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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



661
Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.28


nanand carried him away, this man who had just entered the aforesaid treasury with a great retinue and all his bodyguard but was now unable to help himself; and they recognized clearly the sovereign power of God.'


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

43 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 8.2, 9.16, 17.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

8.2. כַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה מַאֲבִיד מִפְּנֵיכֶם כֵּן תֹאבֵדוּן עֵקֶב לֹא תִשְׁמְעוּן בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 8.2. וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת־כָּל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר הֹלִיכֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ זֶה אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה בַּמִּדְבָּר לְמַעַן עַנֹּתְךָ לְנַסֹּתְךָ לָדַעַת אֶת־אֲשֶׁר בִּלְבָבְךָ הֲתִשְׁמֹר מצותו [מִצְוֺתָיו] אִם־לֹא׃ 9.16. וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה חֲטָאתֶם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם עֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה סַרְתֶּם מַהֵר מִן־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם׃ 8.2. And thou shalt remember all the way which the LORD thy God hath led thee these forty years in the wilderness, that He might afflict thee, to prove thee, to know what was in thy heart, whether thou wouldest keep His commandments, or no." 9.16. And I looked, and, behold, ye had sinned against the LORD your God; ye had made you a molten calf; ye had turned aside quickly out of the way which the LORD had commanded you." 17.20. that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 13.22, 25.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.22. לֹא־יָמִישׁ עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן יוֹמָם וְעַמּוּד הָאֵשׁ לָיְלָה לִפְנֵי הָעָם׃ 13.22. the pillar of cloud by day, and the pillar of fire by night, departed not from before the people." 25.30. And thou shalt set upon the table showbread before Me always."
4. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 2.2-2.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.2. וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל יוֹנָה אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו מִמְּעֵי הַדָּגָה׃ 2.3. וַיֹּאמֶר קָרָאתִי מִצָּרָה לִי אֶל־יְהוָה וַיַּעֲנֵנִי מִבֶּטֶן שְׁאוֹל שִׁוַּעְתִּי שָׁמַעְתָּ קוֹלִי׃ 2.2. Then Jonah prayed unto the LORD his God out of the fish’s belly." 2.3. And he said: I called out of mine affliction Unto the LORD, and He answered me; Out of the belly of the nether-world cried I, And Thou heardest my voice."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 4.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.7. וְעַל שֻׁלְחַן הַפָּנִים יִפְרְשׂוּ בֶּגֶד תְּכֵלֶת וְנָתְנוּ עָלָיו אֶת־הַקְּעָרֹת וְאֶת־הַכַּפֹּת וְאֶת־הַמְּנַקִּיֹּת וְאֵת קְשׂוֹת הַנָּסֶךְ וְלֶחֶם הַתָּמִיד עָלָיו יִהְיֶה׃ 4.7. And upon the table of showbread they shall spread a cloth of blue, and put thereon the dishes, and the pans, and the bowls, and the jars wherewith to pour out; and the continual bread shall remain thereon."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 22.1, 104.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.1. לַמְנַצֵּחַ עַל־אַיֶּלֶת הַשַּׁחַר מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד׃ 22.1. כִּי־אַתָּה גֹחִי מִבָּטֶן מַבְטִיחִי עַל־שְׁדֵי אִמִּי׃ 104.4. עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃ 22.1. For the Leader; upon Aijeleth ha-Shahar. A Psalm of David." 104.4. Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 20.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 9.6, 40.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.6. לםרבה [לְמַרְבֵּה] הַמִּשְׂרָה וּלְשָׁלוֹם אֵין־קֵץ עַל־כִּסֵּא דָוִד וְעַל־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ לְהָכִין אֹתָהּ וּלְסַעֲדָהּ בְּמִשְׁפָּט וּבִצְדָקָה מֵעַתָּה וְעַד־עוֹלָם קִנְאַת יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תַּעֲשֶׂה־זֹּאת׃ 40.12. מִי־מָדַד בְּשָׁעֳלוֹ מַיִם וְשָׁמַיִם בַּזֶּרֶת תִּכֵּן וְכָל בַּשָּׁלִשׁ עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וְשָׁקַל בַּפֶּלֶס הָרִים וּגְבָעוֹת בְּמֹאזְנָיִם׃ 9.6. That the government may be increased, and of peace there be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to establish it, and to uphold it through justice and through righteousness From henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts doth perform this." 40.12. Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, And meted out heaven with the span, And comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, And weighed the mountains in scales, And the hills in a balance?"
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 11.20, 17.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.20. But, O LORD of hosts, that judgest righteously, That triest the reins and the heart, Let me see Thy vengeance on them; For unto Thee have I revealed my cause." 17.10. I the LORD search the heart, I try the reins, Even to give every man according to his ways, According to the fruit of his doings."
10. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 1.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.8. לֹא־יָמוּשׁ סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה הַזֶּה מִפִּיךָ וְהָגִיתָ בּוֹ יוֹמָם וָלַיְלָה לְמַעַן תִּשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בּוֹ כִּי־אָז תַּצְלִיחַ אֶת־דְּרָכֶךָ וְאָז תַּשְׂכִּיל׃ 1.8. This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein; for then thou shalt make thy ways prosperous, and then thou shalt have good success."
11. Aeschylus, Persians, 745-751, 820, 744 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

744. παῖς δʼ ἐμὸς τάδʼ οὐ κατειδὼς ἤνυσεν νέῳ θράσει·
12. Herodotus, Histories, 4.202, 4.205, 7.24, 7.36-7.37 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

