwas effected bin transgression,since according to ihalakhashe was betrothed to David.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa as well, isn’t it written: “And the five sons of Michal, daughter of Saul,whom she bore to Adriel” (II Samuel 21:8). bRabbi Yehoshuaben Korḥa could have bsaid to youto understand it this way: bAnd did Michal give birthto these children? bBut didn’t Merab give birthto them for Adriel? Rather, bMerab gave birthto them and died, band Michal raisedthem in her house. bTherefore,the children bwere called by her name, to teach you thatwith regard to banyone who raises an orphan in his house, the verse ascribes himcredit bas if he gave birth to him. /b,The Gemara presents ba mnemonicfor the following discussion: bḤanina called; Yoḥa and his wife; Elazar and redemption; and Shmuel in my studies. Rabbi Ḥanina says:Proof for the aforementioned statement can be derived bfrom here: “And the neighbors gave him a name, saying: There is a son born to Naomi”(Ruth 4:17). bAnd did Naomi give birthto the son? bBut didn’t Ruth give birthto him? bRather, Ruth gave birth and Naomi raisedhim. bTherefore, he was called by her name:“A son born to Naomi.”, bRabbi Yoḥa says:Proof for the aforementioned statement can be derived bfrom here: “And his wife Hajehudijah gave birth to Jered the father of Gedor,and Heber the father of Soco, and Jekuthiel the father of Zanoah, band these are the sons of Bithiah, daughter of Pharaoh, whom Mered took”(I Chronicles 4:18). bMered is Caleb, and why was his name called Mered? Because he rebelled [ imarad /i] against the counsel of the spies.And according to the midrash, Jered, Heber, and Jekuthiel all refer to Moses our teacher. bAnd did Bithiah give birthto Moses? bBut didn’t Jochebed give birthto him? bRather, Jochebed gave birthto him band Bithiah raisedhim. bTherefore, he was called by her nameas though she had given birth to him., bRabbi Elazar says:Proof for the aforementioned statement can be derived bfrom here: “You have with Your arm redeemed your people, the children of Jacob and Joseph, Selah”(Psalms 77:16). bAnd did Joseph sireall of the children of Israel? bBut didn’t Jacob sire them? Rather, Jacob siredthem band Joseph sustainedthem ficially. bTherefore, they were called by his name;all of Israel were called the children of Joseph., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saysthat bRabbi Yonatan says: Anyone who teaches anotherperson’s bson Torah, the verse ascribes himcredit bas if he sired him, as it is stated: “Now these are the generations of Aaron and Moses”(Numbers 3:1), band it is writtenimmediately afterward: b“And these are the names of the sons of Aaron:Nadav the firstborn and Avihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar” (Numbers 3:2), but it does not mention the names of Moses’ children. This serves bto say to youthat bAaron siredhis children, bbut Moses taughtthem Torah. bTherefore,the children bwerealso bcalled by his name. /b,The Gemara cites another derivation connected to child-rearing: b“Therefore, so says the Lord to the house of Jacob, who redeemed Abraham;Jacob shall not now be ashamed, neither shall his face now wax pale” (Isaiah 29:22). bBut where have we foundany indication babout Jacob that he redeemed Abraham? Rav Yehuda says:It means bthat he redeemed him from the suffering of raising children,in that Abraham did not have twelve tribes and the resultant hardships involved in raising them, as Jacob did, as Jacob assumed the burden of raising the tribes of Israel. bAnd this is as it is written: “Jacob shall not now be ashamed,neither shall his face now wax pale,” meaning: b“Jacob shall not now be ashamed” before his father,and b“neither shall his face now wax pale” before his father’s father,since he took upon himself the role that they bore as well.,The Gemara cites a tradition with regard to Palti, son of Laish: bIt is writtenin one place b“Palti”(I Samuel 25:44), band it is writtenin another place b“Paltiel”(II Samuel 3:15). bRabbi Yoḥa says: Paltiwas bhisreal bname, and why was his name called Paltiel?To teach bthat God [ iEl] saved [ ipelato /i] him from the sin,by giving him the insight that he may not touch Michal, understanding that she was still David’s wife and therefore forbidden to him. bWhat did he do? He embedded a swordin the bed bbetween him and her,and bsaid: Anyone who engages in this matter,i.e., sexual intercourse, bshould be stabbed by this sword. /b,The Gemara challenges this: bBut isn’t it written: “And her husband went with her,weeping as he went, and followed her to Bahurim” (II Samuel 3:16), referring to Palti as Michal’s husband? The Gemara responds: This means bthat he became like a husband for herthrough his affection and concern for her. The Gemara counters: bBut isn’t it writtenin that very verse: b“weeping as he went”?If from the outset he thought that she was David’s wife, why was he crying? The Gemara responds: He was weeping babout the mitzva that left him,as from now on, he would receive no reward for restraining his desire. The end of the verse says that they went b“to Bahurim,”meaning bthat they both became like young men [ ibaḥurim /i]in bthat they did not taste sexual intercourseat all., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Joseph’s poweris the bhumility of Boaz,as