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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



661
Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 8


nanBut Judas, who was also called Maccabeus, and his companions secretly entered the villages and summoned their kinsmen and enlisted those who had continued in the Jewish faith, and so they gathered about six thousand men.',They besought the Lord to look upon the people who were oppressed by all, and to have pity on the temple which had been profaned by ungodly men,',and to have mercy on the city which was being destroyed and about to be leveled to the ground, and to hearken to the blood that cried out to him,',and to remember also the lawless destruction of the innocent babies and the blasphemies committed against his name, and to show his hatred of evil.',As soon as Maccabeus got his army organized, the Gentiles could not withstand him, for the wrath of the Lord had turned to mercy.',Coming without warning, he would set fire to towns and villages. He captured strategic positions and put to flight not a few of the enemy.', He found the nights most advantageous for such attacks. And talk of his valor spread everywhere.",When Philip saw that the man was gaining ground little by little, and that he was pushing ahead with more frequent successes, he wrote to Ptolemy, the governor of Coelesyria and Phoenicia, for aid to the king's government.',And Ptolemy promptly appointed Nicanor the son of Patroclus, one of the king's chief friends, and sent him, in command of no fewer than twenty thousand Gentiles of all nations, to wipe out the whole race of Judea. He associated with him Gorgias, a general and a man of experience in military service.',Nicanor determined to make up for the king the tribute due to the Romans, two thousand talents, by selling the captured Jews into slavery.',And he immediately sent to the cities on the seacoast, inviting them to buy Jewish slaves and promising to hand over ninety slaves for a talent, not expecting the judgment from the Almighty that was about to overtake him.',Word came to Judas concerning Nicanor's invasion; and when he told his companions of the arrival of the army,', those who were cowardly and distrustful of God's justice ran off and got away.",Others sold all their remaining property, and at the same time besought the Lord to rescue those who had been sold by the ungodly Nicanor before he ever met them,',if not for their own sake, yet for the sake of the covenants made with their fathers, and because he had called them by his holy and glorious name.',But Maccabeus gathered his men together, to the number six thousand, and exhorted them not to be frightened by the enemy and not to fear the great multitude of Gentiles who were wickedly coming against them, but to fight nobly,',keeping before their eyes the lawless outrage which the Gentiles had committed against the holy place, and the torture of the derided city, and besides, the overthrow of their ancestral way of life.',For they trust to arms and acts of daring,'he said, 'but we trust in the Almighty God, who is able with a single nod to strike down those who are coming against us and even the whole world.',Moreover, he told them of the times when help came to their ancestors; both the time of Sennacherib, when one hundred and eighty-five thousand perished,',and the time of the battle with the Galatians that took place in Babylonia, when eight thousand in all went into the affair, with four thousand Macedonians; and when the Macedonians were hard pressed, the eight thousand, by the help that came to them from heaven, destroyed one hundred and twenty thousand and took much booty.',With these words he filled them with good courage and made them ready to die for their laws and their country; then he divided his army into four parts.",He appointed his brothers also, Simon and Joseph and Jonathan, each to command a division, putting fifteen hundred men under each.',Besides, he appointed Eleazar to read aloud from the holy book, and gave the watchword, 'God's help'; then, leading the first division himself, he joined battle with Nicanor.',With the Almighty as their ally, they slew more than nine thousand of the enemy, and wounded and disabled most of Nicanor's army, and forced them all to flee.',They captured the money of those who had come to buy them as slaves. After pursuing them for some distance, they were obliged to return because the hour was late.',For it was the day before the sabbath, and for that reason they did not continue their pursuit.',And when they had collected the arms of the enemy and stripped them of their spoils, they kept the sabbath, giving great praise and thanks to the Lord, who had preserved them for that day and allotted it to them as the beginning of mercy.',After the sabbath they gave some of the spoils to those who had been tortured and to the widows and orphans, and distributed the rest among themselves and their children.',When they had done this, they made common supplication and besought the merciful Lord to be wholly reconciled with his servants.',In encounters with the forces of Timothy and Bacchides they killed more than twenty thousand of them and got possession of some exceedingly high strongholds, and they divided very much plunder, giving to those who had been tortured and to the orphans and widows, and also to the aged, shares equal to their own.',Collecting the arms of the enemy, they stored them all carefully in strategic places, and carried the rest of the spoils to Jerusalem.',They killed the commander of Timothy's forces, a most unholy man, and one who had greatly troubled the Jews.',While they were celebrating the victory in the city of their fathers, they burned those who had set fire to the sacred gates, Callisthenes and some others, who had fled into one little house; so these received the proper recompense for their impiety.',The thrice-accursed Nicanor, who had brought the thousand merchants to buy the Jews,',having been humbled with the help of the Lord by opponents whom he regarded as of the least account, took off his splendid uniform and made his way alone like a runaway slave across the country till he reached Antioch, having succeeded chiefly in the destruction of his own army!',Thus he who had undertaken to secure tribute for the Romans by the capture of the people of Jerusalem proclaimed that the Jews had a Defender, and that therefore the Jews were invulnerable, because they followed the laws ordained by him.'


