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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



661
Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.21


nanand the appearances which came from heaven to those who strove zealously on behalf of Judaism, so that though few in number they seized the whole land and pursued the barbarian hordes,'


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

34 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.17. תְּבִאֵמוֹ וְתִטָּעֵמוֹ בְּהַר נַחֲלָתְךָ מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ פָּעַלְתָּ יְהוָה מִקְּדָשׁ אֲדֹנָי כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ׃ 15.17. Thou bringest them in, and plantest them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, The place, O LORD, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, The sanctuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 38.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

38.1. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא וַיֵּרֶד יְהוּדָה מֵאֵת אֶחָיו וַיֵּט עַד־אִישׁ עֲדֻלָּמִי וּשְׁמוֹ חִירָה׃ 38.1. וַיֵּרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיָּמֶת גַּם־אֹתוֹ׃ 38.1. And it came to pass at that time, that Judah went down from his brethren, and turned in to a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah."
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 18.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.21. וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ וְלֹא תְחַלֵּל אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 18.21. And thou shalt not give any of thy seed to set them apart to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD."
4. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 19.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.19. וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ הוֹשִׁיעֵנוּ נָא מִיָּדוֹ וְיֵדְעוּ כָּל־מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ כִּי אַתָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לְבַדֶּךָ׃ 19.19. Now therefore, O LORD our God, save Thou us, I beseech Thee, out of his hand, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that Thou art the LORD God, even Thou only.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 11.12, 37.20, 45.3, 49.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.12. וְנָשָׂא נֵס לַגּוֹיִם וְאָסַף נִדְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּנְפֻצוֹת יְהוּדָה יְקַבֵּץ מֵאַרְבַּע כַּנְפוֹת הָאָרֶץ׃ 45.3. וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ אוֹצְרוֹת חֹשֶׁךְ וּמַטְמֻנֵי מִסְתָּרִים לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה הַקּוֹרֵא בְשִׁמְךָ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 49.7. כֹּה אָמַר־יְהוָה גֹּאֵל יִשְׂרָאֵל קְדוֹשׁוֹ לִבְזֹה־נֶפֶשׁ לִמְתָעֵב גּוֹי לְעֶבֶד מֹשְׁלִים מְלָכִים יִרְאוּ וָקָמוּ שָׂרִים וְיִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְמַעַן יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נֶאֱמָן קְדֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּבְחָרֶךָּ׃ 11.12. And He will set up an ensign for the nations, And will assemble the dispersed of Israel, And gather together the scattered of Judah From the four corners of the earth." 37.20. Now therefore, O LORD our God, save us from his hand, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know that Thou art the LORD, even Thou only.’" 45.3. And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I am the LORD, who call thee by thy name, even the God of Israel." 49.7. Thus saith the LORD, The Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One, To him who is despised of men, To him who is abhorred of nations, To a servant of rulers: Kings shall see and arise, Princes, and they shall prostrate themselves; Because of the LORD that is faithful, Even the Holy One of Israel, who hath chosen thee."
6. Homer, Iliad, 1.43-1.52 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