4.202. When they were delivered to her by the Persians, Pheretime took the most guilty of the Barcaeans and set them impaled around the top of the wall; the breasts of their women she cut off and planted around the wall in like manner. ,As for the rest of the Barcaeans, she told the Persians to take them as their booty, except those who were of the house of Battus and not accessory to the murder: to these she turned over the city. 4.205. But Pheretime did not end well, either. For as soon as she had revenged herself on the Barcaeans and returned to Egypt, she met an awful death. For while still alive she teemed with maggots: thus does over-brutal human revenge invite retribution from the gods. That of Pheretime, daughter of Battus, against the Barcaeans was revenge of this nature and this brutality. 7.24. As far as I can judge by conjecture, Xerxes gave the command for this digging out of pride, wishing to display his power and leave a memorial; with no trouble they could have drawn their ships across the isthmus, yet he ordered them to dig a canal from sea to sea, wide enough to float two triremes rowed abreast. The same men who were assigned the digging were also assigned to join the banks of the river Strymon by a bridge. 7.36. So this was done by those who were appointed to the thankless honor, and new engineers set about making the bridges. They made the bridges as follows: in order to lighten the strain of the cables, they placed fifty-oared ships and triremes alongside each other, three hundred and sixty to bear the bridge nearest the Euxine sea, and three hundred and fourteen to bear the other; all lay obliquely to the line of the Pontus and parallel with the current of the Hellespont. ,After putting the ships together they let down very great anchors, both from the end of the ships on the Pontus side to hold fast against the winds blowing from within that sea, and from the other end, towards the west and the Aegean, to hold against the west and south winds. They left a narrow opening to sail through in the line of fifty-oared ships and triremes, that so whoever wanted to could sail by small craft to the Pontus or out of it. ,After doing this, they stretched the cables from the land, twisting them taut with wooden windlasses; they did not as before keep the two kinds apart, but assigned for each bridge two cables of flax and four of papyrus. ,All these had the same thickness and fine appearance, but the flaxen were heavier in proportion, for a cubit of them weighed a talent. ,When the strait was thus bridged, they sawed logs of wood to a length equal to the breadth of the floating supports, and laid them in order on the taut cables; after placing them together they then made them fast. After doing this, they carried brushwood onto the bridge; when this was all laid in order they heaped earth on it and stamped it down; then they made a fence on either side, so that the beasts of burden and horses not be frightened by the sight of the sea below them. 7.37. When the bridges and the work at Athos were ready, and both the dikes at the canal's entrances, built to prevent the surf from silting up the entrances of the dug passage, and the canal itself were reported to be now completely finished, the army then wintered. At the beginning of spring the army made ready and set forth from Sardis to march to Abydos. ,As it was setting out, the sun left his place in the heaven and was invisible, although the sky was without clouds and very clear, and the day turned into night. When Xerxes saw and took note of that, he was concerned and asked the Magi what the vision might signify. ,They declared to him that the god was showing the Greeks the abandonment of their cities; for the sun (they said) was the prophet of the Greeks, as the moon was their own. Xerxes rejoiced exceedingly to hear that and continued on his march.
13. Septuagint, Tobit, 3.1 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.1. Then in my grief I wept, and I prayed in anguish, saying
14. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1.5-1.6 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.5. And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth. 1.6. And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame
15. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 11.4-11.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

16. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 11.14, 11.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

11.14. וּבָעִתִּים הָהֵם רַבִּים יַעַמְדוּ עַל־מֶלֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב וּבְנֵי פָּרִיצֵי עַמְּךָ יִנַּשְּׂאוּ לְהַעֲמִיד חָזוֹן וְנִכְשָׁלוּ׃ 11.14. And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south; also the children of the violent among thy people shall lift themselves up to establish the vision; but they shall stumble." 11.20. Then shall stand up in his place one that shall cause an exactor to pass through the glory of the kingdom; but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle."
17. Polybius, Histories, 1.2.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

18. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 9.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.27. Thus there was great distress in Israel, such as had not been since the time that prophets ceased to appear among them.
19. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.1-2.18, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.21, 1.25, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 3, 3.1, 3.1-4.6, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.29, 3.30, 3.31, 3.32, 3.33, 3.34, 3.35, 3.36, 3.37, 3.38, 3.39, 3.40, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.25, 4.38, 4.45, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.27, 6.1, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18-7.42, 6.28, 6.29, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.9, 7.11, 7.23, 7.30, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.35, 7.36, 7.37, 7.38, 7.42, 8.3, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.11, 8.13, 8.16, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.24, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.27, 9.28, 9.29, 10.4, 10.6, 10.9, 10.10, 10.29, 10.30, 10.38, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.11, 11.13, 11.21, 11.33, 11.38, 12.11, 12.15, 12.16, 12.22, 12.27, 12.28, 13.1, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.11, 13.14, 13.17, 13.26, 14.1, 14.1-15.36, 14.2, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.15, 14.23, 14.26, 14.27, 14.28, 14.29, 14.30, 14.31, 14.32, 14.33, 14.37, 14.38, 14.39, 14.40, 14.41, 14.42, 14.43, 14.44, 14.45, 14.46, 15.1, 15.2, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.28, 15.29, 15.30, 15.31, 15.32, 15.33, 15.34, 15.35, 15.37 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

20. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 6.6-6.7, 41.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

41.8. Woe to you, ungodly men,who have forsaken the law of the Most High God!
21. Septuagint, Judith, 9.14, 13.19, 16.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

9.14. And cause thy whole nation and every tribe to know and understand that thou art God, the God of all power and might, and that there is no other who protects the people of Israel but thou alone! 13.19. Your hope will never depart from the hearts of men, as they remember the power of God. 16.17. Woe to the nations that rise up against my people! The Lord Almighty will take vengeance on them in the day of judgment; fire and worms he will give to their flesh; they shall weep in pain for ever.
22. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 5.7, 5.51, 6.12, 6.18, 6.36, 6.39 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.7. because in their bonds they were forcibly confined on every side. But with tears and a voice hard to silence they all called upon the Almighty Lord and Ruler of all power, their merciful God and Father, praying 5.51. and cried out in a very loud voice, imploring the Ruler over every power to manifest himself and be merciful to them, as they stood now at the gates of death. 6.12. But you, O Eternal One, who have all might and all power, watch over us now and have mercy upon us who by the senseless insolence of the lawless are being deprived of life in the manner of traitors. 6.18. Then the most glorious, almighty, and true God revealed his holy face and opened the heavenly gates, from which two glorious angels of fearful aspect descended, visible to all but the Jews. 6.36. And when they had ordained a public rite for these things in their whole community and for their descendants, they instituted the observance of the aforesaid days as a festival, not for drinking and gluttony, but because of the deliverance that had come to them through God. 6.39. on which the Lord of all most gloriously revealed his mercy and rescued them all together and unharmed.
23. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, Roman Antiquities, 6.13.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6.13.1.  It is said that in this battle two men on horseback, far excelling in both beauty and stature those our human stock produces, and just growing their first beard, appeared to Postumius, the dictator, and to those arrayed about him, and charged at the head of the Roman horse, striking with their spears all the Latins they encountered and driving them headlong before them. And after the flight of the Latins and the capture of their camp, the battle having come to an end in the late afternoon, two youths are said to have appeared in the same manner in the Roman Forum attired in military garb, very tall and beautiful and of the same age, themselves retaining on their counteces as having come from a battle, the look of combatants, and the horses they led being all in a sweat.
24. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, On Lysias, 7 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.72 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.72. And in the centre was the temple itself, beautiful beyond all possible description, as one may conjecture from what is now seen around on the outside; for what is innermost is invisible to every human creature except the high priest alone, and even he is enjoined only to enter that holy place once in each year. Everything then is invisible. For he carries in a brasier full of coals and frankincense; and then, when a great smoke proceeds from it, as is natural, and when everything all around is enveloped in it, then the sight of men is clouded, and checked, and prevented from penetrating in, being wholly unable to pierce the cloud.
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 198, 191 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

