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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



661
Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.30


nanWhen he was about to die under the blows, he groaned aloud and said: 'It is clear to the Lord in his holy knowledge that, though I might have been saved from death, I am enduring terrible sufferings in my body under this beating, but in my soul I am glad to suffer these things because I fear him.'


nanWhen he was about to die under the blows, he groaned aloud and said: "It is clear to the Lord in his holy knowledge that, though I might have been saved from death, I am enduring terrible sufferings in my body under this beating, but in my soul I am glad to suffer these things because I fear him." 31 So in this way he died, leaving in his death an example of nobility and a memorial of courage, not only to the young but to the great body of his nation.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

37 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.10-1.11, 3.6 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.5, 32.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.5. וְיָדַעְתָּ עִם־לְבָבֶךָ כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר יְיַסֵּר אִישׁ אֶת־בְּנוֹ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מְיַסְּרֶךָּ׃ 32.4. כִּי־אֶשָּׂא אֶל־שָׁמַיִם יָדִי וְאָמַרְתִּי חַי אָנֹכִי לְעֹלָם׃ 32.4. הַצּוּר תָּמִים פָּעֳלוֹ כִּי כָל־דְּרָכָיו מִשְׁפָּט אֵל אֱמוּנָה וְאֵין עָוֶל צַדִּיק וְיָשָׁר הוּא׃ 8.5. And thou shalt consider in thy heart, that, as a man chasteneth his son, so the LORD thy God chasteneth thee." 32.4. The Rock, His work is perfect; For all His ways are justice; A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, Just and right is He. ."
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.9, 2.17, 14.15-14.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.9. וַתִּיטַב הַנַּעֲרָה בְעֵינָיו וַתִּשָּׂא חֶסֶד לְפָנָיו וַיְבַהֵל אֶת־תַּמְרוּקֶיהָ וְאֶת־מָנוֹתֶהָ לָתֵת לָהּ וְאֵת שֶׁבַע הַנְּעָרוֹת הָרְאֻיוֹת לָתֶת־לָהּ מִבֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיְשַׁנֶּהָ וְאֶת־נַעֲרוֹתֶיהָ לְטוֹב בֵּית הַנָּשִׁים׃ 2.17. וַיֶּאֱהַב הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־אֶסְתֵּר מִכָּל־הַנָּשִׁים וַתִּשָּׂא־חֵן וָחֶסֶד לְפָנָיו מִכָּל־הַבְּתוּלֹת וַיָּשֶׂם כֶּתֶר־מַלְכוּת בְּרֹאשָׁהּ וַיַּמְלִיכֶהָ תַּחַת וַשְׁתִּי׃ 2.9. And the maiden pleased him, and she obtained kindness of him; and he speedily gave her her ointments, with her portions, and the seven maidens, who were meet to be given her out of the king’s house; and he advanced her and her maidens to the best place in the house of the women." 2.17. And the king loved Esther above all the women, and she obtained grace and favour in his sight more than all the virgins; so that he set the royal crown upon her head, and made her queen instead of Vashti."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 43.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

43.32. וַיָּשִׂימוּ לוֹ לְבַדּוֹ וְלָהֶם לְבַדָּם וְלַמִּצְרִים הָאֹכְלִים אִתּוֹ לְבַדָּם כִּי לֹא יוּכְלוּן הַמִּצְרִים לֶאֱכֹל אֶת־הָעִבְרִים לֶחֶם כִּי־תוֹעֵבָה הִוא לְמִצְרָיִם׃ 43.32. And they set on for him by himself, and for them by themselves, and for the Egyptians, that did eat with him, by themselves; because the Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews; for that is an abomination unto the Egyptians."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.5. עַל־כֵּן לֹא־יָקֻמוּ רְשָׁעִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְחַטָּאִים בַּעֲדַת צַדִּיקִים׃ 1.5. Therefore the wicked shall not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous."
6. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 19.35 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.35. וַיְהִי בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וַיַּךְ בְּמַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר מֵאָה שְׁמוֹנִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אָלֶף וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה כֻלָּם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים׃ 19.35. And it came to pass that night, that the angel of the LORD went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred fourscore and five thousand; and when men arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 37.36 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

37.36. וַיֵּצֵא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וַיַּכֶּה בְּמַחֲנֵה אַשּׁוּר מֵאָה וּשְׁמֹנִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אָלֶף וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וְהִנֵּה כֻלָּם פְּגָרִים מֵתִים׃ 37.36. And the angel of the LORD went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore and five thousand; and when men arose early in the morning, behold, they were all dead corpses."
8. Herodotus, Histories, 9.82 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.82. This other story is also told. When Xerxes fled from Hellas, he left to Mardonius his own establishment. Pausanias, seeing Mardonius' establishment with its display of gold and silver and gaily colored tapestry, ordered the bakers and the cooks to prepare a dinner such as they were accustomed to do for Mardonius. ,They did his bidding, but Pausanias, when he saw golden and silver couches richly covered, and tables of gold and silver, and all the magnificent service of the banquet, was amazed at the splendor before him, and for a joke commanded his own servants to prepare a dinner in Laconian fashion. When that meal, so different from the other, was ready, Pausanias burst out laughing and sent for the generals of the Greeks. ,When these had assembled, Pausanias pointed to the manner in which each dinner was served and said: “Men of Hellas, I have brought you here because I desired to show you the foolishness of the leader of the Medes who, with such provisions for life as you see, came here to take away from us our possessions which are so pitiful.” In this way, it is said, Pausanias spoke to the generals of the Greeks.
9. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

493a. and we really, it may be, are dead; in fact I once heard sages say that we are now dead, and the body is our tomb, and the part of the soul in which we have desires is liable to be over-persuaded and to vacillate to and fro, and so some smart fellow, a Sicilian, I daresay, or Italian, made a fable in which—by a play of words—he named this part, as being so impressionable and persuadable, a jar, and the thoughtless he called uninitiate:
10. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.10-1.11, 3.6 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it 3.6. And now deal with me according to thy pleasure; command my spirit to be taken up, that I may depart and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have heard false reproaches, and great is the sorrow within me. Command that I now be released from my distress to go to the eternal abode; do not turn thy face away from me.
11. Anon., 1 Enoch, 91.10, 108.1, 108.7-108.9, 108.11, 108.14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

