Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



661
Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 8.1


nanBut Judas, who was also called Maccabeus, and his companions secretly entered the villages and summoned their kinsmen and enlisted those who had continued in the Jewish faith, and so they gathered about six thousand men.'


nanBut Judas, who was also called Maccabeus, and his companions secretly entered the villages and summoned their kinsmen and enlisted those who had continued in the Jewish faith, and so they gathered about six thousand men. 2 They besought the Lord to look upon the people who were oppressed by all, and to have pity on the temple which had been profaned by ungodly men, 3 and to have mercy on the city which was being destroyed and about to be leveled to the ground, and to hearken to the blood that cried out to him, 4 and to remember also the lawless destruction of the innocent babies and the blasphemies committed against his name, and to show his hatred of evil. 5 As soon as Maccabeus got his army organized, the Gentiles could not withstand him, for the wrath of the Lord had turned to mercy. 6 Coming without warning, he would set fire to towns and villages. He captured strategic positions and put to flight not a few of the enemy. 7 He found the nights most advantageous for such attacks. And talk of his valor spread everywhere. 8 When Philip saw that the man was gaining ground little by little, and that he was pushing ahead with more frequent successes, he wrote to Ptolemy, the governor of Coele Syria and Phoenicia, for aid to the king's government. 9 And Ptolemy promptly appointed Nicanor the son of Patroclus, one of the king's chief friends, and sent him, in command of no fewer than twenty thousand Gentiles of all nations, to wipe out the whole race of Judea. He associated with him Gorgias, a general and a man of experience in military service.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 9.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.15. וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ היהודיים [הַיְּהוּדִים] אֲשֶׁר־בְּשׁוּשָׁן גַּם בְּיוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וַיַּהַרְגוּ בְשׁוּשָׁן שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת־יָדָם׃ 9.15. And the Jews that were in Shushan gathered themselves together on the fourteenth day also of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men in Shushan; but on the spoil they laid not their hand."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 6.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.8. וְנֹחַ מָצָא חֵן בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃ 6.8. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.21. וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא תְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.21. And thou shalt not give any of thy seed to set them apart to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 44.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

44.12. חָרַשׁ בַּרְזֶל מַעֲצָד וּפָעַל בַּפֶּחָם וּבַמַּקָּבוֹת יִצְּרֵהוּ וַיִּפְעָלֵהוּ בִּזְרוֹעַ כֹּחוֹ גַּם־רָעֵב וְאֵין כֹּחַ לֹא־שָׁתָה מַיִם וַיִּיעָף׃ 44.12. The smith maketh an axe, And worketh in the coals, and fashioneth it with hammers, And worketh it with his strong arm; Yea, he is hungry, and his strength faileth; He drinketh no water, and is faint."
5. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 6.6-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.43, 1.60-1.61, 2.1-2.70, 3.1-3.37, 3.42, 3.46-3.54, 4.1-4.61, 5.10, 5.34, 5.55, 5.61, 5.63, 5.65, 6.6-6.8, 6.43-6.46, 7.6, 7.10, 7.27, 8.20, 9.19, 9.31, 13.8, 14.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.43. All the Gentiles accepted the command of the king. Many even from Israel gladly adopted his religion; they sacrificed to idols and profaned the sabbath. 1.60. According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised 1.61. and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers necks. 2.1. In those days Mattathias the son of John, son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, moved from Jerusalem and settled in Modein. 2.2. He had five sons, John surnamed Gaddi 2.3. Simon called Thassi 2.4. Judas called Maccabeus 2.5. Eleazar called Avaran, and Jonathan called Apphus. 2.6. He saw the blasphemies being committed in Judah and Jerusalem 2.7. and said, "Alas! Why was I born to see this,the ruin of my people, the ruin of the holy city,and to dwell there when it was given over to the enemy,the sanctuary given over to aliens? 2.8. Her temple has become like a man without honor; 2.9. her glorious vessels have been carried into captivity. Her babes have been killed in her streets,her youths by the sword of the foe. 2.10. What nation has not inherited her palaces and has not seized her spoils? 2.11. All her adornment has been taken away;no longer free, she has become a slave. 2.12. And behold, our holy place, our beauty,and our glory have been laid waste;the Gentiles have profaned it. 2.13. Why should we live any longer? 2.14. And Mattathias and his sons rent their clothes, put on sackcloth, and mourned greatly. 2.15. Then the kings officers who were enforcing the apostasy came to the city of Modein to make them offer sacrifice. 2.16. Many from Israel came to them; and Mattathias and his sons were assembled. 2.17. Then the kings officers spoke to Mattathias as follows: "You are a leader, honored and great in this city, and supported by sons and brothers. 2.18. Now be the first to come and do what the king commands, as all the Gentiles and the men of Judah and those that are left in Jerusalem have done. Then you and your sons will be numbered among the friends of the king, and you and your sons will be honored with silver and gold and many gifts. 2.19. But Mattathias answered and said in a loud voice: "Even if all the nations that live under the rule of the king obey him, and have chosen to do his commandments, departing each one from the religion of his fathers 2.20. yet I and my sons and my brothers will live by the covet of our fathers. 2.21. Far be it from us to desert the law and the ordices. 2.22. We will not obey the kings words by turning aside from our religion to the right hand or to the left. 2.23. When he had finished speaking these words, a Jew came forward in the sight of all to offer sacrifice upon the altar in Modein, according to the kings command. 2.24. When Mattathias saw it, be burned with zeal and his heart was stirred. He gave vent to righteous anger; he ran and killed him upon the altar. 2.25. At the same time he killed the kings officer who was forcing them to sacrifice, and he tore down the altar. 