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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 5.6

nanBut Jason kept relentlessly slaughtering his fellow citizens, not realizing that success at the cost of one's kindred is the greatest misfortune, but imagining that he was setting up trophies of victory over enemies and not over fellow countrymen.'

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 25.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

25.31. וְעָשִׂיתָ מְנֹרַת זָהָב טָהוֹר מִקְשָׁה תֵּעָשֶׂה הַמְּנוֹרָה יְרֵכָהּ וְקָנָהּ גְּבִיעֶיהָ כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ מִמֶּנָּה יִהְיוּ׃ 25.31. And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knops, and its flowers, shall be of one piece with it."
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 40.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

40.7. זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה לֹא־חָפַצְתָּ אָזְנַיִם כָּרִיתָ לִּי עוֹלָה וַחֲטָאָה לֹא שָׁאָלְתָּ׃ 40.7. Sacrifice and meal-offering Thou hast no delight in; mine ears hast Thou opened; burnt-offering and sin-offering hast Thou not required."
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 19.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.21. וְנוֹדַע יְהוָה לְמִצְרַיִם וְיָדְעוּ מִצְרַיִם אֶת־יְהוָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְעָבְדוּ זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה וְנָדְרוּ־נֵדֶר לַיהוָה וְשִׁלֵּמוּ׃ 19.21. And the LORD shall make Himself known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the LORD in that day; yea, they shall worship with sacrifice and offering, and shall vow a vow unto the LORD, and shall perform it."
4. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 32 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5. Polybius, Histories, 10.4.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.4.6.  He had dreamt that both he and his brother had been elected to the aedileship and were going up from the forum to their house, when she met him at the door and fell on their necks and kissed them.
6. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.16-1.63, 5.13, 5.16-5.17, 6.22, 7.5, 7.17, 12.6-12.18, 12.20-12.23, 14.16-14.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.16. When Antiochus saw that his kingdom was established, he determined to become king of the land of Egypt, that he might reign over both kingdoms. 1.17. So he invaded Egypt with a strong force, with chariots and elephants and cavalry and with a large fleet. 1.18. He engaged Ptolemy king of Egypt in battle, and Ptolemy turned and fled before him, and many were wounded and fell. 1.19. And they captured the fortified cities in the land of Egypt, and he plundered the land of Egypt. 1.20. After subduing Egypt, Antiochus returned in the one hundred and forty-third year. He went up against Israel and came to Jerusalem with a strong force. 1.21. He arrogantly entered the sanctuary and took the golden altar, the lampstand for the light, and all its utensils. 1.22. He took also the table for the bread of the Presence, the cups for drink offerings, the bowls, the golden censers, the curtain, the crowns, and the gold decoration on the front of the temple; he stripped it all off. 1.23. He took the silver and the gold, and the costly vessels; he took also the hidden treasures which he found. 1.24. Taking them all, he departed to his own land. He committed deeds of murder,and spoke with great arrogance. 1.25. Israel mourned deeply in every community 1.26. rulers and elders groaned,maidens and young men became faint,the beauty of women faded. 1.27. Every bridegroom took up the lament;she who sat in the bridal chamber was mourning. 1.28. Even the land shook for its inhabitants,and all the house of Jacob was clothed with shame. 1.29. Two years later the king sent to the cities of Judah a chief collector of tribute, and he came to Jerusalem with a large force. 1.30. Deceitfully he spoke peaceable words to them, and they believed him; but he suddenly fell upon the city, dealt it a severe blow, and destroyed many people of Israel. 1.31. He plundered the city, burned it with fire, and tore down its houses and its surrounding walls. 1.32. And they took captive the women and children, and seized the cattle. 1.33. Then they fortified the city of David with a great strong wall and strong towers, and it became their citadel. 1.34. And they stationed there a sinful people, lawless men. These strengthened their position; 1.35. they stored up arms and food, and collecting the spoils of Jerusalem they stored them there, and became a great snare. 1.36. It became an ambush against the sanctuary,an evil adversary of Israel continually. 1.37. On every side of the sanctuary they shed innocent blood;they even defiled the sanctuary. 1.38. Because of them the residents of Jerusalem fled;she became a dwelling of strangers;she became strange to her offspring,and her children forsook her. 1.39. Her sanctuary became desolate as a desert;her feasts were turned into mourning,her sabbaths into a reproach,her honor into contempt. 1.40. Her dishonor now grew as great as her glory;her exaltation was turned into mourning. 1.41. Then the king wrote to his whole kingdom that all should be one people 1.42. and that each should give up his customs. 1.43. All the Gentiles accepted the command of the king. Many even from Israel gladly adopted his religion; they sacrificed to idols and profaned the sabbath. 1.44. And the king sent letters by messengers to Jerusalem and the cities of Judah; he directed them to follow customs strange to the land 1.45. to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and feasts 1.46. to defile the sanctuary and the priests 1.47. to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and unclean animals 1.48. and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane 1.49. so that they should forget the law and change all the ordices. 1.50. And whoever does not obey the command of the king shall die. 1.51. In such words he wrote to his whole kingdom. And he appointed inspectors over all the people and commanded the cities of Judah to offer sacrifice, city by city. 1.52. Many of the people, every one who forsook the law, joined them, and they did evil in the land; 1.53. they drove Israel into hiding in every place of refuge they had. 1.54. Now on the fifteenth day of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-fifth year, they erected a desolating sacrilege upon the altar of burnt offering. They also built altars in the surrounding cities of Judah 1.55. and burned incense at the doors of the houses and in the streets. 1.56. The books of the law which they found they tore to pieces and burned with fire. 1.57. Where the book of the covet was found in the possession of any one, or if any one adhered to the law, the decree of the king condemned him to death. 1.58. They kept using violence against Israel, against those found month after month in the cities. 1.59. And on the twenty-fifth day of the month they offered sacrifice on the altar which was upon the altar of burnt offering. 1.60. According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised 1.61. and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers necks. 1.62. But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food. 1.63. They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covet; and they did die. 5.13. and all our brethren who were in the land of Tob have been killed; the enemy have captured their wives and children and goods, and have destroyed about a thousand men there. 5.16. When Judas and the people heard these messages, a great assembly was called to determine what they should do for their brethren who were in distress and were being attacked by enemies. 