1.43. /fulfill this prayer for me: let the Danaans pay for my tears by your arrows So he spoke in prayer, and Phoebus Apollo heard him. Down from the peaks of Olympus he strode, angered at heart, bearing on his shoulders his bow and covered quiver. 1.44. /fulfill this prayer for me: let the Danaans pay for my tears by your arrows So he spoke in prayer, and Phoebus Apollo heard him. Down from the peaks of Olympus he strode, angered at heart, bearing on his shoulders his bow and covered quiver. 1.45. /The arrows rattled on the shoulders of the angry god as he moved, and his coming was like the night. Then he sat down apart from the ships and let fly an arrow: terrible was the twang of the silver bow. The mules he assailed first and the swift dogs 1.46. /The arrows rattled on the shoulders of the angry god as he moved, and his coming was like the night. Then he sat down apart from the ships and let fly an arrow: terrible was the twang of the silver bow. The mules he assailed first and the swift dogs 1.47. /The arrows rattled on the shoulders of the angry god as he moved, and his coming was like the night. Then he sat down apart from the ships and let fly an arrow: terrible was the twang of the silver bow. The mules he assailed first and the swift dogs 1.48. /The arrows rattled on the shoulders of the angry god as he moved, and his coming was like the night. Then he sat down apart from the ships and let fly an arrow: terrible was the twang of the silver bow. The mules he assailed first and the swift dogs 1.49. /The arrows rattled on the shoulders of the angry god as he moved, and his coming was like the night. Then he sat down apart from the ships and let fly an arrow: terrible was the twang of the silver bow. The mules he assailed first and the swift dogs 1.50. /but then on the men themselves he let fly his stinging shafts, and struck; and constantly the pyres of the dead burned thick.For nine days the missiles of the god ranged among the host, but on the tenth Achilles called the people to assembly, for the goddess, white-armed Hera, had put it in his heart 1.51. /but then on the men themselves he let fly his stinging shafts, and struck; and constantly the pyres of the dead burned thick.For nine days the missiles of the god ranged among the host, but on the tenth Achilles called the people to assembly, for the goddess, white-armed Hera, had put it in his heart 1.52. /but then on the men themselves he let fly his stinging shafts, and struck; and constantly the pyres of the dead burned thick.For nine days the missiles of the god ranged among the host, but on the tenth Achilles called the people to assembly, for the goddess, white-armed Hera, had put it in his heart
7. Aeschylus, Persians, 745-751, 820, 744 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

744. παῖς δʼ ἐμὸς τάδʼ οὐ κατειδὼς ἤνυσεν νέῳ θράσει·
8. Herodotus, Histories, 7.22, 7.33-7.36 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.22. Since those who had earlier attempted to sail around Athos had suffered shipwreck, for about three years preparations had been underway there. Triremes were anchored off Elaeus in the Chersonese; with these for their headquarters, all sorts of men in the army were compelled by whippings to dig a canal, coming by turns to the work; the inhabitants about Athos also dug. ,Bubares son of Megabazus and Artachaees son of Artaeus, both Persians, were the overseers of the workmen. Athos is a great and famous mountain, running out into the sea and inhabited by men. At the mountain's landward end it is in the form of a peninsula, and there is an isthmus about twelve stadia wide; here is a place of level ground or little hills, from the sea by Acanthus to the sea opposite Torone. ,On this isthmus which is at the end of Athos, there stands a Greek town, Sane; there are others situated seaward of Sane and landward of Athos, and the Persian now intended to make them into island and not mainland towns; they are Dion, Olophyxus, Acrothoum, Thyssus, and Cleonae. 7.33. After this he prepared to march to Abydos; meanwhile his men were bridging the Hellespont from Asia to Europe. On the Chersonese, which is on the Hellespont, between the city of Sestus and Madytus there is a broad headland running out into the sea opposite Abydos. It was here that not long afterwards the Athenians, when Xanthippus son of Ariphron was their general, took Artayctes, a Persian and the governor of Sestus, and crucified him alive; he had been in the habit of bringing women right into the temple of Protesilaus at Elaeus and doing impious deeds there. 7.34. The men who had been given this assignment made bridges starting from Abydos across to that headland; the Phoenicians one of flaxen cables, and the Egyptians a papyrus one. From Abydos to the opposite shore it is a distance of seven stadia. But no sooner had the strait been bridged than a great storm swept down, breaking and scattering everything. 7.35. When Xerxes heard of this, he was very angry and commanded that the Hellespont be whipped with three hundred lashes, and a pair of fetters be thrown into the sea. I have even heard that he sent branders with them to brand the Hellespont. ,He commanded them while they whipped to utter words outlandish and presumptuous, “Bitter water, our master thus punishes you, because you did him wrong though he had done you none. Xerxes the king will pass over you, whether you want it or not; in accordance with justice no one offers you sacrifice, for you are a turbid and briny river.” ,He commanded that the sea receive these punishments and that the overseers of the bridge over the Hellespont be beheaded. 7.36. So this was done by those who were appointed to the thankless honor, and new engineers set about making the bridges. They made the bridges as follows: in order to lighten the strain of the cables, they placed fifty-oared ships and triremes alongside each other, three hundred and sixty to bear the bridge nearest the Euxine sea, and three hundred and fourteen to bear the other; all lay obliquely to the line of the Pontus and parallel with the current of the Hellespont. ,After putting the ships together they let down very great anchors, both from the end of the ships on the Pontus side to hold fast against the winds blowing from within that sea, and from the other end, towards the west and the Aegean, to hold against the west and south winds. They left a narrow opening to sail through in the line of fifty-oared ships and triremes, that so whoever wanted to could sail by small craft to the Pontus or out of it. ,After doing this, they stretched the cables from the land, twisting them taut with wooden windlasses; they did not as before keep the two kinds apart, but assigned for each bridge two cables of flax and four of papyrus. ,All these had the same thickness and fine appearance, but the flaxen were heavier in proportion, for a cubit of them weighed a talent. ,When the strait was thus bridged, they sawed logs of wood to a length equal to the breadth of the floating supports, and laid them in order on the taut cables; after placing them together they then made them fast. After doing this, they carried brushwood onto the bridge; when this was all laid in order they heaped earth on it and stamped it down; then they made a fence on either side, so that the beasts of burden and horses not be frightened by the sight of the sea below them.
9. Polybius, Histories, 31.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

