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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



661
Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.5-7.6


nanWhen he was utterly helpless, the king ordered them to take him to the fire, still breathing, and to fry him in a pan. The smoke from the pan spread widely, but the brothers and their mother encouraged one another to die nobly, saying,'


nanThe Lord God is watching over us and in truth has compassion on us, as Moses declared in his song which bore witness against the people to their faces, when he said, `And he will have compassion on his servants.''


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.10-1.11 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.9. וַתִּיטַב הַנַּעֲרָה בְעֵינָיו וַתִּשָּׂא חֶסֶד לְפָנָיו וַיְבַהֵל אֶת־תַּמְרוּקֶיהָ וְאֶת־מָנוֹתֶהָ לָתֵת לָהּ וְאֵת שֶׁבַע הַנְּעָרוֹת הָרְאֻיוֹת לָתֶת־לָהּ מִבֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיְשַׁנֶּהָ וְאֶת־נַעֲרוֹתֶיהָ לְטוֹב בֵּית הַנָּשִׁים׃ 2.9. And the maiden pleased him, and she obtained kindness of him; and he speedily gave her her ointments, with her portions, and the seven maidens, who were meet to be given her out of the king’s house; and he advanced her and her maidens to the best place in the house of the women."
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 37.34, 43.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

37.34. וַיִּקְרַע יַעֲקֹב שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם שַׂק בְּמָתְנָיו וַיִּתְאַבֵּל עַל־בְּנוֹ יָמִים רַבִּים׃ 43.32. וַיָּשִׂימוּ לוֹ לְבַדּוֹ וְלָהֶם לְבַדָּם וְלַמִּצְרִים הָאֹכְלִים אִתּוֹ לְבַדָּם כִּי לֹא יוּכְלוּן הַמִּצְרִים לֶאֱכֹל אֶת־הָעִבְרִים לֶחֶם כִּי־תוֹעֵבָה הִוא לְמִצְרָיִם׃ 37.34. And Jacob rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days." 43.32. And they set on for him by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the Egyptians, that did eat with him, by themselves; because the Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews; for that is an abomination unto the Egyptians."
4. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 3.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.6. וַיִּגַּע הַדָּבָר אֶל־מֶלֶך נִינְוֵה וַיָּקָם מִכִּסְאוֹ וַיַּעֲבֵר אַדַּרְתּוֹ מֵעָלָיו וַיְכַס שַׂק וַיֵּשֶׁב עַל־הָאֵפֶר׃ 3.6. And the tidings reached the king of Nineveh, and he arose from his throne, and laid his robe from him, and covered him with sackcloth, and sat in ashes."
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 14.11, 14.13, 15.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

14.11. הוּרַד שְׁאוֹל גְּאוֹנֶךָ הֶמְיַת נְבָלֶיךָ תַּחְתֶּיךָ יֻצַּע רִמָּה וּמְכַסֶּיךָ תּוֹלֵעָה׃ 14.13. וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה מִמַּעַל לְכוֹכְבֵי־אֵל אָרִים כִּסְאִי וְאֵשֵׁב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵד בְּיַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן׃ 15.3. בְּחוּצֹתָיו חָגְרוּ שָׂק עַל גַּגּוֹתֶיהָ וּבִרְחֹבֹתֶיהָ כֻּלֹּה יְיֵלִיל יֹרֵד בַּבֶּכִי׃ 14.11. Thy pomp is brought down to the nether-world, And the noise of thy psalteries; the maggot is spread under thee, And the worms cover thee.’" 14.13. And thou saidst in thy heart: ‘I will ascend into heaven, Above the stars of God Will I exalt my throne, And I will sit upon the mount of meeting, In the uttermost parts of the north;" 15.3. In their streets they gird themselves with sackcloth; On their housetops, and in their broad places, Every one howleth, weeping profusely."
6. Herodotus, Histories, 9.82 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.82. This other story is also told. When Xerxes fled from Hellas, he left to Mardonius his own establishment. Pausanias, seeing Mardonius' establishment with its display of gold and silver and gaily colored tapestry, ordered the bakers and the cooks to prepare a dinner such as they were accustomed to do for Mardonius. ,They did his bidding, but Pausanias, when he saw golden and silver couches richly covered, and tables of gold and silver, and all the magnificent service of the banquet, was amazed at the splendor before him, and for a joke commanded his own servants to prepare a dinner in Laconian fashion. When that meal, so different from the other, was ready, Pausanias burst out laughing and sent for the generals of the Greeks. ,When these had assembled, Pausanias pointed to the manner in which each dinner was served and said: “Men of Hellas, I have brought you here because I desired to show you the foolishness of the leader of the Medes who, with such provisions for life as you see, came here to take away from us our possessions which are so pitiful.” In this way, it is said, Pausanias spoke to the generals of the Greeks.
7. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.10-1.11 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it
8. Anon., 1 Enoch, 45.4, 45.5, 45.6, 48.7, 91.5, 91.6, 91.7, 91.12, 91.13, 93.9, 93.10, 93.11, 99.3, 99.4, 99.5, 100.1, 100.2, 100.3, 100.4, 104.6, 106.19-107.1, 108.1, 108.7, 108.8, 108.9, 108.10, 108.11, 108.12, 108.13, 108.14, 108.15 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