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

25 results
1. Septuagint, 2 Esdras, 6.16-6.17 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.5, 32.20, 32.25, 32.36 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.5. וְיָדַעְתָּ עִם־לְבָבֶךָ כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר יְיַסֵּר אִישׁ אֶת־בְּנוֹ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מְיַסְּרֶךָּ׃ 32.25. מִחוּץ תְּשַׁכֶּל־חֶרֶב וּמֵחֲדָרִים אֵימָה גַּם־בָּחוּר גַּם־בְּתוּלָה יוֹנֵק עִם־אִישׁ שֵׂיבָה׃ 32.36. כִּי־יָדִין יְהוָה עַמּוֹ וְעַל־עֲבָדָיו יִתְנֶחָם כִּי יִרְאֶה כִּי־אָזְלַת יָד וְאֶפֶס עָצוּר וְעָזוּב׃ 8.5. And thou shalt consider in thy heart, that, as a man chasteneth his son, so the LORD thy God chasteneth thee." 32.20. And He said: ‘I will hide My face from them, I will see what their end shall be; For they are a very froward generation, Children in whom is no faithfulness." 32.25. Without shall the sword bereave, And in the chambers terror; Slaying both young man and virgin, The suckling with the man of gray hairs." 32.36. For the LORD will judge His people, And repent Himself for His servants; When He seeth that their stay is gone, And there is none remaining, shut up or left at large."
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 9.26-9.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

9.26. עַל־כֵּן קָרְאוּ לַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה פוּרִים עַל־שֵׁם הַפּוּר עַל־כֵּן עַל־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הָאִגֶּרֶת הַזֹּאת וּמָה־רָאוּ עַל־כָּכָה וּמָה הִגִּיעַ אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 9.27. קִיְּמוּ וקבל [וְקִבְּלוּ] הַיְּהוּדִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְעַל־זַרְעָם וְעַל כָּל־הַנִּלְוִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר לִהְיוֹת עֹשִׂים אֵת שְׁנֵי הַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּכְתָבָם וְכִזְמַנָּם בְּכָל־שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה׃ 9.28. וְהַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה נִזְכָּרִים וְנַעֲשִׂים בְּכָל־דּוֹר וָדוֹר מִשְׁפָּחָה וּמִשְׁפָּחָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְעִיר וָעִיר וִימֵי הַפּוּרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֹא יַעַבְרוּ מִתּוֹךְ הַיְּהוּדִים וְזִכְרָם לֹא־יָסוּף מִזַּרְעָם׃ 9.29. וַתִּכְתֹּב אֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה בַת־אֲבִיחַיִל וּמָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי אֶת־כָּל־תֹּקֶף לְקַיֵּם אֵת אִגֶּרֶת הַפּוּרִים הַזֹּאת הַשֵּׁנִית׃ 9.31. לְקַיֵּם אֵת־יְמֵי הַפֻּרִים הָאֵלֶּה בִּזְמַנֵּיהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר קִיַּם עֲלֵיהֶם מָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי וְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה וְכַאֲשֶׁר קִיְּמוּ עַל־נַפְשָׁם וְעַל־זַרְעָם דִּבְרֵי הַצֹּמוֹת וְזַעֲקָתָם׃ 9.32. וּמַאֲמַר אֶסְתֵּר קִיַּם דִּבְרֵי הַפֻּרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְנִכְתָּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 9.26. Wherefore they called these days Purim, after the name of pur. Therefore because of all the words of this letter, and of that which they had seen concerning this matter, and that which had come unto them," 9.27. the Jews ordained, and took upon them, and upon their seed, and upon all such as joined themselves unto them, so as it should not fail, that they would keep these two days according to the writing thereof, and according to the appointed time thereof, every year;" 9.28. and that these days should be remembered and kept throughout every generation, every family, every province, and every city; and that these days of Purim should not fail from among the Jews, nor the memorial of them perish from their seed." 9.29. Then Esther the queen, the daughter of Abihail, and Mordecai the Jew, wrote down all the acts of power, to confirm this second letter of Purim." 9.30. And he sent letters unto all the Jews, to the hundred twenty and seven provinces of the kingdom of Ahasuerus, with words of peace and truth," 9.31. to confirm these days of Purim in their appointed times, according as Mordecai the Jew and Esther the queen had enjoined them, and as they had ordained for themselves and for their seed, the matters of the fastings and their cry." 9.32. And the commandment of Esther confirmed these matters of Purim; and it was written in the book."