2.26. Thus he burned with zeal for the law, as Phinehas did against Zimri the son of Salu. 2.27. Then Mattathias cried out in the city with a loud voice, saying: "Let every one who is zealous for the law and supports the covet come out with me! 2.28. And he and his sons fled to the hills and left all that they had in the city. 2.29. Then many who were seeking righteousness and justice went down to the wilderness to dwell there 2.30. they, their sons, their wives, and their cattle, because evils pressed heavily upon them. 2.31. And it was reported to the kings officers, and to the troops in Jerusalem the city of David, that men who had rejected the kings command had gone down to the hiding places in the wilderness. 2.32. Many pursued them, and overtook them; they encamped opposite them and prepared for battle against them on the sabbath day. 2.33. And they said to them, "Enough of this! Come out and do what the king commands, and you will live. 2.34. But they said, "We will not come out, nor will we do what the king commands and so profane the sabbath day. 2.35. Then the enemy hastened to attack them. 2.36. But they did not answer them or hurl a stone at them or block up their hiding places 2.37. for they said, "Let us all die in our innocence; heaven and earth testify for us that you are killing us unjustly. 2.38. So they attacked them on the sabbath, and they died, with their wives and children and cattle, to the number of a thousand persons. 2.39. When Mattathias and his friends learned of it, they mourned for them deeply. 2.40. And each said to his neighbor: "If we all do as our brethren have done and refuse to fight with the Gentiles for our lives and for our ordices, they will quickly destroy us from the earth. 2.41. So they made this decision that day: "Let us fight against every man who comes to attack us on the sabbath day; let us not all die as our brethren died in their hiding places. 2.42. Then there united with them a company of Hasideans, mighty warriors of Israel, every one who offered himself willingly for the law. 2.43. And all who became fugitives to escape their troubles joined them and reinforced them. 2.44. They organized an army, and struck down sinners in their anger and lawless men in their wrath; the survivors fled to the Gentiles for safety. 2.45. And Mattathias and his friends went about and tore down the altars; 2.46. they forcibly circumcised all the uncircumcised boys that they found within the borders of Israel. 2.47. They hunted down the arrogant men, and the work prospered in their hands. 2.48. They rescued the law out of the hands of the Gentiles and kings, and they never let the sinner gain the upper hand. 2.49. Now the days drew near for Mattathias to die, and he said to his sons: "Arrogance and reproach have now become strong; it is a time of ruin and furious anger. 2.50. Now, my children, show zeal for the law, and give your lives for the covet of our fathers. 2.51. Remember the deeds of the fathers, which they did in their generations; and receive great honor and an everlasting name. 2.52. Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness? 2.53. Joseph in the time of his distress kept the commandment, and became lord of Egypt. 2.54. Phinehas our father, because he was deeply zealous, received the covet of everlasting priesthood. 2.55. Joshua, because he fulfilled the command, became a judge in Israel. 2.56. Caleb, because he testified in the assembly, received an inheritance in the land. 2.57. David, because he was merciful, inherited the throne of the kingdom for ever. 2.58. Elijah because of great zeal for the law was taken up into heaven. 2.59. Haniah, Azariah, and Mishael believed and were saved from the flame. 2.60. Daniel because of his innocence was delivered from the mouth of the lions. 2.61. And so observe, from generation to generation, that none who put their trust in him will lack strength. 2.62. Do not fear the words of a sinner, for his splendor will turn into dung and worms. 2.63. Today he will be exalted, but tomorrow he will not be found, because he has returned to the dust, and his plans will perish. 2.64. My children, be courageous and grow strong in the law, for by it you will gain honor. 2.65. Now behold, I know that Simeon your brother is wise in counsel; always listen to him; he shall be your father. 2.66. Judas Maccabeus has been a mighty warrior from his youth; he shall command the army for you and fight the battle against the peoples. 2.67. You shall rally about you all who observe the law, and avenge the wrong done to your people. 2.68. Pay back the Gentiles in full, and heed what the law commands. 2.69. Then he blessed them, and was gathered to his fathers. 2.70. He died in the one hundred and forty-sixth year and was buried in the tomb of his fathers at Modein. And all Israel mourned for him with great lamentation. 3.1. Then Judas his son, who was called Maccabeus, took command in his place. 3.2. All his brothers and all who had joined his father helped him; they gladly fought for Israel. 3.3. He extended the glory of his people. Like a giant he put on his breastplate;he girded on his armor of war and waged battles,protecting the host by his sword. 3.4. He was like a lion in his deeds,like a lions cub roaring for prey. 3.5. He searched out and pursued the lawless;he burned those who troubled his people. 3.6. Lawless men shrank back for fear of him;all the evildoers were confounded;and deliverance prospered by his hand. 3.7. He embittered many kings,but he made Jacob glad by his deeds,and his memory is blessed for ever. 3.8. He went through the cities of Judah;he destroyed the ungodly out of the land;thus he turned away wrath from Israel. 3.9. He was renowned to the ends of the earth;he gathered in those who were perishing. 3.10. But Apollonius gathered together Gentiles and a large force from Samaria to fight against Israel. 3.11. When Judas learned of it, he went out to meet him, and he defeated and killed him. Many were wounded and fell, and the rest fled. 3.12. Then they seized their spoils; and Judas took the sword of Apollonius, and used it in battle the rest of his life. 3.13. Now when Seron, the commander of the Syrian army, heard that Judas had gathered a large company, including a body of faithful men who stayed with him and went out to battle 3.14. he said, "I will make a name for myself and win honor in the kingdom. I will make war on Judas and his companions, who scorn the kings command. 3.15. And again a strong army of ungodly men went up with him to help him, to take vengeance on the sons of Israel. 3.16. When he approached the ascent of Beth-horon, Judas went out to meet him with a small company. 3.17. But when they saw the army coming to meet them, they said to Judas, "How can we, few as we are, fight against so great and strong a multitude? And we are faint, for we have eaten nothing today. 3.18. Judas replied, "It is easy for many to be hemmed in by few, for in the sight of Heaven there is no difference between saving by many or by few. 3.19. It is not on the size of the army that victory in battle depends, but strength comes from Heaven. 