108.1. Another book which Enoch wrote for his son Methuselah and for those who will come after him 108.1. found pure so that they should bless His name. And all the blessings destined for them I have recounted in the books. And he hath assigned them their recompense, because they have been found to be such as loved heaven more than their life in the world, and though they were trodden under foot of wicked men, and experienced abuse and reviling from them and were put to shame 108.7. of the prophets-(even) the things that shall be. For some of them are written and inscribed above in the heaven, in order that the angels may read them and know that which shall befall the sinners, and the spirits of the humble, and of those who have afflicted their bodies, and been recompensed 108.8. by God; and of those who have been put to shame by wicked men: Who love God and loved neither gold nor silver nor any of the good things which are in the world, but gave over their bodies to torture. Who, since they came into being, longed not after earthly food, but regarded everything as a passing breath, and lived accordingly, and the Lord tried them much, and their spirits were 108.11. yet they blessed Me. And now I will summon the spirits of the good who belong to the generation of light, and I will transform those who were born in darkness, who in the flesh were not recompensed 108.14. He will give faithfulness in the habitation of upright paths. And they shall see those who were
12. Anon., Jubilees, 12.25-12.27, 22.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.25. And he made an end of speaking and praying, and behold the word of the Lord was sent to him through me, saying: 12.26. Get thee up from thy country, and from thy kindred and from the house of thy father unto a land which I shall show thee 12.27. and I shall make thee a great and numerous nation. And I shall bless thee And I shall make thy name great, And thou wilt be blessed in the earth 22.16. May nations serve thee, And all the nations bow themselves before thy seed.
13. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.5-1.16, 11.29-11.39, 12.1-12.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.5. וַיְמַן לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ מִפַּת־בַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמִיֵּין מִשְׁתָּיו וּלְגַדְּלָם שָׁנִים שָׁלוֹשׁ וּמִקְצָתָם יַעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.6. וַיְהִי בָהֶם מִבְּנֵי יְהוּדָה דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.7. וַיָּשֶׂם לָהֶם שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים שֵׁמוֹת וַיָּשֶׂם לְדָנִיֵּאל בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וְלַחֲנַנְיָה שַׁדְרַךְ וּלְמִישָׁאֵל מֵישַׁךְ וְלַעֲזַרְיָה עֲבֵד נְגוֹ׃ 1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 1.9. וַיִּתֵּן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־דָּנִיֵּאל לְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים׃ 1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל אֶל־הַמֶּלְצַר אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים עַל־דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.12. נַס־נָא אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה וְיִתְּנוּ־לָנוּ מִן־הַזֵּרֹעִים וְנֹאכְלָה וּמַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה׃ 1.13. וְיֵרָאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ מַרְאֵינוּ וּמַרְאֵה הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה עֲשֵׂה עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ׃ 1.14. וַיִּשְׁמַע לָהֶם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְנַסֵּם יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה׃ 1.15. וּמִקְצָת יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה נִרְאָה מַרְאֵיהֶם טוֹב וּבְרִיאֵי בָּשָׂר מִן־כָּל־הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.16. וַיְהִי הַמֶּלְצַר נֹשֵׂא אֶת־פַּתְבָּגָם וְיֵין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם וְנֹתֵן לָהֶם זֵרְעֹנִים׃ 11.29. לַמּוֹעֵד יָשׁוּב וּבָא בַנֶּגֶב וְלֹא־תִהְיֶה כָרִאשֹׁנָה וְכָאַחֲרֹנָה׃ 11.31. וּזְרֹעִים מִמֶּנּוּ יַעֲמֹדוּ וְחִלְּלוּ הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַמָּעוֹז וְהֵסִירוּ הַתָּמִיד וְנָתְנוּ הַשִּׁקּוּץ מְשׁוֹמֵם׃ 11.32. וּמַרְשִׁיעֵי בְרִית יַחֲנִיף בַּחֲלַקּוֹת וְעַם יֹדְעֵי אֱלֹהָיו יַחֲזִקוּ וְעָשׂוּ׃ 11.33. וּמַשְׂכִּילֵי עָם יָבִינוּ לָרַבִּים וְנִכְשְׁלוּ בְּחֶרֶב וּבְלֶהָבָה בִּשְׁבִי וּבְבִזָּה יָמִים׃ 11.34. וּבְהִכָּשְׁלָם יֵעָזְרוּ עֵזֶר מְעָט וְנִלְווּ עֲלֵיהֶם רַבִּים בַּחֲלַקְלַקּוֹת׃ 11.35. וּמִן־הַמַּשְׂכִּילִים יִכָּשְׁלוּ לִצְרוֹף בָּהֶם וּלְבָרֵר וְלַלְבֵּן עַד־עֵת קֵץ כִּי־עוֹד לַמּוֹעֵד׃ 11.36. וְעָשָׂה כִרְצוֹנוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְיִתְרוֹמֵם וְיִתְגַּדֵּל עַל־כָּל־אֵל וְעַל אֵל אֵלִים יְדַבֵּר נִפְלָאוֹת וְהִצְלִיחַ עַד־כָּלָה זַעַם כִּי נֶחֱרָצָה נֶעֱשָׂתָה׃ 11.37. וְעַל־אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתָיו לֹא יָבִין וְעַל־חֶמְדַּת נָשִׁים וְעַל־כָּל־אֱלוֹהַּ לֹא יָבִין כִּי עַל־כֹּל יִתְגַּדָּל׃ 11.38. וְלֶאֱלֹהַּ מָעֻזִּים עַל־כַּנּוֹ יְכַבֵּד וְלֶאֱלוֹהַּ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדָעֻהוּ אֲבֹתָיו יְכַבֵּד בְּזָהָב וּבְכֶסֶף וּבְאֶבֶן יְקָרָה וּבַחֲמֻדוֹת׃ 11.39. וְעָשָׂה לְמִבְצְרֵי מָעֻזִּים עִם־אֱלוֹהַּ נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר הכיר [יַכִּיר] יַרְבֶּה כָבוֹד וְהִמְשִׁילָם בָּרַבִּים וַאֲדָמָה יְחַלֵּק בִּמְחִיר׃ 12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ 12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃ 12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 1.5. And the king appointed for them a daily portion of the king’s food, and of the wine which he drank, and that they should be nourished three years; that at the end thereof they might stand before the king." 1.6. Now among these were, of the children of Judah, Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah." 1.7. And the chief of the officers gave names unto them: unto Daniel he gave the name of Belteshazzar; and to Haiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego." 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself." 1.9. And God granted Daniel mercy and compassion in the sight of the chief of the officers." 1.10. And the chief of the officers said unto Daniel: ‘I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your food and your drink; for why should he see your faces sad in comparison with the youths that are of your own age? so would ye endanger my head with the king.’" 1.11. Then said Daniel to the steward, whom the chief of the officers had appointed over Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah:" 1.12. ’Try thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink." 1.13. Then let our counteces be looked upon before thee, and the countece of the youths that eat of the king’s food; and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.’" 1.14. So he hearkened unto them in this matter, and tried them ten days." 1.15. And at the end of ten days their counteces appeared fairer, and they were fatter in flesh, than all the youths that did eat of the king’s food." 1.16. So the steward took away their food, and the wine that they should drink, and gave them pulse." 11.29. At the time appointed he shall return, and come into the south; but it shall not be in the latter time as it was in the former." 11.30. For ships of Kittim shall come against him, and he shall be cowed, and he shall return, and have indignation against the holy covet, and shall do his pleasure; and he shall return, and have regard unto them that forsake the holy covet." 11.31. And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall profane the sanctuary, even the stronghold, and shall take away the continual burnt-offering, and they shall set up the detestable thing that causeth appalment." 11.32. And such as do wickedly against the covet shall be corrupt by blandishments; but the people that know their God shall show strength, and prevail." 11.33. And they that are wise among the people shall cause the many to understand; yet they shall stumble by the sword and by flame, by captivity and by spoil, many days." 11.34. Now when they shall stumble, they shall be helped with a little help; but many shall join themselves unto them with blandishments." 11.35. And some of them that are wise shall stumble, to refine among them, and to purify, and to make white, even to the time of the end; for it is yet for the time appointed." 11.36. And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak strange things against the God of gods; and he shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished; for that which is determined shall be done." 11.37. Neither shall he regard the gods of his fathers; and neither the desire of women, nor any god, shall he regard; for he shall magnify himself above all." 11.38. But in his place shall he honour the god of strongholds; and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and costly things. ." 11.39. And he shall deal with the strongest fortresses with the help of a foreign god; whom he shall acknowledge, shall increase glory; and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for a price." 12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book." 12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence."
14. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.41-1.64, 4.28, 6.5-6.13, 6.20, 6.30 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.41. Then the king wrote to his whole kingdom that all should be one people 1.42. and that each should give up his customs. 1.43. All the Gentiles accepted the command of the king. Many even from Israel gladly adopted his religion; they sacrificed to idols and profaned the sabbath. 1.44. And the king sent letters by messengers to Jerusalem and the cities of Judah; he directed them to follow customs strange to the land 1.45. to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and feasts 1.46. to defile the sanctuary and the priests 1.47. to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and unclean animals 1.48. and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane 1.49. so that they should forget the law and change all the ordices. 1.50. And whoever does not obey the command of the king shall die. 1.51. In such words he wrote to his whole kingdom. And he appointed inspectors over all the people and commanded the cities of Judah to offer sacrifice, city by city. 1.52. Many of the people, every one who forsook the law, joined them, and they did evil in the land; 1.53. they drove Israel into hiding in every place of refuge they had. 1.54. Now on the fifteenth day of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-fifth year, they erected a desolating sacrilege upon the altar of burnt offering. They also built altars in the surrounding cities of Judah 1.55. and burned incense at the doors of the houses and in the streets. 1.56. The books of the law which they found they tore to pieces and burned with fire. 1.57. Where the book of the covet was found in the possession of any one, or if any one adhered to the law, the decree of the king condemned him to death. 1.58. They kept using violence against Israel, against those found month after month in the cities. 1.59. And on the twenty-fifth day of the month they offered sacrifice on the altar which was upon the altar of burnt offering. 1.60. According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised 1.61. and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers necks. 1.62. But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food. 1.63. They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covet; and they did die. 1.64. And very great wrath came upon Israel. 4.28. But the next year he mustered sixty thousand picked infantrymen and five thousand cavalry to subdue them. 6.5. Then some one came to him in Persia and reported that the armies which had gone into the land of Judah had been routed; 6.6. that Lysias had gone first with a strong force, but had turned and fled before the Jews; that the Jews had grown strong from the arms, supplies, and abundant spoils which they had taken from the armies they had cut down; 6.7. that they had torn down the abomination which he had erected upon the altar in Jerusalem; and that they had surrounded the sanctuary with high walls as before, and also Beth-zur, his city. 6.8. When the king heard this news, he was astounded and badly shaken. He took to his bed and became sick from grief, because things had not turned out for him as he had planned. 6.9. He lay there for many days, because deep grief continually gripped him, and he concluded that he was dying. 6.10. So he called all his friends and said to them, "Sleep departs from my eyes and I am downhearted with worry. 6.11. I said to myself, `To what distress I have come! And into what a great flood I now am plunged! For I was kind and beloved in my power. 6.12. But now I remember the evils I did in Jerusalem. I seized all her vessels of silver and gold; and I sent to destroy the inhabitants of Judah without good reason. 6.13. I know that it is because of this that these evils have come upon me; and behold, I am perishing of deep grief in a strange land. 6.20. They gathered together and besieged the citadel in the one hundred and fiftieth year; and he built siege towers and other engines of war. 6.30. The number of his forces was a hundred thousand foot soldiers, twenty thousand horsemen, and thirty-two elephants accustomed to war.
15. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.7, 1.9, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 3, 3.1, 3.9, 3.14, 3.16, 3.17, 3.24, 3.25, 3.30, 3.31, 3.32, 3.35, 4, 4.1, 4.7, 4.13, 4.17, 4.33, 4.38, 5, 5.2, 5.3, 5.5, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.18-7.42, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24, 6.25, 6.26, 6.27, 6.28, 6.29, 6.31, 7, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.8, 7.9, 7.10, 7.11, 7.12, 7.13, 7.14, 7.15, 7.16, 7.17, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.21, 7.22, 7.23, 7.24, 7.25, 7.26, 7.27, 7.28, 7.29, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.39, 7.40, 7.41, 7.42, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.11, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.23, 8.26, 8.27, 8.29, 9.5, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.18, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.17, 10.35, 11.4, 11.7, 11.9, 11.11, 11.13, 11.24, 12.15, 12.20, 12.22, 12.23, 12.37, 12.38, 12.45, 13.4, 13.10, 13.13, 13.23, 14, 14.18, 14.37, 14.38, 14.39, 14.40, 14.41, 14.42, 14.43, 14.44, 14.45, 14.46, 15, 15.1, 15.2, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.19, 15.22, 15.27, 15.29, 15.30, 15.32 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.7. In the reign of Demetrius, in the one hundred and sixty-ninth year, we Jews wrote to you, in the critical distress which came upon us in those years after Jason and his company revolted from the holy land and the kingdom'
16. Septuagint, Judith, 7.25, 10.5, 12.2-12.4, 16.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