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 22.2, 31.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.2. אֵלִי אֵלִי לָמָה עֲזַבְתָּנִי רָחוֹק מִישׁוּעָתִי דִּבְרֵי שַׁאֲגָתִי׃ 22.2. וְאַתָּה יְהוָה אַל־תִּרְחָק אֱיָלוּתִי לְעֶזְרָתִי חוּשָׁה׃ 31.6. בְּיָדְךָ אַפְקִיד רוּחִי פָּדִיתָה אוֹתִי יְהוָה אֵל אֱמֶת׃ 22.2. My God, my God, why hast Thou forsaken me, and art far from my help at the words of my cry?" 31.6. Into Thy hand I commit my spirit; Thou hast redeemed me, O LORD, Thou God of truth."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 54.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

54.7. בְּרֶגַע קָטֹן עֲזַבְתִּיךְ וּבְרַחֲמִים גְּדֹלִים אֲקַבְּצֵךְ׃ 54.7. For a small moment have I forsaken thee; But with great compassion will I gather thee."
6. Plato, Euthyphro, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

3b. Socrates. Absurd things, my friend, at first hearing. For he says I am a maker of gods; and because I make new gods and do not believe in the old ones, he indicted me for the sake of these old ones, as he says. Euthyphro. I understand, Socrates; it is because you say the divine monitor keeps coming to you. So he has brought the indictment against you for making innovations in religion, and he is going into court to slander you, knowing that slanders on such subjects are readily accepted by the people. Why, they even laugh at me and say I am crazy
7. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 16.13, 17.1-17.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 4.7-4.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 3.2, 7.25, 8.14, 12.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.2. וּנְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא שְׁלַח לְמִכְנַשׁ לַאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנַיָּא סִגְנַיָּא וּפַחֲוָתָא אֲדַרְגָּזְרַיָּא גְדָבְרַיָּא דְּתָבְרַיָּא תִּפְתָּיֵא וְכֹל שִׁלְטֹנֵי מְדִינָתָא לְמֵתֵא לַחֲנֻכַּת צַלְמָא דִּי הֲקֵים נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מַלְכָּא׃ 3.2. וּלְגֻבְרִין גִּבָּרֵי־חַיִל דִּי בְחַיְלֵהּ אֲמַר לְכַפָּתָה לְשַׁדְרַךְ מֵישַׁךְ וַעֲבֵד נְגוֹ לְמִרְמֵא לְאַתּוּן נוּרָא יָקִדְתָּא׃ 7.25. וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃ 8.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי עַד עֶרֶב בֹּקֶר אַלְפַּיִם וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וְנִצְדַּק קֹדֶשׁ׃ 12.7. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־הָאִישׁ לְבוּשׁ הַבַּדִּים אֲשֶׁר מִמַּעַל לְמֵימֵי הַיְאֹר וַיָּרֶם יְמִינוֹ וּשְׂמֹאלוֹ אֶל־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיִּשָּׁבַע בְּחֵי הָעוֹלָם כִּי לְמוֹעֵד מוֹעֲדִים וָחֵצִי וּכְכַלּוֹת נַפֵּץ יַד־עַם־קֹדֶשׁ תִּכְלֶינָה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃ 3.2. Then Nebuchadnezzar the king sent to gather together the satraps, the prefects, and the governors, the judges, the treasurers, the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the provinces, to come to the dedication of the image which Nebuchadnezzar the king had set up." 7.25. And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time." 8.14. And he said unto me: ‘Unto two thousand and three hundred evenings and mornings; then shall the sanctuary be victorious.’" 12.7. And I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he lifted up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and swore by Him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when they have made an end of breaking in pieces the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished."