3.20. They come against us in great pride and lawlessness to destroy us and our wives and our children, and to despoil us; 3.21. but we fight for our lives and our laws. 3.22. He himself will crush them before us; as for you, do not be afraid of them. 3.23. When he finished speaking, he rushed suddenly against Seron and his army, and they were crushed before him. 3.24. They pursued them down the descent of Beth-horon to the plain; eight hundred of them fell, and the rest fled into the land of the Philistines. 3.25. Then Judas and his brothers began to be feared, and terror fell upon the Gentiles round about them. 3.26. His fame reached the king, and the Gentiles talked of the battles of Judas. 3.27. When king Antiochus heard these reports, he was greatly angered; and he sent and gathered all the forces of his kingdom, a very strong army. 3.28. And he opened his coffers and gave a years pay to his forces, and ordered them to be ready for any need. 3.29. Then he saw that the money in the treasury was exhausted, and that the revenues from the country were small because of the dissension and disaster which he had caused in the land by abolishing the laws that had existed from the earliest days. 3.30. He feared that he might not have such funds as he had before for his expenses and for the gifts which he used to give more lavishly than preceding kings. 3.31. He was greatly perplexed in mind, and determined to go to Persia and collect the revenues from those regions and raise a large fund. 3.32. He left Lysias, a distinguished man of royal lineage, in charge of the kings affairs from the river Euphrates to the borders of Egypt. 3.33. Lysias was also to take care of Antiochus his son until he returned. 3.34. And he turned over to Lysias half of his troops and the elephants, and gave him orders about all that he wanted done. As for the residents of Judea and Jerusalem 3.35. Lysias was to send a force against them to wipe out and destroy the strength of Israel and the remt of Jerusalem; he was to banish the memory of them from the place 3.36. settle aliens in all their territory, and distribute their land. 3.37. Then the king took the remaining half of his troops and departed from Antioch his capital in the one hundred and forty-seventh year. He crossed the Euphrates river and went through the upper provinces. 3.42. Now Judas and his brothers saw that misfortunes had increased and that the forces were encamped in their territory. They also learned what the king had commanded to do to the people to cause their final destruction. 3.46. So they assembled and went to Mizpah, opposite Jerusalem, because Israel formerly had a place of prayer in Mizpah. 3.47. They fasted that day, put on sackcloth and sprinkled ashes on their heads, and rent their clothes. 3.48. And they opened the book of the law to inquire into those matters about which the Gentiles were consulting the images of their idols. 3.49. They also brought the garments of the priesthood and the first fruits and the tithes, and they stirred up the Nazirites who had completed their days; 3.50. and they cried aloud to Heaven, saying, "What shall we do with these?Where shall we take them? 3.51. Thy sanctuary is trampled down and profaned,and thy priests mourn in humiliation. 3.52. And behold, the Gentiles are assembled against us to destroy us;thou knowest what they plot against us. 3.53. How will we be able to withstand them,if thou dost not help us? 3.54. Then they sounded the trumpets and gave a loud shout. 4.1. Now Gorgias took five thousand infantry and a thousand picked cavalry, and this division moved out by night 4.2. to fall upon the camp of the Jews and attack them suddenly. Men from the citadel were his guides. 4.3. But Judas heard of it, and he and his mighty men moved out to attack the kings force in Emmau 4.4. while the division was still absent from the camp. 4.5. When Gorgias entered the camp of Judas by night, he found no one there, so he looked for them in the hills, because he said, "These men are fleeing from us. 4.6. At daybreak Judas appeared in the plain with three thousand men, but they did not have armor and swords such as they desired. 4.7. And they saw the camp of the Gentiles, strong and fortified, with cavalry round about it; and these men were trained in war. 4.8. But Judas said to the men who were with him, "Do not fear their numbers or be afraid when they charge. 4.9. Remember how our fathers were saved at the Red Sea, when Pharaoh with his forces pursued them. 4.10. And now let us cry to Heaven, to see whether he will favor us and remember his covet with our fathers and crush this army before us today. 4.11. Then all the Gentiles will know that there is one who redeems and saves Israel. 4.12. When the foreigners looked up and saw them coming against them 4.13. they went forth from their camp to battle. Then the men with Judas blew their trumpet 4.14. and engaged in battle. The Gentiles were crushed and fled into the plain 4.15. and all those in the rear fell by the sword. They pursued them to Gazara, and to the plains of Idumea, and to Azotus and Jamnia; and three thousand of them fell. 4.16. Then Judas and his force turned back from pursuing them 4.17. and he said to the people, "Do not be greedy for plunder, for there is a battle before us; 4.18. Gorgias and his force are near us in the hills. But stand now against our enemies and fight them, and afterward seize the plunder boldly. 4.19. Just as Judas was finishing this speech, a detachment appeared, coming out of the hills. 4.20. They saw that their army had been put to flight, and that the Jews were burning the camp, for the smoke that was seen showed what had happened. 4.21. When they perceived this they were greatly frightened, and when they also saw the army of Judas drawn up in the plain for battle 4.22. they all fled into the land of the Philistines. 4.23. Then Judas returned to plunder the camp, and they seized much gold and silver, and cloth dyed blue and sea purple, and great riches. 4.24. On their return they sang hymns and praises to Heaven, for he is good, for his mercy endures for ever. 4.25. Thus Israel had a great deliverance that day. 4.26. Those of the foreigners who escaped went and reported to Lysias all that had happened. 4.27. When he heard it, he was perplexed and discouraged, for things had not happened to Israel as he had intended, nor had they turned out as the king had commanded him. 4.28. But the next year he mustered sixty thousand picked infantrymen and five thousand cavalry to subdue them. 4.29. They came into Idumea and encamped at Beth-zur, and Judas met them with ten thousand men. 4.30. When he saw that the army was strong, he prayed, saying, "Blessed art thou, O Savior of Israel, who didst crush the attack of the mighty warrior by the hand of thy servant David, and didst give the camp of the Philistines into the hands of Jonathan, the son of Saul, and of the man who carried his armor. 