7.25. For now we have no one to help us; God has sold us into their hands, to strew us on the ground before them with thirst and utter destruction. 10.5. And she gave her maid a bottle of wine and a flask of oil, and filled a bag with parched grain and a cake of dried fruit and fine bread; and she wrapped up all her vessels and gave them to her to carry. 12.2. But Judith said, "I cannot eat it, lest it be an offense; but I will be provided from the things I have brought with me. 12.3. Holofernes said to her, "If your supply runs out, where can we get more like it for you? For none of your people is here with us. 12.4. Judith replied, "As your soul lives, my lord, your servant will not use up the things I have with me before the Lord carries out by my hand what he has determined to do. 16.19. Judith also dedicated to God all the vessels of Holofernes, which the people had given her; and the canopy which she took for herself from his bedchamber she gave as a votive offering to the Lord.
17. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.4, 2.3, 9.15, 15.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.4. because wisdom will not enter a deceitful soul,nor dwell in a body enslaved to sin. 2.3. When it is extinguished, the body will turn to ashes,and the spirit will dissolve like empty air. 9.15. for a perishable body weighs down the soul,and this earthy tent burdens the thoughtful mind. 15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him.
18. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 4.23-4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.23. and after he had plundered them he issued a decree that if any of them should be found observing the ancestral law they should die. 4.24. When, by means of his decrees, he had not been able in any way to put an end to the people's observance of the law, but saw that all his threats and punishments were being disregarded 4.25. even to the point that women, because they had circumcised their sons, were thrown headlong from heights along with their infants, though they had known beforehand that they would suffer this -- 4.26. when, then, his decrees were despised by the people, he himself, through torture, tried to compel everyone in the nation to eat defiling foods and to renounce Judaism.
19. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 3.4-3.7, 6.22-6.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.4. but because they worshiped God and conducted themselves by his law, they kept their separateness with respect to foods. For this reason they appeared hateful to some; 3.5. but since they adorned their style of life with the good deeds of upright people, they were established in good repute among all men. 3.6. Nevertheless those of other races paid no heed to their good service to their nation, which was common talk among all; 3.7. instead they gossiped about the differences in worship and foods, alleging that these people were loyal neither to the king nor to his authorities, but were hostile and greatly opposed to his government. So they attached no ordinary reproach to them. 6.22. Then the king's anger was turned to pity and tears because of the things that he had devised beforehand. 6.23. For when he heard the shouting and saw them all fallen headlong to destruction, he wept and angrily threatened his friends, saying 6.24. You are committing treason and surpassing tyrants in cruelty; and even me, your benefactor, you are now attempting to deprive of dominion and life by secretly devising acts of no advantage to the kingdom. 6.25. Who is it that has taken each man from his home and senselessly gathered here those who faithfully have held the fortresses of our country? 6.26. Who is it that has so lawlessly encompassed with outrageous treatment those who from the beginning differed from all nations in their goodwill toward us and often have accepted willingly the worst of human dangers? 6.27. Loose and untie their unjust bonds! Send them back to their homes in peace, begging pardon for your former actions! 6.28. Release the sons of the almighty and living God of heaven, who from the time of our ancestors until now has granted an unimpeded and notable stability to our government.
20. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 78 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

