Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



661
Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.14


nanAnd when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!'


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

56 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.10-1.11 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 32.27, 32.36 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

32.27. לוּלֵי כַּעַס אוֹיֵב אָגוּר פֶּן־יְנַכְּרוּ צָרֵימוֹ פֶּן־יֹאמְרוּ יָדֵינוּ רָמָה וְלֹא יְהוָה פָּעַל כָּל־זֹאת׃ 32.36. כִּי־יָדִין יְהוָה עַמּוֹ וְעַל־עֲבָדָיו יִתְנֶחָם כִּי יִרְאֶה כִּי־אָזְלַת יָד וְאֶפֶס עָצוּר וְעָזוּב׃ 32.27. Were it not that I dreaded the enemy’s provocation, Lest their adversaries should misdeem, Lest they should say: Our hand is exalted, And not the LORD hath wrought all this.’" 32.36. For the LORD will judge His people, And repent Himself for His servants; When He seeth that their stay is gone, And there is none remaining, shut up or left at large."
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.9, 4.16, 6.1, 7.5-7.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.9. וַתִּיטַב הַנַּעֲרָה בְעֵינָיו וַתִּשָּׂא חֶסֶד לְפָנָיו וַיְבַהֵל אֶת־תַּמְרוּקֶיהָ וְאֶת־מָנוֹתֶהָ לָתֵת לָהּ וְאֵת שֶׁבַע הַנְּעָרוֹת הָרְאֻיוֹת לָתֶת־לָהּ מִבֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיְשַׁנֶּהָ וְאֶת־נַעֲרוֹתֶיהָ לְטוֹב בֵּית הַנָּשִׁים׃ 4.16. לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם גַּם־אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם כֵּן וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כַדָּת וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי אָבָדְתִּי׃ 6.1. בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא נָדְדָה שְׁנַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמֶר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר הַזִּכְרֹנוֹת דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים וַיִּהְיוּ נִקְרָאִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 6.1. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהָמָן מַהֵר קַח אֶת־הַלְּבוּשׁ וְאֶת־הַסּוּס כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ וַעֲשֵׂה־כֵן לְמָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי הַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אַל־תַּפֵּל דָּבָר מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃ 7.5. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ וַיֹּאמֶר לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה מִי הוּא זֶה וְאֵי־זֶה הוּא אֲשֶׁר־מְלָאוֹ לִבּוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן׃ 7.6. וַתֹּאמֶר־אֶסְתֵּר אִישׁ צַר וְאוֹיֵב הָמָן הָרָע הַזֶּה וְהָמָן נִבְעַת מִלִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַמַּלְכָּה׃ 7.7. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ קָם בַּחֲמָתוֹ מִמִּשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן אֶל־גִּנַּת הַבִּיתָן וְהָמָן עָמַד לְבַקֵּשׁ עַל־נַפְשׁוֹ מֵאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה כִּי רָאָה כִּי־כָלְתָה אֵלָיו הָרָעָה מֵאֵת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 7.8. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ שָׁב מִגִּנַּת הַבִּיתָן אֶל־בֵּית מִשְׁתֵּה הַיַּיִן וְהָמָן נֹפֵל עַל־הַמִּטָּה אֲשֶׁר אֶסְתֵּר עָלֶיהָ וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ הֲגַם לִכְבּוֹשׁ אֶת־הַמַּלְכָּה עִמִּי בַּבָּיִת הַדָּבָר יָצָא מִפִּי הַמֶּלֶךְ וּפְנֵי הָמָן חָפוּ׃ 7.9. וַיֹּאמֶר חַרְבוֹנָה אֶחָד מִן־הַסָּרִיסִים לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ גַּם הִנֵּה־הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה הָמָן לְמָרְדֳּכַי אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־טוֹב עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ עֹמֵד בְּבֵית הָמָן גָּבֹהַּ חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ תְּלֻהוּ עָלָיו׃ 2.9. And the maiden pleased him, and she obtained kindness of him; and he speedily gave her her ointments, with her portions, and the seven maidens, who were meet to be given her out of the king’s house; and he advanced her and her maidens to the best place in the house of the women." 4.16. ’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’" 6.1. On that night could not the king sleep; and he commanded to bring the book of records of the chronicles, and they were read before the king." 7.5. Then spoke the king Ahasuerus and said unto Esther the queen: ‘Who is he, and where is he, that durst presume in his heart to do so?’" 7.6. And Esther said: ‘An adversary and an enemy, even this wicked Haman.’ Then Haman was terrified before the king and the queen." 7.7. And the king arose in his wrath from the banquet of wine and went into the palace garden; but Haman remained to make request for his life to Esther the queen; for he saw that there was evil determined against him by the king." 7.8. Then the king returned out of the palace garden into the place of the banquet of wine; and Haman was fallen upon the couch whereon Esther was. Then said the king: ‘Will he even force the queen before me in the house?’ As the word went out of the king’s mouth, they covered Haman’s face." 7.9. Then said Harbonah, one of the chamberlains that were before the king: ‘Behold also, the gallows fifty cubits high, which Haman hath made for Mordecai, who spoke good for the king, standeth in the house of Haman.’ And the king said: ‘Hang him thereon.’" 7.10. So they hanged Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then was the king’s wrath assuaged."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 43.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

43.32. וַיָּשִׂימוּ לוֹ לְבַדּוֹ וְלָהֶם לְבַדָּם וְלַמִּצְרִים הָאֹכְלִים אִתּוֹ לְבַדָּם כִּי לֹא יוּכְלוּן הַמִּצְרִים לֶאֱכֹל אֶת־הָעִבְרִים לֶחֶם כִּי־תוֹעֵבָה הִוא לְמִצְרָיִם׃ 43.32. And they set on for him by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the Egyptians, that did eat with him, by themselves; because the Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews; for that is an abomination unto the Egyptians."
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. עַל־כֵּן לֹא־יָקֻמוּ רְשָׁעִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְחַטָּאִים בַּעֲדַת צַדִּיקִים׃ 1.5. Therefore the wicked shall not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 53.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

53.7. נִגַּשׂ וְהוּא נַעֲנֶה וְלֹא יִפְתַּח־פִּיו כַּשֶּׂה לַטֶּבַח יוּבָל וּכְרָחֵל לִפְנֵי גֹזְזֶיהָ נֶאֱלָמָה וְלֹא יִפְתַּח פִּיו׃ 53.7. He was oppressed, though he humbled himself And opened not his mouth; As a lamb that is led to the slaughter, And as a sheep that before her shearers is dumb; Yea, he opened not his mouth."
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 15.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

15.9. אֻמְלְלָה יֹלֶדֶת הַשִּׁבְעָה נָפְחָה נַפְשָׁהּ באה [בָּא] שִׁמְשָׁהּ בְּעֹד יוֹמָם בּוֹשָׁה וְחָפֵרָה וּשְׁאֵרִיתָם לַחֶרֶב אֶתֵּן לִפְנֵי אֹיְבֵיהֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 15.9. She that hath borne seven languisheth; Her spirit droopeth; Her sun is gone down while it was yet day, She is ashamed and confounded; And the residue of them will I deliver to the sword before their enemies, Saith the LORD.’"
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 24.17-24.25 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.17. וְאַחֲרֵי מוֹת יְהוֹיָדָע בָּאוּ שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַמֶּלֶךְ אָז שָׁמַע הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 24.18. וַיַּעַזְבוּ אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרִים וְאֶת־הָעֲצַבִּים וַיְהִי־קֶצֶף עַל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם בְּאַשְׁמָתָם זֹאת׃ 24.19. וַיִּשְׁלַח בָּהֶם נְבִאִים לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֶל־יְהוָה וַיָּעִידוּ בָם וְלֹא הֶאֱזִינוּ׃ 24.21. וַיִּקְשְׁרוּ עָלָיו וַיִּרְגְּמֻהוּ אֶבֶן בְּמִצְוַת הַמֶּלֶךְ בַּחֲצַר בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 24.22. וְלֹא־זָכַר יוֹאָשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוֹיָדָע אָבִיו עִמּוֹ וַיַּהֲרֹג אֶת־בְּנוֹ וּכְמוֹתוֹ אָמַר יֵרֶא יְהוָה וְיִדְרֹשׁ׃ 24.23. וַיְהִי לִתְקוּפַת הַשָּׁנָה עָלָה עָלָיו חֵיל אֲרָם וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּשְׁחִיתוּ אֶת־כָּל־שָׂרֵי הָעָם מֵעָם וְכָל־שְׁלָלָם שִׁלְּחוּ לְמֶלֶךְ דַּרְמָשֶׂק׃ 24.24. כִּי בְמִצְעַר אֲנָשִׁים בָּאוּ חֵיל אֲרָם וַיהוָה נָתַן בְּיָדָם חַיִל לָרֹב מְאֹד כִּי עָזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וְאֶת־יוֹאָשׁ עָשׂוּ שְׁפָטִים׃ 24.25. וּבְלֶכְתָּם מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי־עָזְבוּ אֹתוֹ במחליים [בְּמַחֲלוּיִם] רַבִּים הִתְקַשְּׁרוּ עָלָיו עֲבָדָיו בִּדְמֵי בְּנֵי יְהוֹיָדָע הַכֹּהֵן וַיַּהַרְגֻהוּ עַל־מִטָּתוֹ וַיָּמֹת וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בְּעִיר דָּוִיד וְלֹא קְבָרֻהוּ בְּקִבְרוֹת הַמְּלָכִים׃ 24.17. Now after the death of Jehoiada came the princes of Judah, and prostrated themselves before the king. Then the king hearkened unto them." 24.18. And they forsook the house of the LORD, the God of their fathers, and served the Asherim and the idols; and wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for this their guiltiness." 24.19. Yet He sent prophets to them, to bring them back unto the LORD; and they admonished them, but they would not give ear." 24.20. And the spirit of God clothed Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest; and he stood above the people, and said unto them: ‘Thus saith God: Why transgress ye the commandments of the LORD, that ye cannot prosper? because ye have forsaken the LORD, He hath also forsaken you.’" 24.21. And they conspired against him, and stoned him with stones at the commandment of the king in the court of the house of the LORD." 24.22. Thus Joash the king remembered not the kindness which Jehoiada his father had done to him, but slew his son. And when he died, he said: ‘The LORD look upon it, and require it.’" 24.23. And it came to pass, when the year was come about, that the army of the Arameans came up against him; and they came to Judah and Jerusalem, and destroyed all the princes of the people from among the people, and sent all the spoil of them unto the king of Damascus." 24.24. For the army of the Arameans came with a small company of men; and the LORD delivered a very great host into their hand, because they had forsaken the LORD, the God of their fathers. So they executed judgment upon Joash." 24.25. And when they were departed from him—for they left him in great diseases—his own servants conspired against him for the blood of the sons of Jehoiada the priest, and slew him on his bed, and he died; and they buried him in the city of David, but they buried him not in the sepulchres of the kings."
10. Herodotus, Histories, 2.100, 9.82 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.100. After him came three hundred and thirty kings, whose names the priests recited from a papyrus roll. In all these many generations there were eighteen Ethiopian kings, and one queen, native to the country; the rest were all Egyptian men. ,The name of the queen was the same as that of the Babylonian princess, Nitocris. She, to avenge her brother (he was king of Egypt and was slain by his subjects, who then gave Nitocris the sovereignty) put many of the Egyptians to death by treachery. ,She built a spacious underground chamber; then, with the pretence of inaugurating it, but with quite another intent in her mind, she gave a great feast, inviting to it those Egyptians whom she knew to have had the most complicity in her brother's murder; and while they feasted, she let the river in upon them by a vast secret channel. ,This was all that the priests told of her, except that when she had done this she cast herself into a chamber full of hot ashes, to escape vengeance. 9.82. This other story is also told. When Xerxes fled from Hellas, he left to Mardonius his own establishment. Pausanias, seeing Mardonius' establishment with its display of gold and silver and gaily colored tapestry, ordered the bakers and the cooks to prepare a dinner such as they were accustomed to do for Mardonius. ,They did his bidding, but Pausanias, when he saw golden and silver couches richly covered, and tables of gold and silver, and all the magnificent service of the banquet, was amazed at the splendor before him, and for a joke commanded his own servants to prepare a dinner in Laconian fashion. When that meal, so different from the other, was ready, Pausanias burst out laughing and sent for the generals of the Greeks. ,When these had assembled, Pausanias pointed to the manner in which each dinner was served and said: “Men of Hellas, I have brought you here because I desired to show you the foolishness of the leader of the Medes who, with such provisions for life as you see, came here to take away from us our possessions which are so pitiful.” In this way, it is said, Pausanias spoke to the generals of the Greeks.
11. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