191. And will it be allowed to us to approach him or to open our mouth on the subject of the synagogues before this insulter of our holy and glorious temple? For it is quite evident that he will pay no regard whatever to things of less importance and which are held in inferior estimation, when he behaves with insolence and contempt towards our most beautiful and renowned temple, which is respected by all the east and by all the west, and regarded like the sun which shines everywhere.
27. Anon., 2 Baruch, 6.7-6.9, 80.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

28. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.136, 12.145, 13.77, 15.419-15.420, 17.169 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.136. He also saith, in the same book, that “when Seopas was conquered by Antiochus, Antiochus received Batanea, and Samaria, and Abila, and Gadara; and that, a while afterwards, there came in to him those Jews that inhabited near that temple which was called Jerusalem; concerning which, although I have more to say, and particularly concerning the presence of God about that temple, yet do I put off that history till another opportunity.” 12.145. 4. And these were the contents of this epistle. He also published a decree through all his kingdom in honor of the temple, which contained what follows: “It shall be lawful for no foreigner to come within the limits of the temple round about; which thing is forbidden also to the Jews, unless to those who, according to their own custom, have purified themselves. 13.77. Now the Jews that were at Alexandria were in great concern for those men, whose lot it was to contend for the temple at Jerusalem; for they took it very ill that any should take away the reputation of that temple, which was so ancient and so celebrated all over the habitable earth. 15.419. but the temple further inward in that gate was not allowed to the women; but still more inward was there a third [court of the] temple, whereinto it was not lawful for any but the priests alone to enter. The temple itself was within this; and before that temple was the altar, upon which we offer our sacrifices and burnt-offerings to God. 17.169. for it brought upon him a vehement appetite to eating, which he could not avoid to supply with one sort of food or other. His entrails were also ex-ulcerated, and the chief violence of his pain lay on his colon; an aqueous and transparent liquor also had settled itself about his feet, and a like matter afflicted him at the bottom of his belly. Nay, further, his privy-member was putrefied, and produced worms; and when he sat upright, he had a difficulty of breathing, which was very loathsome, on account of the stench of his breath, and the quickness of its returns; he had also convulsions in all parts of his body, which increased his strength to an insufferable degree.
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.656, 5.378, 7.453 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.656. 5. After this, the distemper seized upon his whole body, and greatly disordered all its parts with various symptoms; for there was a gentle fever upon him, and an intolerable itching over all the surface of his body, and continual pains in his colon, and dropsical tumors about his feet, and an inflammation of the abdomen,—and a putrefaction of his privy member, that produced worms. Besides which he had a difficulty of breathing upon him, and could not breathe but when he sat upright, and had a convulsion of all his members, insomuch that the diviners said those diseases were a punishment upon him for what he had done to the Rabbins. 5.378. I even tremble myself in declaring the works of God before your ears, that are unworthy to hear them; however, hearken to me, that you may be informed how you fight not only against the Romans, but against God himself. 7.453. This his distemper grew still a great deal worse and worse continually, and his very entrails were so corroded, that they fell out of his body, and in that condition he died. Thus he became as great an instance of Divine Providence as ever was, and demonstrated that God punishes wicked men.
30. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 1.8-1.10, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.8. Therefore don't be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord, nor of me his prisoner; but endure hardship for the gospel according to the power of God 1.9. who saved us and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given to us in Christ Jesus before times eternal 1.10. but has now been revealed by the appearing of our Savior, Christ Jesus, who abolished death, and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel. 4.1. I charge you therefore before God and the Lord Jesus Christ, who will judge the living and the dead at His appearing and His kingdom:
31. New Testament, Acts, 1.3, 1.15-1.26, 5.39, 8.10, 12.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.3. To these he also showed himself alive after his suffering by many proofs, appearing to them over a period of forty days, and spoke about God's Kingdom. 1.15. In these days, Peter stood up in the midst of the disciples (and the number of names was about one hundred twenty), and said 1.16. Brothers, it was necessary that this Scripture should be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who was guide to those who took Jesus. 1.17. For he was numbered with us, and received his portion in this ministry. 1.18. Now this man obtained a field with the reward for his wickedness, and falling headlong, his body burst open, and all his intestines gushed out. 1.19. It became known to everyone who lived in Jerusalem that in their language that field was called 'Akeldama,' that is, 'The field of blood.' 1.20. For it is written in the book of Psalms, 'Let his habitation be made desolate, Let no one dwell therein,' and, 'Let another take his office.' 1.21. of the men therefore who have accompanied us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and went out among us 1.22. beginning from the baptism of John, to the day that he was received up from us, of these one must become a witness with us of his resurrection. 1.23. They put forward two, Joseph called Barsabbas, who was surnamed Justus, and Matthias. 1.24. They prayed, and said, "You, Lord, who know the hearts of all men, show which one of these two you have chosen 1.25. to take part in this ministry and apostleship from which Judas fell away, that he might go to his own place. 1.26. They drew lots for them, and the lot fell on Matthias, and he was numbered with the eleven apostles. 5.39. But if it is of God, you will not be able to overthrow it, and you would be found even to be fighting against God! 8.10. to whom they all listened, from the least to the greatest, saying, "This man is that great power of God. 12.23. Immediately an angel of the Lord struck him, because he didn't give God the glory, and he was eaten by worms, and he died.
32. New Testament, Luke, 1.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.49. For he who is mighty has done great things for me. Holy is his name.
33. New Testament, Mark, 1.10-1.11, 14.62 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.10. Immediately coming up from the water, he saw the heavens parting, and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. 1.11. A voice came out of the sky, "You are my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky.
34. New Testament, Matthew, 3.16-3.17, 26.64 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.16. Jesus, when he was baptized, went up directly from the water: and behold, the heavens were opened to him. He saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and coming on him. 3.17. Behold, a voice out of the heavens said, "This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased. 26.64. Jesus said to him, "You have said it. Nevertheless, I tell you, henceforth you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of the sky.
35. Plutarch, On The Glory of The Athenians, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