10. Polybius, Histories, 31.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

31.9. 1.  In Syria King Antiochus, wishing to provide himself with money, decided to make an expedition against the sanctuary of Artemis in Elymaïs.,2.  On reaching the spot he was foiled in his hopes, as the barbarian tribes who dwelt in the neighbourhood would not permit the outrage,,3.  and on his retreat he died at Tabae in Persia, smitten with madness, as some people say,,4.  owing to certain manifestations of divine displeasure when he was attempting this outrage on the above sanctuary. IV. Affairs of Italy The Rival Ptolemie
11. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.21-1.24, 1.54, 1.61, 4.1, 4.5, 4.18, 4.26, 4.28-4.35, 4.52, 4.61, 6.1-6.16, 6.18-6.63, 7.8-7.10, 13.42, 13.51 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.21. He arrogantly entered the sanctuary and took the golden altar, the lampstand for the light, and all its utensils. 1.22. He took also the table for the bread of the Presence, the cups for drink offerings, the bowls, the golden censers, the curtain, the crowns, and the gold decoration on the front of the temple; he stripped it all off. 1.23. He took the silver and the gold, and the costly vessels; he took also the hidden treasures which he found. 1.24. Taking them all, he departed to his own land. He committed deeds of murder,and spoke with great arrogance. 1.54. Now on the fifteenth day of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-fifth year, they erected a desolating sacrilege upon the altar of burnt offering. They also built altars in the surrounding cities of Judah 1.61. and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers necks. 4.1. Now Gorgias took five thousand infantry and a thousand picked cavalry, and this division moved out by night 4.5. When Gorgias entered the camp of Judas by night, he found no one there, so he looked for them in the hills, because he said, "These men are fleeing from us. 4.18. Gorgias and his force are near us in the hills. But stand now against our enemies and fight them, and afterward seize the plunder boldly. 4.26. Those of the foreigners who escaped went and reported to Lysias all that had happened. 4.28. But the next year he mustered sixty thousand picked infantrymen and five thousand cavalry to subdue them. 4.29. They came into Idumea and encamped at Beth-zur, and Judas met them with ten thousand men. 4.30. When he saw that the army was strong, he prayed, saying, "Blessed art thou, O Savior of Israel, who didst crush the attack of the mighty warrior by the hand of thy servant David, and didst give the camp of the Philistines into the hands of Jonathan, the son of Saul, and of the man who carried his armor. 4.31. So do thou hem in this army by the hand of thy people Israel, and let them be ashamed of their troops and their cavalry. 4.32. Fill them with cowardice; melt the boldness of their strength; let them tremble in their destruction. 4.33. Strike them down with the sword of those who love thee, and let all who know thy name praise thee with hymns. 4.34. Then both sides attacked, and there fell of the army of Lysias five thousand men; they fell in action. 4.35. And when Lysias saw the rout of his troops and observed the boldness which inspired those of Judas, and how ready they were either to live or to die nobly, he departed to Antioch and enlisted mercenaries, to invade Judea again with an even larger army. 4.52. Early in the morning on the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month, which is the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-eighth year 4.61. And he stationed a garrison there to hold it. He also fortified Beth-zur, so that the people might have a stronghold that faced Idumea. 6.1. King Antiochus was going through the upper provinces when he heard that Elymais in Persia was a city famed for its wealth in silver and gold. 6.2. Its temple was very rich, containing golden shields, breastplates, and weapons left there by Alexander, the son of Philip, the Macedonian king who first reigned over the Greeks. 6.3. So he came and tried to take the city and plunder it, but he could not, because his plan became known to the men of the city 6.4. and they withstood him in battle. So he fled and in great grief departed from there to return to Babylon. 6.5. Then some one came to him in Persia and reported that the armies which had gone into the land of Judah had been routed; 6.6. that Lysias had gone first with a strong force, but had turned and fled before the Jews; that the Jews had grown strong from the arms, supplies, and abundant spoils which they had taken from the armies they had cut down; 6.7. that they had torn down the abomination which he had erected upon the altar in Jerusalem; and that they had surrounded the sanctuary with high walls as before, and also Beth-zur, his city. 6.8. When the king heard this news, he was astounded and badly shaken. He took to his bed and became sick from grief, because things had not turned out for him as he had planned. 6.9. He lay there for many days, because deep grief continually gripped him, and he concluded that he was dying. 6.10. So he called all his friends and said to them, "Sleep departs from my eyes and I am downhearted with worry. 