Joseph is praised for showing strength with regard to an accomplishment that was insignificant for Boaz (see Genesis, chapter 39). Likewise, bBoaz’s poweris the bhumility of Palti, son of Laish,as Palti’s capacity for restraint was greater still. bJoseph’s poweris the bhumility of Boaz, as it is writtenabout Boaz: b“And it came to pass at midnight that the man was startled and turned himself,and behold, a woman lay at his feet” (Ruth 3:8). bWhatis the meaning of b“and turned himself [ ivayyilafet /i]”? Rav says:The meaning is bthat his flesh became like the heads of turnips [ ilefatot /i],his sexual organ hardening out of arousal, but even though Ruth was not married he refrained from engaging in intercourse with her; while Joseph had to exert more effort, despite the fact that Potiphar’s wife was married.
33. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

19b. מי איכא מידי דאנן לא מצינן למעבד ושלוחי דידן מצו עבדי הכי קאמרי ליה משביעין אנו עליך על דעתינו ועל דעת בית דין,הוא פורש ובוכה והן פורשין ובוכין וכו' הוא פורש ובוכה שחשדוהו צדוקי והם פורשין ובוכין דא"ר יהושע בן לוי כל החושד בכשרים לוקה בגופו,וכל כך למה שלא יתקן מבחוץ ויכניס כדרך שהצדוקין עושין,ת"ר מעשה בצדוקי אחד שהתקין מבחוץ והכניס ביציאתו היה שמח שמחה גדולה פגע בו אביו אמר לו בני אף על פי שצדוקין אנו מתיראין אנו מן הפרושים אמר לו כל ימי הייתי מצטער על המקרא הזה (ויקרא טז, ב) כי בענן אראה על הכפורת אמרתי מתי יבוא לידי ואקיימנו עכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטין עד שמת והוטל באשפה והיו תולעין יוצאין מחוטמו ויש אומרים ביציאתו ניגף דתני רבי חייא כמין קול נשמע בעזרה שבא מלאך וחבטו על פניו ונכנסו אחיו הכהנים ומצאו ככף רגל עגל בין כתפיו שנאמר (יחזקאל א, ז) ורגליהם רגל ישרה וכף רגליהם ככף רגל עגל,א"ר זכריה בן קבוטל וכו' מתני ליה רב חנן בר רבא לחייא בר רב קמיה דרב א"ר זכריה בן קפוטל ומחוי ליה רב בידיה קבוטל ונימא ליה מימר ק"ש הוה קרי,וכי האי גוונא מי שרי והא"ר יצחק בר שמואל בר מרתא הקורא את שמע לא ירמוז בעיניו ולא יקרוץ בשפתותיו ולא יורה באצבעותיו ותניא רבי אלעזר חסמא אומר הקורא את שמע ומרמז בעיניו ומקרץ בשפתותיו ומראה באצבעו עליו הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו מג, כב) ולא אותי קראת יעקב,לא קשיא הא בפרק ראשון הא בפרק שני,ת"ר (דברים ו, ז) ודברת בם בם ולא בתפלה ודברת בם בם יש לך רשות לדבר ולא בדברים אחרים,רבי אחא אומר ודברת בם עשה אותן קבע ואל תעשם עראי אמר רבא השח שיחת חולין עובר בעשה שנאמר ודברת בם בם ולא בדברים אחרים רב אחא בר יעקב אמר עובר בלאו שנאמר (קהלת א, ח) כל הדברים יגעים לא יוכל איש לדבר, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בקש להתנמנם פרחי כהונה מכין לפניו באצבע צרדא ואומרים לו אישי כ"ג עמוד והפג אחת על הרצפה ומעסיקין אותו עד שיגיע זמן השחיטה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי צרדא אמר רב יהודה צרתה דדא מאי היא גודל מחוי רב הונא ואזל קלא בכולי בי רב,ואומרים לו אישי כ"ג הפג אחת על הרצפה וכו' אמר רב יצחק על חדת מאי היא אמרי ליה אחוי קידה,ומעסיקין אותו עד שיגיע זמן שחיטה (וכו') תנא לא היו מעסיקין אותו לא בנבל ולא בכנור אלא בפה ומה היו אומרין (תהלים קכז, א) אם ה' לא יבנה בית שוא עמלו בוניו בו,מיקירי ירושלים לא היו ישנין כל הלילה כדי שישמע כ"ג קול הברה ולא תהא שינה חוטפתו תניא אבא שאול אמר אף בגבולין היו עושין כן זכר למקדש אלא שהיו חוטאין,אמר אביי ואיתימא ר"נ בר יצחק תרגומא נהרדעא דא"ל אליהו לרב יהודה אחוה דרב סלא חסידא אמריתו אמאי לא אתי משיח והא האידנא יומא דכיפורי הוא ואבעול כמה בתולתא בנהרדעא אמר ליה הקב"ה מאי אמר אמר ליה 19b. bis there any matter that we are unable to perform and our agents are able to perform?The role of the agent is to perform a task on behalf of the one who commissioned him. The agent cannot perform a task that the one who commissioned him is unable to perform. Since it is prohibited for Israelites to enter the priests’ courtyard and to perform the sacrificial rites, clearly the priests are not agents representing the Israelites. The language of the mishna in which the court Elders address the High Priest as their agent apparently contradicts that understanding. The Gemara answers: bThis is what they say to him: We administer an oath to you according to our understanding and the understanding of the court,cautioning him that he cannot rationalize violating the oath by claiming that he took the oath based on his own interpretation. He is bound by the understanding of the court. The mishna does not address the nature of the High Priest’s agency.,§ The mishna continues: After this oath, bhe would leavethem band cry and they would leavehim band cry.The Gemara explains: bHe turned aside and crieddue to the indignity bthat they suspected himof being ba Sadducee; and they turned aside and cried, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who suspects the innocentof indiscretion bis afflicted in his body.The High Priest might in fact be beyond reproach and they may have suspected him falsely.,The Gemara asks: bAnd whywere the Elders bsoinsistent that the High Priest take an oath? The Gemara explains: So that bhe would not preparethe incense and light it boutsidein the Sanctuary, before entering the Holy of Holies, band bringthe coal pan with the incense already burning on it bintothe Holy of Holies bin the mannerthat bthe Sadducees did.Since the High Priest is alone inside the Sanctuary and there is no way to ascertain whether he is in fact performing the service in the proper manner, the Elders insisted that he take an oath to perform it according to their