5.17. Then Judas said to Simon his brother, "Choose your men and go and rescue your brethren in Galilee; I and Jonathan my brother will go to Gilead. 6.22. They went to the king and said, "How long will you fail to do justice and to avenge our brethren? 7.5. Then there came to him all the lawless and ungodly men of Israel; they were led by Alcimus, who wanted to be high priest. 7.17. The flesh of thy saints and their blood they poured out round about Jerusalem,and there was none to bury them. 12.6. Jonathan the high priest, the senate of the nation, the priests, and the rest of the Jewish people to their brethren the Spartans, greeting. 12.7. Already in time past a letter was sent to Onias the high priest from Arius, who was king among you, stating that you are our brethren, as the appended copy shows. 12.8. Onias welcomed the envoy with honor, and received the letter, which contained a clear declaration of alliance and friendship. 12.9. Therefore, though we have no need of these things, since we have as encouragement the holy books which are in our hands 12.10. we have undertaken to send to renew our brotherhood and friendship with you, so that we may not become estranged from you, for considerable time has passed since you sent your letter to us. 12.11. We therefore remember you constantly on every occasion, both in our feasts and on other appropriate days, at the sacrifices which we offer and in our prayers, as it is right and proper to remember brethren. 12.12. And we rejoice in your glory. 12.13. But as for ourselves, many afflictions and many wars have encircled us; the kings round about us have waged war against us. 12.14. We were unwilling to annoy you and our other allies and friends with these wars 12.15. for we have the help which comes from Heaven for our aid; and we were delivered from our enemies and our enemies were humbled. 12.16. We therefore have chosen Numenius the son of Antiochus and Antipater the son of Jason, and have sent them to Rome to renew our former friendship and alliance with them. 12.17. We have commanded them to go also to you and greet you and deliver to you this letter from us concerning the renewal of our brotherhood. 12.18. And now please send us a reply to this. 12.20. Arius, king of the Spartans, to Onias the high priest, greeting. 12.21. It has been found in writing concerning the Spartans and the Jews that they are brethren and are of the family of Abraham. 12.22. And now that we have learned this, please write us concerning your welfare; 12.23. we on our part write to you that your cattle and your property belong to us, and ours belong to you. We therefore command that our envoys report to you accordingly. 14.16. It was heard in Rome, and as far away as Sparta, that Jonathan had died, and they were deeply grieved. 14.17. When they heard that Simon his brother had become high priest in his place, and that he was ruling over the country and the cities in it 14.18. they wrote to him on bronze tablets to renew with him the friendship and alliance which they had established with Judas and Jonathan his brothers. 14.19. And these were read before the assembly in Jerusalem. 14.20. This is a copy of the letter which the Spartans sent: "The rulers and the city of the Spartans to Simon the high priest and to the elders and the priests and the rest of the Jewish people, our brethren, greeting. 14.21. The envoys who were sent to our people have told us about your glory and honor, and we rejoiced at their coming. 14.22. And what they said we have recorded in our public decrees, as follows, `Numenius the son of Antiochus and Antipater the son of Jason, envoys of the Jews, have come to us to renew their friendship with us. 14.23. It has pleased our people to receive these men with honor and to put a copy of their words in the public archives, so that the people of the Spartans may have a record of them. And they have sent a copy of this to Simon the high priest.
7. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.1, 1.3-1.5, 1.7-1.8, 1.13, 2.18, 3.1-3.4, 4.2, 4.5, 4.7-4.11, 4.13, 4.23-4.26, 4.33-4.36, 4.48-4.50, 5.1-5.5, 5.7-5.23, 6.1, 6.6, 6.8-6.9, 6.16, 7.33, 8.11, 8.25, 8.29, 9.1-9.2, 9.4, 9.7-9.8, 9.19, 9.28, 10.1-10.8, 10.35, 12.15, 12.30, 13.4-13.8, 13.26, 14.8, 14.14, 14.37, 15.28, 15.30-15.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The Jewish brethren in Jerusalem and those in the land of Judea, To their Jewish brethren in Egypt, Greeting, and good peace.' 1.3. May he give you all a heart to worship him and to do his will with a strong heart and a willing spirit. 1.4. May he open your heart to his law and his commandments, and may he bring peace.' 1.5. May he hear your prayers and be reconciled to you, and may he not forsake you in time of evil.' 1.7. In the reign of Demetrius, in the one hundred and sixty-ninth year, we Jews wrote to you, in the critical distress which came upon us in those years after Jason and his company revolted from the holy land and the kingdom' 1.8. and burned the gate and shed innocent blood. We besought the Lord and we were heard, and we offered sacrifice and cereal offering, and we lighted the lamps and we set out the loaves.' 1.13. For when the leader reached Persia with a force that seemed irresistible, they were cut to pieces in the temple of Nanea by a deception employed by the priests of Nanea.' 2.18. as he promised through the law. For we have hope in God that he will soon have mercy upon us and will gather us from everywhere under heaven into his holy place, for he has rescued us from great evils and has purified the place.' 3.1. While the holy city was inhabited in unbroken peace and the laws were very well observed because of the piety of the high priest Onias and his hatred of wickedness,' 3.2. it came about that the kings themselves honored the place and glorified the temple with the finest presents,' 3.3. o that even Seleucus, the king of Asia, defrayed from his own revenues all the expenses connected with the service of the sacrifices.' 3.4. But a man named Simon, of the tribe of Benjamin, who had been made captain of the temple, had a disagreement with the high priest about the administration of the city market;' 4.2. He dared to designate as a plotter against the government the man who was the benefactor of the city, the protector of his fellow countrymen, and a zealot for the laws.' 4.5. So he betook himself to the king, not accusing his fellow citizens but having in view the welfare, both public and private, of all the people.' 4.7. When Seleucus died and Antiochus who was called Epiphanes succeeded to the kingdom, Jason the brother of Onias obtained the high priesthood by corruption,' 4.8. promising the king at an interview three hundred and sixty talents of silver and, from another source of revenue, eighty talents.' 4.9. In addition to this he promised to pay one hundred and fifty more if permission were given to establish by his authority a gymnasium and a body of youth for it, and to enrol the men of Jerusalem as citizens of Antioch.' 4.10. When the king assented and Jason came to office, he at once shifted his countrymen over to the Greek way of life.' 4.11. He set aside the existing royal concessions to the Jews, secured through John the father of Eupolemus, who went on the mission to establish friendship and alliance with the Romans; and he destroyed the lawful ways of living and introduced new customs contrary to the law.' 4.13. There was such an extreme of Hellenization and increase in the adoption of foreign ways because of the surpassing wickedness of Jason, who was ungodly and no high priest,' 4.23. After a period of three years Jason sent Menelaus, the brother of the previously mentioned Simon, to carry the money to the king and to complete the records of essential business.' 