493a. and we really, it may be, are dead; in fact I once heard sages say that we are now dead, and the body is our tomb, and the part of the soul in which we have desires is liable to be over-persuaded and to vacillate to and fro, and so some smart fellow, a Sicilian, I daresay, or Italian, made a fable in which—by a play of words—he named this part, as being so impressionable and persuadable, a jar, and the thoughtless he called uninitiate:
12. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

67c. imposed upon me is begun with good hope; and the like hope exists for every man who thinks that his mind has been purified and made ready. Certainly, said Simmias. And does not the purification consist in this which has been mentioned long ago in our discourse, in separating, so far as possible, the soul from the body and teaching the soul the habit of collecting and bringing itself together from all parts of the body, and living, so far as it can, both now
13. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

176a. THEO. If, Socrates, you could persuade all men of the truth of what you say as you do me, there would be more peace and fewer evils among mankind. SOC. But it is impossible that evils should be done away with, Theodorus, for there must always be something opposed to the good; and they cannot have their place among the gods, but must inevitably hover about mortal nature and this earth. Therefore we ought to try to escape from earth to the dwelling of the gods as quickly as we can;
15. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.10-1.11 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it
16. Anon., 1 Enoch, 14.5, 22.13, 45.4, 45.5, 45.6, 48.7, 91.5, 91.6, 91.7, 91.10, 91.12, 91.13, 93.9, 93.10, 93.11, 94.9, 96.8, 97.2, 97.6, 98.7, 98.8, 98.10, 98.12, 99.3, 99.4, 99.5, 100.1, 100.2, 100.3, 100.4, 100.10, 102.8, 103.7, 104.6, 104.7, 106.19-107.1, 108.1, 108.7, 108.8, 108.9, 108.10, 108.11, 108.12, 108.13, 108.14, 108.15 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

100.1. And in those days in one place the fathers together with their sons shall be smitten And brothers one with another shall fall in death Till the streams flow with their blood. 100.1. And now, know ye that from the angels He will inquire as to your deeds in heaven, from the sun and from the moon and from the stars in reference to your sins because upon the earth ye execute
17. Anon., Jubilees, 22.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

22.16. May nations serve thee, And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed.
18. Anon., Testament of Moses, 9.6-9.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 1.5, 1.12, 18.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.1-1.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 6.13-6.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

22. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 6.13-6.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

23. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.5-1.16, 8.4, 11.3, 11.32-11.33, 12.1-12.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.5. וַיְמַן לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ מִפַּת־בַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמִיֵּין מִשְׁתָּיו וּלְגַדְּלָם שָׁנִים שָׁלוֹשׁ וּמִקְצָתָם יַעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.6. וַיְהִי בָהֶם מִבְּנֵי יְהוּדָה דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.7. וַיָּשֶׂם לָהֶם שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים שֵׁמוֹת וַיָּשֶׂם לְדָנִיֵּאל בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וְלַחֲנַנְיָה שַׁדְרַךְ וּלְמִישָׁאֵל מֵישַׁךְ וְלַעֲזַרְיָה עֲבֵד נְגוֹ׃ 1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 1.9. וַיִּתֵּן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־דָּנִיֵּאל לְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל אֶל־הַמֶּלְצַר אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים עַל־דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.12. נַס־נָא אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה וְיִתְּנוּ־לָנוּ מִן־הַזֵּרֹעִים וְנֹאכְלָה וּמַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה׃ 1.13. וְיֵרָאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ מַרְאֵינוּ וּמַרְאֵה הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה עֲשֵׂה עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ׃ 1.14. וַיִּשְׁמַע לָהֶם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְנַסֵּם יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה׃ 1.15. וּמִקְצָת יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה נִרְאָה מַרְאֵיהֶם טוֹב וּבְרִיאֵי בָּשָׂר מִן־כָּל־הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.16. וַיְהִי הַמֶּלְצַר נֹשֵׂא אֶת־פַּתְבָּגָם וְיֵין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם וְנֹתֵן לָהֶם זֵרְעֹנִים׃ 8.4. רָאִיתִי אֶת־הָאַיִל מְנַגֵּחַ יָמָּה וְצָפוֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וְכָל־חַיּוֹת לֹא־יַעַמְדוּ לְפָנָיו וְאֵין מַצִּיל מִיָּדוֹ וְעָשָׂה כִרְצֹנוֹ וְהִגְדִּיל׃ 11.3. וּבָאוּ בוֹ צִיִּים כִּתִּים וְנִכְאָה וְשָׁב וְזָעַם עַל־בְּרִית־קוֹדֶשׁ וְעָשָׂה וְשָׁב וְיָבֵן עַל־עֹזְבֵי בְּרִית קֹדֶשׁ׃ 11.3. וְעָמַד מֶלֶךְ גִּבּוֹר וּמָשַׁל מִמְשָׁל רַב וְעָשָׂה כִּרְצוֹנוֹ׃ 11.32. וּמַרְשִׁיעֵי בְרִית יַחֲנִיף בַּחֲלַקּוֹת וְעַם יֹדְעֵי אֱלֹהָיו יַחֲזִקוּ וְעָשׂוּ׃ 11.33. וּמַשְׂכִּילֵי עָם יָבִינוּ לָרַבִּים וְנִכְשְׁלוּ בְּחֶרֶב וּבְלֶהָבָה בִּשְׁבִי וּבְבִזָּה יָמִים׃ 12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ 12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 12.3. וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יַזְהִרוּ כְּזֹהַר הָרָקִיעַ וּמַצְדִּיקֵי הָרַבִּים כַּכּוֹכָבִים לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 12.4. וְאַתָּה דָנִיֵּאל סְתֹם הַדְּבָרִים וַחֲתֹם הַסֵּפֶר עַד־עֵת קֵץ יְשֹׁטְטוּ רַבִּים וְתִרְבֶּה הַדָּעַת׃ 1.5. And the king appointed for them a daily portion of the king’s food, and of the wine which he drank, and that they should be nourished three years; that at the end thereof they might stand before the king." 1.6. Now among these were, of the children of Judah, Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah." 1.7. And the chief of the officers gave names unto them: unto Daniel he gave the name of Belteshazzar; and to Haiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego." 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself." 1.9. And God granted Daniel mercy and compassion in the sight of the chief of the officers." 1.10. And the chief of the officers said unto Daniel: ‘I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your food and your drink; for why should he see your faces sad in comparison with the youths that are of your own age? so would ye endanger my head with the king.’" 1.11. Then said Daniel to the steward, whom the chief of the officers had appointed over Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah:" 1.12. ’Try thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink." 1.13. Then let our counteces be looked upon before thee, and the countece of the youths that eat of the king’s food; and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.’" 1.14. So he hearkened unto them in this matter, and tried them ten days." 1.15. And at the end of ten days their counteces appeared fairer, and they were fatter in flesh, than all the youths that did eat of the king’s food." 1.16. So the steward took away their food, and the wine that they should drink, and gave them pulse." 8.4. I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward; and no beasts could stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and magnified himself." 11.3. And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will." 11.32. And such as do wickedly against the covet shall be corrupt by blandishments; but the people that know their God shall show strength, and prevail." 11.33. And they that are wise among the people shall cause the many to understand; yet they shall stumble by the sword and by flame, by captivity and by spoil, many days." 12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book." 12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence." 12.3. And they that are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn the many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever." 12.4. But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end; many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.’"
24. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.56-1.64, 2.63 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.56. The books of the law which they found they tore to pieces and burned with fire. 1.57. Where the book of the covet was found in the possession of any one, or if any one adhered to the law, the decree of the king condemned him to death. 1.58. They kept using violence against Israel, against those found month after month in the cities. 1.59. And on the twenty-fifth day of the month they offered sacrifice on the altar which was upon the altar of burnt offering. 1.60. According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised 1.61. and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers necks. 1.62. But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food. 1.63. They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covet; and they did die. 1.64. And very great wrath came upon Israel. 2.63. Today he will be exalted, but tomorrow he will not be found, because he has returned to the dust, and his plans will perish.
25. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.1, 3.17, 3.24, 3.25, 3.30, 3.39, 4.1, 4.7, 4.13, 4.17, 4.35, 4.47, 4.49, 5.5, 5.12, 5.13, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.26, 5.27, 6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.18-7.42, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.30, 6.31, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 7.41, 7.42, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.11, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.23, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 10.17, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.35, 10.38, 11.3, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.11, 12.15, 12.16, 12.20, 12.22, 12.28, 12.38, 12.39, 12.40, 12.41, 12.42, 12.43, 12.44, 12.45, 13.4, 13.10, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.23, 14.18, 14.37, 14.38, 14.39, 14.40, 14.41, 14.42, 14.43, 14.44, 14.45, 14.46, 15.1, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.22, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.35 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.17. Attacking them vigorously, they gained possession of the places, and beat off all who fought upon the wall, and slew those whom they encountered, killing no fewer than twenty thousand.'
26. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 25.7-25.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