36. Plutarch, Sulla, 36 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

37. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 328, 306 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

38. Lucian, How To Write History, 55, 51 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

39. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

15a. יכול אני לבעול כמה בעילות בלא דם או דלמא דשמואל לא שכיחא אמר להו דשמואל לא שכיח וחיישינן שמא באמבטי עיברה,והאמר שמואל כל שכבת זרע שאינו יורה כחץ אינו מזרעת מעיקרא נמי יורה כחץ הוה,ת"ר מעשה ברבי יהושע בן חנניה שהיה עומד על גב מעלה בהר הבית וראהו בן זומא ולא עמד מלפניו אמר לו מאין ולאין בן זומא אמר לו צופה הייתי בין מים העליונים למים התחתונים ואין בין זה לזה אלא שלש אצבעות בלבד שנאמר (בראשית א, ב) ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים כיונה שמרחפת על בניה ואינה נוגעת אמר להן רבי יהושע לתלמידיו עדיין בן זומא מבחוץ,מכדי ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים אימת הוי ביום הראשון הבדלה ביום שני הוא דהואי דכתיב (בראשית א, ו) ויהי מבדיל בין מים למים וכמה אמר רב אחא בר יעקב כמלא נימא ורבנן אמרי כי גודא דגמלא מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אסי אמר כתרי גלימי דפריסי אהדדי ואמרי לה כתרי כסי דסחיפי אהדדי,אחר קיצץ בנטיעות עליו הכתוב אומר (קהלת ה, ה) אל תתן את פיך לחטיא את בשרך מאי היא חזא מיטטרון דאתיהבא ליה רשותא למיתב למיכתב זכוותא דישראל אמר גמירא דלמעלה לא הוי לא ישיבה ולא תחרות ולא עורף ולא עיפוי שמא חס ושלום ב' רשויות הן,אפקוהו למיטטרון ומחיוהו שיתין פולסי דנורא א"ל מ"ט כי חזיתיה לא קמת מקמיה איתיהיבא ליה רשותא למימחק זכוותא דאחר יצתה בת קול ואמרה (ירמיהו ג, יד) שובו בנים שובבים חוץ מאחר,אמר הואיל ואיטריד ההוא גברא מההוא עלמא ליפוק ליתהני בהאי עלמא נפק אחר לתרבות רעה נפק אשכח זונה תבעה אמרה ליה ולאו אלישע בן אבויה את עקר פוגלא ממישרא בשבת ויהב לה אמרה אחר הוא,שאל אחר את ר"מ לאחר שיצא לתרבות רעה א"ל מאי דכתיב (קהלת ז, יד) גם את זה לעומת זה עשה האלהים אמר לו כל מה שברא הקב"ה ברא כנגדו ברא הרים ברא גבעות ברא ימים ברא נהרות,אמר לו ר"ע רבך לא אמר כך אלא ברא צדיקים ברא רשעים ברא גן עדן ברא גיהנם כל אחד ואחד יש לו ב' חלקים אחד בגן עדן ואחד בגיהנם זכה צדיק נטל חלקו וחלק חברו בגן עדן נתחייב רשע נטל חלקו וחלק חברו בגיהנם,אמר רב משרשיא מאי קראה גבי צדיקים כתיב (ישעיהו סא, ז) לכן בארצם משנה יירשו גבי רשעים כתיב (ירמיהו יז, יח) ומשנה שברון שברם,שאל אחר את ר"מ לאחר שיצא לתרבות רעה מאי דכתיב (איוב כח, יז) לא יערכנה זהב וזכוכית ותמורתה כלי פז אמר לו אלו דברי תורה שקשין לקנותן ככלי זהב וכלי פז ונוחין לאבדן ככלי זכוכית אמר לו ר"ע רבך לא אמר כך אלא מה כלי זהב וכלי זכוכית אע"פ שנשברו יש להם תקנה אף ת"ח אע"פ שסרח יש לו תקנה אמר לו אף אתה חזור בך אמר לו כבר שמעתי מאחורי הפרגוד שובו בנים שובבים חוץ מאחר,ת"ר מעשה באחר שהיה רוכב על הסוס בשבת והיה רבי מאיר מהלך אחריו ללמוד תורה מפיו אמר לו מאיר חזור לאחריך שכבר שיערתי בעקבי סוסי עד כאן תחום שבת א"ל אף אתה חזור בך א"ל ולא כבר אמרתי לך כבר שמעתי מאחורי הפרגוד שובו בנים שובבים חוץ מאחר,תקפיה עייליה לבי מדרשא א"ל לינוקא פסוק לי פסוקך אמר לו (ישעיהו מח, כב) אין שלום אמר ה' לרשעים עייליה לבי כנישתא אחריתי א"ל לינוקא פסוק לי פסוקך אמר לו (ירמיהו ב, כב) כי אם תכבסי בנתר ותרבי לך בורית נכתם עונך לפני עייליה לבי כנישתא אחריתי א"ל 15a. bI can engage in intercourse several times without blood.In other words, I can have relations with a woman while leaving her hymen intact. If this is so, it is possible that the assumed virgin had intercourse in this manner and is forbidden to the High Priest. bOr, perhapsa person who can act like bShmuel is not commonand the ihalakhais not concerned with this case. bHe said to them:One like bShmuel is not common, and we are concerned that she may have conceived in a bath.Perhaps she washed in a bath that contained a man’s semen, from which she became impregnated while remaining a virgin.,The Gemara asks: How could she possibly become pregt in such a manner? bDidn’t Shmuel say: Any semen that is not shot like an arrow cannot fertilize?The Gemara answers: This does not mean that it must be shot like an arrow at the moment of fertilization. Even if binitially,when released from the male, bit was shot as an arrow,it can balsofertilize a woman at a later moment.,With regard to the fate of ben Zoma, bthe Sages taught: There was once an incident with regard to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya, who was standing on a step on the Temple Mount, and ben Zoma saw him and did not stand before himto honor him, as he was deep in thought. Rabbi Yehoshua bsaid to him: From wheredo you come band where are you going, ben Zoma,i.e., what is on your mind? bHe said to him:In my thoughts bI was looking uponthe act of Creation, at the gap bbetween the upper waters and the lower waters, as there is onlythe breadth of ba mere three fingers between them, as it is stated: “And the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters”(Genesis 1:2), blike a dove hovering over its young without touchingthem. bRabbi Yehoshua said to his studentswho had overheard this exchange: bBen Zoma is still outside;he has not yet achieved full understanding of these matters.,The Gemara explains: bNow,this verse: b“And the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters,” when wasit stated? bOn the first day,whereas bthe divisionof the waters boccurred on the second day, as it is written: “And let it divide the waters from the waters”(Genesis 1:6). How, then, could ben Zoma derive a proof from the former verse? The Gemara asks: bAnd how much,in fact, is the gap between them? bRav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: Like the thickness of a thread; and the Rabbis said: Likethe gap between bthe boards of a bridge. Mar Zutra, and some sayit was bRav Asi, said: Like two robes spread one over