4.24. But he, when presented to the king, extolled him with an air of authority, and secured the high priesthood for himself, outbidding Jason by three hundred talents of silver.' 4.25. After receiving the king's orders he returned, possessing no qualification for the high priesthood, but having the hot temper of a cruel tyrant and the rage of a savage wild beast.' 4.26. So Jason, who after supplanting his own brother was supplanted by another man, was driven as a fugitive into the land of Ammon.' 4.33. When Onias became fully aware of these acts he publicly exposed them, having first withdrawn to a place of sanctuary at Daphne near Antioch.' 4.34. Therefore Menelaus, taking Andronicus aside, urged him to kill Onias. Andronicus came to Onias, and resorting to treachery offered him sworn pledges and gave him his right hand, and in spite of his suspicion persuaded Onias to come out from the place of sanctuary; then, with no regard for justice, he immediately put him out of the way.' 4.35. For this reason not only Jews, but many also of other nations, were grieved and displeased at the unjust murder of the man.' 4.36. When the king returned from the region of Cilicia, the Jews in the city appealed to him with regard to the unreasonable murder of Onias, and the Greeks shared their hatred of the crime.' 4.48. And so those who had spoken for the city and the villages and the holy vessels quickly suffered the unjust penalty. 4.49. Therefore even the Tyrians, showing their hatred of the crime, provided magnificently for their funeral.' 4.50. But Menelaus, because of the cupidity of those in power, remained in office, growing in wickedness, having become the chief plotter against his fellow citizens.' 5.1. About this time Antiochus made his second invasion of Egypt. 5.2. And it happened that over all the city, for almost forty days, there appeared golden-clad horsemen charging through the air, in companies fully armed with lances and drawn swords --' 5.3. troops of horsemen drawn up, attacks and counterattacks made on this side and on that, brandishing of shields, massing of spears, hurling of missiles, the flash of golden trappings, and armor of all sorts.' 5.4. Therefore all men prayed that the apparition might prove to have been a good omen. 5.5. When a false rumor arose that Antiochus was dead, Jason took no less than a thousand men and suddenly made an assault upon the city. When the troops upon the wall had been forced back and at last the city was being taken, Menelaus took refuge in the citadel.' 5.7. He did not gain control of the government, however; and in the end got only disgrace from his conspiracy, and fled again into the country of the Ammonites.' 5.8. Finally he met a miserable end. Accused before Aretas the ruler of the Arabs, fleeing from city to city, pursued by all men, hated as a rebel against the laws, and abhorred as the executioner of his country and his fellow citizens, he was cast ashore in Egypt;' 5.9. and he who had driven many from their own country into exile died in exile, having embarked to go to the Lacedaemonians in hope of finding protection because of their kinship.' 5.10. He who had cast out many to lie unburied had no one to mourn for him; he had no funeral of any sort and no place in the tomb of his fathers. 5.11. When news of what had happened reached the king, he took it to mean that Judea was in revolt. So, raging inwardly, he left Egypt and took the city by storm.' 5.12. And he commanded his soldiers to cut down relentlessly every one they met and to slay those who went into the houses. 5.13. Then there was killing of young and old, destruction of boys, women, and children, and slaughter of virgins and infants.' 5.14. Within the total of three days eighty thousand were destroyed, forty thousand in hand-to-hand fighting; and as many were sold into slavery as were slain.' 5.15. Not content with this, Antiochus dared to enter the most holy temple in all the world, guided by Menelaus, who had become a traitor both to the laws and to his country.' 5.16. He took the holy vessels with his polluted hands, and swept away with profane hands the votive offerings which other kings had made to enhance the glory and honor of the place.' 5.17. Antiochus was elated in spirit, and did not perceive that the Lord was angered for a little while because of the sins of those who dwelt in the city, and that therefore he was disregarding the holy place.' 5.18. But if it had not happened that they were involved in many sins, this man would have been scourged and turned back from his rash act as soon as he came forward, just as Heliodorus was, whom Seleucus the king sent to inspect the treasury.' 5.19. But the Lord did not choose the nation for the sake of the holy place, but the place for the sake of the nation.' 5.20. Therefore the place itself shared in the misfortunes that befell the nation and afterward participated in its benefits; and what was forsaken in the wrath of the Almighty was restored again in all its glory when the great Lord became reconciled. 5.21. So Antiochus carried off eighteen hundred talents from the temple, and hurried away to Antioch, thinking in his arrogance that he could sail on the land and walk on the sea, because his mind was elated.' 5.22. And he left governors to afflict the people: at Jerusalem, Philip, by birth a Phrygian and in character more barbarous than the man who appointed him;' 5.23. and at Gerizim, Andronicus; and besides these Menelaus, who lorded it over his fellow citizens worse than the others did. In his malice toward the Jewish citizens,' 6.1. Not long after this, the king sent an Athenian senator to compel the Jews to forsake the laws of their fathers and cease to live by the laws of God,' 6.6. A man could neither keep the sabbath, nor observe the feasts of his fathers, nor so much as confess himself to be a Jew.' 6.8. At the suggestion of Ptolemy a decree was issued to the neighboring Greek cities, that they should adopt the same policy toward the Jews and make them partake of the sacrifices,' 6.9. and should slay those who did not choose to change over to Greek customs. One could see, therefore, the misery that had come upon them.' 6.16. Therefore he never withdraws his mercy from us. Though he disciplines us with calamities, he does not forsake his own people.' 7.33. And if our living Lord is angry for a little while, to rebuke and discipline us, he will again be reconciled with his own servants.' 8.11. And he immediately sent to the cities on the seacoast, inviting them to buy Jewish slaves and promising to hand over ninety slaves for a talent, not expecting the judgment from the Almighty that was about to overtake him.' 8.25. They captured the money of those who had come to buy them as slaves. After pursuing them for some distance, they were obliged to return because the hour was late.' 8.29. When they had done this, they made common supplication and besought the merciful Lord to be wholly reconciled with his servants.' 9.1. About that time, as it happened, Antiochus had retreated in disorder from the region of Persia.' 9.2. For he had entered the city called Persepolis, and attempted to rob the temples and control the city. Therefore the people rushed to the rescue with arms, and Antiochus and his men were defeated, with the result that Antiochus was put to flight by the inhabitants and beat a shameful retreat.' 