instructions., bThe Sages taughtin the iTosefta /i: There was ban incident involving acertain bSadduceewho was appointed as High Priest, bwho prepared the incense outsideand then bbroughtit into the Holy of Holies. bUpon his emergence he was overjoyedthat he had succeeded. bThe father ofthat Sadducee bmet him and said to him: My son, although we are Sadduceesand you performed the service in accordance with our opinion, bwe fear the Phariseesand do not actually implement that procedure in practice. The son bsaid to hisfather: bAll my days I have been troubled over this verse: “For I will appear in the cloud above the Ark cover”(Leviticus 16:2). The Sadducees interpreted this verse to mean that God will appear above the Ark cover, i.e., will enter the Holy of Holies, only after the incense cloud is already there. bI said: When willthe opportunity bbecome available to me, and I will fulfill itaccording to the Sadducee interpretation? bNow thatthe opportunity bhas become available to me,will bI not fulfill it? /b,The Sages bsaid: Noteven ba few dayspassed buntil he died and was laid out in the garbagedump, band worms were coming out of his nosein punishment for his actions. bAnd some saythat bhe was struckas soon bas he emergedfrom the Holy of Holies, bas Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: A type of sound was heard in theTemple bcourtyard, as an angel came and struck him in the face. And his fellow priests came into remove him from there band they found the likeness of a footprint of a calf between his shoulders.That is the mark left by an angel striking, bas it is statedwith regard to angels: b“And their feet were straight feet, and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot”(Ezekiel 1:7).,§ It was taught in the mishna that bRabbi Zekharya ben Kevutalsays: Many times I read before the High Priest from the book of Daniel. bRav Ḥa bar Rava taught this to Ḥiyya bar Rav before Ravin the following manner: bRabbi Zekharya bar Kefutal said, and Rav demonstrated with his handthat the name should be pronounced bKevutal.The Gemara asks: Why did Rav demonstrate his point with a gesture? bLet himsimply bsay it.The Gemara answers: Rav bwas reciting iShema /iat that moment and could not interrupt iShemaby speaking.,The Gemara asks: bAnd isinterrupting in a manner bof that sort,by gesturing, bpermittedduring iShema /i? bDidn’t Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Shmuel bar Marta say: One who is reciting iShemashould neither make allusions with his eyes, nor open and closehis mouth bwith his lipsto convey a message, bnor gesture with his fingers? And it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Elazar Ḥisma says: Concerning one who recites iShemaand makes allusions with his eyes, or opens and closeshis mouth bwith his lips, or gestures with his fingers, the verse says: “And you did not call out to Me, O Jacob”(Isaiah 43:22). By signaling while reciting iShemahe behaves contemptuously toward God, and it is tantamount to not having recited iShemabefore Him. How, then, could Rav gesture while reading iShema /i?,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisprohibition to interrupt one’s recitation of iShemawith a gesture applies binthe course of reciting the bfirst paragraphof iShema /i, which is more fundamental; bthatcase where Rav gestured was binthe course of reciting the bsecond paragraphof iShema /i, where gesturing to convey a significant message is permitted.,Apropos interruptions in the course of reciting iShema /i, the Gemara cites a ibaraitain which bthe Sages taught:“And these words, which I command you this day, shall be upon your heart; and you shall teach them diligently unto your children, band you shall talk of themwhen you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you arise” (Deuteronomy 6:6–7). This means that in the course bofreciting bthem,the study of Torah and the recitation of iShema /i, it is permitted to interrupt to state a significant matter, bbut notin the course bofreciting the iAmida bprayer,which may not be interrupted for any kind of speech. Another interpretation of the verse is: bAnd you shall talk of themis to emphasize that bit is permittedto interrupt iShema bto speak these mattersof Torah, but not to speak bother mattersthat may lead to levity., bRabbi Aḥa says: Talk of themmeans one must brender them,the words of Torah, ba permanentfixture, band not render them a temporaryexercise. bRava said: One who engages in idle chatterwithout Torah or any particular purpose bviolatesa bpositivecommandment, bas it is stated: And you shall talk of them;talk bof them and not of other matters. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said:Furthermore, boneeven bviolates a negativecommandment, bas it is stated: “All these matters are wearisome; no man can ever state them”(Ecclesiastes 1:8). The phrase: No man can ever state them, is understood as a prohibition against engaging in idle chatter., strongMISHNA: /strong If the High Priest bsought to sleepat night, bthe young priestswould bsnap the middle [ itzerada /i] fingeragainst the thumb bbefore him, and theywould bsay to himevery so often: bMy Master, High Priest. Standfrom your bed band chillyourself bonce on the floorand overcome your drowsiness. bAnd theywould bengage himin various ways buntil the time would arrive to slaughter thedaily offering., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWhatis the itzerada /ifinger mentioned in the mishna? bRav Yehuda said: It is the rival [ itzara /i] of that [ ida /i]one. Which finger bis it? iTzeradais the rival of bthe thumb;it is the middle finger. The middle finger would be strongly positioned against the thumb, and when one separates them, the finger hits the palm, creating a sound. bRav Huna demonstratedthe loud noise that could be achieved by snapping with the middle finger, and bthe sound traveled throughout Rav’s study hall.The sound created was loud enough to keep the High Priest awake.,It was taught in the mishna that bthey said to him: My Master, High Priest.Stand from your bed and bchillyourself bonce on the floorand overcome your drowsiness. bRav Yitzḥak saidthat they said to the High Priest: bIntroduce something new.The Gemara asks: bWhat is itthat they asked him to introduce? bThey say to him: Demonstratehow to perform the ceremonial bbowing[ikidda /i].This was a form of bowing that was difficult to perform, in which the High Priest was expert. The thought was that the exercise would keep him awake.,The mishna continues: bAnd theywould bengage himin different ways buntil the time to slaughter thedaily offering bwould arrive.It was btaught: They would not occupy him with a harp or a lyre,which may not be played on a Festival, bbutwould sing bwiththeir bmouths. And what would they say?They would say this verse: b“Unless the Lord builds the house, its builders labor in vain on it;unless the Lord watches over the city, the watchman keeps vigil in vain” (Psalms 127:1). The message to the High Priest was that his service must be performed for the sake of Heaven for it to be accepted by God; otherwise his efforts would be in vain.,The Gemara relates that bthe prominentmen bof Jerusalem would not sleep the entire nightbut instead engaged in Torah study, bso thatthe bHigh Priest would hearthe bsound of noisein the city band sleep would not overcome himin the silence of the sleeping city. bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bAbba Shaul said: They would do so even in the outlying areasand stay awake all night bin acknowledgment of the Temple; however,the result was bthat they would sin,as the men and women would participate in games together to pass the time, leading to transgression., bAbaye said, and some sayit was bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥakwho said: bInterpretthat statement as referring to bNeharde’a, as Elijahthe Prophet bsaid to Rav Yehuda, brotherof bRav Salla Ḥasida: You have saidand wondered: bWhy has the Messiah not come?Why is that surprising? bIsn’t today Yom Kippur, and relations were had with several virgins in Neharde’a,as the men and women stayed awake all night and that led to promiscuity? Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, sayabout those sins committed by the Jewish people? bHe said:This is what God said:
34. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 5.28.12 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5.28.12. But as he paid little regard to the visions, because he was ensnared by the first position among them and by that shameful covetousness which destroys a great many, he was scourged by holy angels, and punished severely through the entire night. Thereupon having risen in the morning, he put on sackcloth and covered himself with ashes, and with great haste and tears he fell down before Zephyrinus, the bishop, rolling at the feet not only of the clergy, but also of the laity; and he moved with his tears the compassionate Church of the merciful Christ. And though he used much supplication, and showed the welts of the stripes which he had received, yet scarcely was he taken back into communion.
35. Anon., 4 Ezra, 8.50

8.50. For many miseries will affect those who inhabit the world in the last times, because they have walked in great pride.
36. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 262-263, 269, 211

211. The king signified his agreement and said to another 'What is the essence of kingship?' And he replied, 'To rule oneself well and not to be led astray by wealth or fame to immoderate or unseemly desires, this is the true way of ruling if you reason the matter well out. For all that you really need is yours, and God is free from need and benigt withal. Let your thoughts be such as become a man, and desire not many things but only such as are necessary for ruling.'
37. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 9.9, 9.24, 9.32, 10.11, 10.16, 10.21, 11.3, 12.12, 18.5