the other,with a slight gap in between. bAnd some said: Like two cups placed one upon the other. /b,§ The Gemara stated earlier that iAḥerchopped down the saplings,becoming a heretic. bWith regard to him, the verse states: “Do not let your mouth bring your flesh into guilt”(Ecclesiastes 5:5). The Gemara poses a question: bWhat wasit that led him to heresy? bHe sawthe angel bMitatron, who was granted permission to sit and write the meritsof bIsrael. He said:There is ba traditionthat in the world babove there is no sitting; no competition; noturning one’s bback before Him,i.e., all face the Divine Presence; band no lethargy.Seeing that someone other than God was seated above, bhe said: Perhaps,the Gemara here interjects, bHeaven forbid, there are two authorities,and there is another source of power in control of the world in addition to God. Such thoughts led iAḥerto heresy.,The Gemara relates: bThey removed Mitatronfrom his place in heaven band smote himwith bsixty rods [ ipulsei /i] of fire,so that others would not make mistake that iAḥermade. bThey saidto the angel: bWhat is the reasonthat bwhen you sawElisha ben Avuya byou did not stand before him?Despite this conduct, since Mitatron was personally involved, he bwas granted permission to erase the merits of iAḥer /iand cause him to stumble in any manner. bA Divine Voice went forth saying: “Return, rebellious children”(Jeremiah 3:22), bapart from iAḥer /i. /b,Upon hearing this, Elisha ben Avuya bsaid: Since that man,meaning himself, bhas been banished from that world, let him go out and enjoy this world. iAḥerwent astray. He wentand bfound a prostituteand bsolicited herfor intercourse. bShe said to him: Andare byou not Elisha ben Avuya?Shall a person of your stature perform such an act? bHe uprooted a radish from a patchof radishes bon Shabbat and gave it to her,to demonstrate that he no longer observed the Torah. The prostitute bsaid: He is otherthan he was. He is not the same Elisha ben Avuya, he is iAḥer /i, other.,The Gemara relates: iAḥerasked Rabbi Meira question, bafter he had gone astray. He said to him: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “God has made even the one as well as the other”(Ecclesiastes 7:14)? Rabbi Meir bsaid to him: Everything that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created, He createda similar creation bcorresponding to it. He created mountains, He created hills; He created seas, He created rivers. /b, iAḥer bsaid to him: Rabbi Akiva, your teacher, did not say so, butexplained the verse as follows: Everything has its opposite: bHe created the righteous, He created the wicked; He created the Garden of Eden, He created Gehenna. Each and everyperson bhas two portions, one in the Garden of Eden and one in Gehenna.If he bmeritsit, by becoming brighteous, he takes his portion and the portion of hiswicked bcolleague in the Garden of Eden;if he is found bculpableby becoming bwicked, he takes his portion and the portion of his colleague in Gehenna. /b, bRav Mesharshiyya said: What is the versefrom which it is derived? bWith regard to the righteous, it is stated: “Therefore in their land they shall possess double”(Isaiah 61:7); whereas bwith regard to the wicked, it is stated: “And destroy them with double destruction”(Jeremiah 17:18); therefore, each receives a double portion.,iAḥerasked Rabbi Meiranother question, again bafter he had gone astray. What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “Gold and glass cannot equal it; neither shall its exchange be vessels of fine gold”(Job 28:17)? If it is referring to the praise and honor of the Torah, it should have compared it only to gold, not to glass. bHe said to him:This is referring to bwords of Torah, which are as difficult to acquire as gilded vessels and vessels of fine gold but are as easy to lose as glass vessels. iAḥer bsaid to him: Rabbi Akiva, your teacher, did not say so, buttaught as follows: bJust as golden vessels and glass vessels have a remedy even when they have broken,as they can be melted down and made into new vessels, bso too a Torah scholar, although he has transgressed, has a remedy.Rabbi Meir bsaid to him:If so, byou too, returnfrom your ways. bHe said to him: I have already heardthe following declaration bbehind thedividing bcurtain,which conceals God from the world: b“Return, rebellious children,”(Jeremiah 3:22) bapart from iAḥer /i. /b,The Gemara cites a related story: bThe Sages taught: There was once an incident involving iAḥer /i, who was riding on a horse on Shabbat, and Rabbi Meir was walking behind him to learn Torah from him.After a while, iAḥer bsaid to him: Meir, turn back, for I have already estimatedand measured baccording to the steps of my horsethat bthe Shabbat boundary ends here,and you may therefore venture no further. Rabbi Meir bsaid to him: You, too, returnto the correct path. bHe said to him: But have I not already told youthat bI have already heard behind thedividing bcurtain: “Return, rebellious children,” apart from iAḥer /i? /b,Nevertheless, Rabbi Meir btook hold of himand bbrought him to the study hall. iAḥer bsaid to a child,by way of divination: bRecite your versethat you studied today bto me. He recitedthe following verse bto him: “There is no peace, said the Lord, concerning the wicked”(Isaiah 48:22). bHe brought him to another study hall. iAḥer bsaid to a child: Recite your verse to me. He recited to him: “For though you wash with niter, and take for you much soap, yet your iniquity is marked before Me”(Jeremiah 2:22). bHe brought him to another study hall. iAḥer bsaid to /b
40. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