6.11. I said to myself, `To what distress I have come! And into what a great flood I now am plunged! For I was kind and beloved in my power. 6.12. But now I remember the evils I did in Jerusalem. I seized all her vessels of silver and gold; and I sent to destroy the inhabitants of Judah without good reason. 6.13. I know that it is because of this that these evils have come upon me; and behold, I am perishing of deep grief in a strange land. 6.14. Then he called for Philip, one of his friends, and made him ruler over all his kingdom. 6.15. He gave him the crown and his robe and the signet, that he might guide Antiochus his son and bring him up to be king. 6.16. Thus Antiochus the king died there in the one hundred and forty-ninth year. 6.18. Now the men in the citadel kept hemming Israel in around the sanctuary. They were trying in every way to harm them and strengthen the Gentiles. 6.19. So Judas decided to destroy them, and assembled all the people to besiege them. 6.20. They gathered together and besieged the citadel in the one hundred and fiftieth year; and he built siege towers and other engines of war. 6.21. But some of the garrison escaped from the siege and some of the ungodly Israelites joined them. 6.22. They went to the king and said, "How long will you fail to do justice and to avenge our brethren? 6.23. We were happy to serve your father, to live by what he said and to follow his commands. 6.24. For this reason the sons of our people besieged the citadel and became hostile to us; moreover, they have put to death as many of us as they have caught, and they have seized our inheritances. 6.25. And not against us alone have they stretched out their hands, but also against all the lands on their borders. 6.26. And behold, today they have encamped against the citadel in Jerusalem to take it; they have fortified both the sanctuary and Beth-zur; 6.27. and unless you quickly prevent them, they will do still greater things, and you will not be able to stop them. 6.28. The king was enraged when he heard this. He assembled all his friends, the commanders of his forces and those in authority. 6.29. And mercenary forces came to him from other kingdoms and from islands of the seas. 6.30. The number of his forces was a hundred thousand foot soldiers, twenty thousand horsemen, and thirty-two elephants accustomed to war. 6.31. They came through Idumea and encamped against Beth-zur, and for many days they fought and built engines of war; but the Jews sallied out and burned these with fire, and fought manfully. 6.32. Then Judas marched away from the citadel and encamped at Beth-zechariah, opposite the camp of the king. 6.33. Early in the morning the king rose and took his army by a forced march along the road to Beth-zechariah, and his troops made ready for battle and sounded their trumpets. 6.34. They showed the elephants the juice of grapes and mulberries, to arouse them for battle. 6.35. And they distributed the beasts among the phalanxes; with each elephant they stationed a thousand men armed with coats of mail, and with brass helmets on their heads; and five hundred picked horsemen were assigned to each beast. 6.36. These took their position beforehand wherever the beast was; wherever it went they went with it, and they never left it. 6.37. And upon the elephants were wooden towers, strong and covered; they were fastened upon each beast by special harness, and upon each were four armed men who fought from there, and also its Indian driver. 6.38. The rest of the horsemen were stationed on either side, on the two flanks of the army, to harass the enemy while being themselves protected by the phalanxes. 6.39. When the sun shone upon the shields of gold and brass, the hills were ablaze with them and gleamed like flaming torches. 6.40. Now a part of the kings army was spread out on the high hills, and some troops were on the plain, and they advanced steadily and in good order. 6.41. All who heard the noise made by their multitude, by the marching of the multitude and the clanking of their arms, trembled, for the army was very large and strong. 6.42. But Judas and his army advanced to the battle, and six hundred men of the kings army fell. 6.43. And Eleazar, called Avaran, saw that one of the beasts was equipped with royal armor. It was taller than all the others, and he supposed that the king was upon it. 6.44. So he gave his life to save his people and to win for himself an everlasting name. 6.45. He courageously ran into the midst of the phalanx to reach it; he killed men right and left, and they parted before him on both sides. 6.46. He got under the elephant, stabbed it from beneath, and killed it; but it fell to the ground upon him and he died. 6.47. And when the Jews saw the royal might and the fierce attack of the forces, they turned away in flight. 6.48. The soldiers of the kings army went up to Jerusalem against them, and the king encamped in Judea and at Mount Zion. 6.49. He made peace with the men of Beth-zur, and they evacuated the city, because they had no provisions there to withstand a siege, since it was a sabbatical year for the land. 6.50. So the king took Beth-zur and stationed a guard there to hold it. 6.51. Then he encamped before the sanctuary for many days. He set up siege towers, engines of war to throw fire and stones, machines to shoot arrows, and catapults. 