25.7. With nine thoughts I have gladdened my heart,and a tenth I shall tell with my tongue:a man rejoicing in his children;a man who lives to see the downfall of his foes; 25.8. happy is he who lives with an intelligent wife,and he who has not made a slip with his tongue,and he who has not served a man inferior to himself; 25.9. happy is he who has gained good sense,and he who speaks to attentive listeners. 25.11. The fear of the Lord surpasses everything;to whom shall be likened the one who holds it fast?
27. Septuagint, Judith, 7.25, 10.5, 16.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

7.25. For now we have no one to help us; God has sold us into their hands, to strew us on the ground before them with thirst and utter destruction. 10.5. And she gave her maid a bottle of wine and a flask of oil, and filled a bag with parched grain and a cake of dried fruit and fine bread; and she wrapped up all her vessels and gave them to her to carry. 16.19. Judith also dedicated to God all the vessels of Holofernes, which the people had given her; and the canopy which she took for herself from his bedchamber she gave as a votive offering to the Lord.
28. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.14, 2.24, 3.1, 3.6-3.19, 9.15-9.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.14. For he created all things that they might exist,and the generative forces of the world are wholesome,and there is no destructive poison in them;and the dominion of Hades is not on earth. 2.24. but through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it. 3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them. 3.6. like gold in the furnace he tried them,and like a sacrificial burnt offering he accepted them. 3.7. In the time of their visitation they will shine forth,and will run like sparks through the stubble. 3.8. They will govern nations and rule over peoples,and the Lord will reign over them for ever. 3.9. Those who trust in him will understand truth,and the faithful will abide with him in love,because grace and mercy are upon his elect,and he watches over his holy ones. 3.10. But the ungodly will be punished as their reasoning deserves,who disregarded the righteous man and rebelled against the Lord; 3.11. for whoever despises wisdom and instruction is miserable. Their hope is vain, their labors are unprofitable,and their works are useless. 3.12. Their wives are foolish, and their children evil; 3.13. their offspring are accursed. For blessed is the barren woman who is undefiled,who has not entered into a sinful union;she will have fruit when God examines souls. 3.14. Blessed also is the eunuch whose hands have done no lawless deed,and who has not devised wicked things against the Lord;for special favor will be shown him for his faithfulness,and a place of great delight in the temple of the Lord. 3.15. For the fruit of good labors is renowned,and the root of understanding does not fail. 3.16. But children of adulterers will not come to maturity,and the offspring of an unlawful union will perish. 3.17. Even if they live long they will be held of no account,and finally their old age will be without honor. 3.18. If they die young, they will have no hope and no consolation in the day of decision. 3.19. For the end of an unrighteous generation is grievous. 9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind. 9.16. We can hardly guess at what is on earth,and what is at hand we find with labor;but who has traced out what is in the heavens?
29. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 4.23-4.26, 9.9, 9.22-9.25, 9.32, 10.11, 10.16, 10.21, 11.3, 11.23, 12.12, 12.18, 13.13-13.15, 14.5, 17.12, 18.5, 18.22-18.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.23. and after he had plundered them he issued a decree that if any of them should be found observing the ancestral law they should die. 4.24. When, by means of his decrees, he had not been able in any way to put an end to the people's observance of the law, but saw that all his threats and punishments were being disregarded 4.25. even to the point that women, because they had circumcised their sons, were thrown headlong from heights along with their infants, though they had known beforehand that they would suffer this -- 4.26. when, then, his decrees were despised by the people, he himself, through torture, tried to compel everyone in the nation to eat defiling foods and to renounce Judaism. 9.9. but you, because of your bloodthirstiness toward us, will deservedly undergo from the divine justice eternal torment by fire. 9.22. but as though transformed by fire into immortality he nobly endured the rackings. 9.23. Imitate me, brothers, he said. "Do not leave your post in my struggle or renounce our courageous brotherhood. 9.24. Fight the sacred and noble battle for religion. Thereby the just Providence of our ancestors may become merciful to our nation and take vengeance on the accursed tyrant. 9.32. but you suffer torture by the threats that come from impiety. You will not escape, most abominable tyrant, the judgments of the divine wrath. 10.11. but you, because of your impiety and bloodthirstiness, will undergo unceasing torments. 10.16. Contrive tortures, tyrant, so that you may learn from them that I am a brother to those who have just been tortured. 10.21. God will visit you swiftly, for you are cutting out a tongue that has been melodious with divine hymns. 11.3. I have come of my own accord, so that by murdering me you will incur punishment from the heavenly justice for even more crimes. 11.23. and I myself will bring a great avenger upon you, you inventor of tortures and enemy of those who are truly devout. 12.12. Because of this, justice has laid up for you intense and eternal fire and tortures, and these throughout all time will never let you go. 12.18. but on you he will take vengeance both in this present life and when you are dead. 13.13. Each of them and all of them together looking at one another, cheerful and undaunted, said, "Let us with all our hearts consecrate ourselves to God, who gave us our lives, and let us use our bodies as a bulwark for the law. 13.14. Let us not fear him who thinks he is killing us 13.15. for great is the struggle of the soul and the danger of eternal torment lying before those who transgress the commandment of God. 14.5. but all of them, as though running the course toward immortality, hastened to death by torture. 17.12. for on that day virtue gave the awards and tested them for their endurance. The prize was immortality in endless life. 18.5. The tyrant Antiochus was both punished on earth and is being chastised after his death. Since in no way whatever was he able to compel the Israelites to become pagans and to abandon their ancestral customs, he left Jerusalem and marched against the Persians. 18.22. For these crimes divine justice pursued and will pursue the accursed tyrant. 18.23. But the sons of Abraham with their victorious mother are gathered together into the chorus of the fathers, and have received pure and immortal souls from God
30. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 3.4-3.7, 6.2-6.15, 6.22-6.26, 7.10-7.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.4. but because they worshiped God and conducted themselves by his law, they kept their separateness with respect to foods. For this reason they appeared hateful to some; 3.5. but since they adorned their style of life with the good deeds of upright people, they were established in good repute among all men. 3.6. Nevertheless those of other races paid no heed to their good service to their nation, which was common talk among all; 3.7. instead they gossiped about the differences in worship and foods, alleging that these people were loyal neither to the king nor to his authorities, but were hostile and greatly opposed to his government. So they attached no ordinary reproach to them. 6.2. King of great power, Almighty God Most High, governing all creation with mercy 6.2. Even the king began to shudder bodily, and he forgot his sullen insolence. 6.3. look upon the descendants of Abraham, O Father, upon the children of the sainted Jacob, a people of your consecrated portion who are perishing as foreigners in a foreign land. 6.3. Then the king, when he had returned to the city, summoned the official in charge of the revenues and ordered him to provide to the Jews both wines and everything else needed for a festival of seven days, deciding that they should celebrate their rescue with all joyfulness in that same place in which they had expected to meet their destruction. 6.4. Pharaoh with his abundance of chariots, the former ruler of this Egypt, exalted with lawless insolence and boastful tongue, you destroyed together with his arrogant army by drowning them in the sea, manifesting the light of your mercy upon the nation of Israel. 6.4. Then they feasted, provided with everything by the king, until the fourteenth day, on which also they made the petition for their dismissal. 6.5. Sennacherib exulting in his countless forces, oppressive king of the Assyrians, who had already gained control of the whole world by the spear and was lifted up against your holy city, speaking grievous words with boasting and insolence, you, O Lord, broke in pieces, showing your power to many nations. 6.6. The three companions in Babylon who had voluntarily surrendered their lives to the flames so as not to serve vain things, you rescued unharmed, even to a hair, moistening the fiery furnace with dew and turning the flame against all their enemies. 6.7. Daniel, who through envious slanders was cast down into the ground to lions as food for wild beasts, you brought up to the light unharmed. 6.8. And Jonah, wasting away in the belly of a huge, sea-born monster, you, Father, watched over and restored unharmed to all his family. 6.9. And now, you who hate insolence, all-merciful and protector of all, reveal yourself quickly to those of the nation of Israel -- who are being outrageously treated by the abominable and lawless Gentiles. 6.11. Let not the vain-minded praise their vanities at the destruction of your beloved people, saying, `Not even their god has rescued them.' 6.12. But you, O Eternal One, who have all might and all power, watch over us now and have mercy upon us who by the senseless insolence of the lawless are being deprived of life in the manner of traitors. 6.13. And let the Gentiles cower today in fear of your invincible might, O honored One, who have power to save the nation of Jacob. 6.14. The whole throng of infants and their parents entreat you with tears. 6.15. Let it be shown to all the Gentiles that you are with us, O Lord, and have not turned your face from us; but just as you have said, `Not even when they were in the land of their enemies did I neglect them,' so accomplish it, O Lord. 6.22. Then the king's anger was turned to pity and tears because of the things that he had devised beforehand. 6.23. For when he heard the shouting and saw them all fallen headlong to destruction, he wept and angrily threatened his friends, saying 6.24. You are committing treason and surpassing tyrants in cruelty; and even me, your benefactor, you are now attempting to deprive of dominion and life by secretly devising acts of no advantage to the kingdom. 6.25. Who is it that has taken each man from his home and senselessly gathered here those who faithfully have held the fortresses of our country? 6.26. Who is it that has so lawlessly encompassed with outrageous treatment those who from the beginning differed from all nations in their goodwill toward us and often have accepted willingly the worst of human dangers? 7.11. For they declared that those who for the belly's sake had transgressed the divine commandments would never be favorably disposed toward the king's government. 7.12. The king then, admitting and approving the truth of what they said, granted them a general license so that freely and without royal authority or supervision they might destroy those everywhere in his kingdom who had transgressed the law of God. 7.13. When they had applauded him in fitting manner, their priests and the whole multitude shouted the Hallelujah and joyfully departed. 7.14. And so on their way they punished and put to a public and shameful death any whom they met of their fellow-countrymen who had become defiled. 7.15. In that day they put to death more than three hundred men; and they kept the day as a joyful festival, since they had destroyed the profaners.
31. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.175-3.190, 3.635-3.643, 3.780-3.786 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)