100.1. And in those days in one place the fathers together with their sons shall be smitten And brothers one with another shall fall in death Till the streams flow with their blood. 100.1. And now, know ye that from the angels He will inquire as to your deeds in heaven, from the sun and from the moon and from the stars in reference to your sins because upon the earth ye execute
9. Anon., Jubilees, 22.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

22.16. May nations serve thee, And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed.
10. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 1.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.5-1.16, 12.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.5. וַיְמַן לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ מִפַּת־בַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמִיֵּין מִשְׁתָּיו וּלְגַדְּלָם שָׁנִים שָׁלוֹשׁ וּמִקְצָתָם יַעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.6. וַיְהִי בָהֶם מִבְּנֵי יְהוּדָה דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.7. וַיָּשֶׂם לָהֶם שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים שֵׁמוֹת וַיָּשֶׂם לְדָנִיֵּאל בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וְלַחֲנַנְיָה שַׁדְרַךְ וּלְמִישָׁאֵל מֵישַׁךְ וְלַעֲזַרְיָה עֲבֵד נְגוֹ׃ 1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 1.9. וַיִּתֵּן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־דָּנִיֵּאל לְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל אֶל־הַמֶּלְצַר אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים עַל־דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.12. נַס־נָא אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה וְיִתְּנוּ־לָנוּ מִן־הַזֵּרֹעִים וְנֹאכְלָה וּמַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה׃ 1.13. וְיֵרָאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ מַרְאֵינוּ וּמַרְאֵה הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה עֲשֵׂה עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ׃ 1.14. וַיִּשְׁמַע לָהֶם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְנַסֵּם יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה׃ 1.15. וּמִקְצָת יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה נִרְאָה מַרְאֵיהֶם טוֹב וּבְרִיאֵי בָּשָׂר מִן־כָּל־הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.16. וַיְהִי הַמֶּלְצַר נֹשֵׂא אֶת־פַּתְבָּגָם וְיֵין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם וְנֹתֵן לָהֶם זֵרְעֹנִים׃ 12.4. וְאַתָּה דָנִיֵּאל סְתֹם הַדְּבָרִים וַחֲתֹם הַסֵּפֶר עַד־עֵת קֵץ יְשֹׁטְטוּ רַבִּים וְתִרְבֶּה הַדָּעַת׃ 1.5. And the king appointed for them a daily portion of the king’s food, and of the wine which he drank, and that they should be nourished three years; that at the end thereof they might stand before the king." 1.6. Now among these were, of the children of Judah, Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah." 1.7. And the chief of the officers gave names unto them: unto Daniel he gave the name of Belteshazzar; and to Haiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego." 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself." 1.9. And God granted Daniel mercy and compassion in the sight of the chief of the officers." 1.10. And the chief of the officers said unto Daniel: ‘I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your food and your drink; for why should he see your faces sad in comparison with the youths that are of your own age? so would ye endanger my head with the king.’" 1.11. Then said Daniel to the steward, whom the chief of the officers had appointed over Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah:" 1.12. ’Try thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink." 1.13. Then let our counteces be looked upon before thee, and the countece of the youths that eat of the king’s food; and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.’" 