9.4. Transported with rage, he conceived the idea of turning upon the Jews the injury done by those who had put him to flight; so he ordered his charioteer to drive without stopping until he completed the journey. But the judgment of heaven rode with him! For in his arrogance he said, 'When I get there I will make Jerusalem a cemetery of Jews.' 9.7. Yet he did not in any way stop his insolence, but was even more filled with arrogance, breathing fire in his rage against the Jews, and giving orders to hasten the journey. And so it came about that he fell out of his chariot as it was rushing along, and the fall was so hard as to torture every limb of his body.' 9.8. Thus he who had just been thinking that he could command the waves of the sea, in his superhuman arrogance, and imagining that he could weigh the high mountains in a balance, was brought down to earth and carried in a litter, making the power of God manifest to all.' 9.19. To his worthy Jewish citizens, Antiochus their king and general sends hearty greetings and good wishes for their health and prosperity.' 9.28. So the murderer and blasphemer, having endured the more intense suffering, such as he had inflicted on others, came to the end of his life by a most pitiable fate, among the mountains in a strange land.' 10.1. Now Maccabeus and his followers, the Lord leading them on, recovered the temple and the city;' 10.2. and they tore down the altars which had been built in the public square by the foreigners, and also destroyed the sacred precincts.' 10.3. They purified the sanctuary, and made another altar of sacrifice; then, striking fire out of flint, they offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years, and they burned incense and lighted lamps and set out the bread of the Presence.' 10.4. And when they had done this, they fell prostrate and besought the Lord that they might never again fall into such misfortunes, but that, if they should ever sin, they might be disciplined by him with forbearance and not be handed over to blasphemous and barbarous nations.' 10.5. It happened that on the same day on which the sanctuary had been profaned by the foreigners, the purification of the sanctuary took place, that is, on the twenty-fifth day of the same month, which was Chislev.' 10.6. And they celebrated it for eight days with rejoicing, in the manner of the feast of booths, remembering how not long before, during the feast of booths, they had been wandering in the mountains and caves like wild animals.' 10.7. Therefore bearing ivy-wreathed wands and beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had given success to the purifying of his own holy place.' 10.8. They decreed by public ordice and vote that the whole nation of the Jews should observe these days every year. 10.35. But at dawn of the fifth day, twenty young men in the army of Maccabeus, fired with anger because of the blasphemies, bravely stormed the wall and with savage fury cut down every one they met.' 12.15. But Judas and his men, calling upon the great Sovereign of the world, who without battering-rams or engines of war overthrew Jericho in the days of Joshua, rushed furiously upon the walls.' 12.30. But when the Jews who dwelt there bore witness to the good will which the people of Scythopolis had shown them and their kind treatment of them in times of misfortune,' 13.4. But the King of kings aroused the anger of Antiochus against the scoundrel; and when Lysias informed him that this man was to blame for all the trouble, he ordered them to take him to Beroea and to put him to death by the method which is the custom in that place.' 13.5. For there is a tower in that place, fifty cubits high, full of ashes, and it has a rim running around it which on all sides inclines precipitously into the ashes.' 13.6. There they all push to destruction any man guilty of sacrilege or notorious for other crimes. 13.7. By such a fate it came about that Menelaus the lawbreaker died, without even burial in the earth.' 13.8. And this was eminently just; because he had committed many sins against the altar whose fire and ashes were holy, he met his death in ashes.' 13.26. Lysias took the public platform, made the best possible defense, convinced them, appeased them, gained their good will, and set out for Antioch. This is how the king's attack and withdrawal turned out.' 14.8. first because I am genuinely concerned for the interests of the king, and second because I have regard also for my fellow citizens. For through the folly of those whom I have mentioned our whole nation is now in no small misfortune.' 14.14. And the Gentiles throughout Judea, who had fled before Judas, flocked to join Nicanor, thinking that the misfortunes and calamities of the Jews would mean prosperity for themselves.' 14.37. A certain Razis, one of the elders of Jerusalem, was denounced to Nicanor as a man who loved his fellow citizens and was very well thought of and for his good will was called father of the Jews.' 15.28. When the action was over and they were returning with joy, they recognized Nicanor, lying dead, in full armor.' 15.30. And the man who was ever in body and soul the defender of his fellow citizens, the man who maintained his youthful good will toward his countrymen, ordered them to cut off Nicanor's head and arm and carry them to Jerusalem.' 15.31. And when he arrived there and had called his countrymen together and stationed the priests before the altar, he sent for those who were in the citadel.'
8. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 50.1-50.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

50.1. The leader of his brethren and the pride of his people was Simon the high priest, son of Onias,who in his life repaired the house,and in his time fortified the temple. 50.1. like an olive tree putting forth its fruit,and like a cypress towering in the clouds. 50.2. He laid the foundations for the high double walls,the high retaining walls for the temple enclosure. 50.2. Then Simon came down, and lifted up his hands over the whole congregation of the sons of Israel,to pronounce the blessing of the Lord with his lips,and to glory in his name; 50.3. In his days a cistern for water was quarried out,a reservoir like the sea in circumference. 50.4. He considered how to save his people from ruin,and fortified the city to withstand a seige.
9. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2, 1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 31.2, 40.3.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

31.2. 1.  As the Romans approached, Antiochus, after greeting them verbally from a distance, stretched out his hand in welcome. Popillius, however, who had in readiness the document in which the senate's decree was recorded, held it out and ordered Antiochus to read it. His purpose in acting thus, it was thought, was that he might avoid clasping the king's hand in friendship until it was evident from his decision whether he was, in fact, friend or foe. When the king, after reading the document, said that he would consult with his friends on these matters, Popillius, hearing this, acted in a manner that seemed offensive and arrogant in the extreme. Having a vinestock ready at hand, with the stick he drew a line about Antiochus, and directed him to give his answer in that circle.,2.  The king, astonished by what had taken place, and awed, too, by the majesty and might of Rome, found himself in a hopeless quandary, and on full consideration said that he would do all that the Romans proposed. Popillius and his colleagues then took his hand and greeted him cordially. Now the purport of the letter was that he must break off at once his war against Ptolemy. Pursuant to these instructions the king withdrew his forces from Egypt, panic-stricken by the superior might of Rome, the more so as he had just had news of the Macedonian collapse. Indeed, had he not known that this had taken place, never of his own free will would he have heeded the decree.
11. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.23, 12.138-12.146, 12.237-12.240, 12.248, 12.251, 12.384-12.385, 13.164, 13.166-13.170 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.23. And know this further, that though I be not of kin to them by birth, nor one of the same country with them, yet do I desire these favors to be done them, since all men are the workmanship of God; and I am sensible that he is well-pleased with those that do good. I do therefore put up this petition to thee, to do good to them.” 12.23. He also erected a strong castle, and built it entirely of white stone to the very roof, and had animals of a prodigious magnitude engraven upon it. He also drew round it a great and deep canal of water. 12.138. “King Antiochus To Ptolemy, Sendeth Greeting. /p“Since the Jews, upon our first entrance on their country, demonstrated their friendship towards us, and when we came to their city [Jerusalem], received us in a splendid manner, and came to meet us with their senate, and gave abundance of provisions to our soldiers, and to the elephants, and joined with us in ejecting the garrison of the Egyptians that were in the citadel 12.139. we have thought fit to reward them, and to retrieve the condition of their city, which hath been greatly depopulated by such accidents as have befallen its inhabitants, and to bring those that have been scattered abroad back to the city. 12.141. And these payments I would have fully paid them, as I have sent orders to you. I would also have the work about the temple finished, and the cloisters, and if there be any thing else that ought to be rebuilt. And for the materials of wood, let it be brought them out of Judea itself and out of the other countries, and out of Libanus tax free; and the same I would have observed as to those other materials which will be necessary, in order to render the temple more glorious; 12.142. and let all of that nation live according to the laws of their own country; and let the senate, and the priests, and the scribes of the temple, and the sacred singers, be discharged from poll-money and the crown tax and other taxes also. 12.143. And that the city may the sooner recover its inhabitants, I grant a discharge from taxes for three years to its present inhabitants, and to such as shall come to it, until the month Hyperberetus. 12.144. We also discharge them for the future from a third part of their taxes, that the losses they have sustained may be repaired. And all those citizens that have been carried away, and are become slaves, we grant them and their children their freedom, and give order that their substance be restored to them.” 12.145. 4. And these were the contents of this epistle. He also published a decree through all his kingdom in honor of the temple, which contained what follows: “It shall be lawful for no foreigner to come within the limits of the temple round about; which thing is forbidden also to the Jews, unless to those who, according to their own custom, have purified themselves. 12.146. Nor let any flesh of horses, or of mules, or of asses, he brought into the city, whether they be wild or tame; nor that of leopards, or foxes, or hares; and, in general, that of any animal which is forbidden for the Jews to eat. Nor let their skins be brought into it; nor let any such animal be bred up in the city. Let them only be permitted to use the sacrifices derived from their forefathers, with which they have been obliged to make acceptable atonements to God. And he that transgresseth any of these orders, let him pay to the priests three thousand drachmae of silver.” 12.237. 1. About this time, upon the death of Onias the high priest, they gave the high priesthood to Jesus his brother; for that son which Onias left [or Onias IV.] was yet but an infant; and, in its proper place, we will inform the reader of all the circumstances that befell this child. 12.238. But this Jesus, who was the brother of Onias, was deprived of the high priesthood by the king, who was angry with him, and gave it to his younger brother, whose name also was Onias; for Simon had these three sons, to each of which the priesthood came, as we have already informed the reader. 12.239. This Jesus changed his name to Jason, but Onias was called Menelaus. Now as the former high priest, Jesus, raised a sedition against Menelaus, who was ordained after him, the multitude were divided between them both. And the sons of Tobias took the part of Menelaus 12.248. 4. Now it came to pass, after two years, in the hundred forty and fifth year, on the twenty-fifth day of that month which is by us called Chasleu, and by the Macedonians Apelleus, in the hundred and fifty-third olympiad, that the king came up to Jerusalem, and, pretending peace, he got possession of the city by treachery; 12.251. for he forbade them to offer those daily sacrifices which they used to offer to God, according to the law. And when he had pillaged the whole city, some of the inhabitants he slew, and some he carried captive, together with their wives and children, so that the multitude of those captives that were taken alive amounted to about ten thousand. 12.384. for Lysias advised the king to slay Menelaus, if he would have the Jews be quiet, and cause him no further disturbance, for that this man was the origin of all the mischief the Jews had done them, by persuading his father to compel the Jews to leave the religion of their fathers. 12.385. So the king sent Menelaus to Berea, a city of Syria, and there had him put to death, when he had been high priest ten years. He had been a wicked and an impious man; and, in order to get the government to himself, had compelled his nation to transgress their own laws. After the death of Menelaus, Alcimus, who was also called Jacimus, was made high priest. 13.164. He enjoined the same ambassadors, that, as they came back, they should go to the Spartans, and put them in mind of their friendship and kindred. So when the ambassadors came to Rome, they went into their senate, and said what they were commanded by Jonathan the high priest to say, how he had sent them to confirm their friendship. 13.166. a copy of which here follows: “Jonathan the high priest of the Jewish nation, and the senate, and body of the people of the Jews, to the ephori, and senate, and people of the Lacedemonians, send greeting. If you be well, and both your public and private affairs be agreeable to your mind, it is according to our wishes. We are well also. 13.167. When in former times an epistle was brought to Onias, who was then our high priest, from Areus, who at that time was your king, by Demoteles, concerning the kindred that was between us and you, a copy of which is here subjoined, we both joyfully received the epistle, and were well pleased with Demoteles and Areus, although we did not need such a demonstration, because we were well satisfied about it from the sacred writing 13.168. yet did not we think fit first to begin the claim of this relation to you, lest we should seem too early in taking to ourselves the glory which is now given us by you. It is a long time since this relation of ours to you hath been renewed; and when we, upon holy and festival days, offer sacrifices to God, we pray to him for your preservation and victory. 13.169. As to ourselves, although we have had many wars that have compassed us around, by reason of the covetousness of our neighbors, yet did not we determine to be troublesome either to you, or to others that were related to us; but since we have now overcome our enemies, and have occasion to send Numenius the son of Antiochus, and Antipater the son of Jason, who are both honorable men belonging to our senate, to the Romans, we gave them this epistle to you also, that they might renew that friendship which is between us.
12. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.31-1.35, 7.423-7.427 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.31. Now these caves were in the precipices of craggy mountains, and could not be come at from any side, since they had only some winding pathways, very narrow, by which they got up to them; but the rock that lay on their front had beneath it valleys of a vast depth, and of an almost perpendicular declivity; insomuch that the king was doubtful for a long time what to do, by reason of a kind of impossibility there was of attacking the place. Yet did he at length make use of a contrivance that was subject to the utmost hazard; 1.31. 1. At the same time that Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, had a quarrel with the sixth Ptolemy about his right to the whole country of Syria, a great sedition fell among the men of power in Judea, and they had a contention about obtaining the government; while each of those that were of dignity could not endure to be subject to their equals. However, Onias, one of the high priests, got the better, and cast the sons of Tobias out of the city; 1.32. 7. Hereupon Herod was very angry at him, and was going to fight against Macheras as his enemy; but he restrained his indignation, and marched to Antony to accuse Macheras of mal-administration. But Macheras was made sensible of his offenses, and followed after the king immediately, and earnestly begged and obtained that he would be reconciled to him. 1.32. who fled to Antiochus, and besought him to make use of them for his leaders, and to make an expedition into Judea. The king being thereto disposed beforehand, complied with them, and came upon the Jews with a great army, and took their city by force, and slew a great multitude of those that favored Ptolemy, and sent out his soldiers to plunder them without mercy. He also spoiled the temple, and put a stop to the constant practice of offering a daily sacrifice of expiation for three years and six months. 1.33. But Onias, the high priest, fled to Ptolemy, and received a place from him in the Nomus of Heliopolis, where he built a city resembling Jerusalem, and a temple that was like its temple, concerning which we shall speak more in its proper place hereafter. 1.33. He also made an immediate and continual attack upon the fortress. Yet was he forced, by a most terrible storm, to pitch his camp in the neighboring villages before he could take it. But when, after a few days’ time, the second legion, that came from Antony, joined themselves to him, the enemy were affrighted at his power, and left their fortifications in the nighttime. 1.34. 2. Now Antiochus was not satisfied either with his unexpected taking the city, or with its pillage, or with the great slaughter he had made there; but being overcome with his violent passions, and remembering what he had suffered during the siege, he compelled the Jews to dissolve the laws of their country, and to keep their infants uncircumcised, and to sacrifice swine’s flesh upon the altar; 1.34. 7. Now when at the evening Herod had already dismissed his friends to refresh themselves after their fatigue, and when he was gone himself, while he was still hot in his armor, like a common soldier, to bathe himself, and had but one servant that attended him, and before he was gotten into the bath, one of the enemies met him in the face with a sword in his hand, and then a second, and then a third, and after that more of them; 1.35. against which they all opposed themselves, and the most approved among them were put to death. Bacchides also, who was sent to keep the fortresses, having these wicked commands, joined to his own natural barbarity, indulged all sorts of the extremest wickedness, and tormented the worthiest of the inhabitants, man by man, and threatened their city every day with open destruction, till at length he provoked the poor sufferers by the extremity of his wicked doings to avenge themselves. 1.35. although they were bold to the utmost degree, now they durst not come to a plain battle with the Romans, which was certain death; but through their mines under ground they would appear in the midst of them on the sudden, and before they could batter down one wall, they built them another in its stead; and to sum up all at once, they did not show any want either of painstaking or of contrivances, as having resolved to hold out to the very last. 7.423. Onias, the son of Simon, one of the Jewish high priests, fled from Antiochus the king of Syria, when he made war with the Jews, and came to Alexandria; and as Ptolemy received him very kindly, on account of his hatred to Antiochus, he assured him, that if he would comply with his proposal, he would bring all the Jews to his assistance; 7.424. and when the king agreed to do it so far as he was able, he desired him to give him leave to build a temple somewhere in Egypt, and to worship God according to the customs of his own country; 7.425. for that the Jews would then be so much readier to fight against Antiochus who had laid waste the temple at Jerusalem, and that they would then come to him with greater goodwill; and that, by granting them liberty of conscience, very many of them would come over to him. 7.426. 3. So Ptolemy complied with his proposals, and gave him a place one hundred and eighty furlongs distant from Memphis. That Nomos was called the Nomos of Heliopoli 7.427. where Onias built a fortress and a temple, not like to that at Jerusalem, but such as resembled a tower. He built it of large stones to the height of sixty cubits;
13. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. אמר ליה לא אמר ליה יהיבנא לך דמי פלגא דסעודתיך אמר ליה לא אמר ליה יהיבנא לך דמי כולה סעודתיך א"ל לא נקטיה בידיה ואוקמיה ואפקיה,אמר הואיל והוו יתבי רבנן ולא מחו ביה ש"מ קא ניחא להו איזיל איכול בהו קורצא בי מלכא אזל אמר ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי א"ל מי יימר א"ל שדר להו קורבנא חזית אי מקרבין ליה,אזל שדר בידיה עגלא תלתא בהדי דקאתי שדא ביה מומא בניב שפתים ואמרי לה בדוקין שבעין דוכתא דלדידן הוה מומא ולדידהו לאו מומא הוא,סבור רבנן לקרוביה משום שלום מלכות אמר להו רבי זכריה בן אבקולס יאמרו בעלי מומין קריבין לגבי מזבח סבור למיקטליה דלא ליזיל ולימא אמר להו רבי זכריה יאמרו מטיל מום בקדשים יהרג,אמר רבי יוחנן ענוותנותו של רבי זכריה בן אבקולס החריבה את ביתנו ושרפה את היכלנו והגליתנו מארצנו,שדר עלוייהו לנירון קיסר כי קאתי שדא גירא למזרח אתא נפל בירושלים למערב אתא נפל בירושלים לארבע רוחות השמים אתא נפל בירושלים,א"ל לינוקא פסוק לי פסוקיך אמר ליה (יחזקאל כה, יד) ונתתי את נקמתי באדום ביד עמי ישראל וגו' אמר קודשא בריך הוא בעי לחרובי ביתיה ובעי לכפורי ידיה בההוא גברא ערק ואזל ואיגייר ונפק מיניה ר"מ,שדריה עילוייהו לאספסיינוס קיסר אתא צר עלה תלת שני הוו בה הנהו תלתא עתירי נקדימון בן גוריון ובן כלבא שבוע ובן ציצית הכסת נקדימון בן גוריון שנקדה לו חמה בעבורו בן כלבא שבוע שכל הנכנס לביתו כשהוא רעב ככלב יוצא כשהוא שבע בן ציצית הכסת שהיתה ציצתו נגררת על גבי כסתות איכא דאמרי שהיתה כסתו מוטלת בין גדולי רומי,חד אמר להו אנא זיינא להו בחיטי ושערי וחד אמר להו בדחמרא ובדמלחא ומשחא וחד אמר להו בדציבי ושבחו רבנן לדציבי דרב חסדא כל אקלידי הוה מסר לשמעיה בר מדציבי דאמר רב חסדא אכלבא דחיטי בעי שיתין אכלבי דציבי הוה להו למיזן עשרים וחד שתא,הוו בהו הנהו בריוני אמרו להו רבנן ניפוק ונעביד שלמא בהדייהו לא שבקינהו אמרו להו ניפוק ונעביד קרבא בהדייהו אמרו להו רבנן לא מסתייעא מילתא קמו קלנהו להנהו אמברי דחיטי ושערי והוה כפנא,מרתא בת בייתוס עתירתא דירושלים הויא שדרתה לשלוחה ואמרה ליה זיל אייתי לי סמידא אדאזל איזדבן אתא אמר לה סמידא ליכא חיורתא איכא אמרה ליה זיל אייתי לי אדאזל איזדבן אתא ואמר לה חיורתא ליכא גושקרא איכא א"ל זיל אייתי לי אדאזל אזדבן אתא ואמר לה גושקרא ליכא קימחא דשערי איכא אמרה ליה זיל אייתי לי אדאזל איזדבן,הוה שליפא מסאנא אמרה איפוק ואחזי אי משכחנא מידי למיכל איתיב לה פרתא בכרעא ומתה,קרי עלה רבן יוחנן בן זכאי (דברים כח, נו) הרכה בך והענוגה אשר לא נסתה כף רגלה איכא דאמרי גרוגרות דר' צדוק אכלה ואיתניסא ומתה דר' צדוק יתיב ארבעין שנין בתעניתא דלא ליחרב ירושלים כי הוה אכיל מידי הוה מיתחזי מאבראי וכי הוה בריא מייתי ליה גרוגרות מייץ מייהו ושדי להו,כי הוה קא ניחא נפשה אפיקתה לכל דהבא וכספא שדיתיה בשוקא אמרה האי למאי מיבעי לי והיינו דכתיב (יחזקאל ז, יט) כספם בחוצות ישליכו,אבא סקרא ריש בריוני דירושלים בר אחתיה דרבן יוחנן בן זכאי הוה שלח ליה תא בצינעא לגבאי אתא א"ל עד אימת עבדיתו הכי וקטליתו ליה לעלמא בכפנא א"ל מאי איעביד דאי אמינא להו מידי קטלו לי א"ל חזי לי תקנתא לדידי דאיפוק אפשר דהוי הצלה פורתא,א"ל נקוט נפשך בקצירי וליתי כולי עלמא ולישיילו בך ואייתי מידי סריא ואגני גבך ולימרו דנח נפשך וליעיילו בך תלמידך ולא ליעול בך איניש אחרינא דלא לרגשן בך דקליל את דאינהו ידעי דחייא קליל ממיתא,עביד הכי נכנס בו רבי אליעזר מצד אחד ורבי יהושע מצד אחר כי מטו לפיתחא בעו למדקריה אמר להו יאמרו רבן דקרו בעו למדחפיה אמר להו יאמרו רבן דחפו פתחו ליה בבא נפק,כי מטא להתם אמר שלמא עלך מלכא שלמא עלך מלכא א"ל מיחייבת תרי קטלא חדא דלאו מלכא אנא וקא קרית לי מלכא ותו אי מלכא אנא עד האידנא אמאי לא אתית לגבאי א"ל דקאמרת לאו מלכא אנא 56a. The host bsaid to him: No,you must leave. Bar Kamtza bsaid to him: I will give you money for half of the feast;just do not send me away. The host bsaid to him: No,you must leave. Bar Kamtza then bsaid to him: I will give you money for the entire feast;just let me stay. The host bsaid to him: No,you must leave. Finally, the host btookbar Kamtza bby his hand, stood him up, and took him out. /b,After having been cast out from the feast, bar Kamtza bsaidto himself: bSince the Sages were sittingthere band did not protestthe actions of the host, although they saw how he humiliated me, blearn from it that they were contentwith what he did. bI willtherefore bgo and inform [ ieikhul kurtza /i] against them to the king. He wentand bsaid to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you.The emperor bsaid to him: Who saysthat this is the case? Bar Kamtza bsaid to him:Go and test them; bsend them an offeringto be brought in honor of the government, and bsee whether theywill bsacrifice it. /b,The emperor bwent and sent with hima choice bthree-year-old calf. Whilebar Kamtza bwas comingwith the calf to the Temple, bhe made a blemish onthe calf’s bupper lip. And some sayhe made the blemish bonits beyelids, a place where according to us,i.e., ihalakha /i, it bis a blemish, but according to them,gentile rules for their offerings, it bis not