6.52. The Jews also made engines of war to match theirs, and fought for many days. 6.53. But they had no food in storage, because it was the seventh year; those who found safety in Judea from the Gentiles had consumed the last of the stores. 6.54. Few men were left in the sanctuary, because famine had prevailed over the rest and they had been scattered, each to his own place. 6.55. Then Lysias heard that Philip, whom King Antiochus while still living had appointed to bring up Antiochus his son to be king 6.56. had returned from Persia and Media with the forces that had gone with the king, and that he was trying to seize control of the government. 6.57. So he quickly gave orders to depart, and said to the king, to the commanders of the forces, and to the men, "We daily grow weaker, our food supply is scant, the place against which we are fighting is strong, and the affairs of the kingdom press urgently upon us. 6.58. Now then let us come to terms with these men, and make peace with them and with all their nation 6.59. and agree to let them live by their laws as they did before; for it was on account of their laws which we abolished that they became angry and did all these things. 6.60. The speech pleased the king and the commanders, and he sent to the Jews an offer of peace, and they accepted it. 6.61. So the king and the commanders gave them their oath. On these conditions the Jews evacuated the stronghold. 6.62. But when the king entered Mount Zion and saw what a strong fortress the place was, he broke the oath he had sworn and gave orders to tear down the wall all around. 6.63. Then he departed with haste and returned to Antioch. He found Philip in control of the city, but he fought against him, and took the city by force. 7.8. So the king chose Bacchides, one of the kings friends, governor of the province Beyond the River; he was a great man in the kingdom and was faithful to the king. 7.9. And he sent him, and with him the ungodly Alcimus, whom he made high priest; and he commanded him to take vengeance on the sons of Israel. 7.10. So they marched away and came with a large force into the land of Judah; and he sent messengers to Judas and his brothers with peaceable but treacherous words. 13.42. and the people began to write in their documents and contracts, "In the first year of Simon the great high priest and commander and leader of the Jews. 13.51. On the twenty-third day of the second month, in the one hundred and seventy-first year, the Jews entered it with praise and palm branches, and with harps and cymbals and stringed instruments, and with hymns and songs, because a great enemy had been crushed and removed from Israel.
12. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.13, 1.14, 1.16, 1.18, 1.31, 1.32, 2, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 2.24, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 2.30, 2.31, 2.32, 3, 3.2, 3.3, 3.19, 3.22, 3.23, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.26, 5, 5.7, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.27, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.18-7.42, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.30, 6.31, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.6, 7.8, 7.13, 7.15, 7.21, 7.24, 7.27, 7.30, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.36, 7.37, 7.42, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 9, 9.8, 9.10, 10, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.19, 10.21, 10.22, 10.25, 10.26, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.33, 10.34, 10.35, 10.38, 11, 12, 12.1, 12.38, 13, 14, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.16, 14.17, 14.18, 14.19, 14.20, 14.21, 14.22, 14.23, 14.24, 14.25, 14.33, 14.34, 14.36, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.5, 15.6, 15.8, 15.25, 15.26, 15.30, 15.32, 15.34, 15.36, 16, 17, 18, 19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.13. For when the leader reached Persia with a force that seemed irresistible, they were cut to pieces in the temple of Nanea by a deception employed by the priests of Nanea.'
13. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 4-5, 3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 6.29, 17.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.29. Make my blood their purification, and take my life in exchange for theirs. 17.21. the tyrant was punished, and the homeland purified -- they having become, as it were, a ransom for the sin of our nation.
15. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.215 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.215. For there are, as it seems, two temples belonging to God; one being this world, in which the high priest is the divine word, his own firstborn son. The other is the rational soul, the priest of which is the real true man, the copy of whom, perceptible to the senses, is he who performs his paternal vows and sacrifices, to whom it is enjoined to put on the aforesaid tunic, the representation of the universal heaven, in order that the world may join with the man in offering sacrifice, and that the man may likewise co-operate with the universe.