1.14. So he hearkened unto them in this matter, and tried them ten days." 1.15. And at the end of ten days their counteces appeared fairer, and they were fatter in flesh, than all the youths that did eat of the king’s food." 1.16. So the steward took away their food, and the wine that they should drink, and gave them pulse." 12.4. But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end; many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.’"
12. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.62-1.63, 2.29-2.38, 7.1, 14.5, 14.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.62. But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food. 1.63. They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covet; and they did die. 2.29. Then many who were seeking righteousness and justice went down to the wilderness to dwell there 2.30. they, their sons, their wives, and their cattle, because evils pressed heavily upon them. 2.31. And it was reported to the kings officers, and to the troops in Jerusalem the city of David, that men who had rejected the kings command had gone down to the hiding places in the wilderness. 2.32. Many pursued them, and overtook them; they encamped opposite them and prepared for battle against them on the sabbath day. 2.33. And they said to them, "Enough of this! Come out and do what the king commands, and you will live. 2.34. But they said, "We will not come out, nor will we do what the king commands and so profane the sabbath day. 2.35. Then the enemy hastened to attack them. 2.36. But they did not answer them or hurl a stone at them or block up their hiding places 2.37. for they said, "Let us all die in our innocence; heaven and earth testify for us that you are killing us unjustly. 2.38. So they attacked them on the sabbath, and they died, with their wives and children and cattle, to the number of a thousand persons. 7.1. In the one hundred and fifty-first year Demetrius the son of Seleucus set forth from Rome, sailed with a few men to a city by the sea, and there began to reign. 14.5. To crown all his honors he took Joppa for a harbor,and opened a way to the isles of the sea. 14.34. He also fortified Joppa, which is by the sea, and Gazara, which is on the borders of Azotus, where the enemy formerly dwelt. He settled Jews there, and provided in those cities whatever was necessary for their restoration.
13. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.21, 3.1, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 3.30, 3.39, 4.1, 4.7, 4.13, 4.38, 5.5, 5.9, 5.10, 5.12, 5.21, 5.26, 5.27, 6.2, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.18-7.42, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.30, 6.31, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 7.41, 7.42, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.6, 8.7, 8.9, 8.21, 8.23, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 10.17, 10.25, 10.35, 11.4, 11.7, 11.9, 11.11, 12.15, 12.20, 12.22, 12.45, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.10, 13.23, 14.1, 14.18, 14.27, 14.37, 14.38, 14.39, 14.40, 14.41, 14.42, 14.43, 14.44, 14.45, 14.46, 15.1, 15.5, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.17, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 15.33, 15.34, 15.35 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.17. Attacking them vigorously, they gained possession of the places, and beat off all who fought upon the wall, and slew those whom they encountered, killing no fewer than twenty thousand.'
14. Septuagint, Judith, 7.25, 10.5, 16.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