a blemish.Therefore, when bar Kamtza brought the animal to the Temple, the priests would not sacrifice it on the altar since it was blemished, but they also could not explain this satisfactorily to the gentile authorities, who did not consider it to be blemished.,The blemish notwithstanding, bthe Sages thought to sacrificethe animal as an offering bdue tothe imperative to maintain bpeacewith the bgovernment. Rabbi Zekharya ben Avkolas said to them:If the priests do that, people bwill saythat bblemishedanimals bmay be sacrificedas offerings bon the altar.The Sages said: If we do not sacrifice it, then we must prevent bar Kamtza from reporting this to the emperor. The Sages bthought to kill him so that he would not go and speakagainst them. bRabbi Zekharya said to them:If you kill him, people bwill saythat bone who makes a blemish on sacrificialanimals bis to be killed.As a result, they did nothing, bar Kamtza’s slander was accepted by the authorities, and consequently the war between the Jews and the Romans began., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Theexcessive bhumility of Rabbi Zekharya ben Avkolas destroyed our Temple, burned our Sanctuary, and exiled us from our land. /b,The Roman authorities then bsent Nero Caesar againstthe Jews. bWhen he cameto Jerusalem, he wished to test his fate. bHe shot an arrow to the eastand the arrow bcameand bfell in Jerusalem.He then shot another arrow bto the westand bitalso bfell in Jerusalem.He shot an arrow binall bfour directions of the heavens,and each time the arrow bfell in Jerusalem. /b,Nero then conducted another test: bHe said to a child: Tell me a versethat you learned today. bHe said to himas follows: b“And I will lay My vengeance upon Edom by the hand of My people Israel”(Ezekiel 25:14). Nero bsaid: The Holy One, Blessed be He, wishes to destroy His Temple, and He wishes to wipe his hands with that man,i.e., with me. The Romans are associated with Edom, the descendants of Esau. If I continue on this mission, I will eventually be punished for having served as God’s agent to bring about the destruction. So bhe fledand bbecame a convert, andultimately bRabbi Meir descended from him. /b,The Roman authorities then bsent Vespasian Caesar againstthe Jews. bHe cameand blaid siegeto Jerusalem for bthree years. There wereat that time binJerusalem bthese three wealthy people: Nakdimon ben Guryon, ben Kalba Savua, and ben Tzitzit HaKesat.The Gemara explains their names: bNakdimon ben Guryonwas called by that name bbecause the sun shined [ inakad /i] on his behalf,as it is related elsewhere (see iTa’anit19b) that the sun once continued to shine in order to prevent him from suffering a substantial loss. bBen Kalba Savuawas called this bbecause anyone who entered his house when he was hungry as a dog [ ikelev /i] would leave satiated [ isave’a /i]. Ben Tzitzit HaKesatwas referred to by that name because bhis ritual fringes [ itzitzit /i] draggedalong bon blankets [ ikeset /i],meaning that he would not walk in the street with his feet on the ground, but rather they would place blankets beneath him. bThere arethose bwho say that his seat [ ikiseh /i] was found among the nobles of Rome,meaning that he would sit among them.,These three wealthy people offered their assistance. bOneof them bsaid tothe leaders of the city: bI will feedthe residents bwith wheat and barley. And oneof them bsaid toleaders of the city: I will provide the residents bwith wine, salt, and oil. And oneof them bsaid tothe leaders of the city: I will supply the residents bwith wood.The Gemara comments: bAnd the Sages gavespecial bpraise to hewho gave the bwood,since this was an especially expensive gift. bAs Rav Ḥisda would give all of the keys [ iaklidei /i] to his servant, exceptfor the key btohis shed bforstoring bwood,which he deemed the most important of them all. bAs Rav Ḥisda said: One storehouse [ iakhleva /i] of wheat requires sixty storehouses of woodfor cooking and baking fuel. These three wealthy men bhadbetween them enough commodities bto sustainthe besieged bfor twenty-one years. /b, bThere were certain zealots amongthe people of Jerusalem. bThe Sages said to them: Let us go out and make peace withthe Romans. But the zealots bdid not allow themto do this. The zealots bsaid tothe Sages: bLet us go out and engage in battle againstthe Romans. But bthe Sages said to them: You will not be successful.It would be better for you to wait until the siege is broken. In order to force the residents of the city to engage in battle, the zealots barose and burneddown bthese storehouses [ iambarei /i] of wheat and barley, and there wasa general bfamine. /b,With regard to this famine it is related that bMarta bat Baitos wasone of the bwealthy women of Jerusalem. She sentout bher agent and said to him: Go bring me fine flour [ isemida /i]. By the time he went,the fine flour bwasalready bsold. He cameand bsaid to her: There is no fine flour,but bthere isordinary bflour. She said to him: Gothen and bbring meordinary flour. bBy the time he went,the ordinary flour bwasalso bsold. He came and said to her: There is noordinary bflour,but bthere is coarse flour [ igushkera /i]. She said to him: Gothen and bbring mecoarse flour. bBy the time he went,the coarse flour bwasalready bsold. He came and said to her: There is no coarse flour,but bthere is barley flour. She said to him: Gothen and bbring mebarley flour. But once again, bby the time he went,the barley flour bwasalso bsold. /b, bShe hadjust bremoved her shoes,but bshe said: I will go outmyself band see if I can find something to eat.She stepped on some bdung,which bstuck to her foot, and,overcome by disgust, bshe died. /b, bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai read concerning hera verse found in the section of the Torah listing the curses that will befall Israel: b“The tender and delicate woman among you who would not adventure to set the sole of her footupon the ground” (Deuteronomy 28:56). bThere arethose bwho saythat she did not step on dung, but rather bshe ate a fig of Rabbi Tzadok, and became disgusted and died.What are these figs? bRabbi Tzadok observed fastsfor bforty years,praying bthat Jerusalem would not be destroyed.He became so emaciated from fasting bthat when he would eat something it was visible from the outsideof his body. bAnd when he would eatafter a fast bthey would bring him figsand bhe would suck out their liquid and castthe rest baway.It was one such fig that Marta bat Baitos found and that caused her death.,It is further related that bas she was dying, she took out all ofher bgold and silverand bthrew it in the marketplace. She said: Why do I need this? And this is as it is written: “They shall cast their silver in the streetsand their gold shall be as an impure thing; their silver and their gold shall not be able to deliver them in the day of the wrath of the Lord; they shall not satisfy their souls, neither fill their bowels” (Ezekiel 7:19).,§ The Gemara relates: bAbba Sikkara was the leader of the zealots [ ibiryonei /i] of Jerusalemand bthe son of the sister of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai.Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsenta message bto him: Come to me in secret. He came,and Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Until when will you do this and kill everyone through starvation?Abba Sikkara bsaid to him: What can I do, for if I say something to them they will kill me.Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Show me a methodso bthat I willbe able to bleavethe city, and it is bpossible thatthrough this bthere will besome bsmall salvation. /b,Abba Sikkara bsaid to him:This is what you should do: bPretend to be sick, and have everyone come and askabout your welfare, so that word will spread about your ailing condition. Afterward bbring something putrid and place it near you, so thatpeople bwill say that you have diedand are decomposing. bAndthen, bhave your students enterto bring you to burial, band let no one else come in so thatthe zealots bnot notice that you arestill blight. Asthe zealots bknow that a livingperson bis lighter than a deadperson.,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bdid this. Rabbi Eliezer entered from one side and Rabbi Yehoshua from the other sideto take him out. bWhen they arrived at the entranceof the city on the inside, the guards, who were of the faction of the zealots, bwanted to pierce himwith their swords in order to ascertain that he was actually dead, as was the common practice. Abba Sikkara bsaid to them:The Romans bwill saythat bthey pierceeven btheir teacher.The guards then bwantedat least bto push himto see whether he was still alive, in which case he would cry out on account of the pushing. Abba Sikkara bsaid to them: They will saythat bthey pusheven btheir teacher.The guards then bopened the gateand bhe was taken out. /b, bWhenRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai breached there,i.e., the Roman camp, bhe said: Greetings to you, the king; greetings to you, the king.Vespasian bsaid to him: You are liable for two death penalties, onebecause bI am not a king andyet byou call me king, and furthermore, if I am a king, why didn’t you come to me until now?Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him:As for bwhat you saidabout yourself: bI am not a king, /b