3.175. 175 And with Peneus mixed pours in the sea 3.176. Its water, and men call it Stygian. 3.177. But when the Titans heard that there were son 3.178. Kept secretly, whom Cronos and his wife 3.179. Rhea begat, then Titan sixty youth 3.180. 180 Together gathered, and held fast in chain 3.181. Cronos and his wife Rhea, and concealed 3.182. Them in the earth and guarded them in bonds. 3.183. And then the sons of powerful Cronos heard 3.184. And a great war and uproar they aroused. 3.185. 185 And this is the beginning of dire war 3.186. Among all mortals. [For it is indeed 3.187. With mortals the prime origin of war.] 3.188. And then did God award the Titans evil. 3.189. And all of Titans and of Cronos born 3.190. 190 Died. But then as time rolled around there rose 3.635. 635 Woe, woe to thee, O Crete! To thee shall come 3.636. A very painful stroke, and terribly 3.637. Shall the Eternal sack thee; and again 3.638. Shall every land behold thee black with smoke 3.639. Fire ne'er shall leave thee, but thou shalt be burned. 3.780. 780 For land and trees and countless flocks of sheep 3.781. Their genuine fruit to men shall offer–wine 3.782. And the sweet honey, and white milk, and wheat 3.783. Which is for mortals of all things the best. 3.784. But thou, O mortal full of various wiles
32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 135 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

135. But he asserts that the formation of the individual man, perceptible by the external senses is a composition of earthy substance, and divine spirit. For that the body was created by the Creator taking a lump of clay, and fashioning the human form out of it; but that the soul proceeds from no created thing at all, but from the Father and Ruler of all things. For when he uses the expression, "he breathed into," etc., he means nothing else than the divine spirit proceeding form that happy and blessed nature, sent to take up its habitation here on earth, for the advantage of our race, in order that, even if man is mortal according to that portion of him which is visible, he may at all events be immortal according to that portion which is invisible; and for this reason, one may properly say that man is on the boundaries of a better and an immortal nature, partaking of each as far as it is necessary for him; and that he was born at the same time, both mortal and the immortal. Mortal as to his body, but immortal as to his intellect. XLVII.
33. Anon., 2 Baruch, 51.11-51.12, 54.15-54.16, 70.7, 73.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

34. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.3.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

35. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 9.169, 18.118-18.119 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.169. for when God had appointed him to prophesy, he stood in the midst of the multitude, and gave this counsel to them and to the king: That they should act righteously; and foretold to them, that if they would not hearken to his admonitions, they should suffer a heavy punishment. But as Zechariah was ready to die, he appealed to God as a witness of what he suffered for the good counsel he had given them, and how he perished after a most severe and violent manner for the good deeds his father had done to Jehoash. 18.118. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. 18.119. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God’s displeasure to him.
36. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.151-2.155, 3.374 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.151. They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet; nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They condemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; 2.152. and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legislator, or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could they not be made to do either of them, no, nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; 2.153. but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again. 2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.155. but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinions of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never-ceasing punishments. 3.374. Do not you know that those who depart out of this life, according to the law of nature, and pay that debt which was received from God, when he that lent it us is pleased to require it back again, enjoy eternal fame? that their houses and their posterity are sure, that their souls are pure and obedient, and obtain a most holy place in heaven, from whence, in the revolution of ages, they are again sent into pure bodies;
37. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.218, 2.233-2.234 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.218. but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before. 2.233. Now I think, those that have conquered us have put us to such deaths, not out of their hatred to us when they had subdued us, but rather out of their desire of seeing a surprising sight, which is this, whether there be such men in the world who believe that no evil is to them so great as to be compelled to do or to speak any thing contrary to their own laws. 2.234. Nor ought men to wonder at us, if we are more courageous in dying for our laws than all other men are; for other men do not easily submit to the easier things in which we are instituted; I mean, working with our hands, and eating but little, and being contented to eat and drink, not at random, or at every one’s pleasure, or being under inviolable rules in lying with our wives, in magnificent furniture, and again in the observation of our times of rest;
38. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”"
39. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.1-3.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.1. But know this, that in the last days, grievous times will come. 3.2. For men will be lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy 3.3. without natural affection, unforgiving, slanderers, without self-control, fierce, no lovers of good 3.4. traitors, headstrong, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God;
40. New Testament, Acts, 1.6-1.7, 2.36, 3.17, 7.52, 10.42, 14.22, 17.30-17.31, 23.6, 24.15, 26.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.6. Therefore, when they had come together, they asked him, "Lord, are you now restoring the kingdom to Israel? 1.7. He said to them, "It isn't for you to know times or seasons which the Father has set within His own authority. 2.36. Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified. 3.17. Now, brothers, I know that you did this in ignorance, as did also your rulers. 7.52. Which of the prophets didn't your fathers persecute? They killed those who foretold the coming of the Righteous One, of whom you have now become betrayers and murderers. 10.42. He charged us to preach to the people and to testify that this is he who is appointed by God as the Judge of the living and the dead. 14.22. confirming the souls of the disciples, exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that through many afflictions we must enter into the Kingdom of God. 17.30. The times of ignorance therefore God overlooked. But now he commands that all men everywhere should repent 17.31. because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom he has ordained; whereof he has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead. 23.6. But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, "Men and brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. Concerning the hope and resurrection of the dead I am being judged! 24.15. having hope toward God, which these also themselves look for, that there will be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust. 26.23. how the Christ must suffer, and how he first by the resurrection of the dead should proclaim light both to these people and to the Gentiles.
41. New Testament, Hebrews, 11.7-11.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.7. By faith, Noah, being warned about things not yet seen, moved with godly fear, prepared an ark for the saving of his house, through which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is according to faith. 11.8. By faith, Abraham, when he was called, obeyed to go out to the place which he was to receive for an inheritance. He went out, not knowing where he went. 11.9. By faith, he lived as an alien in the land of promise, as in a land not his own, dwelling in tents, with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise. 11.10. For he looked for the city which has the foundations, whose builder and maker is God. 11.11. By faith, even Sarah herself received power to conceive, and she bore a child when she was past age, since she counted him faithful who had promised. 11.12. Therefore as many as the stars of the sky in multitude, and as innumerable as the sand which is by the sea shore, were fathered by one man, and him as good as dead. 11.13. These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them and embraced them from afar, and having confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth. 11.14. For those who say such things make it clear that they are seeking after a country of their own. 11.15. If indeed they had been thinking of that country from which they went out, they would have had enough time to return. 11.16. But now they desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore God is not ashamed of them, to be called their God, for he has prepared a city for them. 11.17. By faith, Abraham, being tested, offered up Isaac. Yes, he who had gladly received the promises was offering up his one and only son; 11.18. even he to whom it was said, "In Isaac will your seed be called; 11.19. accounting that God is able to raise up even from the dead. Figuratively speaking, he also did receive him back from the dead. 11.20. By faith, Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau, even concerning things to come. 11.21. By faith, Jacob, when he was dying, blessed each of the sons of Joseph, and worshiped, leaning on the top of his staff. 11.22. By faith, Joseph, when his end was near, made mention of the departure of the children of Israel; and gave instructions concerning his bones.
42. New Testament, Romans, 7.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.23. but I see a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity under the law of sin which is in my members.
43. New Testament, Luke, 4.14-4.22, 6.21-6.26, 10.13, 11.31-11.32, 14.14, 17.26-17.37, 18.29-18.30, 20.27-20.38, 21.9-21.26, 21.28, 21.34, 21.36, 22.28-22.30, 23.28-23.31, 24.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.14. Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 10.13. Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon which were done in you, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 11.31. The Queen of the South will rise up in the judgment with the men of this generation, and will condemn them: for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, one greater than Solomon is here. 11.32. The men of Nineveh will stand up in the judgment with this generation, and will condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonah, and behold, one greater than Jonah is here. 14.14. and you will be blessed, because they don't have the resources to repay you. For you will be repaid in the resurrection of the righteous. 17.26. As it happened in the days of Noah, even so will it be also in the days of the Son of Man. 17.27. They ate, they drank, they married, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all. 17.28. Likewise, even as it happened in the days of Lot: they ate, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they built; 17.29. but in the day that Lot went out from Sodom, it rained fire and sulfur from the sky, and destroyed them all. 17.30. It will be the same way in the day that the Son of Man is revealed. 17.31. In that day, he who will be on the housetop, and his goods in the house, let him not go down to take them away. Let him who is in the field likewise not turn back. 17.32. Remember Lot's wife! 17.33. Whoever seeks to save his life loses it, but whoever loses his life preserves it. 17.34. I tell you, in that night there will be two people in one bed. The one will be taken, and the other will be left. 17.35. There will be two women grinding together. The one will be taken, and the other will be left. 17.37. They answering, asked him, "Where, Lord?"He said to them, "Where the body is, there will the vultures also be gathered together. 18.29. He said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or wife, or brothers, or parents, or children, for the Kingdom of God's sake 18.30. who will not receive many times more in this time, and in the world to come, eternal life. 20.27. Some of the Sadducees came to him, those who deny that there is a resurrection. 20.28. They asked him, "Teacher, Moses wrote to us that if a man's brother dies having a wife, and he is childless, his brother should take the wife, and raise up children for his brother. 20.29. There were therefore seven brothers. The first took a wife, and died childless. 20.30. The second took her as wife, and he died childless. 20.31. The third took her, and likewise the seven all left no children, and died. 20.32. Afterward the woman also died. 20.33. Therefore in the resurrection whose wife of them will she be? For the seven had her as a wife. 20.34. Jesus said to them, "The sons of this age marry, and are given in marriage. 20.35. But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage. 20.36. For they can't die any more, for they are like the angels, and are sons of God, being sons of the resurrection. 20.37. But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord 'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' 20.38. Now he is not the God of the dead, but of the living, for all are alive to him. 21.9. When you hear of wars and disturbances, don't be terrified, for these things must happen first, but the end won't come immediately. 21.10. Then he said to them, "Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. 21.11. There will be great earthquakes, famines, and plagues in various places. There will be terrors and great signs from heaven. 21.12. But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and will persecute you, delivering you up to synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name's sake. 21.13. It will turn out as a testimony for you. 21.14. Settle it therefore in your hearts not to meditate beforehand how to answer 21.15. for I will give you a mouth and wisdom which all your adversaries will not be able to withstand or to contradict. 21.16. You will be handed over even by parents, brothers, relatives, and friends. Some of you they will cause to be put to death. 21.17. You will be hated by all men for my name's sake. 21.18. Not a hair of your head will perish. 21.19. By your endurance you will win your lives. 21.20. But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation is at hand. 21.21. Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains. Let those who are in the midst of her depart. Let those who are in the country not enter therein. 21.22. For these are days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled. 21.23. Woe to those who are pregt and to those who nurse infants in those days! For there will be great distress in the land, and wrath to this people. 21.24. They will fall by the edge of the sword, and will be led captive into all the nations. Jerusalem will be trampled down by the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled. 21.25. There will be signs in the sun, moon, and stars; and on the earth anxiety of nations, in perplexity for the roaring of the sea and the waves; 21.26. men fainting for fear, and for expectation of the things which are coming on the world: for the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 21.28. But when these things begin to happen, look up, and lift up your heads, because your redemption is near. 21.34. So be careful, or your hearts will be loaded down with carousing, drunkenness, and cares of this life, and that day will come on you suddenly. 21.36. Therefore be watchful all the time, asking that you may be counted worthy to escape all these things that will happen, and to stand before the Son of Man. 22.28. But you are those who have continued with me in my trials. 22.29. I confer on you a kingdom, even as my Father conferred on me 22.30. that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom. You will sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 23.28. But Jesus, turning to them, said, "Daughters of Jerusalem, don't weep for me, but weep for yourselves and for your children. 23.29. For behold, the days are coming in which they will say, 'Blessed are the barren, the wombs that never bore, and the breasts that never nursed.' 23.30. Then they will begin to tell the mountains, 'Fall on us!' and to the hills, 'Cover us.' 23.31. For if they do these things in the green tree, what will be done in the dry? 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened.
44. New Testament, Mark, 10.29-10.30, 12.24-12.27, 13.12-13.13, 13.19-13.20, 13.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.29. Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or land, for my sake, and for the gospel's sake 10.30. but he will receive one hundred times more now in this time, houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life. 12.24. Jesus answered them, "Isn't this because you are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God? 12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 12.26. But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' 12.27. He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You are therefore badly mistaken. 13.12. Brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his child. Children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death. 13.13. You will be hated by all men for my name's sake, but he who endures to the end, the same will be saved. 13.19. For in those days there will be oppression, such as there has not been the like from the beginning of the creation which God created until now, and never will be. 13.20. Unless the Lord had shortened the days, no flesh would have been saved; but for the elect's sake, whom he chose, he shortened the days. 13.24. But in those days, after that oppression, the sun will be darkened, the moon will not give its light