7.25. For now we have no one to help us; God has sold us into their hands, to strew us on the ground before them with thirst and utter destruction. 10.5. And she gave her maid a bottle of wine and a flask of oil, and filled a bag with parched grain and a cake of dried fruit and fine bread; and she wrapped up all her vessels and gave them to her to carry. 16.19. Judith also dedicated to God all the vessels of Holofernes, which the people had given her; and the canopy which she took for herself from his bedchamber she gave as a votive offering to the Lord.
15. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 4.23-4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.23. and after he had plundered them he issued a decree that if any of them should be found observing the ancestral law they should die. 4.24. When, by means of his decrees, he had not been able in any way to put an end to the people's observance of the law, but saw that all his threats and punishments were being disregarded 4.25. even to the point that women, because they had circumcised their sons, were thrown headlong from heights along with their infants, though they had known beforehand that they would suffer this -- 4.26. when, then, his decrees were despised by the people, he himself, through torture, tried to compel everyone in the nation to eat defiling foods and to renounce Judaism.
16. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 3.4-3.7, 6.2-6.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.4. but because they worshiped God and conducted themselves by his law, they kept their separateness with respect to foods. For this reason they appeared hateful to some; 3.5. but since they adorned their style of life with the good deeds of upright people, they were established in good repute among all men. 3.6. Nevertheless those of other races paid no heed to their good service to their nation, which was common talk among all; 3.7. instead they gossiped about the differences in worship and foods, alleging that these people were loyal neither to the king nor to his authorities, but were hostile and greatly opposed to his government. So they attached no ordinary reproach to them. 6.2. King of great power, Almighty God Most High, governing all creation with mercy 6.2. Even the king began to shudder bodily, and he forgot his sullen insolence. 6.3. look upon the descendants of Abraham, O Father, upon the children of the sainted Jacob, a people of your consecrated portion who are perishing as foreigners in a foreign land. 6.3. Then the king, when he had returned to the city, summoned the official in charge of the revenues and ordered him to provide to the Jews both wines and everything else needed for a festival of seven days, deciding that they should celebrate their rescue with all joyfulness in that same place in which they had expected to meet their destruction. 6.4. Pharaoh with his abundance of chariots, the former ruler of this Egypt, exalted with lawless insolence and boastful tongue, you destroyed together with his arrogant army by drowning them in the sea, manifesting the light of your mercy upon the nation of Israel. 6.4. Then they feasted, provided with everything by the king, until the fourteenth day, on which also they made the petition for their dismissal. 6.5. Sennacherib exulting in his countless forces, oppressive king of the Assyrians, who had already gained control of the whole world by the spear and was lifted up against your holy city, speaking grievous words with boasting and insolence, you, O Lord, broke in pieces, showing your power to many nations. 6.6. The three companions in Babylon who had voluntarily surrendered their lives to the flames so as not to serve vain things, you rescued unharmed, even to a hair, moistening the fiery furnace with dew and turning the flame against all their enemies. 6.7. Daniel, who through envious slanders was cast down into the ground to lions as food for wild beasts, you brought up to the light unharmed. 6.8. And Jonah, wasting away in the belly of a huge, sea-born monster, you, Father, watched over and restored unharmed to all his family. 6.9. And now, you who hate insolence, all-merciful and protector of all, reveal yourself quickly to those of the nation of Israel -- who are being outrageously treated by the abominable and lawless Gentiles. 6.11. Let not the vain-minded praise their vanities at the destruction of your beloved people, saying, `Not even their god has rescued them.' 6.12. But you, O Eternal One, who have all might and all power, watch over us now and have mercy upon us who by the senseless insolence of the lawless are being deprived of life in the manner of traitors. 6.13. And let the Gentiles cower today in fear of your invincible might, O honored One, who have power to save the nation of Jacob. 6.14. The whole throng of infants and their parents entreat you with tears. 6.15. Let it be shown to all the Gentiles that you are with us, O Lord, and have not turned your face from us; but just as you have said, `Not even when they were in the land of their enemies did I neglect them,' so accomplish it, O Lord.
17. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.175-3.190, 3.635-3.643, 3.780-3.786 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.175. 175 And with Peneus mixed pours in the sea 3.176. Its water, and men call it Stygian. 3.177. But when the Titans heard that there were son 3.178. Kept secretly, whom Cronos and his wife 3.179. Rhea begat, then Titan sixty youth 3.180. 180 Together gathered, and held fast in chain 3.181. Cronos and his wife Rhea, and concealed 3.182. Them in the earth and guarded them in bonds. 3.183. And then the sons of powerful Cronos heard 3.184. And a great war and uproar they aroused. 3.185. 185 And this is the beginning of dire war 3.186. Among all mortals. [For it is indeed 3.187. With mortals the prime origin of war.] 3.188. And then did God award the Titans evil. 3.189. And all of Titans and of Cronos born 3.190. 190 Died. But then as time rolled around there rose 3.635. 635 Woe, woe to thee, O Crete! To thee shall come 3.636. A very painful stroke, and terribly 3.637. Shall the Eternal sack thee; and again 3.638. Shall every land behold thee black with smoke 3.639. Fire ne'er shall leave thee, but thou shalt be burned. 3.780. 780 For land and trees and countless flocks of sheep 3.781. Their genuine fruit to men shall offer–wine 3.782. And the sweet honey, and white milk, and wheat 3.783. Which is for mortals of all things the best. 3.784. But thou, O mortal full of various wiles
18. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, On Lysias, 7 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

19. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 89 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

89. And a proof of this is that, though at different times a great number of chiefs of every variety of disposition and character, have occupied their country, some of whom have endeavoured to surpass even ferocious wild beasts in cruelty, leaving no sort of inhumanity unpractised, and have never ceased to murder their subjects in whole troops, and have even torn them to pieces while living, like cooks cutting them limb from limb, till they themselves, being overtaken by the vengeance of divine justice, have at last experienced the same miseries in their turn:
20. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 1.28 (1st cent. CE

21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.257-12.264, 12.274, 12.384-12.385, 12.389 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.257. 5. When the Samaritans saw the Jews under these sufferings, they no longer confessed that they were of their kindred, nor that the temple on Mount Gerizzim belonged to Almighty God. This was according to their nature, as we have already shown. And they now said that they were a colony of Medes and Persians; and indeed they were a colony of theirs. 12.258. So they sent ambassadors to Antiochus, and an epistle, whose contents are these: “To king Antiochus the god, Epiphanes, a memorial from the Sidonians, who live at Shechem. 12.259. Our forefathers, upon certain frequent plagues, and as following a certain ancient superstition, had a custom of observing that day which by the Jews is called the Sabbath. And when they had erected a temple at the mountain called Gerrizzim, though without a name, they offered upon it the proper sacrifices. 12.261. We therefore beseech thee, our benefactor and Savior, to give order to Apollonius, the governor of this part of the country, and to Nicanor, the procurator of thy affairs, to give us no disturbance, nor to lay to our charge what the Jews are accused for, since we are aliens from their nation, and from their customs; but let our temple, which at present hath no name at all be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius. If this were once done, we should be no longer disturbed, but should be more intent on our own occupation with quietness, and so bring in a greater revenue to thee.” 12.262. When the Samaritans had petitioned for this, the king sent them back the following answer, in an epistle: “King Antiochus to Nicanor. The Sidonians, who live at Shechem, have sent me the memorial enclosed. 12.263. When therefore we were advising with our friends about it, the messengers sent by them represented to us that they are no way concerned with accusations which belong to the Jews, but choose to live after the customs of the Greeks. Accordingly, we declare them free from such accusations, and order that, agreeable to their petition, their temple be named the Temple of Jupiter Hellenius.” 12.264. He also sent the like epistle to Apollonius, the governor of that part of the country, in the forty-sixth year, and the eighteenth day of the month Hecatorabeom. 12.274. But when they would not comply with their persuasions, but continued to be of a different mind, they fought against them on the Sabbath day, and they burnt them as they were in the caves, without resistance, and without so much as stopping up the entrances of the caves. And they avoided to defend themselves on that day, because they were not willing to break in upon the honor they owed the Sabbath, even in such distresses; for our law requires that we rest upon that day. 12.384. for Lysias advised the king to slay Menelaus, if he would have the Jews be quiet, and cause him no further disturbance, for that this man was the origin of all the mischief the Jews had done them, by persuading his father to compel the Jews to leave the religion of their fathers. 12.385. So the king sent Menelaus to Berea, a city of Syria, and there had him put to death, when he had been high priest ten years. He had been a wicked and an impious man; and, in order to get the government to himself, had compelled his nation to transgress their own laws. After the death of Menelaus, Alcimus, who was also called Jacimus, was made high priest. 12.389. 1. About the same time Demetrius, the son of Seleucus, fled away from Rome, and took Tripoli, a city of Syria, and set the diadem on his own head. He also gathered certain mercenary soldiers together, and entered into his kingdom, and was joyfully received by all, who delivered themselves up to him.
22. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.41. 5. So this Antiochus got together fifty thousand footmen, and five thousand horsemen, and fourscore elephants, and marched through Judea into the mountainous parts. He then took Bethsura, which was a small city; but at a place called Bethzacharias, where the passage was narrow, Judas met him with his army. 1.41. But the king, by the expenses he was at, and the liberal disposal of them, overcame nature, and built a haven larger than was the Pyrecum [at Athens]; and in the inner retirements of the water he built other deep stations [for the ships also].
23. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.233-2.234 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.233. Now I think, those that have conquered us have put us to such deaths, not out of their hatred to us when they had subdued us, but rather out of their desire of seeing a surprising sight, which is this, whether there be such men in the world who believe that no evil is to them so great as to be compelled to do or to speak any thing contrary to their own laws. 2.234. Nor ought men to wonder at us, if we are more courageous in dying for our laws than all other men are; for other men do not easily submit to the easier things in which we are instituted; I mean, working with our hands, and eating but little, and being contented to eat and drink, not at random, or at every one’s pleasure, or being under inviolable rules in lying with our wives, in magnificent furniture, and again in the observation of our times of rest;
24. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.1-3.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. But know this, that in the last days, grievous times will come. 3.2. For men will be lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy 3.3. without natural affection, unforgiving, slanderers, without self-control, fierce, no lovers of good 3.4. traitors, headstrong, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God;
25. New Testament, Acts, 23.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23.6. But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, "Men and brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. Concerning the hope and resurrection of the dead I am being judged!
26. New Testament, Luke, 21.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