105b. אמר רב יהודה אמר רב זו דברי ר' מאיר אבל חכמים אומרים אין חליצת קטן כלום:,קטנה שחלצה וכו': אמר רב יהודה אמר רב זו דברי ר"מ דאמר איש כתוב בפרשה ומקשינן אשה לאיש,אבל חכמים אומרים איש כתיב בפרשה אשה בין גדולה בין קטנה,מאן חכמים רבי יוסי היא דר' חייא ור' שמעון בר רבי הוו יתבי פתח חד מינייהו ואמר המתפלל צריך שיתן עיניו למטה שנאמר (מלכים א ט, ג) והיו עיני ולבי שם כל הימים,וחד אמר עיניו למעלה שנאמר (איכה ג, מא) נשא לבבנו אל כפים אדהכי אתא ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי לגבייהו אמר להו במאי עסקיתו אמרו ליה בתפלה אמר להו כך אמר אבא המתפלל צריך שיתן עיניו למטה ולבו למעלה כדי שיתקיימו שני מקראות הללו,אדהכי אתא רבי למתיבתא אינהו דהוו קלילי יתיבו בדוכתייהו רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי אגב יוקריה הוה מפסע ואזיל,אמר ליה אבדן מי הוא זה שמפסע על ראשי עם קדוש אמר ליה אני ישמעאל בר' יוסי שבאתי ללמוד תורה מרבי אמר ליה וכי אתה הגון ללמוד תורה מרבי,אמר ליה וכי משה היה הגון ללמוד תורה מפי הגבורה אמר ליה וכי משה אתה אמר ליה וכי רבך אלהים הוא אמר רב יוסף שקליה רבי למטרפסיה דקאמר ליה רבך ולא רבי,אדהכי אתיא יבמה לקמיה דרבי אמר ליה רבי לאבדן פוק בדקה לבתר דנפק אמר ליה ר' ישמעאל כך אמר אבא איש כתוב בפרשה אבל אשה בין גדולה בין קטנה,אמר ליה תא לא צריכת כבר הורה זקן קמפסע אבדן ואתי אמר ליה רבי ישמעאל בר' יוסי מי שצריך לו עם קדוש יפסע על ראשי עם קדוש מי שאין צריך לו עם קדוש היאך יפסע על ראשי עם קדוש,אמר ליה רבי לאבדן קום בדוכתיך תאנא באותה שעה נצטרע אבדן וטבעו שני בניו ומאנו שתי כלותיו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק בריך רחמנא דכספיה לאבדן בהאי עלמא,אמר ר' אמי מדבריו של ברבי נלמוד קטנה חולצת בפעוטות רבא אמר עד שתגיע לעונת נדרים והלכתא עד שתביא שתי שערות:,חלצה בשנים וכו': אמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן אין הלכה כאותו הזוג והא אמר ר"נ חדא זימנא דאמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן חליצה בשלשה,צריכי דאי איתמר הך קמייתא הוה אמינא ה"מ לכתחילה אבל דיעבד אפי' תרי קמ"ל אין הלכה כאותו הזוג ואי אשמועינן אין הלכה כאותו הזוג אלא כתנא קמא ה"א דיעבד אבל לכתחילה ליבעי חמשה צריכא:,מעשה שחלצו כו': בינו לבינה מי ידענא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ועדים רואין אותו מבחוץ,איבעיא להו מעשה שחלצו בינו לבינה אבראי ובא מעשה לפני ר"ע בבית האסורין או דלמא מעשה שחלצו בינו לבינה בבית האסורין אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בבית האסורין היה מעשה ולבית האסורין בא מעשה 105b. bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Thisteaching of the mishna with regard to a minor is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir,who maintains that such a iḥalitzahas significance in that it disqualifies a subsequent levirate marriage, but it is insufficient to permit the woman to marry a stranger. bBut the Rabbis say: The iḥalitzaof a male minor isn’tsignificant of banything,as she is permitted to one of the brothers in levirate marriage as one who no iḥalitzawas performed at all.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bIf a female minor performed iḥalitza /i,she must perform iḥalitzaa second time once she becomes an adult, and if she does not, her first iḥalitzais invalid. bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: This is the statement of Rabbi Meir, who said: “Man” is written in theTorah bportionabout iḥalitza /i: “And if the man does not wish” (Deuteronomy 25:7), implying an adult must perform iḥalitza /i, band we juxtaposeand compare ba woman with a man,indicating that the woman must also be an adult at the time of iḥalitza /i., bBut the Rabbis say: “Man” is written in thisTorah bportion,which indicates that an adult male must perform iḥalitza /i, but with respect to the bwomanwho removes the shoe, since the term woman is not used to describe her, but rather the more general term iyevamais written, as the continuation of the above-mentioned verse says: “To take his iyevama /i” (Deuteronomy 25:9), bshe may be either an adult or a female minor. /b,The Gemara asks: bWho are these Rabbiswho disagree with Rabbi Meir? The Gemara answers: bIt is Rabbi Yosei,as it seems from this incident: bAs, Rabbi Ḥiyya and Rabbi Shimon bar RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwere sittingoutside the house of study, immersed in Torah learning. bOne of them began and said: One who prays must direct his gaze downwardwhile praying, bas it is statedby God with regard to the Holy Temple: b“And My eyes and My heart shall be there perpetually”(I Kings 9:3), meaning: The Divine Presence rests in the Eretz Yisrael, and one must direct his gaze to the sacred land when praying., bAnd one of them saidhe must direct bhis eyes upward, because it is stated: “Let us lift our hearts with our handstoward God in Heaven” (Lamentations 3:41). bIn the meantime, Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, came beside them. He said to them: What are you dealing with? They saidto him: bWith prayer,as we are debating the proper posture for prayer. bHe said to them: My father,Rabbi Yosei, bsaid as follows: One who prays must direct his eyes downward and his heart upward, in order to fulfill both of these verses. /b, bIn the meantime,while they were talking, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bcame to the house of studyand everyone quickly went to sit in their assigned places. bThose who were light-footedhurried and bsat in their places. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, due to his being very heavy, was stepping and walkingslowly, as everyone was already sitting in his place on the ground, requiring him to pass over their heads in order to get to his place., bAbdon,the shortened form of the name of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s student and attendant, Abba Yudan, bsaid to him: Who is that individual stepping over the heads of a sacred people,for it appeared to him as an act of disrespect to those sitting that Rabbi Yishmael stepped over their heads. bHe said to him: I am Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who came to learn Torah from RabbiYehuda HaNasi. Abdon bsaid to him: But are you fit to learn Torah from RabbiYehuda HaNasi, for it seems that you are showing disrespect to others in order to accomplish it?,He bsaid to him: Was Moses fit to learn Torah from the mouth of the Almighty?Rather, it is not necessary that the student be as dignified as his teacher. He bsaid to him: And are you Moses?Rabbi Yishmael bsaid to him: And is your teacher God? Rav Yosef saidabout this part of the story: Here bRabbiYehuda HaNasi breceived his retribution[imittarpesei/b] for remaining silent during this discussion and not reprimanding his student for humiliating Rabbi Yishmael. And what is his retribution? bWhenRabbi Yishmael spoke to Abdon, bhe said your teacher, and not my teacher,implying that he did not accept Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s authority upon himself., bIn the meantime, a iyevamacame before Rabbi,and she was a minor close to the age of maturity who had performed iḥalitza /i, but it was not clear whether she had already reached the age of maturity necessary to validate her iḥalitza /i. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid to Abdon: Go and checkto see if she has already reached maturity. bAfterAbdon bleft, Rabbi Yishmael said toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi b: My father,Rabbi Yosei, bsaid as follows: “Man” is written in theTorah bportionof iḥalitza /i, bbutthe bwoman may be either an adult woman or a female minor. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid toAbdon b: Comeback. bYou do not needto check, as bthe Elder,Rabbi Yosei, bhas already ruledthat a minor can perform iḥalitza /i, and therefore no further examination is required. bAbdon was stepping and comingover the heads of the others in order to return to his place. bRabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said to him: One upon whom a holy people depends may step over the heads of a holy people. But one upon whom a holy people does not depend,as there is no longer a need for Abdon to examination the woman, bhow can he step over the heads of a holy people? /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid to Abdon: Stand in your placeand do not go any further. bIt was taught: At that moment Abdon was afflicted with leprosyas a punishment for insulting Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, and btwo of his sonswho were recently married bdrowned, and his two daughters-in-law,who were minors married to those sons, bmade declarations of refusaland annulled their marriages. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Blessed is the Merciful One, Who shames Abdon in this world,for this prevents him from being punished further in the World-to-Come, as all his iniquities have been forgiven through this suffering., bRabbi Ami said: From the words of the great man,Rabbi Yosei, blet us learn: A female minor performs iḥalitza /ieven bas a young child,at age six or seven. bRava said:She may not perform iḥalitza buntil she reaches the age of vowsas an eleven-year-old, when she has enough intellectual capacity to understand the meaning of a vow. However, the Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakhais:She may not perform iḥalitza buntil she has twopubic bhairs. /b,It was taught in the mishna: bIf she performed iḥalitzabefore twoor three people, and one of them is found to be disqualified to serve as a judge, Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Yoḥa the Cobbler validate it. bRav Yosef bar Minyumi saidthat bRav Naḥman said: The ihalakhadoes not follow this pairwho validate such a case. The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Rav Naḥmanalready bsay thissame ruling bone timebefore? bAs Rav Yosef bar Minyumi saidthat bRav Naḥman said: iḤalitzamust beconducted bbefore threepeople, indicating that there must be no fewer than three valid judges.,The Gemara answers: Both bare necessary, for if only thefirst one, stating that iḥalitzamust be before three judges, bwere stated, I would say: This applies iab initio /i, but after the fact even twois acceptable. Therefore, bhe teaches us that the ihalakhadoes not follow this pairof Sages, and her iḥalitzabefore two people is invalid even after the fact. And vice versa: bIf he would have told us only that the ihalakhadoes not follow this pair, but rather the first itanna /i, I would saythat it is valid if performed before three people only bafter the fact, but they must require fivepeople iab initio /i,in accordance with Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion. Therefore bit is necessaryto say both of these statements.,§ bA story is toldin the mishna about ban incidentin which a couple bonce performed iḥalitza /ibetween themselves in private while alone in prison, and the case later came before Rabbi Akiva and he validated it. The Gemara asks: bHow can we know what happened between him and her?There was no testimony to confirm it, and how can we be certain that the iḥalitzawas done properly to validate it? bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: Andthe iḥalitzawas validated because bthere were witnesses who saw them from outsidethe prison, who testified that the iḥalitzawas performed properly., bA dilemma was raised beforethe students in the house of study with regard to the incident recorded in the mishna in which a private iḥalitzaperformed in a prison was validated: bDid the incident in which they performed iḥalitzabetween him and herprivately actually btake place outsidein a different locale, bandthe reference to prison is that bthe case came before Rabbi Akivawhen he was confined bin prison? Or, perhaps the incident when they performed iḥalitzabetween him and her took place in prison,and then this case came before Rabbi Akiva? bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: The iḥalitza bincident took place in prison, andalso bthe case cameto Rabbi Akiva when he was bin prison. /b
41. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 4.640 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