45. New Testament, Matthew, 2.6, 5.3-5.12, 5.17, 10.6, 10.15, 10.21-10.23, 11.22-11.24, 12.36-12.37, 12.41-12.42, 19.28-19.29, 22.29-22.33, 24.7-24.14, 24.19, 24.21-24.22, 25.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.6. 'You Bethlehem, land of Judah, Are in no way least among the princes of Judah: For out of you shall come forth a governor, Who shall shepherd my people, Israel.' 5.3. Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.4. Blessed are those who mourn, For they shall be comforted. 5.5. Blessed are the gentle, For they shall inherit the earth. 5.6. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, For they shall be filled. 5.7. Blessed are the merciful, For they shall obtain mercy. 5.8. Blessed are the pure in heart, For they shall see God. 5.9. Blessed are the peacemakers, For they shall be called sons of God. 5.10. Blessed are those who have been persecuted for righteousness' sake, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.11. Blessed are you when people reproach you, persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 5.12. Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven. For that is how they persecuted the prophets who were before you. 5.17. Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 10.6. Rather, go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 10.15. Most assuredly I tell you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for that city. 10.21. Brother will deliver up brother to death, and the father his child. Children will rise up against parents, and cause them to be put to death. 10.22. You will be hated by all men for my name's sake, but he who endures to the end will be saved. 10.23. But when they persecute you in this city, flee into the next, for most assuredly I tell you, you will not have gone through the cities of Israel, until the Son of Man has come. 11.22. But I tell you, it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon on the day of judgment than for you. 11.23. You, Capernaum, who are exalted to Heaven, you will go down to Hades. For if the mighty works had been done in Sodom which were done in you, it would have remained until this day. 11.24. But I tell you that it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom, on the day of judgment, than for you. 12.36. I tell you that every idle word that men speak, they will give account of it in the day of judgment. 12.37. For by your words you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned. 12.41. The men of Nineveh will stand up in the judgment with this generation, and will condemn it, for they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, someone greater than Jonah is here. 12.42. The queen of the south will rise up in the judgment with this generation, and will condemn it, for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, someone greater than Solomon is here. 19.28. Jesus said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you that you who have followed me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man will sit on the throne of his glory, you also will sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 19.29. Everyone who has left houses, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name's sake, will receive one hundred times, and will inherit eternal life. 22.29. But Jesus answered them, "You are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God. 22.30. For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like God's angels in heaven. 22.31. But concerning the resurrection of the dead, haven't you read that which was spoken to you by God, saying 22.32. 'I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' God is not the God of the dead, but of the living. 22.33. When the multitudes heard it, they were astonished at his teaching. 24.7. For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; and there will be famines, plagues, and earthquakes in various places. 24.8. But all these things are the beginning of birth pains. 24.9. Then they will deliver you up to oppression, and will kill you. You will be hated by all of the nations for my name's sake. 24.10. Then many will stumble, and will deliver up one another, and will hate one another. 24.11. Many false prophets will arise, and will lead many astray. 24.12. Because iniquity will be multiplied, the love of many will grow cold. 24.13. But he who endures to the end, the same will be saved. 24.14. This gospel of the kingdom will be preached in the whole world for a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will come. 24.19. But woe to those who are with child and to nursing mothers in those days! 24.21. for then there will be great oppression, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, nor ever will be. 24.22. Unless those days had been shortened, no flesh would have been saved. But for the elect's sake, those days will be shortened. 25.46. These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.
46. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 3.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. 2 So after this all the crowd, wondering at the nobility of the God-loving and God-fearing people of the Christians, cried out: "Away with the Atheists; let Polycarp be searched for.
47. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 1.16 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.16. חַד מִתַּלְמִידוֹי דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֲוָה יָתֵיב קוֹמֵיהּ מִיסְבַּר לֵיהּ וְלָא סְבַר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה לֵית אַתְּ סָבַר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלַת מִילִין קַשְׁיָן חֲמֵית בַּהֲדֵין לֵילְיָא וְלֵית אֲנָא יָדַע מָה אִינוּן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵימָא לִי מָה אִינוּן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי דְּאָמְרִין לִי בַּאֲדָר אַתְּ מַיְית, וְנִיסָן לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי, וְזָרַע וְלָא חָצַד. אֲמַר לֵיהּ תְּלָתֵיהוֹן הֵן טָבִין, בַּאֲדָר אַתְּ מַיְית, בְּהִדּוּרָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אַתְּ מַיְית, [פרוש מתגבר], וְנִיסָן לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי, נִסְיוֹנִין לֵית אַתְּ חָמֵי. וְזָרַע וְלָא חֲצָד, מַה דִּילֵידִית לֵית אַתְּ קָבֵיר. אֲמַר לוֹ חוֹרָן חֲמֵית בְּחֶלְמִי דְּלָא הֲוָה בְּרַגְלִי פְּטִישׁ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ חַיֶּיךָ לֵית הָא בִּישָׁא אֶלָּא טָבָא, דְּמָטֵי חַגָּא וְלָא הֲוָה לֵיהּ לְהַהוּא גַבְרָא כְּלוּם, מִן הָן יְלִיף רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, רֶגֶל בְּרָגֶל.
48. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61b. ריאה שואבת כל מיני משקין כבד כועס מרה זורקת בו טפה ומניחתו טחול שוחק קרקבן טוחן קיבה ישנה אף נעור נעור הישן ישן הנעור נמוק והולך לו תנא אם שניהם ישנים או שניהם נעורים מיד מת,תניא רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר צדיקים יצר טוב שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, כב) ולבי חלל בקרבי רשעים יצר רע שופטן שנאמר (תהלים לו, ב) נאם פשע לרשע בקרב לבי אין פחד אלהים לנגד עיניו בינונים זה וזה שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, לא) יעמוד לימין אביון להושיע משופטי נפשו,אמר רבא כגון אנו בינונים אמר ליה אביי לא שביק מר חיי לכל בריה,ואמר רבא לא איברי עלמא אלא לרשיעי גמורי או לצדיקי גמורי אמר רבא לידע אינש בנפשיה אם צדיק גמור הוא אם לאו אמר רב לא איברי עלמא אלא לאחאב בן עמרי ולר' חנינא בן דוסא לאחאב בן עמרי העולם הזה ולרבי חנינא בן דוסא העולם הבא:,ואהבת את י"י אלהיך: תניא ר' אליעזר אומר אם נאמר בכל נפשך למה נאמר בכל מאדך ואם נאמר בכל מאדך למה נאמר בכל נפשך אלא אם יש לך אדם שגופו חביב עליו מממונו לכך נאמר בכל נפשך ואם יש לך אדם שממונו חביב עליו מגופו לכך נאמר בכל מאדך רבי עקיבא אומר בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נפשך,תנו רבנן פעם אחת גזרה מלכות הרשעה שלא יעסקו ישראל בתורה בא פפוס בן יהודה ומצאו לרבי עקיבא שהיה מקהיל קהלות ברבים ועוסק בתורה אמר ליה עקיבא אי אתה מתירא מפני מלכות,אמר לו אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשועל שהיה מהלך על גב הנהר וראה דגים שהיו מתקבצים ממקום למקום אמר להם מפני מה אתם בורחים אמרו לו מפני רשתות שמביאין עלינו בני אדם אמר להם רצונכם שתעלו ליבשה ונדור אני ואתם כשם שדרו אבותי עם אבותיכם אמרו לו אתה הוא שאומרים עליך פקח שבחיות לא פקח אתה אלא טפש אתה ומה במקום חיותנו אנו מתיראין במקום מיתתנו על אחת כמה וכמה אף אנחנו עכשיו שאנו יושבים ועוסקים בתורה שכתוב בה (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כך אם אנו הולכים ומבטלים ממנה עאכ"ו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שתפסוהו לר"ע וחבשוהו בבית האסורים ותפסו לפפוס בן יהודה וחבשוהו אצלו אמר לו פפוס מי הביאך לכאן אמר ליה אשריך רבי עקיבא שנתפסת על דברי תורה אוי לו לפפוס שנתפס על דברים בטלים,בשעה שהוציאו את ר' עקיבא להריגה זמן ק"ש היה והיו סורקים את בשרו במסרקות של ברזל והיה מקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו עד כאן אמר להם כל ימי הייתי מצטער על פסוק זה בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נשמתך אמרתי מתי יבא לידי ואקיימנו ועכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו היה מאריך באחד עד שיצתה נשמתו באחד יצתה ב"ק ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שיצאה נשמתך באחד,אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה זו תורה וזו שכרה (תהלים יז, יד) ממתים ידך י"י ממתים וגו' אמר להם חלקם בחיים יצתה בת קול ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שאתה מזומן לחיי העוה"ב:,לא יקל אדם את ראשו כנגד שער המזרח שהוא מכוון כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים וכו': אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה איתמר נמי א"ר אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי יוחנן לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה ובשאין גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה,ת"ר הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל לא יפנה אלא מזרח ומערב ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה ר' יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה ובמקום שאין שם גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה וחכמים אוסרים,חכמים היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו צדדין,תניא אידך הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל צפון ודרום אסור מזרח ומערב מותר ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה רבי יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה רבי יהודה אומר בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אסור בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מותר רבי עקיבא אוסר בכל מקום,רבי עקיבא היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו חוץ לארץ,רבה הוו שדיין ליה לבני מזרח ומערב אזל אביי שדנהו צפון ודרום על רבה תרצנהו אמר מאן האי דקמצער לי אנא כר' עקיבא סבירא לי דאמר בכל מקום אסור: 61b. and the blungs draw all kinds of liquids,the bliver becomes angry,the bgallbladder binjects a dropof gall bintothe liver and ballaysanger, the bspleen laughs,the bmaw grindsthe food, and the bstomachbrings bsleep,the bnose awakens.If they reversed roles such that btheorgan which brings on bsleepwere to bawaken,or btheorgan which bawakenswere to bring on bsleep,the individual bwould gradually deteriorate. It was taught: If bothbring on bsleep or both awaken,the person bimmediately dies. /b,With regard to one’s inclinations, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The good inclination rules the righteous, as it is stated: “And my heart is dead within me”(Psalms 109:22); the evil inclination has been completely banished from his heart. The bevil inclination rules the wicked, as it is stated: “Transgression speaks to the wicked, there is no fear of God before his eyes”(Psalms 36:2). bMiddling people are ruled by boththe good and evil inclinations, bas it is stated: “Because He stands at the right hand of the needy, to save him from them that rule his soul”(Psalms 109:31)., bRabba said:People blike usare bmiddling. Abaye,his student and nephew, bsaid to him:If bthe Masterclaims that he is merely middling, he bdoes not leaveroom for bany creature to live.If a person like you is middling, what of the rest of us?, bAnd Rava said: The world was created only forthe sake of bthe full-fledged wicked or the full-fledged righteous;others do not live complete lives in either world. bRava said: One should know of himself whether or not he is completely righteous,as if he is not completely righteous, he knows that his life will be a life of suffering. bRav said: The world was only created forthe wicked bAhab ben Omri and for Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa.The Gemara explains: For bAhab ben Omri, this worldwas created, as he has no place in the World-to-Come, bandfor bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, the World-to-Comewas created.,We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: b“And you shall love the Lord your Godwith all your heart and all your soul and all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when bit was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: “With all your soul,” why does it state: “With all your might”?Conversely, bif it stated: “With all your might,” why does it state: “With all your soul”? Rather,this means that bif one’s body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: “With all your soul”;one must give his soul in sanctification of God. bAnd if one’s money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: “With all your might”;with all your assets. bRabbi Akiva says: “With all your soul”means: bEven ifGod btakes your soul. /b,The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. bThe Sages taught: One time,after the bar Kokheva rebellion, bthe evil empireof Rome bdecreed that Israel may not engage inthe study and practice of bTorah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torahstudy. Pappos bsaid to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire? /b,Rabbi Akiva banswered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared?It is like ba fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gatheringand fleeing bfrom place to place. brThe fox bsaid to them: From what are you fleeing? br bThey said to him:We are fleeing bfrom the nets that people cast upon us. br bHe said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors? brThe fish bsaid to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid inthe water, bournatural bhabitatwhich gives us blife,then bin a habitatthat causes our bdeath, all the more so. brThe moral is: bSo too, weJews, bnow that we sit and engage in Torahstudy, babout which it is written: “For that is your life, and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire bto this extent; if we proceed tosit bidle from itsstudy, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, ball the more sowill we fear the empire.,The Sages bsaid: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him.Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: Pappos, who brought you here?Pappos breplied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested onthe charge of engaging in bTorahstudy. bWoe unto Pappos who was seized onthe charge of engaging in bidle matters. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of iShema /i. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he wasreciting iShema /i, thereby baccepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now,as you suffer, you recite iShema /i? bHe said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul,meaning: bEven if God takes your soul. I saidto myself: bWhen will theopportunity bbe afforded me to fulfill thisverse? bNow that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolongedhis uttering of the word: bOne, until his soul lefthis body as he uttered his final word: bOne. A voice descendedfrom heaven band said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul leftyour body basyou uttered: bOne. /b, bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: This is Torah and this its reward?As it is stated: b“From death, by Your hand, O Lord, from deathof the world” (Psalms 17:14); Your hand, God, kills and does not save. God bsaidthe end of the verse btothe ministering angels: b“Whose portion is in this life.”And then ba Divine Voice emerged and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, as you are destined for life in the World-to-Come,as your portion is already in eternal life.,We learned in the mishna that bone may not act irreverently opposite the Eastern Gate, which is aligned with the Holy of Holies.Limiting this ihalakha /i, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to irreverent behavior bfromMount bScopus [ iTzofim /i] and within, andspecifically areas from where bone can seethe Temple. bIt is also stated: Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said: Rabbi Yoḥa said the following: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to Mount bScopus and within,when bone can see, and when there is no fenceobstructing his view, band when the Divine Presence is restingthere, i.e., when the Temple is standing.,In this context, bthe Sages taught: One who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west,for then he is facing Jerusalem; bratherhe should do so bfacing north and south. But in the Galileewhich is north of Jerusalem, bone should only defecatefacing beast and west. Rabbi Yosei permitsdoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple, bwhere there is no fence, and when the Divine Presence is restingthere. bAnd the Rabbis prohibitdoing so.,The Gemara argues: But the opinion of the bRabbis,who prohibit this, bisidentical to that of the bfirstanonymous itanna, /iwho also prohibits doing so. The Gemara replies: The practical difference bbetween them iswith regard to bthe sides,i.e., a place in Judea that is not directly east or west of Jerusalem, or a place in the Galilee that is not directly north of Jerusalem. According to the first itanna /i, it is prohibited; according to the Rabbis, it is permitted., bIt was taughtin banother ibaraita /i: bOne who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west; rather,he should only do so facing bnorth and south. And in the Galilee,defecating while facing bnorth and south is prohibited,while beast and west is permitted. And Rabbi Yosei permitteddoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple. bRabbi Yehuda says: When the Temple is standing, it is prohibited,but bwhen the Temple is not standing, it is permitted.The Gemara adds that bRabbi Akiva prohibitsdefecating banywherewhile facing east and west.,The Gemara challenges this: bRabbi Akiva’sposition bis identical tothat of bthe first,anonymous itanna /i,who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara responds: The practical difference bbetween themis with regard to places boutside of EretzYisrael b,as according to Rabbi Akiva, even outside of Eretz Yisrael, defecating while facing east and west is prohibited.,The Gemara relates that in bRabba’sbathroom, bthe bricks were placed east and westin order to ensure that he would defecate facing north and south. bAbaye wentand bplaced them north and south,to test if Rabba was particular about their direction or if they had simply been placed east and west incidentally. bRabba enteredand bfixed them. He said: Who is the one that is upsetting me? I hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva,who bsaid: It is prohibited everywhere. /b
49. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