78. Now, though I desire to mention a circumstance which took place at that time, I am in doubt whether to do so or not, lest if it should be looked upon as unimportant, it may appear to take off from the enormity of these great iniquities; but even if it is unimportant in itself, it is nevertheless an indication of no trifling wickedness of disposition. There are different kinds of scourges used in the city, distinguished with reference to the deserts or crimes of those who are about to be scourged. Accordingly, it is usual for the Egyptians of the country themselves to be scourged with a different kind of scourge, and by a different class of executioners, but for the Alexandrians in the city to be scourged with rods by the Alexandrian lictors
21. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.7. δικαιοσύνην διδάξας ὅλον τὸν κόσμον, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ τέρμα τῆς δύσεως ἐλθὼν καὶ μαρτυρήσας ἐπὶ τῶν ἡγουμένων, οὕτως ἀπηλλάγη τοῦ κόσμου καὶ εἰς τὸν ἅγιον τόπον ἀνελήμφθη, So SLK, e)poreu/qh AC probably from v. 4. ὑπομονῆς γενόμενος μέγιστος ὑπογραμμός.
22. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.218. but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before.
23. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
24. New Testament, Romans, 11.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.26. and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, "There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob.
25. New Testament, Matthew, 25.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

25.46. These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.
26. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 307 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

27. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

28. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7.25.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