17. Strabo, Geography, 16.1.18 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.1.18. The Cossaei, like the neighbouring mountaineers, are for the most part archers, and are always out on foraging parties. For as they occupy a country of small extent, and barren, they are compelled by necessity to live at the expense of others. They are also necessarily powerful, for they are all fighting men. When the Elymaei were at war with the Babylonians and Susians, they supplied the Elymaei with thirteen thousand auxiliaries.The Paraetaceni attend to the cultivation of the ground more than the Cossaei, but even these people do not abstain from robbery.The Elymaei occupy a country larger in extent, and more varied, than that of the Paraetaceni. The fertile part of it is inhabited by husbandmen. The mountainous tract is a nursery for soldiers, the greatest part of whom are archers. As it is of considerable extent, it can furnish a great military force; their king, who possesses great power, refuses to be subject, like others, to the king of Parthia. The country was similarly independent in the time of the Persians, and afterwards in the time of the Macedonians, who governed Syria. When Antiochus the Great attempted to plunder the temple of Belus, the neighbouring barbarians, unassisted, attacked and put him to death. In after-times the king of Parthia heard that the temples in their country contained great wealth, but knowing that the people would not submit, and admonished by the fate of Antiochus, he invaded their country with a large army; he took the temple of Minerva, and that of Diana, called Azara, and carried away treasure to the amount of 10,000 talents. Seleuceia also, a large city on the river Hedyphon, was taken. It was formerly called Soloce.There are three convenient entrances into this country; one from Media and the places about the Zagrus, through Massabatice; a second from Susis, through the district Gabiane. Both Gabiane and Massabatice are provinces of Elymaea. A third passage is that from Persis. Corbiane also is a province of Elymais.Sagapeni and Silaceni, small principalities, border upon Elymais.Such, then, is the number and the character of the nations situated above Babylonia towards the east.We have said that Media and Armenia lie to the north, and Adiabene and Mesopotamia to the west of Babylonia.
18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.354-13.356 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.354. But Aias’s counsel was contrary to theirs, who said that “she would do an unjust action if she deprived a man that was her ally of that authority which belonged to him, and this a man who is related to us; for,” said he, “I would not have thee ignorant of this, that what injustice thou dost to him will make all us that are Jews to be thy enemies.” 13.355. This desire of Aias Cleopatra complied with, and did no injury to Alexander, but made a league of mutual assistance with him at Scythopolis, a city of Celesyria. 13.356. 3. So when Alexander was delivered from the fear he was in of Ptolemy, he presently made an expedition against Celesyria. He also took Gadara, after a siege of ten months. He took also Amathus, a very strong fortress belonging to the inhabitants above Jordan, where Theodorus, the son of Zeno, had his chief treasure, and what he esteemed most precious. This Zeno fell unexpectedly upon the Jews, and slew ten thousand of them, and seized upon Alexander’s baggage.
19. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.32. 7. Hereupon Herod was very angry at him, and was going to fight against Macheras as his enemy; but he restrained his indignation, and marched to Antony to accuse Macheras of mal-administration. But Macheras was made sensible of his offenses, and followed after the king immediately, and earnestly begged and obtained that he would be reconciled to him. 1.32. who fled to Antiochus, and besought him to make use of them for his leaders, and to make an expedition into Judea. The king being thereto disposed beforehand, complied with them, and came upon the Jews with a great army, and took their city by force, and slew a great multitude of those that favored Ptolemy, and sent out his soldiers to plunder them without mercy. He also spoiled the temple, and put a stop to the constant practice of offering a daily sacrifice of expiation for three years and six months.
20. New Testament, Acts, 2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.24. whom God raised up, having freed him from the agony of death, because it was not possible that he should be held by it.
21. New Testament, Romans, 12.1-12.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.1. Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service. 12.2. Don't be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what is the good and acceptable and perfect will of God.
22. New Testament, John, 2.19-2.22, 10.36, 19.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.19. Jesus answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. 2.20. The Jews therefore said, "Forty-six years was this temple in building, and will you raise it up in three days? 2.21. But he spoke of the temple of his body. 2.22. When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he said this, and they believed the Scripture, and the word which Jesus had said. 10.36. Do you say of him whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, 'You blaspheme,' because I said, 'I am the Son of God?' 19.5. Jesus therefore came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple garment. Pilate said to them, "Behold, the man!
23. New Testament, Luke, 22.18, 23.43, 23.46, 24.26, 24.46-24.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

22.18. for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes. 23.43. Jesus said to him, "Assuredly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise. 23.46. Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!" Having said this, he breathed his last. 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem.
24. New Testament, Mark, 14.25, 15.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

14.25. Most assuredly I tell you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it anew in the Kingdom of God. 15.34. At the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" which is, being interpreted, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?