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 304; Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 135
ancestral language Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 422, 476
anti-jewish (judaism) Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 337
antioch(enes) in jerusalem Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 220
antiochic persecutions Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 337
antiochus iii van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 64
antiochus iii the great,privileges granted by Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 220
antiochus invasion of egypt Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 337
antiochus iv epiphanes Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 135; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 265
areus Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 304
bestiality Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 258
biblical nature,see also deuteronomy,allusions Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 258
brethren Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6
calendars,liturgical Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
chislev Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
chronology/chronological Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326
city/-ies (polis) Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326
city states Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6
civil war Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326
day of eleusis Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 337
diasporan historiography Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 258
editors,jerusalemite Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 142
egypt Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
eschatology Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
ethnos/ethne,in Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 135
exile Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326
externality Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6
festivals Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
fraction Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326
gaius caligula Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 258
gerschom ben jehudah of mainz Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 265
glosses Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 476
god,kingdom of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 142
hellenism/hellenistic period,culture Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
hellenism Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 337
hellenized/hellenization Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 337
high priest/high priesthood Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326
high priesthood,as municipal position Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6, 220
history Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
house of onias (beth ḥonio) Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 40
identity Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
identity as political Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 135
illness Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 265
interpretatio judaica Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 304
isaac Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232; Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 135
jason (high priest) Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 135; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 142, 258
jerusalem,as polis Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6
jerusalem,as subject of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6
jerusalem,focus on Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6
jerusalem,vs. holy land Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6
jerusalem Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 135
jerusalem temple,defiled / desecration Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 337
jews/judeans/ioudaioi,and ethnicity in post-biblical texts Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 135
jews (and judaism) Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 220
josephus Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 258
judaean war Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 40, 326
judaism Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 337
judas maccabeus Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
kinship relations,and jewish identity Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 304
laws,jewish,compared to laws of cities Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6
maccabees,books of Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 135
maccabees/maccabean,maccabean/hasmonean revolt Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326
maccabees/maccabean Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326
martyrs Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
memory Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
menelaus Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 265; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 258
military Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326, 337
motifs (thematic),hatred of evil Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 238
motifs (thematic),officials Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 422
motifs (thematic),problems are caused by misunderstanding Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 258
name/named/unnamed Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 40
nero Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 258
numbers,accuracy of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 80
onias Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 304
onias community,death / murder Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326
onias community,flight / arrival to egypt Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326, 337
onias iii Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6
onias temple,history of Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326, 337
onias temple,identity of builder Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 40
onias temple Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 40
parody' Lidonnici and Lieber (2007), Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism, 265
pathetic historiography Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 80
politai Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6
psalms Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 142
ptolemaic Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 337
reforms Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 337
roman Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 337
seleucid Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326, 337
simon Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6
sparta and spartans,and jews Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 304
struggles Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 80
style,linguistic and literary,alliteration Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 80
style,linguistic and literary,lively diction Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 80
style,linguistic and literary,pathetic Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 80
style,linguistic and literary,word play Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 80
style,linguistic and literary Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 80
sukkot Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
syngeneia Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 135
syrian war,sixth Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326
temple Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232; van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 64
temple (second),destruction of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 258
temple (second),status as city Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 6
temple (second),temple vessels Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 142
time,construction of Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
tobiads (sons of) Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 326
torah,ancestral laws Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
torah,obedience to Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
universalism Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 238
worship/ritual/cult as identity markers,for jews Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 135