4.31. So do thou hem in this army by the hand of thy people Israel, and let them be ashamed of their troops and their cavalry. 4.32. Fill them with cowardice; melt the boldness of their strength; let them tremble in their destruction. 4.33. Strike them down with the sword of those who love thee, and let all who know thy name praise thee with hymns. 4.34. Then both sides attacked, and there fell of the army of Lysias five thousand men; they fell in action. 4.35. And when Lysias saw the rout of his troops and observed the boldness which inspired those of Judas, and how ready they were either to live or to die nobly, he departed to Antioch and enlisted mercenaries, to invade Judea again with an even larger army. 4.36. Then said Judas and his brothers, "Behold, our enemies are crushed; let us go up to cleanse the sanctuary and dedicate it. 4.37. So all the army assembled and they went up to Mount Zion. 4.38. And they saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, and the gates burned. In the courts they saw bushes sprung up as in a thicket, or as on one of the mountains. They saw also the chambers of the priests in ruins. 4.39. Then they rent their clothes, and mourned with great lamentation, and sprinkled themselves with ashes. 4.40. They fell face down on the ground, and sounded the signal on the trumpets, and cried out to Heaven. 4.41. Then Judas detailed men to fight against those in the citadel until he had cleansed the sanctuary. 4.42. He chose blameless priests devoted to the law 4.43. and they cleansed the sanctuary and removed the defiled stones to an unclean place. 4.44. They deliberated what to do about the altar of burnt offering, which had been profaned. 4.45. And they thought it best to tear it down, lest it bring reproach upon them, for the Gentiles had defiled it. So they tore down the altar 4.46. and stored the stones in a convenient place on the temple hill until there should come a prophet to tell what to do with them. 4.47. Then they took unhewn stones, as the law directs, and built a new altar like the former one. 4.48. They also rebuilt the sanctuary and the interior of the temple, and consecrated the courts. 4.49. They made new holy vessels, and brought the lampstand, the altar of incense, and the table into the temple. 4.50. Then they burned incense on the altar and lighted the lamps on the lampstand, and these gave light in the temple. 4.51. They placed the bread on the table and hung up the curtains. Thus they finished all the work they had undertaken. 4.52. Early in the morning on the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month, which is the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-eighth year 4.53. they rose and offered sacrifice, as the law directs, on the new altar of burnt offering which they had built. 4.54. At the very season and on the very day that the Gentiles had profaned it, it was dedicated with songs and harps and lutes and cymbals. 4.55. All the people fell on their faces and worshiped and blessed Heaven, who had prospered them. 4.56. So they celebrated the dedication of the altar for eight days, and offered burnt offerings with gladness; they offered a sacrifice of deliverance and praise. 4.57. They decorated the front of the temple with golden crowns and small shields; they restored the gates and the chambers for the priests, and furnished them with doors. 4.58. There was very great gladness among the people, and the reproach of the Gentiles was removed. 4.59. Then Judas and his brothers and all the assembly of Israel determined that every year at that season the days of dedication of the altar should be observed with gladness and joy for eight days, beginning with the twenty-fifth day of the month of Chislev. 4.60. At that time they fortified Mount Zion with high walls and strong towers round about, to keep the Gentiles from coming and trampling them down as they had done before. 4.61. And he stationed a garrison there to hold it. He also fortified Beth-zur, so that the people might have a stronghold that faced Idumea. 5.10. and sent to Judas and his brothers a letter which said, "The Gentiles around us have gathered together against us to destroy us. 5.34. And when the army of Timothy realized that it was Maccabeus, they fled before him, and he dealt them a heavy blow. As many as eight thousand of them fell that day. 5.55. Now while Judas and Jonathan were in Gilead and Simon his brother was in Galilee before Ptolemais 5.61. Thus the people suffered a great rout because, thinking to do a brave deed, they did not listen to Judas and his brothers. 5.63. The man Judas and his brothers were greatly honored in all Israel and among all the Gentiles, wherever their name was heard. 5.65. Then Judas and his brothers went forth and fought the sons of Esau in the land to the south. He struck Hebron and its villages and tore down its strongholds and burned its towers round about. 6.6. that Lysias had gone first with a strong force, but had turned and fled before the Jews; that the Jews had grown strong from the arms, supplies, and abundant spoils which they had taken from the armies they had cut down; 6.7. that they had torn down the abomination which he had erected upon the altar in Jerusalem; and that they had surrounded the sanctuary with high walls as before, and also Beth-zur, his city. 6.8. When the king heard this news, he was astounded and badly shaken. He took to his bed and became sick from grief, because things had not turned out for him as he had planned. 6.43. And Eleazar, called Avaran, saw that one of the beasts was equipped with royal armor. It was taller than all the others, and he supposed that the king was upon it. 6.44. So he gave his life to save his people and to win for himself an everlasting name. 6.45. He courageously ran into the midst of the phalanx to reach it; he killed men right and left, and they parted before him on both sides. 6.46. He got under the elephant, stabbed it from beneath, and killed it; but it fell to the ground upon him and he died. 7.6. And they brought to the king this accusation against the people: "Judas and his brothers have destroyed all your friends, and have driven us out of our land. 7.10. So they marched away and came with a large force into the land of Judah; and he sent messengers to Judas and his brothers with peaceable but treacherous words. 7.27. So Nicanor came to Jerusalem with a large force, and treacherously sent to Judas and his brothers this peaceable message 8.20. Judas, who is also called Maccabeus, and his brothers and the people of the Jews have sent us to you to establish alliance and peace with you, that we may be enrolled as your allies and friends. 9.19. Then Jonathan and Simon took Judas their brother and buried him in the tomb of their fathers at Modein 9.31. And Jonathan at that time accepted the leadership and took the place of Judas his brother.
7. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.10-2.18, 1.12, 1.25, 2.8, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 2.24, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 2.30, 2.31, 2.32, 3.16, 3.19, 4.2, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.34, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 4.38, 4.39, 4.40, 4.41, 4.42, 4.43, 4.44, 4.45, 4.46, 4.47, 4.48, 4.49, 4.50, 5, 5.3, 5.10, 5.11-6.11, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 6, 6.2, 6.4, 6.5, 6.9, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.18-7.42, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.30, 6.31, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 7.41, 7.42, 8, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.28, 9.29, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.10, 10.16, 10.19, 10.21, 10.22, 10.25, 10.26, 10.30, 10.33, 10.35, 10.38, 11.1, 11.6, 11.7, 11.9, 11.10, 11.13, 11.15, 11.24, 11.27, 11.28, 11.29, 11.30, 11.31, 11.32, 12.6, 12.10, 12.11, 12.13, 12.14, 12.15, 12.19, 12.20, 12.24, 12.25, 12.27, 12.30, 12.31, 12.32, 12.39, 12.43, 12.44, 13.7, 13.12, 13.22, 13.25, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.23, 14.24, 14.25, 14.26, 14.27, 14.28, 14.29, 14.30, 14.31, 14.32, 14.33, 14.34, 14.35, 14.36, 14.37, 14.38, 14.39, 14.40, 14.41, 14.42, 14.43, 14.44, 14.45, 14.46, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.20, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 15.33, 15.34, 15.35, 15.36, 15.37 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The Jewish brethren in Jerusalem and those in the land of Judea, To their Jewish brethren in Egypt, Greeting, and good peace.'
8. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.26. when, then, his decrees were despised by the people, he himself, through torture, tried to compel everyone in the nation to eat defiling foods and to renounce Judaism.
9. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 6.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.12. But you, O Eternal One, who have all might and all power, watch over us now and have mercy upon us who by the senseless insolence of the lawless are being deprived of life in the manner of traitors.
10. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.9. If one says “May the good bless you,” this is the way of heresy. [If one says], “May Your mercy reach the nest of a bird,” “May Your name be mentioned for the good,” “We give thanks, we give thanks,” they silence him. One who uses euphemisms in the portion dealing with forbidden marriages, he is silenced. If he says, [instead of] “And you shall not give any of your seed to be passed to Moloch,” (Leviticus 18:21) “You shall not give [your seed] to pass to a Gentile woman,” he silenced with a rebuke."
11. New Testament, Acts, 16.37 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16.37. But Paul said to them, "They have beaten us publicly, without a trial, men who are Romans, and have cast us into prison! Do they now release us secretly? No, most assuredly, but let them come themselves and bring us out!
12. New Testament, Galatians, 1.13-1.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers.
13. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. אף אנו נאמר איילונית דוכרנית דלא ילדה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הגיורת והשבויה והשפחה שנפדו ושנתגיירו ושנשתחררו פחותות מבנות שלש שנים ויום אחד כתובתן מאתים ויש להן טענת בתולין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב הונא גר קטן מטבילין אותו על דעת בית דין,מאי קמ"ל דזכות הוא לו וזכין לאדם שלא בפניו תנינא זכין לאדם שלא בפניו ואין חבין לאדם שלא בפניו,מהו דתימא עובד כוכבים בהפקירא ניחא ליה דהא קיימא לן דעבד ודאי בהפקירא ניחא ליה,קמ"ל דהני מילי גדול דטעם טעם דאיסורא אבל קטן זכות הוא לו,לימא מסייע ליה הגיורת והשבויה והשפחה שנפדו ושנתגיירו ושנשתחררו פחותות מבנות שלש שנים ויום אחד מאי לאו דאטבלינהו על דעת בית דין,לא הכא במאי עסקינן בגר שנתגיירו בניו ובנותיו עמו דניחא להו במאי דעביד אבוהון,אמר רב יוסף הגדילו יכולין למחות איתיביה אביי הגיורת והשבויה והשפחה שנפדו ושנתגיירו ושנשתחררו פחותות מבנות שלש שנים ויום אחד כתובתן מאתים ואי ס"ד הגדילו יכולין למחות יהבינן לה כתובה דאזלה ואכלה בגיותה,לכי גדלה לכי גדלה נמי ממחייא ונפקא כיון שהגדילה שעה אחת ולא מיחתה שוב אינה יכולה למחות,מתיב רבא אלו נערות שיש להן קנס הבא על הממזרת ועל הנתינה ועל הכותית ועל הגיורת ועל השבויה ועל השפחה שנפדו ושנתגיירו ושנשתחררו פחותות מבנות שלש שנים ויום אחד יש להן קנס ואי אמרת הגדילו יכולין למחות יהבינן לה קנס דאזלה ואכלה בגיותה,לכי גדלה לכי גדלה נמי ממחייא ונפקא כיון שהגדילה שעה אחת ולא מיחתה שוב אינה יכולה למחות,אביי לא אמר כרבא התם קנסא היינו טעמא שלא יהא חוטא נשכר,רבא לא אמר כאביי כתובה היינו טעמא שלא תהא קלה בעיניו להוציאה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הגדול שבא על הקטנה וקטן שבא על הגדולה ומוכת עץ כתובתן מאתים דברי רבי מאיר וחכ"א מוכת עץ כתובתה מנה,בתולה אלמנה גרושה וחלוצה מן הנישואין כתובתן מנה 11a. bWe too will say: iAilonit /i,a sexually underdeveloped woman, is a term meaning: Like a bram [ idukhranit /i], becauselike a male sheep [ iayyil /i] bshe does not bear children. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to ba female convert, or a captive woman, or a maidservant, who were ransomedwith regard to the captive, or bwho convertedwith regard to the convert, bor who were freedwith regard to the maidservant, when they were bless than three years and one day old, their marriage contract is two hundreddinars, as their presumptive status is that of a virgin. Even if they were subject to intercourse when they were younger than that age, the hymen remains intact. bAnd they aresubject to ba claimconcerning their bvirginity. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Huna said:With regard to ba convertwho is ba minor, one immerses himin a ritual bath bwith the consent of the court.As a minor lacks the capacity to make halakhic decisions, the court is authorized to make those decisions in his stead., bWhat isRav Huna bcoming to teach us?Is he teaching bthat it is a privilege forthe minor to convert, band one may act in a person’s interestseven bin his absence? Wealready blearnedthat explicitly in a mishna ( iEiruvin81b): One bmay act in a person’s interests in his absence, but one may not act against a person’s interests in his absence. /b,Rav Huna’s statement was necessary blest you say:With regard to ba gentile, licentiousness is preferable for him,so conversion is contrary to his interests, just bas we maintain thatwith regard to ba slave, licentiousness is certainly preferable.Just as a slave has no interest in assuming the restrictions that come with freedom, in that a freed Canaanite slave is a convert to Judaism, a gentile would have the same attitude toward conversion.,Therefore, Rav Huna bteaches us: That appliesonly with regard to ban adult, who has experienced a taste of prohibition.Therefore, presumably he prefers to remain a slave and indulge in licentiousness. bHowever,with regard to a bminor,who did not yet engage in those activities, bit is a privilege for himto convert.,The Gemara suggests: bLet us saythat the mishna bsupportsRav Huna’s statement: With regard to ba female convert, or a captive woman, or a maidservant, who were ransomedwith regard to the captive, or bwho convertedwith regard to the convert, bor who were freedwith regard to the maidservant, when they were bless than three years and one day old; what, is it notreferring to a case where bthey immersedthe minor converts and the maidservants bwith the consent of the court?Apparently, a conversion of that sort is valid.,The Gemara rejects that proof: bNo, with what are we dealing here?It is bwith a convert whoseminor bsons and daughters converted with him, as they are content with whatever their father doesin their regard. However, that does not apply to a child who is converting on his own., bRav Yosef said:In any case where minors convert, when bthey reach majority they can protestand annul their conversion. bAbaye raised an objection to hisopinion from the mishna: With regard to ba female convert, or a captive woman, or a maidservant who were ransomed,or bwho converted, or who were freedwhen they were bless than three years and one day old, their marriage contract is two hundreddinars. bAnd if it enters your mindto say that when bthey reach majority they can protestand annul their conversion, bdo we give herthe payment of the bmarriage contract that shewill bgo and consume in her gentilestate?,The Gemara answers: She receives payment of her marriage contract bonce she has reached majorityand does not protest, but not while still a minor. The Gemara asks: bWhen she reaches majority too,is there not the same concern that bshe will protest and abandonJudaism? The Gemara answers: bOnce she reached majorityfor even bone moment and did not protest, she may no longer protest.This mishna poses no difficulty to the opinion of Rav Yosef., bRava raised an objectionfrom a mishna (29a): bTheseare the cases of byoung women for whom there is a finepaid to their fathers by one who rapes them: bOne who engages in intercourse with a imamzeret /i; or with a Gibeonite woman [ inetina /i],who are given [ inetunim /i] to the service of the people and the altar (see Joshua 9:27); bor with a Samaritan woman [ ikutit /i].In addition, the same applies to one who engages in intercourse bwith a female convert, or with a captive woman, or with a maidservant,provided bthatthe captives bwere