9.9. but you, because of your bloodthirstiness toward us, will deservedly undergo from the divine justice eternal torment by fire. 9.24. Fight the sacred and noble battle for religion. Thereby the just Providence of our ancestors may become merciful to our nation and take vengeance on the accursed tyrant. 9.32. but you suffer torture by the threats that come from impiety. You will not escape, most abominable tyrant, the judgments of the divine wrath. 10.11. but you, because of your impiety and bloodthirstiness, will undergo unceasing torments. 10.16. Contrive tortures, tyrant, so that you may learn from them that I am a brother to those who have just been tortured. 10.21. God will visit you swiftly, for you are cutting out a tongue that has been melodious with divine hymns. 11.3. I have come of my own accord, so that by murdering me you will incur punishment from the heavenly justice for even more crimes. 12.12. Because of this, justice has laid up for you intense and eternal fire and tortures, and these throughout all time will never let you go. 18.5. The tyrant Antiochus was both punished on earth and is being chastised after his death. Since in no way whatever was he able to compel the Israelites to become pagans and to abandon their ancestral customs, he left Jerusalem and marched against the Persians.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Gera (2014), Judith, 421
achior,conversion Gera (2014), Judith, 421
achior,manhandled Gera (2014), Judith, 421
alexander the great Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 455
angels Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 201
antichrist Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 217
antioch Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 209
antiochus epiphanes Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 40
antiochus iv Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 218, 233
antiochus iv epiphanes Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 209; Gera (2014), Judith, 317, 421; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 262; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 182, 186; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 156, 503
antiochus v eupator Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 40
apocalyptic literature and thought, eschatological revenge/judgment in Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 209
apocalyptic literature and thought, martyrdom and Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 209
apocalyptic literature and thought Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 209
arrogance,see also under motifs Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 201
artemis,temple of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 355
assyrians,court talesnan Gera (2014), Judith, 317
beth- zechariah,battle of Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 40
beth-zur,battle of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 402
book of judith,chronology Gera (2014), Judith, 421
book of judith,criticizes hasmoneans? Gera (2014), Judith, 421
book of judith,fictionality Gera (2014), Judith, 421
catullus,death of Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
circumcision Gera (2014), Judith, 421
clarke,w.k.l.,septuagint use in acts Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
conventions or themes,moral focus Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 233
creation Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 218
darius i Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 182
demetrius Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 182
deuteronomistic theology Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 218
deuteronomy 32 Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 307
devotio Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 40
diaspora Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 156
dionysus,cult Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 182
divine plan/βουλή Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 173
dreams Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 173
egypt,jews in Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 503
egypt and egyptians Gera (2014), Judith, 317
eleazar Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 40; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 186
eleazar avaran Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 40
epiphanes Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 262
eschatology, in late antiquity Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 217
eschatology Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 209
exemplary figures Gera (2014), Judith, 317
exile,captivity,and return,exodus,story of Gera (2014), Judith, 317
flaccus Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 186
gaius caligula Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 186
gentiles Gera (2014), Judith, 421
glosses Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 402
god,belief in Gera (2014), Judith, 421
god,of heaven Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 156
god Gera (2014), Judith, 317
haman Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 186
hand,of god Gera (2014), Judith, 317
hasmoneans,influence on judith Gera (2014), Judith, 421
heavens,god of Gera (2014), Judith, 317
heliodorus,seleucid official Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
heliodorus Gera (2014), Judith, 421
herod Gera (2014), Judith, 421
herodotus Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 262
holophernes Gera (2014), Judith, 317
illness' Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 262
irony Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 355
isaiah Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 156
israel,biblical,god of Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 186
jerusalem,temple Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 173
jethro Gera (2014), Judith, 421
josephus Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 355