21.23. Woe to those who are pregt and to those who nurse infants in those days! For there will be great distress in the land, and wrath to this people.
27. New Testament, Mark, 13.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.19. For in those days there will be oppression, such as there has not been the like from the beginning of the creation which God created until now, and never will be.
28. New Testament, Matthew, 24.7-24.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24.7. For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; and there will be famines, plagues, and earthquakes in various places. 24.8. But all these things are the beginning of birth pains. 24.9. Then they will deliver you up to oppression, and will kill you. You will be hated by all of the nations for my name's sake. 24.10. Then many will stumble, and will deliver up one another, and will hate one another. 24.11. Many false prophets will arise, and will lead many astray. 24.12. Because iniquity will be multiplied, the love of many will grow cold.
29. Plutarch, On The Glory of The Athenians, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 3.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. 2 So after this all the crowd, wondering at the nobility of the God-loving and God-fearing people of the Christians, cried out: "Away with the Atheists; let Polycarp be searched for.
31. Lucian, How To Write History, 51 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

32. Anon., 4 Ezra, 13.30-13.31

13.30. And bewilderment of mind shall come over those who dwell on the earth. 13.31. And they shall plan to make war against one another, city against city, place against place, people against people, and kingdom against kingdom.
33. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 7.1, 8.5

34. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 129-170, 128

128. It is worth while to mention briefly the information which he gave in reply to our questions. For I suppose that most people feel a curiosity with regard to some of the enactments in the law