86a. חוץ (שמות כ, ו) מלא תשא לא תשא וכל דדמי ליה,ת"ש ר' יהודה אומר כל שהוא מלא תשא ולמטה תשובה מכפרת מלא תשא ולמעלה תשובה תולה ויוה"כ מכפר לא תשא וכל דדמי ליה,ת"ש לפי שנאמר בחורב תשובה ונקה יכול אף לא תשא עמהן ת"ל (שמות לד, ז) לא ינקה יכול אף שאר חייבי לאוין כן ת"ל את שמו שמו הוא דאינו מנקה אבל מנקה שאר חייבי לאוין,תנאי היא דתניא על מה תשובה מכפרת על עשה ועל לא תעשה שניתק לעשה ועל מה תשובה תולה ויוה"כ מכפר על כריתות ועל מיתות בית דין ועל לא תעשה גמור,אמר מר לפי שנאמר בחורב ונקה מנא לן דתניא ר' אלעזר אומר אי אפשר לומר נקה שכבר נאמר לא ינקה ואי אפשר לומר לא ינקה שכבר נאמר נקה הא כיצד מנקה הוא לשבין ואינו מנקה לשאינן שבין,שאל ר' מתיא בן חרש את ר' אלעזר בן עזריה ברומי שמעת ארבע' חלוקי כפרה שהיה רבי ישמעאל דורש אמר שלשה הן ותשובה עם כל אחד ואחד,עבר על עשה ושב אינו זז משם עד שמוחלין לו שנאמר (ירמיהו ג, יד) שובו בנים שובבים עבר על לא תעשה ועשה תשובה תשובה תולה ויוה"כ מכפר שנאמר (ויקרא טז, ל) כי ביום הזה יכפר עליכם מכל חטאתיכם עבר על כריתות ומיתות בית דין ועשה תשובה תשובה ויוה"כ תולין ויסורין ממרקין שנאמר (תהלים פט, לג) ופקדתי בשבט פשעם ובנגעים עונם,אבל מי שיש חילול השם בידו אין לו כח בתשובה לתלות ולא ביוה"כ לכפר ולא ביסורין למרק אלא כולן תולין ומיתה ממרקת שנאמר (ישעיהו כב, יד) ונגלה באזני ה' צבאות אם יכופר העון הזה לכם עד תמותון,היכי דמי חילול השם אמר רב כגון אנא אי שקילנא בישרא מטבחא ולא יהיבנא דמי לאלתר אמר אביי לא שנו אלא באתרא דלא תבעי אבל באתרא דתבעי לית לן בה,אמר רבינא ומתא מחסיא אתרא דתבעי הוא אביי כדשקיל בישרא מתרי שותפי יהיב זוזא להאי וזוזא להאי והדר מקרב להו גבי הדדי ועביד חושבנא,רבי יוחנן אמר כגון אנא דמסגינא ארבע אמות בלא תורה ובלא תפילין יצחק דבי ר' ינאי אמר כל שחביריו מתביישין מחמת שמועתו (היינו חילול השם) אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק כגון דקא אמרי אינשי שרא ליה מריה לפלניא,אביי אמר כדתניא (דברים ו, ה) ואהבת את ה' אלהיך שיהא שם שמים מתאהב על ידך שיהא קורא ושונה ומשמש ת"ח ויהא משאו ומתנו בנחת עם הבריות מה הבריות אומרות עליו אשרי אביו שלמדו תורה אשרי רבו שלמדו תורה אוי להם לבריות שלא למדו תורה פלוני שלמדו תורה ראו כמה נאים דרכיו כמה מתוקנים מעשיו עליו הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו מט, ג) ויאמר לי עבדי אתה ישראל אשר בך אתפאר,אבל מי שקורא ושונה ומשמש ת"ח ואין משאו ומתנו באמונה ואין דבורו בנחת עם הבריות מה הבריות אומרות עליו אוי לו לפלוני שלמד תורה אוי לו לאביו שלמדו תורה אוי לו לרבו שלמדו תורה פלוני שלמד תורה ראו כמה מקולקלין מעשיו וכמה מכוערין דרכיו ועליו הכתוב אומר (יחזקאל לו, כ) באמור להם עם ה' אלה ומארצו יצאו,א"ר חמא (בר) חנינא גדולה תשובה שמביאה רפאות לעולם שנא' (הושע יד, ה) ארפא משובתם אוהבם נדבה,ר' חמא (בר) חנינא רמי כתיב (ירמיהו ג, יד) שובו בנים שובבים דמעיקרא שובבים אתם וכתיב ארפא משובותיכם לא קשיא כאן מאהבה כאן מיראה,רב יהודה רמי כתיב שובו בנים שובבים ארפא משובותיכם וכתיב (ירמיהו ג, יד) (הנה) אנכי בעלתי בכם ולקחתי אתכם אחד מעיר ושנים ממשפחה ל"ק כאן מאהבה או מיראה כאן ע"י יסורין אמר רבי לוי גדולה תשובה שמגעת עד כסא הכבוד שנא' (הושע יד, ב) שובה ישראל עד ה' אלהיך 86a. bexcept for: “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” (Exodus 20:7), about which the Torah states: “For God will not absolve him who takes His name in vain” (Exodus 20:7). The Gemara answers: It is not that this is the only negative mitzva that is not a minor transgression; rather, it is: b“You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band anyprohibition bsimilar to it,meaning all severe prohibitions that carry punishment by a court.,The Gemara proposes: bComeand bhearfrom that which was taught: bRabbi Yehuda says:For banysin bfrom “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band below,i.e., prohibitions less severe than that, brepentance atones.For any sin bfrom “You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band above, repentance suspendspunishment band Yom Kippur atones.The Gemara rejects this: This does not constitute proof either, since one could say that it is referring to: b“You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” band anything similar to it. /b, bComeand bhearfrom a different source that was taught: bSince it was stated at Horebwith regard to brepentance: “Absolve,”one bmighthave thought that beventhe transgression of: b“You shall not takethe name of the Lord, your God, in vain” is included bamong them;therefore, bthe verses states: “Will not absolve”(Exodus 20:6). One bmighthave thought this is balsotrue bfor those who are liablefor violating ball other prohibitions;therefore, bthe verse states: “His name.”God bdoes not absolve the onewho disrespects bHis name, but He absolves those who are liablefor violating ball other prohibitionsand repent. This is proof that those who violate all other prohibitions are not comparable to one who violates: “You shall not take the name of the Lord, your God, in vain.”,The Gemara answers: bThis isa dispute between itanna’im /i, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFor what does repentance atone?It atones bfor a positivemitzva band for a negativemitzva that can be rectified bthrough a positive mitzva. And for what does repentance suspendpunishment band Yom Kippur atone?It is bforsins punishable by ikaret /i, and forsins punishable by the bdeathpenalty from the earthly bcourt, and for full-fledged negativemitzvot. This indicates that there is a itannawho distinguishes between prohibitions that warrant lashes and those that do not. Therefore, there is a tannaitic dispute as to whether or not prohibitions that warrant punishment by the courts can be rectified by repentance alone.,§ Since the Gemara cited this ibaraita /i, it now clarifies part of it. bThe Master said: Since it was stated at Horebwith regard to repentance: b“Absolve.”The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this concept that repentance was mentioned there? The Gemara answers: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Elazar says: It is not possible to say “absolve”(Exodus 34:7) about all transgressions, since b“will not absolve” is already stated(Exodus 34:7). bAnd it is not possible to say “will not absolve,”since b“absolve” is already stated. How so?The Holy One, Blessed be He, babsolves those who repent and does not absolve those who do not repent.Therefore, both “repentance” and “absolve” were mentioned at Horeb.,Furthermore, with regard to the topic of repentance, bRabbi Matya ben Ḥarash asked Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryawhen Rabbi Elazar was bin Rome: Have you heardthe teaching that there are bfour distinctionsin the process bof atonement that Rabbi Yishmael would derive? He said to him: They arenot four but bthreedistinctions, band repentanceis necessary bwith each one. /b,These are the categories: If bone violates a positivemitzva band repents, he is forgiven even before he movesfrom his place, i.e. immediately, bas it is stated: “Return, you backsliding children,I will heal your backsliding” (Jeremiah 3:22), implying that when one repents he is immediately forgiven. If bone violates a prohibition and repents, repentance suspendshis punishment band Yom Kippur atonesfor his sin, bas it is stated: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you,to purify you bfrom all your sins”(Leviticus 16:30). If bone commitsa transgression that warrants ikaretora sin punishable by bdeathfrom the earthly bcourt andthen brepents, repentance and Yom Kippur suspendhis punishment, band suffering absolvesand completes the atonement, bas it is stated: “Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with strokes”(Psalms 89:33)., bButin the case of bone who hascaused bdesecration ofGod’s bname, his repentance has no power to suspendpunishment, bnor does Yom Kippurhave power bto atonefor his sin, bnor does sufferingalone have power bto absolvehim. bRather, all these suspendpunishment, band death absolveshim, bas it is stated: “And the Lord of Hosts revealed Himself to my ears: This iniquity shall not be atoned for until you die”(Isaiah 22:14).,§ The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesthat cause bdesecration ofGod’s bname? Rav said: For example,in the case of someone like bme,since I am an important public figure, bif I take meat from a butcher and do not give him money immediately,people are likely to think that I did not mean to pay at all. They would consider me a thief and learn from my behavior that one is permitted to steal. bAbaye said: They taught thisstatement of Rav bonly in a place where they do not askfor the money, where it is not customary for the butcher himself to come and collect payment from the customer. When the customer does not pay immediately, people may suspect him of theft. bBut in a place where they askfor the money from the customer some time later, bwe have noproblem bwithdoing this. Since everyone understands he is buying on credit, he is not desecrating God’s name., bRavina said:My native bcityof bMeḥasya is a place where they askfor and collect the money. The Gemara relates that bwhen Abaye bought meat from two partners, he would give the money to this one and the money to this one,so that each would know that he had paid. bAnd afterward he would bring them together and perform the calculationto see whether he received his change., bRabbi Yoḥa said:What is an example of desecration of God’s name? bFor example,someone like bme, ifI would bwalk four cubits without Torah and without phylacteries,and the onlookers did not know that it is only on account of my body’s weakness, that would be a desecration of God’s name. bYitzḥak from the school of Rabbi Yannai said: Anycase when bone’s friends are embarrassed on account of his reputation,meaning his friends are embarrassed due to things they hear about him, bthis is a desecration ofGod’s bname. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:One creates a profanation of God’s name, bfor example, when people sayabout him: bMay his Master forgive so-and-sofor the sins he has done., bAbaye said: As it was taughtin a ibaraitathat it is stated: b“And you shall love the Lord your God”(Deuteronomy 6:5), which means bthat you shall make the name of Heaven beloved.How should one do so? One should do so bin that heshould breadTorah, band learnMishna, band serve Torah scholars, and he should be pleasant with people in his business transactions. What do people say aboutsuch a person? bFortunate is his father who taught him Torah, fortunate is his teacher who taught him Torah, woe to the people who have not studied Torah. So-and-so, who taught him Torah, see how pleasant are his ways, how proper are his deeds. The verse states about himand others like him: b“You are My servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified”(Isaiah 49:3)., bBut one who readsTorah, band learnsMishna, band serves Torah scholars, but his business practices are notdone bfaithfully, and he does not speak pleasantly with other people, what do people say about him? Woe to so-and-so who studied Torah, woe to his father who taught him Torah, woe to his teacher who taught him Torah. So-and-so who studied Torah, see how destructive are his deeds, and how ugly are his ways. About himand others like him bthe verse statesthat the gentiles will say: b“Men said of them: These are the people of the Lord, yet they had to leave His land”(Ezekiel 36:20). Through their sins and subsequent exile, such people have desecrated the name of God.,§ Further on the topic of repentance, bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: Great is repentance, as it brings healing to the world, as it is stated: “I will heal their backsliding, I will love them freely”(Hosea 14:5), which teaches that repentance from sin brings healing., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is writtenin one verse: b“Return, you backsliding children”(Jeremiah 3:14), implying that binitiallywhen you sinned, it was only because byou were backsliding,i.e., rebelling. It was merely an act of immaturity and foolishness and could be ignored as if it had never happened. bBut it is written: “I will heal your backsliding”(Jeremiah 3:22), implying that He will heal the sin from this point onward, and that they are still sinners. He resolved this contradiction, explaining that this is bnot difficult: Here,where everything is forgiven as if the Jewish people never sinned, it is referring to repentance bout of love; there,where the sin is still remembered despite the forgiveness and repentance, it is referring to repentance bout of fear. /b,Similarly, bRabbi Yehuda raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is written: “Return, you backsliding children I will heal your backsliding”(Jeremiah 3:22), implying that anyone can achieve healing, which is dependent only on repentance. But it also states: “Return, O backsliding children, says the Lord, bfor I am a lord to you, and I will take you one from a city, and two from a family”(Jeremiah 3:14), implying that repentance is available only to certain individuals. He resolved the contradiction and explained that this is bnot difficult: Here,it is referring to repentance bout of love or fear,which few people achieve; bthere,it referring is repentance bthrough suffering,as everyone has thoughts of repentance when they suffer. bRabbi Levi said: Great is repentance, as it reaches the heavenly throne, as it is stated: “Return, Israel, to the Lord your God”(Hosea 14:2). This implies that repentance literally reaches to God.
50. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 5 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