ransomed or thatthe converts bconverted, or thatthe maidservants bwere freedwhen they were bless than three years and one day old,as only in that case do they maintain the presumptive status of a virgin. In all of these cases, bthere is a finepaid bto theirfathers if they are raped. bAnd if you saythat bwhen they reach majority they can protestand annul their conversion, bdo we give herpayment of the bfine that shewill bgo and consume in her gentilestate?,The Gemara answers: Her father receives payment of the fine bonce she has reached majorityand does not protest, but not while she is still a minor. The Gemara asks: bWhen she reaches majority too,is there not the same concern that bshe will protest and abandonJudaism? The Gemara answers: bOnce she reached majorityfor even bone moment and did not protest, she may no longer protest. /b, bAbaye did not statehis objection from the same source basdid bRava,because bthere,in the mishna cited by Rava, it is referring to ba fine,and in that case bthis is the reason: So that the sinner will not profit.The Sages did not absolve the rapist from payment of the fine merely due to the concern that the woman he raped may ultimately negate the conversion., bRava did not statehis objection from the same source basdid bAbaye, aswith regard to ba marriage contract, this is the reasonthat the Sages instituted it: bSo thathis wife bwill not be inconsequential in his eyes,enabling him btoeasily bdivorce her.As long as this woman does not negate her conversion, she is a Jewish woman and the Sages saw to her interests., strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to ban adult man who engaged in intercourse with a minor girlless than three years old; bor a minor boyless than nine years old bwho engaged in intercourse with an adult woman; or awoman who had her hymen bruptured by woodor any other foreign object, for all these women btheir marriage contract is two hundreddinars, as their legal status is that of a virgin. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: The marriage contractof a woman whose hymen was bruptured by wood is one hundred dinars,as physically, since her hymen is not intact, she is no longer a virgin.,With regard to ba virginwho is either a bwidow,a bdivorcée, or a iḥalutza /iwho achieved that status bfroma state of bmarriage,for all these women btheir marriage contract is one hundred dinars, /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
1 maccabees, contrasting presentation of events Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 323, 324
abomination Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 144
abraham, descent from Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
akra (fortress), garrison of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 127
akra (fortress), simons liberation and purification of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 127
alexandria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
alkimos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 144
allophylismos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 144
allophyloi Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 144
altar (of the temple), its dedication, inauguration Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71, 142, 143
altar (of the temple) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 140, 141, 142
ancestral Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
andronicus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 281
antiochos iv epiphanes, and the wicked high priests Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
antiochos iv epiphanes, his assault on jerusalem Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 139
antiochos iv epiphanes, his campaigns in egypt Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
antiochos iv epiphanes, his death Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 127, 137, 139, 151
antiochos iv epiphanes, his desecration of the temple Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
antiochos iv epiphanes, his plunder of the jerusalem temple Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
antiochos iv epiphanes, impious and wicked Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 127, 142, 151
antiochos iv epiphanes, paired with jason and menelaos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 142
antiochos iv epiphanes, portrayed as merely reactive (in ii maccabees) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
antiochos iv epiphanes Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71, 91
antiochos ivs time unit Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
antiochos v eupator, impious Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
antiochos v eupator Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71
antiochos vs time unit Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 91
antiochus epiphanes Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 40
antiochus iv van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 65
antiochus v eupator Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 40
apollonios (antiochos ivs general) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 151
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
aristeas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
asidaioi Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 144
author, of 2 maccabees, lack of interest in military details Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 324
azariah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
battle, battles, inaugural, entitling, and legitimizing Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71, 127, 137, 139, 140, 141, 151, 152
battle, battles Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 152
beth- zechariah, battle of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 40
calendar Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
causality, suppressed Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
causality Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
chislev Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230
chronology of events, in ii maccabees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71, 91, 127
chronology of events Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
citizenship van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 65
culture Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
death Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 221
death and burial Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 245
decree, decrees, of commemoration (in i and ii maccabees) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 127
demetrios i Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71, 144
desert Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 267
devotio Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 40
diaspora Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
dietary laws Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 267
disruption, causes of, and factors of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
disruption, cycles of, and time of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 137, 141
doran, robert Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
editors, jerusalemite Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 285
egypt Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230
egyptian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
eleazar Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 40
eleazar avaran Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 40
emmaus campaign Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 323
eschatology Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 221, 230
ethnic boundary making model, distribution of power van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 65
ethnic boundary making model, legalized discrimination van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 65
ethnic boundary making model, political mobilization van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 65
ethnic boundary making model, terror van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 65
ethnicity Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
ethnicity (common features), customs van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 65
ethnicization Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 143, 144
eupolemus Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218
festivals Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230
few against the many Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 141, 152
food laws Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
food regulations Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 488
foreignism Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 173
garrison, garrisons, of the akra Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 127
gentiles Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 225
greek, greeks (non-ethnic greeks described as) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 144
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
greek-jewish (graeco-jewish), literature and culture Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
greeks van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 65
gymnasion (in jerusalem), antitemple Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