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
1 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 86
4 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 70, 86
ahasuerus, in lxx Gera, Judith (2014) 370
ancestral language' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 423
antiochus iv epiphanes Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 243; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 86; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 514, 515, 516
arrogance de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 516
athens/athenians Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 276
audience de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
barbarians, characteristics of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
barbarism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 243, 244
body, after death Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
body, mutilation of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
body de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513, 514, 515, 516
book of judith, and greek writings Gera, Judith (2014) 93, 369
book of judith, author Gera, Judith (2014) 93
book of judith, original language Gera, Judith (2014) 93
booty and plundering Gera, Judith (2014) 370
cannibalism Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
characterization de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513, 515
children Gera, Judith (2014) 369
circumcision Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
daniel, figure of Gera, Judith (2014) 369
dating of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 86
dedications, temple Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
diet Gera, Judith (2014) 369
egypt and egyptians Gera, Judith (2014) 93
eleazar Gera, Judith (2014) 370; Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
elephants Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 86
emotional restraint de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
emotions, admiration/awe de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 516
emotions, agony de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 514
emotions, anger/rage de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 516
emotions, disgust de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513, 516
emotions, fear (fright) de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 514
emotions, pity de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 514, 516
enargeia (ἐνάργεια) de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513, 514, 515, 516
esther, in lxx / additions Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
fasting Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
feasting Gera, Judith (2014) 370
food, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
food Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
food regulations Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487, 488
furnishings, dishes and equipmentnan Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
gentiles Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
god, of heaven Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 305
gold, and silver Gera, Judith (2014) 369
gold Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
hadrian Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 276
halakha Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487
haman Gera, Judith (2014) 370
hasmoneans Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487
heliodorus, story of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 86
hellenisation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
herod Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 86, 358
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 369
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487, 488
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
hunger Gera, Judith (2014) 370
ii maccabees Gera, Judith (2014) 93
iii maccabees Gera, Judith (2014) 93
intertextuality, of the narratee/reader de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
irony, dramatic de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 516
irony Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 311, 358
josephus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 86
judaism, and death Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
judas the maccabee de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 516
judith, complex character Gera, Judith (2014) 369
judith, eloquence and irony Gera, Judith (2014) 369
kosher food Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
language, see also under style Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 70
language and style, book of judith, wordplay Gera, Judith (2014) 369
lord, and lord Gera, Judith (2014) 369
martyr/martyrdom de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513, 514, 515, 516
martyr and martyrdom, maccabean Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 243, 244
martyr and martyrdom Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 243, 244
martyrdom Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487, 488
martyrologies, relation to 4 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 86
martyrs Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
meals, joint Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
mother and seven sons, as martyrs Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
mother and seven sons Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
mother of seven sons Gera, Judith (2014) 93, 370
motifs (thematic), martyrs as heroes Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 305
motifs (thematic), tit for tat Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 358, 423
mount gerizim (argarizin) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 276
narratee de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513, 514, 515, 516
nebuchadnezzar, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 369
nehemiah Gera, Judith (2014) 370
noble death, of eleazar Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
obedience, covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
onias iii Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 423; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 514
oppressors, rich Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 159
otherness Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 244
pain/suffering de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 514, 516
painting de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
pathetic historiography Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 423
persecution Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
philo Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 86
politai Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 423
pollution and defilement Gera, Judith (2014) 370
prayers and praying, in post-biblical literature Gera, Judith (2014) 93
predestinarian/predeterminism Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
punishment de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513, 516
purification Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487
questions Gera, Judith (2014) 369
rabbi eleazar b. r. yose, 4 ezra Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 243, 244
rabbis, on food and wine Gera, Judith (2014) 370
razis de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 515, 516
readers of 2 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 86
reversal of fortunes Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 159
rome, seleucia Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 276
second maccabees de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513, 514, 515, 516
septuagint Gera, Judith (2014) 93
sexual encounters Gera, Judith (2014) 369
shock de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 515
silver Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
simon (hasmonean) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 423
sins / iniquity, recording of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 350
spartans Gera, Judith (2014) 369
style, linguistic and literary, variety of vocabulary Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 70
suicide de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 515, 516
swords Gera, Judith (2014) 370
tents, holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 370
testament of abraham Gera, Judith (2014) 93
testament of job Gera, Judith (2014) 93
thucydides de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
tobit Gera, Judith (2014) 369
torture Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 70
tripoli Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 86
universalism Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 423
watchers/rebellious angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 350
wealth, material Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 159
wealth/prosperity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
wine and drunkenness Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
worship Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722