7.25.7. In Ceryneia is a sanctuary of the Eumenides, which they say was established by Orestes. Whosoever enters with the desire to see the sights, if he be guilty of bloodshed, defilement or impiety, is said at once to become insane with fright, and for this reason the right to enter is not given to all and sundry. The images made of wood . . . they are not very large in size, and at the entrance to the sanctuary are statues of women, made of stone and of artistic workmanship. The natives said that the women are portraits of the former priestesses of the Eumenides.
29. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61b. ריאה שואבת כל מיני משקין כבד כועס מרה זורקת בו טפה ומניחתו טחול שוחק קרקבן טוחן קיבה ישנה אף נעור נעור הישן ישן הנעור נמוק והולך לו תנא אם שניהם ישנים או שניהם נעורים מיד מת,תניא רבי יוסי הגלילי אומר צדיקים יצר טוב שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, כב) ולבי חלל בקרבי רשעים יצר רע שופטן שנאמר (תהלים לו, ב) נאם פשע לרשע בקרב לבי אין פחד אלהים לנגד עיניו בינונים זה וזה שופטן שנאמר (תהלים קט, לא) יעמוד לימין אביון להושיע משופטי נפשו,אמר רבא כגון אנו בינונים אמר ליה אביי לא שביק מר חיי לכל בריה,ואמר רבא לא איברי עלמא אלא לרשיעי גמורי או לצדיקי גמורי אמר רבא לידע אינש בנפשיה אם צדיק גמור הוא אם לאו אמר רב לא איברי עלמא אלא לאחאב בן עמרי ולר' חנינא בן דוסא לאחאב בן עמרי העולם הזה ולרבי חנינא בן דוסא העולם הבא:,ואהבת את י"י אלהיך: תניא ר' אליעזר אומר אם נאמר בכל נפשך למה נאמר בכל מאדך ואם נאמר בכל מאדך למה נאמר בכל נפשך אלא אם יש לך אדם שגופו חביב עליו מממונו לכך נאמר בכל נפשך ואם יש לך אדם שממונו חביב עליו מגופו לכך נאמר בכל מאדך רבי עקיבא אומר בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נפשך,תנו רבנן פעם אחת גזרה מלכות הרשעה שלא יעסקו ישראל בתורה בא פפוס בן יהודה ומצאו לרבי עקיבא שהיה מקהיל קהלות ברבים ועוסק בתורה אמר ליה עקיבא אי אתה מתירא מפני מלכות,אמר לו אמשול לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשועל שהיה מהלך על גב הנהר וראה דגים שהיו מתקבצים ממקום למקום אמר להם מפני מה אתם בורחים אמרו לו מפני רשתות שמביאין עלינו בני אדם אמר להם רצונכם שתעלו ליבשה ונדור אני ואתם כשם שדרו אבותי עם אבותיכם אמרו לו אתה הוא שאומרים עליך פקח שבחיות לא פקח אתה אלא טפש אתה ומה במקום חיותנו אנו מתיראין במקום מיתתנו על אחת כמה וכמה אף אנחנו עכשיו שאנו יושבים ועוסקים בתורה שכתוב בה (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כך אם אנו הולכים ומבטלים ממנה עאכ"ו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטים עד שתפסוהו לר"ע וחבשוהו בבית האסורים ותפסו לפפוס בן יהודה וחבשוהו אצלו אמר לו פפוס מי הביאך לכאן אמר ליה אשריך רבי עקיבא שנתפסת על דברי תורה אוי לו לפפוס שנתפס על דברים בטלים,בשעה שהוציאו את ר' עקיבא להריגה זמן ק"ש היה והיו סורקים את בשרו במסרקות של ברזל והיה מקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו עד כאן אמר להם כל ימי הייתי מצטער על פסוק זה בכל נפשך אפילו נוטל את נשמתך אמרתי מתי יבא לידי ואקיימנו ועכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו היה מאריך באחד עד שיצתה נשמתו באחד יצתה ב"ק ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שיצאה נשמתך באחד,אמרו מלאכי השרת לפני הקב"ה זו תורה וזו שכרה (תהלים יז, יד) ממתים ידך י"י ממתים וגו' אמר להם חלקם בחיים יצתה בת קול ואמרה אשריך ר"ע שאתה מזומן לחיי העוה"ב:,לא יקל אדם את ראשו כנגד שער המזרח שהוא מכוון כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים וכו': אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה איתמר נמי א"ר אבא בריה דרבי חייא בר אבא הכי אמר רבי יוחנן לא אמרו אלא מן הצופים ולפנים וברואה ובשאין גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה,ת"ר הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל לא יפנה אלא מזרח ומערב ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה ר' יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה ובמקום שאין שם גדר ובזמן שהשכינה שורה וחכמים אוסרים,חכמים היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו צדדין,תניא אידך הנפנה ביהודה לא יפנה מזרח ומערב אלא צפון ודרום ובגליל צפון ודרום אסור מזרח ומערב מותר ורבי יוסי מתיר שהיה רבי יוסי אומר לא אסרו אלא ברואה רבי יהודה אומר בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אסור בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מותר רבי עקיבא אוסר בכל מקום,רבי עקיבא היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו חוץ לארץ,רבה הוו שדיין ליה לבני מזרח ומערב אזל אביי שדנהו צפון ודרום על רבה תרצנהו אמר מאן האי דקמצער לי אנא כר' עקיבא סבירא לי דאמר בכל מקום אסור: 61b. and the blungs draw all kinds of liquids,the bliver becomes angry,the bgallbladder binjects a dropof gall bintothe liver and ballaysanger, the bspleen laughs,the bmaw grindsthe food, and the bstomachbrings bsleep,the bnose awakens.If they reversed roles such that btheorgan which brings on bsleepwere to bawaken,or btheorgan which bawakenswere to bring on bsleep,the individual bwould gradually deteriorate. It was taught: If bothbring on bsleep or both awaken,the person bimmediately dies. /b,With regard to one’s inclinations, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei HaGelili says: The good inclination rules the righteous, as it is stated: “And my heart is dead within me”(Psalms 109:22); the evil inclination has been completely banished from his heart. The bevil inclination rules the wicked, as it is stated: “Transgression speaks to the wicked, there is no fear of God before his eyes”(Psalms 36:2). bMiddling people are ruled by boththe good and evil inclinations, bas it is stated: “Because He stands at the right hand of the needy, to save him from them that rule his soul”(Psalms 109:31)., bRabba said:People blike usare bmiddling. Abaye,his student and nephew, bsaid to him:If bthe Masterclaims that he is merely middling, he bdoes not leaveroom for bany creature to live.If a person like you is middling, what of the rest of us?, bAnd Rava said: The world was created only forthe sake of bthe full-fledged wicked or the full-fledged righteous;others do not live complete lives in either world. bRava said: One should know of himself whether or not he is completely righteous,as if he is not completely righteous, he knows that his life will be a life of suffering. bRav said: The world was only created forthe wicked bAhab ben Omri and for Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa.The Gemara explains: For bAhab ben Omri, this worldwas created, as he has no place in the World-to-Come, bandfor bRabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, the World-to-Comewas created.,We learned in our mishna the explanation of the verse: b“And you shall love the Lord your Godwith all your heart and all your soul and all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). This was elaborated upon when bit was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer says: If it is stated: “With all your soul,” why does it state: “With all your might”?Conversely, bif it stated: “With all your might,” why does it state: “With all your soul”? Rather,this means that bif one’s body is dearer to him than his property, therefore it is stated: “With all your soul”;one must give his soul in sanctification of God. bAnd if one’s money is dearer to him than his body, therefore it is stated: “With all your might”;with all your assets. bRabbi Akiva says: “With all your soul”means: bEven ifGod btakes your soul. /b,The Gemara relates at length how Rabbi Akiva fulfilled these directives. bThe Sages taught: One time,after the bar Kokheva rebellion, bthe evil empireof Rome bdecreed that Israel may not engage inthe study and practice of bTorah. Pappos ben Yehuda came and found Rabbi Akiva, who was convening assemblies in public and engaging in Torahstudy. Pappos bsaid to him: Akiva, are you not afraid of the empire? /b,Rabbi Akiva banswered him: I will relate a parable. To what can this be compared?It is like ba fox walking along a riverbank when he sees fish gatheringand fleeing bfrom place to place. brThe fox bsaid to them: From what are you fleeing? br bThey said to him:We are fleeing bfrom the nets that people cast upon us. br bHe said to them: Do you wish to come up onto dry land, and we will reside together just as my ancestors resided with your ancestors? brThe fish bsaid to him: You are the one of whom they say, he is the cleverest of animals? You are not clever; you are a fool. If we are afraid inthe water, bournatural bhabitatwhich gives us blife,then bin a habitatthat causes our bdeath, all the more so. brThe moral is: bSo too, weJews, bnow that we sit and engage in Torahstudy, babout which it is written: “For that is your life, and the length of your days”(Deuteronomy 30:20), we fear the empire bto this extent; if we proceed tosit bidle from itsstudy, as its abandonment is the habitat that causes our death, ball the more sowill we fear the empire.,The Sages bsaid: Not a few days passed until they seized Rabbi Akiva and incarcerated him in prison, and seized Pappos ben Yehuda and incarcerated him alongside him.Rabbi Akiva bsaid to him: Pappos, who brought you here?Pappos breplied: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, for you were arrested onthe charge of engaging in bTorahstudy. bWoe unto Pappos who was seized onthe charge of engaging in bidle matters. /b,The Gemara relates: bWhen they took Rabbi Akiva out to be executed, it was time for the recitation of iShema /i. And they were raking his flesh with iron combs, and he wasreciting iShema /i, thereby baccepting upon himself the yoke of Heaven. His students said to him: Our teacher, even now,as you suffer, you recite iShema /i? bHe said to them: All my days I have been troubled by the verse: With all your soul,meaning: bEven if God takes your soul. I saidto myself: bWhen will theopportunity bbe afforded me to fulfill thisverse? bNow that it has been afforded me, shall I not fulfill it? He prolongedhis uttering of the word: bOne, until his soul lefthis body as he uttered his final word: bOne. A voice descendedfrom heaven band said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, that your soul leftyour body basyou uttered: bOne. /b, bThe ministering angels said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: This is Torah and this its reward?As it is stated: b“From death, by Your hand, O Lord, from deathof the world” (Psalms 17:14); Your hand, God, kills and does not save. God bsaidthe end of the verse btothe ministering angels: b“Whose portion is in this life.”And then ba Divine Voice emerged and said: Happy are you, Rabbi Akiva, as you are destined for life in the World-to-Come,as your portion is already in eternal life.,We learned in the mishna that bone may not act irreverently opposite the Eastern Gate, which is aligned with the Holy of Holies.Limiting this ihalakha /i, bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to irreverent behavior bfromMount bScopus [ iTzofim /i] and within, andspecifically areas from where bone can seethe Temple. bIt is also stated: Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said: Rabbi Yoḥa said the following: They only saidthis ihalakhawith regard to Mount bScopus and within,when bone can see, and when there is no fenceobstructing his view, band when the Divine Presence is restingthere, i.e., when the Temple is standing.,In this context, bthe Sages taught: One who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west,for then he is facing Jerusalem; bratherhe should do so bfacing north and south. But in the Galileewhich is north of Jerusalem, bone should only defecatefacing beast and west. Rabbi Yosei permitsdoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple, bwhere there is no fence, and when the Divine Presence is restingthere. bAnd the Rabbis prohibitdoing so.,The Gemara argues: But the opinion of the bRabbis,who prohibit this, bisidentical to that of the bfirstanonymous itanna, /iwho also prohibits doing so. The Gemara replies: The practical difference bbetween them iswith regard to bthe sides,i.e., a place in Judea that is not directly east or west of Jerusalem, or a place in the Galilee that is not directly north of Jerusalem. According to the first itanna /i, it is prohibited; according to the Rabbis, it is permitted., bIt was taughtin banother ibaraita /i: bOne who defecates in Judea should not defecatewhen facing beast and west; rather,he should only do so facing bnorth and south. And in the Galilee,defecating while facing bnorth and south is prohibited,while beast and west is permitted. And Rabbi Yosei permitteddoing so, bas Rabbi Yosei was wont to say: They only prohibiteddoing so when bone can seethe Temple. bRabbi Yehuda says: When the Temple is standing, it is prohibited,but bwhen the Temple is not standing, it is permitted.The Gemara adds that bRabbi Akiva prohibitsdefecating banywherewhile facing east and west.,The Gemara challenges this: bRabbi Akiva’sposition bis identical tothat of bthe first,anonymous itanna /i,who also prohibits doing so. The Gemara responds: The practical difference bbetween themis with regard to places boutside of EretzYisrael b,as according to Rabbi Akiva, even outside of Eretz Yisrael, defecating while facing east and west is prohibited.,The Gemara relates that in bRabba’sbathroom, bthe bricks were placed east and westin order to ensure that he would defecate facing north and south. bAbaye wentand bplaced them north and south,to test if Rabba was particular about their direction or if they had simply been placed east and west incidentally. bRabba enteredand bfixed them. He said: Who is the one that is upsetting me? I hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Akiva,who bsaid: It is prohibited everywhere. /b
31. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