gymnasion (in jerusalem) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
hananiah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
hanukka Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
hanukkah festival Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
hanukkah story Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 91, 127, 137, 139, 140, 141
hasmonean dynasty, hasmoneans, its legitimacy as subject matter of ii maccabees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 143
hasmonean dynasty, hasmoneans, judas as founder of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 143
hasmonean dynasty, hasmoneans, simultaneously high priests and kinglike rulers Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 151, 152
hasmonean dynasty, hasmoneans Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 143, 144
hasmonean dynasty Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218
hasmonean revolt Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 323
hebrew (ethnonym) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
hebrew language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
hebrews' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 495
heliodoros story Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71
heliodorus, story of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 281
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
hellenistic kings/rulers, antiochus iv epiphanes Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218, 221
hellenistic kings/rulers, antiochus v eupator Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218
hellēnismos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 144
henten, jan willem van Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
high (chief) priest Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 488
high priests, of jerusalem, paired with kings Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 142
high priests, of jerusalem, their sins as forerunners of antiochos ivs Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
historiography Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
i maccabees, author of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
i maccabees, compositional structure Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 127, 137, 139
i and ii maccabees, parallel Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 127
i and ii maccabees, their value for historical reconstruction, compositional montages in ii maccabees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 141, 151
i and ii maccabees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 127, 137, 139, 140, 141, 151, 152
identity, in the ancient world Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
idolatry Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 142
ii maccabees, author of, disingenuous Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
ii maccabees, author of, his authorial comments Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71, 137
ii maccabees, author of, his pro-hasmonean bias Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 137, 144
ii maccabees, compositional structure Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 127, 137, 139, 140, 141, 151, 152
ii maccabees, literary genre Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
ii maccabees, purpose Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
ii maccabees, subject matter Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71, 142
inheritance Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 285
interpolations Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71
ioudaioi Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 143, 144, 151
ioudaïsmos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139, 151
jamnia Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 142
jason, and onias iiis deposition Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 91
jason, civil strife between j. and menelaos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
jason, disrupter Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
jason, founded the gymnasion Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 91
jason, his measure-for-measure retribution Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
jason Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 144
jason (high priest) Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 225; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 336
jason of cyrene Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218; Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71
jeremiah Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230
jerusalem, as subject of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 495
jerusalem, primacy vs. temple Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 245
john hyrcanus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 324
joshua, son of nun Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 152
judaism, and death Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 40
judaism, as opposed to hellenism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18, 109
judaism, as pluralistic Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
judaism, law Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218
judaism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18, 109
judas maccabaeus, brothers of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 267
judas maccabaeus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 323, 324, 495
judas maccabee, and hasmoneans Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 143, 144
judas maccabee, and martyrs Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 142
judas maccabee, and menelaos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 151
judas maccabee, and nikanor (demetrios is general) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 151
judas maccabee, fights for ioudaïsmos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 141, 142, 144, 151, 152
judas maccabee, his death Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
judas maccabee, his dream Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 151, 152
judas maccabee, his first appearance Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 137, 139, 141
judas maccabee, his first temple refoundation Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 127, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144
judas maccabee, his harangues and prayers Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 140, 141, 142, 151, 152
judas maccabee, his legitimation Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 142
judas maccabee, his legitimizing victories Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 91, 127, 137, 139, 140, 141, 151, 152
judas maccabee, his partisans Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 144, 151
judas maccabee, his piety and righteousness Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 140, 141, 142, 143, 151
judas maccabee, his second refoundation Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 151, 152
judas maccabee, his subsequent victories Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
judas maccabee, his wars Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 127, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 152
judas maccabee, king of divine election Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 151
judas maccabee, kinglike leader Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 140, 141, 143, 144, 151, 152
judas maccabee Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71, 127, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 151, 152
judas maccabeus Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 221, 225, 230
judass time unit (in i maccabees) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
judea van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 65
justice, social Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 137, 139, 140, 142, 143
king (representation of), and deity Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 137, 139
king (representation of), and social justice, and social order Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 140, 142, 143
king (representation of), his sphere of powers Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
king (representation of), narrative morpheme Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 137
king (representation of), pious or righteous and wicked Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 142, 143
kingship (representation of), metaphor for all forms of power Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 152
land confiscations Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 142
language, see also under style Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 68
laws, ancestral Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71, 142
letter, letters, festal letters Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
lysias Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 141
maccabean period Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
maccabees, family, clan, maccabees, family, clan Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
maccabees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
marriage Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
martyrdom Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 221, 230; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 488