25. New Testament, Matthew, 26.28-26.29, 27.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. 26.29. But I tell you that I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom. 27.46. About the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" That is, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
1 maccabees, contrasting order of events Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 394
akra Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 394
anaїtis (ekbatana) Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
ancestral language Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19
antioch Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19, 300, 394
antiochus iii Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
antiochus iv Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
antiochus iv epiphanes, death of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 372, 394
antiochus iv epiphanes Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 300
apollo pleurenus Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
apollonius, son of thraseas Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 219
ascension Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199, 200
athena ilias Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
attalus ii Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
author, of 2 maccabees, preface Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 16
author, of 2 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 17
avengement/vengeance/vindication/wrath (gods) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198
axioma Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
becoming like god Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
bel at elam Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
benefactions, royal Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
beth-zur, accounts Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 394
beth-zur, battle of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 354, 394
beth zechariah Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 394
blasphemy Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199
chora, basilike Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
christian, early christian, anti-christian, christianity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198, 199
correspondence, royal, in 2 macc. Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 394
covenant, covenantal Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198, 199, 200
cross Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 200
crucifixion, jesus death Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198, 199, 200
daniel, book of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 372
deuteronomy 32 Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 22
dionysus, dionysiac cult Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 18
donation of land Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
editors, jerusalemite Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 9
enemies, enmity Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198
epiphany Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 219
epitomator, see also author Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 17, 25
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198
eumenes ii Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
evil Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199
faith, faithfulness Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 200
feast of renovation Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
festival of dionysus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
festivals Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 96; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
first-person singular Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19
gazophylakion Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 219
gentiles, gentile, nations Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199
glory, glorification Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199
god, as father Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
god, hiding his face Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 22
good thief Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 200
gorgias Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 372
hanukkah, holiday of, secondary interest Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 9
hanukkah Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
hanukkah narrative, connection to opening letters Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 372
hanukkah narrative, distinctiveness Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 9, 372
hanukkah narrative, historicity Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 372
hatred (of enemies, outsiders) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199
hebrews' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 495
heliodorus Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 219
hellenism / hellenistic world Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
hope Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 200
idumaeans Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 372
ilium Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
israel, the people of, redemption/restoration of, the kingdom of, israelite Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198, 199
israel Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 96
jason of cyrene Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 16
jerusalem, as subject of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 495
jerusalem Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 96; Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229; Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 300
jesus, suffering Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 200
jesus christ, body of Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
jesus christ, charges against Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
jews Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
judaism Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
judas maccabaeus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 372, 495
judea Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 96
last supper Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198, 200
laws, jewish, ancestral Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19
letters Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 372
logos Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
lysias Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 354, 394
maccabean, maccabees Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198, 199, 200
maccabean revolt Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
maccabees Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
martyrdom Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 17, 300
martyrologies, as secondary source Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19, 22, 25, 300, 372
martyrologies, historicity of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 300
martyrologies Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 495
martyrs, martyrdom, sanctification of the name Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198, 199, 200
martyrs beneficiary death Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198, 199
mercy Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199
military Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 96
moses Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19
mother and her seven sons Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 300
motifs (thematic), games with epiphanes Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 25
motifs (thematic), tit for tat Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 25
mount gerizim (argarizin) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 18
mên axiottenos Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
nicanor, thrice-accursed Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 9, 495
nicanor Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 17, 18, 394, 495
onias iii Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 219; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 18
orphans Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 219
paradise Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 200
passion narrative Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 200
pathetic historiography Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 18
patron deities Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
persecution, rejection, death vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198, 199
persian goddess at hieracome Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
philo of alexandria Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
power Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 96
prayer Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 372
prophets, gods messengers Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198
prusias ii Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
punishment Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198
razis, turning point Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 495
razis Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 17
rebellion (rebel) Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 96
redemption, salvation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199
reimarus, samuel Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 200
resurrection Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198, 199, 200
sabbath, exploitation of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 18
sacrifices, suspension of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 372
seleucus iv Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 219
senator Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
servants, jews as gods Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 22
siege Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 96
simon Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 219
sins, transgressions, sinners, forgiveness of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198, 199
socrates, charges against Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
soul Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
sources of 2 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 25
stoa of solomon Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
stoa of the king (athens) Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
style, linguistic and literary, staccato Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 18
suffering Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199
synoptic gospels, tradition, pre-synoptic v-vi Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 198
synoptic gospels Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
temple, sacrificial cult (in jerusalem), destruction Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199
temple, sacrificial cult (in jerusalem) Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 199
temple Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 96
temple (second), cult of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 18, 372
temple (second), purification and rededication of, see also hanukkah narrative Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 394
temple (second) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 18, 372
temples, jerusalem Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
temples Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229
threat of violence Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 96
timothy Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 372
truth Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 200
violation of sacred property Dignas, Economy of the Sacred in Hellenistic and Roman Asia Minor (2002) 43
widow Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 219
wine Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 495
xanthicus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 394
zeus Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 229