51. Anon., 4 Ezra, 5.1-5.12, 6.21-6.24, 7.70, 12.34, 13.30-13.31

5.1. Now concerning the signs: behold, the days are coming when those who dwell on earth shall be seized with great terror, and the way of truth shall be hidden, and the land shall be barren of faith. 5.2. And unrighteousness shall be increased beyond what you yourself see, and beyond what you heard of formerly. 5.3. And the land which you now see ruling shall be waste and untrodden, and men shall see it desolate. 5.4. But if the Most High grants that you live, you shall see it thrown into confusion after the third period; and the sun shall suddenly shine forth at night,and the moon during the day. 5.5. Blood shall drip from wood,and the stone shall utter its voice;the peoples shall be troubled, and the stars shall fall. 5.6. And one shall reign whom those who dwell on earth do not expect, and the birds shall fly away together; 5.7. and the sea of Sodom shall cast up fish; and one whom the many do not know shall make his voice heard by night, and all shall hear his voice. 5.8. There shall be chaos also in many places, and fire shall often break out, and the wild beasts shall roam beyond their haunts, and menstruous women shall bring forth monsters. 5.9. And salt waters shall be found in the sweet, and all friends shall conquer one another; then shall reason hide itself, and wisdom shall withdraw into its chamber 5.10. and it shall be sought by many but shall not be found, and unrighteousness and unrestraint shall increase on earth. 5.11. And one country shall ask its neighbor, `Has righteousness, or any one who does right, passed through you?' And it will answer, `No.' 5.12. And at that time men shall hope but not obtain; they shall labor but their ways shall not prosper. 6.21. Infants a year old shall speak with their voices, and women with child shall give birth to premature children at three and four months, and these shall live and dance. 6.22. Sown places shall suddenly appear unsown, and full storehouses shall suddenly be found to be empty; 6.23. and the trumpet shall sound aloud, and when all hear it, they shall suddenly be terrified. 6.24. At that time friends shall make war on friends like enemies, and the earth and those who inhabit it shall be terrified, and the springs of the fountains shall stand still, so that for three hours they shall not flow. 7.70. He answered me and said, "When the Most High made the world and Adam and all who have come from him, he first prepared the judgment and the things that pertain to the judgment. 12.34. But he will deliver in mercy the remt of my people, those who have been saved throughout my borders, and he will make them joyful until the end comes, the day of judgment, of which I spoke to you at the beginning. 13.30. And bewilderment of mind shall come over those who dwell on the earth. 13.31. And they shall plan to make war against one another, city against city, place against place, people against people, and kingdom against kingdom.
52. Anon., Assumption of Moses, 9

53. Anon., Leges Publicae, 1.16

54. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 7.1, 8.5

55. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 129-170, 128

128. It is worth while to mention briefly the information which he gave in reply to our questions. For I suppose that most people feel a curiosity with regard to some of the enactments in the law
56. Pseudo-Phocylides, The Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides, 104, 103



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
(im)mortality Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 277
abraham Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 115
ahasuerus, in lxx Gera, Judith (2014) 370
ancestral language' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 450
antioch Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 209
antiochus iv Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91, 92, 218
antiochus iv epiphanes Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 209; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
apocalyptic literature and thought, eschatological revenge/judgment in Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 209
apocalyptic literature and thought, martyrdom and Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 209
apocalyptic literature and thought Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 209
aristotle Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
artisans Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
axial age, transition Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
barbarians, characteristics of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
barbarism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 246
body, after death Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41, 42
body, mutilation of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41, 42
body, views of Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 122
body de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
body and soul, distinction between Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 304
bones Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
book of judith, and greek writings Gera, Judith (2014) 93, 369
book of judith, author Gera, Judith (2014) 93
book of judith, original language Gera, Judith (2014) 93
booty and plundering Gera, Judith (2014) 370
cannibalism Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
cemetery, cemeteries Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
characterization de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
children Gera, Judith (2014) 369
christians Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
circumcision Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
coffins Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
commemoration Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
corruptible Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136
creation Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 92, 218
daniel, figure of Gera, Judith (2014) 369
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
death, noble Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 299
death Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136
deathless Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136
dedications, temple Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
deuteronomistic theology Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 218, 219
deuteronomy 32 Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 299
diet Gera, Judith (2014) 369
divine plan/βουλή Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 131
divinisation, humans becoming like gods Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
egypt and egyptians Gera, Judith (2014) 93
ekphrasis Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 42
eleazar, martyr Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 304
eleazar Gera, Judith (2014) 370; Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
en gedi" '205.0_70.0@4 maccabees Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
enargeia (ἐνάργεια) de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
eschatology, eschatological, belonging to the end-of-days, messianic age Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
eschatology, jewish Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 42
eschatology Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 277; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 209
essenes Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136
esther, book of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 450
esther, in lxx / additions Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
ether Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136
evil Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
family Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
fasting Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
feasting Gera, Judith (2014) 370
flesh Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136
food, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
food Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
food regulations Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487, 488
furnishings, dishes and equipmentnan Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
galilee, galilean Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
general Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91, 92, 131
gentiles Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
god, of heaven Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 305
gold, and silver Gera, Judith (2014) 369
gold Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
goliath Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
hades Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 42
halakha Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487
haman Gera, Judith (2014) 370; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 450
hasmoneans Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487
hellenisation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
hellenism / hellenistic world, schools of philosophy Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
hellenistic Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 369
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487, 488
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
hunger Gera, Judith (2014) 370
ii maccabees Gera, Judith (2014) 93
iii maccabees Gera, Judith (2014) 93
imitation of god Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
immersion Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 23, 29
immortal Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136
immortal / immortality Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
individual eschatology Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91, 92
inscribed bowl Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
inscriptions Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
intertextuality, of the narratee/reader de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
irony Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91
israel, ancient Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34
jericho Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
jerusalem Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34; Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524; Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 42; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 299
jesus, as a prophetic anointed of the spirit Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 23
jesus, divine status Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 23, 29
jesus Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
jewish, law Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
jewish Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
john the baptist/baptizer/immerser Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 23
jordan river Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 23
josephus flavius Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 23
judaean/jewish Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34
judaism, and death Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41, 42
judaism Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34
judas maccabaeus Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34
judas maccabeus Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 42
judas the maccabee de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
judgement, final Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 92, 131, 218
judith, complex character Gera, Judith (2014) 369
judith, eloquence and irony Gera, Judith (2014) 369
kallon Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
kingdom of god/heaven, sons of the kingdom Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
kosher food Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
language, see also under style Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 70
language and style, book of judith, wordplay Gera, Judith (2014) 369
law, old testament Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 21
law Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136
limestone Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
loculi Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
lord, and lord Gera, Judith (2014) 369
love Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
luke, gospel of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
macarisms Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
maccabean revolt Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34
martyr/martyrdom de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
martyr and martyrdom, cry of Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
martyr and martyrdom, jesus as Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 246
martyr and martyrdom, jewish Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 209, 246
martyr and martyrdom, maccabean Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130, 209, 246
martyr and martyrdom Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130, 246
martyrdom Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91, 92, 218; Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34; Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 21; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487, 488; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 299
martyrologies, historicity of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 299
martyrs Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
mattathias Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34; Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 115
meals, joint Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
mother and her seven sons Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 299
mother and seven sons, as martyrs Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41, 42
mother and seven sons Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41, 42
mother of seven sons Gera, Judith (2014) 93, 370
motifs (thematic), martyrs as heroes Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 305
narratee de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
nebuchadnezzar, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 369
nehemiah Gera, Judith (2014) 370
nicanor Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 42
noah Visnjic, The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology (2021) 115
noble death, jewish Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 42
noble death, of eleazar Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
obedience, covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
of jesus Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 131
onias iii de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
opponents Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 92, 219
oppressors, rich Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 159
ossilegium Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
ossuary, ossuaries Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
passion, the Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 246
passions Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
persecution Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
pharisee Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136
philosophical, way of life Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
phinehas Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34
plato Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
pollution and defilement Gera, Judith (2014) 370
poor in spirit Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
post-mortem reward or punishment Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91, 92, 218
prayer, of forgiveness for enemies Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
prayers and praying, in post-biblical literature Gera, Judith (2014) 93
predestinarian/predeterminism Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
prophet, prophecy, prophetic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
punishment Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 21
purification Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487
questions Gera, Judith (2014) 369
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic, immersions at qumran Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
qumran, qumranic, anti-qumranic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
rabbi eleazar b. r. yose, 4 ezra Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 246
rabbinic Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
rabbis, on food and wine Gera, Judith (2014) 370
reason Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
redemption, salvation Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 23
religion, axial form of Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
religious violence, religious studies approach Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34
repentance, return to god Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 23
repository Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
restoration within history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 218, 219
resurrection, ancient views of Keener, First-Second Corinthians (2005) 122
resurrection, as reward of righteousness Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 21
resurrection, of the dead Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
resurrection, principle of continuity Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 21
resurrection, timing of Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 21
resurrection, views in second temple judaism Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 21
resurrection Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 299, 304
reversal of fortunes Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 159
rome Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
sabbath Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
sadducees Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136
sarcophagus, sarcophagi Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
scarce resources theory Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130, 209
second maccabees de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
second temple Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
secondary burial Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
septuagint Gera, Judith (2014) 93
sermon on the mount Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
sexual encounters Gera, Judith (2014) 369
silver Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
sins, transgressions, sinners, forgiveness of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 23
sins / iniquity, recording of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 350
socrates, see also under eleazar Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 299
sons of god, sons of heaven Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 23, 29
soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136; Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
spartans Gera, Judith (2014) 369
spirit (of god), holy spirit, gift of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
stephen Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
style, linguistic and literary, variety of vocabulary Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 70
suffering, of evildoers Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 209, 246
suffering, servant Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
suffering, suffering as discipline Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91, 219
swords Gera, Judith (2014) 370
synoptic gospels, tradition, pre-synoptic v-vi Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 23
teleology\n, view of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 131
temple Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
temple jerusalem (first) Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
tents, holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 370
testament of abraham Gera, Judith (2014) 93
testament of job Gera, Judith (2014) 93
theodicy Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 218, 219
tobit Gera, Judith (2014) 369
torah and prophets, great principle of Ruzer, Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror (2020) 29
torture Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 70
tragic themes Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91
training (greek sense of) Petersen and van Kooten, Religio-Philosophical Discourses in the Mediterranean World: From Plato, through Jesus, to Late Antiquity (2017) 150
transgress Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136
tyranny and tyrants, x Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
vengeance Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130, 209
vindication of the righteous Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 131
watchers/rebellious angels Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 350
wealth, material Mathews, Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John (2013) 159
wealth/prosperity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
wine and drunkenness Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
wisdom of solomon Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
wise Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 136
worship Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
zealots Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34
zechariah Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 130
zion Dijkstra and Raschle, Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity (2020) 34