judaism,and death Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 40
judas,death of Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
judgement,final Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 218
judith,an instrument? Gera (2014), Judith, 317
judith,prayers Gera (2014), Judith, 317
judith,widow Gera (2014), Judith, 317
julius africanus Gera (2014), Judith, 421
language and style,book of judith,key words and internal echoes Gera (2014), Judith, 317
language and style,book of judith,septuagint influence Gera (2014), Judith, 317
luke-acts,septuagintal style Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
lukes hermeneutic,maccabean sources Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
lukes hermeneutic,septuagintalisms Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
martyr and martyrdom, jewish Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 209
martyr and martyrdom, maccabean Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 209
martyrdom Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 218, 233
minor,catulluss death Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
moab and moabites Gera (2014), Judith, 421
moses Gera (2014), Judith, 317
mother and seven sons,as martyrs Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 40
mother and seven sons Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 40
motifs (thematic),by gentiles Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 307
motifs (thematic),despised nation Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 156
motifs (thematic),games with epiphanes Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 81, 355
motifs (thematic),gentiles are gods tools for punishing sinners Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 307
nebuchadnezzar Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 182
nicanor,governor of judea Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
nicanor Gera (2014), Judith, 317; Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 40
nineveh Gera (2014), Judith, 421
opponents,of god,θεομάχοι Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 233
persecution,of jews in egypt Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 182, 186
pharaoh,time of moses Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 186
pharaoh Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 355
philo of alexandria Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 186
polybius Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 355
portents Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 173
post-mortem reward or punishment Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 218
prayers and praying Gera (2014), Judith, 317
providence,πρόνοια/providentia Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 233
psalter,lukes use Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
ptolemy iv philopator Gera (2014), Judith, 317, 421; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 182, 186
punitive miracle Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 233
readers of 2 maccabees,rationalists Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 201
red sea Gera (2014), Judith, 317; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 186
restoration within history Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 218
roman emperor,x Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 217
rome Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 455
ruth Gera (2014), Judith, 421
scarce resources theory Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 209
seleucids Gera (2014), Judith, 317
seleucus iv Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 182
septuagint,lukes use,clarke,w.k.l. Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
septuagint,lukes use Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
septuagint Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 233
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 455
simeon,ancestor of judith Gera (2014), Judith, 317
song of the sea Gera (2014), Judith, 317
struggles Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 81
style,linguistic and literary,prepositional prefixes Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 81
style,linguistic and literary,word play Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 81
style,linguistic and literary Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 81
suffering, of evildoers Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 209, 217
supernatural events Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 201
swords Gera (2014), Judith, 317
temple Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 455
temple in jerusalem,altar and vessels Gera (2014), Judith, 317
temple in jerusalem Gera (2014), Judith, 317, 421
theodicy Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 218, 233
theomachus,god-fighter Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
tyrants death,literary topos Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 329
vengeance Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010), Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity, 209
widows Gera (2014), Judith, 317
women,jewish Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 182
xerxes Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 262