martyrologies Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 495
martyrs Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 225
mattathias (hasmonean) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 324
menelaos, his actions as statesman Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 151
menelaos, his impiety Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 142
menelaos, his measure-for-measure retribution Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
menelaos, paired with antiochos iv Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 142
menelaos, paired with jason Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
menelaos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 144
menelaus Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 221, 225
mishael Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
mizpah Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
mother and seven sons, as martyrs Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 40
mother and seven sons Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 40
motifs (thematic), few defeat the many Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 173
motifs (thematic), gentiles protest persecution of jews Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 245
motifs (thematic), god turns away in anger Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 68
motifs (thematic), hellenistic virtues bestowed upon jews Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 173
motifs (thematic), martyrdom catalyzes reconciliation (and redemption) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 323
nehemiah Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
nicanor, thrice-accursed Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 495
nicanor Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 40; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 323, 324, 495
nikanor (demetrios is general) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71, 140, 151
nikanor (son of patroklos, antiochos ivs general) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 140, 141, 151
nikanors day festival Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71
nikanors day story Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 140, 143, 151, 152
nomos, nomoi (law, customs) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 142
onias iii, and heliodoros Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
onias iii, his deposition Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 91
order, cosmic Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 143
order, social Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 140, 142, 143
orthodoxy, in judaism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
otherization Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 144
palestinian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
pathetic historiography Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 281
persecuted faithful judeans Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 91, 137, 140, 142
persecution, religious Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
petasos Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 224
philo Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
politeia Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 142, 143
polybius Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 143
prayer, quorum for Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 267
proem (of ii maccabees) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71, 141, 142, 144
psalms Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 285
ptolemies Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
purity Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
purity (see also food laws) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
razis, turning point Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 495
razis Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 142
rebellion, judean Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
reconciliation (between deity and people) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 127, 137, 139, 141
restoration, temple cult Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218, 230
returnees, judass partisans as new r. Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 144
returnees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 143, 144
righteousness, royal Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 143, 144
romans Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 323
royal ideology, and victory Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
royal ideology Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 140, 142, 143
sabbath, attacks on Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 151
sabbath Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 140, 141; Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
sacrifices, disruption of, and gymnasion Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
sacrifices, disruption of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 91
sacrifices, resumption of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 137, 139
sacrifices Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 91
schwartz, daniel r. Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
seleucid empire Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 221
seleukos iv Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
simon (hasmonean) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 324
spoils of war Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 173
struggles Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 82, 84
style, linguistic and literary, change of terminology in successive verses Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 68
style, linguistic and literary, of characters Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 82
style, linguistic and literary, unity Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 84
style, linguistic and literary Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 82, 84
syrians van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 65
temple, purification of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71, 127
temple Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218, 221, 225, 230
temple dedication (rededication), rites of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 127
temple dedication (rededication) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 141
temple dedication by the maccabees, account of, its location in the narratives of i and ii maccabees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
temple dedication by the maccabees, account of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 127, 141
temple desecration, by antiochos iv Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 127
temple foundation (refoundation), of jerusalem temple Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 143, 144
temple foundation (refoundation), royal prerogative Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
temple foundation (refoundation) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 127, 137, 139
temple foundation (refoundation) accounts Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
temporal language Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 221, 225
temporality, approaches to Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230
theokratia Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 143
time, construction of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91
torah, ancestral laws Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 225
torah, obedience to Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 221, 225
tribute payments Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 323
usurpation, usurpers Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 142
victory, victories, and judass kinglike status Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 152
victory, victories, and kings, kingship Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 137, 139, 140
victory, victories, consequence of temple foundation Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 91, 139
victory, victories, cosmic, of deities Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 137
victory, victories, entitling v. and temple foundation Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 137, 139, 140, 141, 151
victory, victories, judass v. Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 91, 139
victory, victories, sign of divine approval Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 137, 141
victory, victories Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 127, 137, 139, 140, 141, 142, 152
war, warfare, judass w. and antiochos vs time unit Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71
war, warfare, legitimate Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
war, warfare, pious Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139, 140, 141, 142, 151
war, warfare, war versus peace (ideological aspects) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 127
war, warfare Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 139
warriors, pious Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 140, 141, 142, 144, 151, 152
warriors Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 152