42. Anon., 4 Baruch, 9.2

9.2. But on the tenth, Jeremiah alone offered sacrifice.
43. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 3, 31, 63, 93, 99, 11

11. your library.' 'What is to prevent you from doing this?' replied the king. 'Everything that is necessary has been placed at your disposal.' 'They need to be translated,' answered Demetrius, 'for in the country of the Jews they use a peculiar alphabet (just as the Egyptians, too, have a special form of letters) and speak a peculiar dialect. They are supposed to use the Syriac tongue, but this is not the case; their language is quite different.' And the king when he understood all the facts of the case ordered a letter to be written to the Jewish High Priest that his purpose (which has already been described) might be accomplished.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 280
alcimus Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 216
alexander the great Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
angels Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 201
antiochos iv epiphanes, his desecration of the temple Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
antiochos iv epiphanes, his prohibition of the jewish customs Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78
antiochus iii Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
antiochus iv epiphanes, death compared to that of other tyrants Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 357
antiochus iv epiphanes Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14; Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
arrogance, see also under motifs Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 201
audience de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
banquets Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
biblical nature, see also deuteronomy, allusions Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 357
body de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
catullus, death of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
causality Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
characterization de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
clarke, w.k.l., septuagint use in acts Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
dahl, influence, pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 436
deuteronomic view of history Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
deuteronomy, book of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
deuteronomy 32 Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 307
diaspora Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214
divine plan/βουλή Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 173
doran, robert Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34, 78, 79
dreams Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 173
eleazar (jewish martyr) Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 190
elephant mosaic Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 190
emotional restraint de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
emotions, disgust de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
enargeia (ἐνάργεια) de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
epiphany, divine intervention Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 436
epiphany, salvific Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 436
epistle, pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 436
epitomizing Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 180
faith Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 200
god, titles of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 200
hanukkah festival Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78, 79
heliodoros (seleukos ivs chief minister) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
heliodoros story Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
heliodorus, seleucid official Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
heliodorus, story of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 78
heliodorus Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 216; Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
hellenism/hellenistic period Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 215
hellenism/hellenization Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
hellenistic kings/rulers, antiochus iv epiphanes Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214, 215, 216
hellenistic kings/rulers, antiochus v eupator Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214, 215
hellenistic kings/rulers, demetrius i soter Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214
hellenistic kings/rulers, nicanor Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 215, 216
hellenistic kings/rulers, seleucus iv philopater Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214
hellenization, of jerusalem Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78
henten, jan willem van Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34, 78
historical setting Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
history Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214
i maccabees, compositional structure Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
identity, jewish Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 215
idolatry Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
ii maccabees, author of, his pro-hasmonean bias Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78
ii maccabees, author of, his religiousness Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
ii maccabees, compositional structure Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34, 78, 79
ii maccabees, literary genre Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
ii maccabees, purpose Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
ii maccabees, subject matter Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
interpolations Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 530
intertextuality, of the narratee/reader de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
isaiah Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 357
israel/israelite Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
jason Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78
jason (high priest) Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 215, 216
jason of cyrene Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214
jerusalem, temple Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 173
jerusalem Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 530
judas, death of Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
judas maccabee, his subsequent victories Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78
judas maccabeus Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214, 215, 216
law of moses Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
laws, jewish, compared to laws of cities Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 174
letter, letters, festal letters Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
letters/epistles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 280
luke-acts, septuagintal style Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
lukes hermeneutic, maccabean sources Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
lukes hermeneutic, septuagintalisms Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
maccabean martyrs Fialová Hoblík and Kitzler, Hellenism, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity: Transmission and Transformation of Ideas (2022) 190
maccabees (rulers) Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
manuscript corrections, interpolations and revisions Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 447, 448
martyr/martyrdom de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
martyrdom Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 216; Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
martyrs Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 215
measure-for-measure Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
menelaos, hellenizer Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78
menelaos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78
menelaus Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 215, 216
minor, catulluss death Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
miracle Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 280
motifs (thematic), by gentiles Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 307
motifs (thematic), celebrating of enemies defeats Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 78
motifs (thematic), games with epiphanes Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 357
motifs (thematic), gentiles are gods tools for punishing sinners Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 307
motifs (thematic), tit for tat Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 78
mount gerizim (argarizin) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 174
narratee de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
nicanor, governor of judea Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
nikanor (demetrios is general) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
nikanors day festival Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
nikanors day story Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
onias iii Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214, 216, 222; Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78
pagans/paganism Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 530
painting de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
palestine Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
parousia, in pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 436
pastoral epistles Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 436
pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 436
pathetic historiography Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 78
persecuted faithful judeans Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78
persecution, religious, persecution accounts Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78
philanthropa basilika (royal concession) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
pleasure Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 436
polybius Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 180
portents Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 173
prayer Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 280; Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 530
priests/priesthood Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 530
proem (of ii maccabees) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
psalter, lukes use Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
ptolemies Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
punishment de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
readers of 2 maccabees, rationalists Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 201
readers of 2 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 174
reconciliation (between deity and people) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34, 78
religion, religious, as a discrete semantic category Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
religion, religious, modern conceptions of, and impact on historical interpretation Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
religion, religious, revised delineation of its semantic field Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
rulers Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
sabbath Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214
sacrifices Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
salvation, in pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 436
second maccabees de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
seleucid empire Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214, 216, 222
seleucids Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
septuagint, lukes use, clarke, w.k.l. Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
septuagint, lukes use Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 446, 447, 448
sin-retribution Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34, 78
soteriology, in pastorals Malherbe et al., Light from the Gentiles: Hellenistic Philosophy and Early Christianity: Collected Essays of Abraham J (2014) 436
spoils of war Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 174
struggles Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 78
style, linguistic and literary, pathetic Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 78
style, linguistic and literary, pedantic Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 180
style, linguistic and literary Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 78
supernatural events Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 201
taxation Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
temple, holy vessels of; the sancta Fraade, Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages (2011) 530
temple, purification of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
temple Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214, 215, 216, 222; Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 446, 447, 448
temple (jerusalem) Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
temple (second) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 174
temple desecration, accounts of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
temple foundation (refoundation) accounts Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
temple liberation accounts, greek Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34, 78, 79
temple liberation accounts, in ii maccabees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34, 78, 79
temple propaganda Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 34
theomachus, god-fighter Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
thucydides de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 513
time, chronological Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 214
time, concepts of Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 222
torah, ancestral laws Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 222
torah, obedience to Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 215, 216, 222
tyrants death, literary topos Potter Suh and Holladay, Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays (2021) 329
victory, victories, entitling v. and temple foundation Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
victory, victories, sign of divine approval Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 78
visions Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 216
war, warfare, judass w. and antiochos vs time unit Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 79
war Corley, Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship (2002) 14
xerxes' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 357