57b. אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה סח לי זקן אחד מאנשי ירושלים בבקעה זו הרג נבוזראדן רב טבחים מאתים ואחת עשרה רבוא ובירושלים הרג תשעים וארבע רבוא על אבן אחת עד שהלך דמן ונגע בדמו של זכריה לקיים מה שנאמר (הושע ד, ב) ודמים בדמים נגעו,אשכחיה לדמיה דזכריה דהוה קא מרתח וסליק אמר מאי האי אמרו ליה דם זבחים דאשתפוך אייתי דמי ולא אידמו,אמר להו אי אמריתו לי מוטב ואי לאו מסריקנא לבשרייכו במסרקי דפרזלי אמרי ליה מאי נימא לך נבייא הוה בן דהוה קא מוכח לן במילי דשמיא קמינן עילויה וקטלינן ליה והא כמה שנין דלא קא נייח דמיה,אמר להו אנא מפייסנא ליה אייתי סנהדרי גדולה וסנהדרי קטנה קטל עילויה ולא נח בחורים ובתולות קטל עילויה ולא נח אייתי תינוקות של בית רבן קטל עילויה ולא נח א"ל זכריה זכריה טובים שבהן איבדתים ניחא לך דאבדינהו לכולהו כדאמר ליה הכי נח,בההיא שעתא הרהר תשובה בדעתיה אמר ומה אם על נפש אחת כך ההוא גברא דקטל כל הני נשמתא על אחת כמה וכמה ערק אזל שדר שטר פרטתא בביתיה ואגייר,תנא נעמן גר תושב היה נבוזראדן גר צדק היה,מבני בניו של המן למדו תורה בבני ברק מבני בניו של סיסרא למדו תינוקות בירושלים מבני בניו של סנחריב למדו תורה ברבים מאן אינון שמעיה ואבטליון,היינו דכתיב (יחזקאל כד, ח) נתתי את דמה על צחיח סלע לבלתי הכסות,(בראשית כז, כב) הקול קול יעקב והידים ידי עשו הקול זה אדריינוס קיסר שהרג באלכסנדריא של מצרים ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא כפלים כיוצאי מצרים קול יעקב זה אספסיינוס קיסר שהרג בכרך ביתר ארבע מאות רבוא ואמרי לה ארבעת אלפים רבוא והידים ידי עשו זו מלכות הרשעה שהחריבה את בתינו ושרפה את היכלנו והגליתנו מארצנו,דבר אחר הקול קול יעקב אין לך תפלה שמועלת שאין בה מזרעו של יעקב והידים ידי עשו אין לך מלחמה שנוצחת שאין בה מזרעו של עשו,והיינו דא"ר אלעזר (איוב ה, כא) בשוט לשון תחבא בחירחורי לשון תחבא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלז, א) על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בזכרנו את ציון מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה לדוד חורבן בית ראשון וחורבן בית שני חורבן בית ראשון שנאמר על נהרות בבל שם ישבנו גם בכינו בית שני דכתיב (תהלים קלז, ז) זכור ה' לבני אדום את יום ירושלים האומרים ערו ערו עד היסוד בה,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ואיתימא רבי אמי ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מעשה בד' מאות ילדים וילדות שנשבו לקלון הרגישו בעצמן למה הן מתבקשים אמרו אם אנו טובעין בים אנו באין לחיי העולם הבא דרש להן הגדול שבהן (תהלים סח, כג) אמר ה' מבשן אשיב אשיב ממצולות ים מבשן אשיב מבין שיני אריה אשיב ממצולות ים אלו שטובעין בים,כיון ששמעו ילדות כך קפצו כולן ונפלו לתוך הים נשאו ילדים ק"ו בעצמן ואמרו מה הללו שדרכן לכך כך אנו שאין דרכנו לכך על אחת כמה וכמה אף הם קפצו לתוך הים ועליהם הכתוב אומר (תהלים מד, כג) כי עליך הורגנו כל היום נחשבנו כצאן טבחה,ורב יהודה אמר זו אשה ושבעה בניה אתיוהו קמא לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) אנכי ה' אלהיך אפקוהו וקטלוהו,ואתיוהו לאידך לקמיה דקיסר אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כ, ב) לא יהיה לך אלהים אחרים על פני אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות כב, יט) זובח לאלהים יחרם אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (שמות לד, יד) לא תשתחוה לאל אחר אפקוהו וקטלוהו אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים ד, לט) וידעת היום והשבות אל לבבך כי ה' הוא האלהים בשמים ממעל ועל הארץ מתחת אין עוד אפקוהו וקטלוהו,אתיוהו לאידך אמרו ליה פלח לעבודת כוכבים אמר להו כתוב בתורה (דברים כו, יז) את ה' האמרת וגו' וה' האמירך היום כבר נשבענו להקדוש ברוך הוא שאין אנו מעבירין אותו באל אחר ואף הוא נשבע לנו שאין מעביר אותנו באומה אחרת,א"ל קיסר אישדי לך גושפנקא וגחין ושקליה כי היכי דלימרו קביל עליה הרמנא דמלכא א"ל חבל עלך קיסר חבל עלך קיסר על כבוד עצמך כך על כבוד הקב"ה על אחת כמה וכמה,אפקוהו למיקטליה אמרה להו אימיה יהבוהו ניהלי ואינשקיה פורתא אמרה לו בניי לכו ואמרו לאברהם אביכם אתה עקדת מזבח אחד ואני עקדתי שבעה מזבחות אף היא עלתה לגג ונפלה ומתה יצתה בת קול ואמרה (תהלים קיג, ט) אם הבנים שמחה,ר' יהושע בן לוי אמר זו מילה שניתנה בשמיני ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר אלו ת"ח שמראין הלכות שחיטה בעצמן דאמר רבא כל מילי ליחזי איניש בנפשיה בר משחיטה ודבר אחר,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אלו תלמידי חכמים שממיתין עצמן על דברי תורה כדר' שמעון בן לקיש דאמר ר"ש בן לקיש אין דברי תורה מתקיימין אלא במי שממית עצמו עליהם שנאמר (במדבר יט, יד) זאת התורה אדם כי ימות באהל וגו' אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן ארבעים סאה 57b. § With regard to the Babylonian exile following the destruction of the First Temple, bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saysthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: An old man fromamong bthe inhabitants of Jerusalem related to me: In this valleythat lies before you, bNebuzaradan, captain of the guardof the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar, bkilled 2,110,000people. bAnd in Jerusalemitself bhe killed 940,000people bon one stone, until the bloodof his victims bflowed and touched the blood of Zechariah to fulfill what is stated: “And blood touches blood”(Hosea 4:2).,The Gemara clarifies the details of what happened: Nebuzaradan bfound the blood of Zechariah,the son of Jehoiada the priest, and saw bthat it was bubbling upfrom the ground, and bhe said: What is this?Those in the Temple bsaid to him:It is bsacrificial blood that had been pouredthere. bHe broughtanimal bblood,compared it to the blood bubbling up from the ground, bandsaw that bit was not similarto it.,Nebuzaradan bsaid tothem: bIf you tell mewhose blood this is, it will be bwellfor you. bBut if not, I will comb your flesh with iron combs. They said to him: What shall we say to you? He was a prophet among us, who used to rebuke us about heavenly matters,and bwe rose up against him, and killed him(II Chronicles 24:20–22), band for many yearsnow bhis blood has not settled. /b,Nebuzaradan bsaid to them: I will appeaseZechariah. bHe broughtthe members of bthe Great Sanhedrin andof ba lesser Sanhedrinand bkilled them alongsidethe bubbling blood, bbutit still bdid not settle.He then brought byoung men and virgins and killed them alongside it, butit still bdid not settle. Hethen bbrought schoolchildren and killed them alongside it, butit still bdid not settle.Finally Nebuzaradan bsaid to him: Zechariah, Zechariah, I have killed the best of them.Would it bplease you if I destroyed them all? When he said this,the blood at last bsettled. /b, bAt that momentNebuzaradan bcontemplatedthe idea of brepentanceand bsaidto himself: bIf, forthe death of bone soul,that of Zechariah, God punishes the Jewish people in bthismanner, then bthat man,that is to say, I, bwho has killed all of those souls, all the more sowill be I be subject to great punishment from God. bHe fled, sent to his house a document detailingwhat was to be done with his property, band convertedto Judaism.,A Sage btaughta ibaraitarelating to this matter: bNaaman,commander of the army of the king of Aram (see II Kings, chapter 5), was not a convert, as he did not accept all of the mitzvot, but rather he bwas a iger toshav /i, a gentile who resides in Eretz Israel and observes the seven Noahide mitzvot. Nebuzaradan,by contrast, bwas a convert,as explained previously.,The Gemara adds that some bof Haman’s descendants studied Torah in Bnei Brak,and some bof Sisera’s descendants taught childrenTorah bin Jerusalem,and some bof Sennacherib’s descendants taught Torah in public. Who are they?They are bShemaya and Avtalyon,the teachers of Hillel the Elder.,As for the incident involving the blood of Zechariah, bthis isalluded to by bthat which is written: “I have set her blood upon the bare rock that it should not be covered”(Ezekiel 24:8).,§ Apropos its discussion of the destruction of the Temple and the calamities that befell Israel, the Gemara cites the verse: b“The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau”(Genesis 27:22), which the Sages expounded as follows: b“The voice”; thisis the cry stirred up by bthe emperor Hadrian, whocaused the Jewish people to cry out when he bkilled six hundred thousand on six hundred thousand in Alexandria of Egypt, twicethe number of men bwho left Egypt. “The voice of Jacob”; this isthe cry aroused by bthe emperor Vespasian, who killed four millionpeople bin the city of Beitar. And some say:He killed bforty millionpeople. b“And the hands are the hands of Esau”; this is the wicked kingdomof Rome bthat destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land. /b, bAlternatively, “the voice is the voice of Jacob”means that bno prayer is effectivein the world bunlesssome member of bthe seed of Jacob hasa part bin it.The second clause in the verse, b“and the hands are the hands of Esau,”means that bno war grants victory unlesssome member of bthe seed of Esau hasa part bin it. /b, bAnd this iswhat bRabbi Elazar says:The verse that says: b“You shall be hid from the scourge of the tongue”(Job 5:21), means: bYou shallneed to bhide on account of quarrelsprovoked bby the tongue. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “By the rivers of Babylonia, there we sat down and wept, when we remembered Zion”(Psalms 137:1)? This bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed David the destruction of the First Temple and the destruction of the Second Temple.He saw the destruction of bthe First Temple, as it is stated: “By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down and wept.”He saw the destruction of the bSecond Temple, as it is writtenlater in that same psalm: b“Remember, O Lord, against the children of Edom the day of Jerusalem, when they said: Raze it, raze it, to its very foundation”(Psalms 137:7), as the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, “the children of Edom.”, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says, and some saythat it was bRabbi Amiwho says this, band some saythat bit was taught in a ibaraita /i:There was ban incident involving four hundred boys and girls who were taken as captives forthe purpose of bprostitution.These children bsensed on their own what they were expectedto do, and bthey said: If wecommit suicide and bdrown in the sea,will bwe come toeternal blife in the World-to-Come? The oldestchild bamong them expoundedthe verse: b“The Lord said, I will bring back from Bashan, I will bring them back from the depths of the sea”(Psalms 68:23). b“I will bring back from Bashan,”i.e., bfrom between the teeth [ ibein shen /i] of the lion,and b“I will bring them back from the depths of the sea”is referring to bthose who drown in the seafor the sake of Heaven., bWhen the girls heard this, they all leapt and fell into the sea. The boysthen bdrew an ia fortiori /iinference bwith regard to themselves and said: If thesegirls, bfor whomsexual intercourse with men bis their natural way,act in bsucha manner, then bwe, for whomsexual intercourse with men bis not our natural way,should ball the more soconduct ourselves likewise. bThey too leapt into the sea. Concerning themand others like them bthe verse states: “As For Your sake we are killed all the day long; we are reckoned as sheep for the slaughter”(Psalms 44:23)., bAnd Rav Yehuda said: Thisverse applies to the bwoman and her seven sonswho died as martyrs for the sake of the sanctification of God’s name. The incident occurred as follows: bThey broughtin bthe firstof the woman’s sons bbefore the emperorand bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “I am the Lord your God”(Exodus 20:2). bTheyimmediately btook him out and killed him. /b, bAnd theythen bbroughtin banotherson bbefore the emperor,and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You shall have no other gods beside Me”(Exodus 20:3). And so bthey took him out and killed him. Theythen bbrought inyet banotherson before the emperor, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “He that sacrifices to any god,save to the Lord only, bhe shall be utterly destroyed”(Exodus 22:19). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You shall not bow down to any other god”(Exodus 34:14). And so bthey took him out and killed him. Theythen bbroughtin yet banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord is our God, the Lord is One”(Deuteronomy 6:4). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “Know therefore this today, and consider it in your heart, that the Lord, He is God in heaven above and upon the earth beneath; there is no other”(Deuteronomy 4:39). And so bthey took him out and killed him. /b, bTheythen bbroughtin yet banotherson, and bsaid to him: Worship the idol. He said to them:I cannot do so, as bit is written in the Torah: “You have avouched the Lordthis day to be your God… band the Lord has avouched you this dayto be a people for His own possession” (Deuteronomy 26:17–18). bWe already took an oath to the Holy One, Blessed be He, that we will not exchange Him for a different god, and He too has taken an oath to us that He will not exchange us for another nation. /b,It was the youngest brother who had said this, and the emperor pitied him. Seeking a way to spare the boy’s life, bthe emperor said to him: I will throw down my seal before you; bend over and pick it up, so thatpeople bwill saythat bhe has accepted the king’s authority [ iharmana /i].The boy bsaid to him: Woe [ iḥaval /i] to you, Caesar, woe to you, Caesar.If you think that bfor the sake of your honorI should fulfill your command and do bthis,then bfor the sake of the honor of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more soshould I fulfill His command.,As bthey were taking him out to be killed, his mother said to them: Give him to me so that I may give him a small kiss. She said to him: My son, go and say to your father Abraham, You bound oneson to the baltar, but I bound seven altars. She tooin the end bwent up to the roof, fell, and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: “A joyful mother of children”(Psalms 113:9), as she raised her children to be devoted in their service of God., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saysconcerning the verse: “For Your sake we are killed all the day long” (Psalms 44:23), that bthisis referring to bcircumcision, which was given for the eighthday, as the blood of our newborn sons is spilled for the sake of the covet with God. bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish says:This verse was stated in reference to bTorah scholars who demonstrate the ihalakhotof slaughter on themselves,meaning that they demonstrate on their own bodies how ritual slaughter should be performed and occasionally injure themselves in the process. This is bas Rava says: A person may demonstrate anything using himselfto illustrate the act bexcept for slaughter and another matter,a euphemism for sexual intercourse., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: Thesepeople in the verse bare Torah scholars who kill themselves over the words of Torah, in accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish. As Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says: The words of the Torah endure only for one who kills himself over them, as it is stated: “This is the Torah, when a man dies in a tent”(Numbers 19:14). bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: Forty ise’a/b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

33. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.5.90 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

34. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 7.1, 8.5

35. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 128-170, 11

11. your library.' 'What is to prevent you from doing this?' replied the king. 'Everything that is necessary has been placed at your disposal.' 'They need to be translated,' answered Demetrius, 'for in the country of the Jews they use a peculiar alphabet (just as the Egyptians, too, have a special form of letters) and speak a peculiar dialect. They are supposed to use the Syriac tongue, but this is not the case; their language is quite different.' And the king when he understood all the facts of the case ordered a letter to be written to the Jewish High Priest that his purpose (which has already been described) might be accomplished.
36. Anon., Kallah, 23

37. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 5.6, 18.9



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
4 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 70
ahasuerus, in lxx Gera, Judith (2014) 370
akra (fortress), garrison of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 242
ancestral language Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19, 448, 488, 554
ancient language, central to scripture Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 259
angel/angelic Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 113
antioch Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19
antiochos iv epiphanes, impious and wicked Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 242
antiochus iv Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91
antiochus iv epiphanes de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
aqiva Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
aramaic Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 554
ash(es) Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
asylum (shelter) Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 113
atonement Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 456
barbarians, characteristics of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
bible Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
bickerman, elias j. Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 468
bickerman-tcherikover paradigm Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 468
bipartite (jewish) bible Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 259
bishop Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
blandina Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 364
blood Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190
body, after death Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
body, mutilation of Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
body de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
body and soul, distinction between Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 23, 304
book of judith, and greek writings Gera, Judith (2014) 369
booty and plundering Gera, Judith (2014) 370
calendrical systems Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 448
cannibalism Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
characterization de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
children Gera, Judith (2014) 369
christian/ity, and christ/jesus Bremmer, Magic and Martyrs in Early Christianity: Collected Essays (2017) 364
christian Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
chronology/chronological Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 111
circumcision, as identity marker Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 87
circumcision Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
civil war Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 111
corruptible Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
creational Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
daniel, book of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 242
daniel, figure of Gera, Judith (2014) 369
daniel Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 87
dates (in 2 macc.) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 448
death Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190; Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
decree, decrees, of egyptian priests Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 468
decree, decrees, of persecution Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 242
dedications, temple Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
deuteronomy 32 Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 23
dichotomization Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
diet Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 87; Gera, Judith (2014) 369
eleazar, martyr Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 23, 304
eleazar Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 87; Gera, Judith (2014) 370; Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
eleazar son of yair Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 488
enargeia (ἐνάργεια) de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
esther, book of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 242
esther, in lxx / additions Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
fasting Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
fate Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
feasting Gera, Judith (2014) 370
first-person singular Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19
food, heavenly Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
food Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
food regulations Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487, 488
foreign/foreigner Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 111
foreignism Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 23
furnishings, dishes and equipmentnan Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
general Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91
gentiles Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
god, language of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 554
gold, and silver Gera, Judith (2014) 369
gold Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
halakah Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 185
halakha Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487
haman Gera, Judith (2014) 370
hanina ben teradyon Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
hasmoneans Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487
hebrew (language) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 554
heliodorus affair Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 111, 113
hellenisation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
hellenistic Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 111
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 369
high priest Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487, 488, 489
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
holy vessels Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 468
honor Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 23
human, existence Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
hunger Gera, Judith (2014) 370
husband Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190
hybridity' Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 259
idolatry Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190
immortality Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
individual eschatology Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91
intertextuality, of the narratee/reader de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
irony Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91
isaiah Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 242
jesus Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190
jewish-hellenistic literature Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 111
josephus, derivative Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 468
josephus, jewish antiquities Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 468
judah ben bava Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
judaism, and death Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
judas maccabaeus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 23
judas the maccabee de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
judith, complex character Gera, Judith (2014) 369
judith, eloquence and irony Gera, Judith (2014) 369
judith Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 87
king, kings, and foreign gods Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 468
king Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190
king (representation of), pious or righteous and wicked Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 242
kosher food Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
land confiscations Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 242
language, see also under style Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 69, 70
language and style, book of judith, wordplay Gera, Judith (2014) 369
laws, jewish, ancestral Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19
literary genre Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 111
lord, and lord Gera, Judith (2014) 369
lot Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
maccabean revolt Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 185
maccabees Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
marriage Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190
martyr, christian Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
martyr, jewish Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
martyr, maccabean Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
martyr/martyrdom Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 111, 113; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
martyr Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
martyrdom Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190; Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487, 488
martyrologies, as secondary source Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19, 23
martyrs Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
masada Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 488
meals, joint Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
metempsychosis Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
moses Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19
mother and her seven sons Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 23
mother and seven sons, as martyrs Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
mother and seven sons Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
mother of seven sons Gera, Judith (2014) 370
motifs (thematic), god turns away in anger Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 69
motifs (thematic), reconciliation Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 23
murder Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190
nabonidus Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 468
narratee de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
nebuchadnezzar, biblical Gera, Judith (2014) 369
nehemiah Gera, Judith (2014) 370
noble death, of eleazar Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions (2012) 41
obedience, covenant Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
oniad authorship, soldiers/units Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 111
onias Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 456
onias community, death / murder Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 111, 113
onias iii de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
pagan Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 113
persecuted faithful judeans Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 242
persecution, religious, persecution accounts Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 242
persecution Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
physical Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
pious/piety Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 113
plato de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
platonic Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
politai Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 488
pollution and defilement Gera, Judith (2014) 370
polycarp, martyrdom of Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
polycarp Poorthuis and Schwartz, Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity (2014) 167
post-mortem reward or punishment Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91
praise, motif of, separation as ideal Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 87
prayer Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 489
prayer of esther, and esthers diet Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 87
predestinarian/predeterminism Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
preexistence Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
prohibition of the jewish customs Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 468
purification Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 487
questions Gera, Judith (2014) 369
rabbis, on food and wine Gera, Judith (2014) 370
relative, mother Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190
relative, son Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190
resurrection Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 304
ritual bathing/washing Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 185
sacrifice Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 456; Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190
sacrifices/sacrificial Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 113
sanctuary Nihan and Frevel, Purity and the Forming of Religious Traditions in the Ancient Mediterranean World and Ancient Judaism (2013) 489
scribes Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 488
second maccabees de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 510
self, communal self Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman, Religion and the Self in Antiquity (2005) 87
sex Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190
sexual encounters Gera, Judith (2014) 369
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 456
silver Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
soul Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
sources of 2 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 19, 23
spartans Gera, Judith (2014) 369
spirit Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
style, linguistic and literary, repetition of terms Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 69
style, linguistic and literary, variety of vocabulary Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 69, 70
suffering, suffering as discipline Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91
suffering servant, suffering teacher Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 242
swords Gera, Judith (2014) 370
teacher of righteousness Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 468
temple Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 456
tents, holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 370
tobit Gera, Judith (2014) 369
torah Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 185; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 554
torture Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 70
tragic themes Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 91
wealth/prosperity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722
wicked Garcia, On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition (2021) 132
wine and drunkenness Gera, Judith (2014) 369, 370
women Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 190
worship Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 722