31.9. 1.  In Syria King Antiochus, wishing to provide himself with money, decided to make an expedition against the sanctuary of Artemis in Elymaïs.,2.  On reaching the spot he was foiled in his hopes, as the barbarian tribes who dwelt in the neighbourhood would not permit the outrage,,3.  and on his retreat he died at Tabae in Persia, smitten with madness, as some people say,,4.  owing to certain manifestations of divine displeasure when he was attempting this outrage on the above sanctuary. IV. Affairs of Italy The Rival Ptolemie
10. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.60-1.61, 2.2-2.5, 3.25, 3.42, 4.36, 4.59, 5.10, 5.34, 5.55, 5.61, 5.63, 5.65, 6.1-6.16, 7.6, 7.10, 7.27, 7.36-7.38, 8.20, 9.19, 9.31, 13.8, 13.41-13.42, 14.5, 14.8, 14.12-14.49 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.60. According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised 1.61. and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers necks. 2.2. He had five sons, John surnamed Gaddi 2.3. Simon called Thassi 2.4. Judas called Maccabeus 2.5. Eleazar called Avaran, and Jonathan called Apphus. 3.25. Then Judas and his brothers began to be feared, and terror fell upon the Gentiles round about them. 3.42. Now Judas and his brothers saw that misfortunes had increased and that the forces were encamped in their territory. They also learned what the king had commanded to do to the people to cause their final destruction. 4.36. Then said Judas and his brothers, "Behold, our enemies are crushed; let us go up to cleanse the sanctuary and dedicate it. 4.59. Then Judas and his brothers and all the assembly of Israel determined that every year at that season the days of dedication of the altar should be observed with gladness and joy for eight days, beginning with the twenty-fifth day of the month of Chislev. 5.10. and sent to Judas and his brothers a letter which said, "The Gentiles around us have gathered together against us to destroy us. 5.34. And when the army of Timothy realized that it was Maccabeus, they fled before him, and he dealt them a heavy blow. As many as eight thousand of them fell that day. 5.55. Now while Judas and Jonathan were in Gilead and Simon his brother was in Galilee before Ptolemais 5.61. Thus the people suffered a great rout because, thinking to do a brave deed, they did not listen to Judas and his brothers. 5.63. The man Judas and his brothers were greatly honored in all Israel and among all the Gentiles, wherever their name was heard. 5.65. Then Judas and his brothers went forth and fought the sons of Esau in the land to the south. He struck Hebron and its villages and tore down its strongholds and burned its towers round about. 6.1. King Antiochus was going through the upper provinces when he heard that Elymais in Persia was a city famed for its wealth in silver and gold. 6.2. Its temple was very rich, containing golden shields, breastplates, and weapons left there by Alexander, the son of Philip, the Macedonian king who first reigned over the Greeks. 6.3. So he came and tried to take the city and plunder it, but he could not, because his plan became known to the men of the city 6.4. and they withstood him in battle. So he fled and in great grief departed from there to return to Babylon. 6.5. Then some one came to him in Persia and reported that the armies which had gone into the land of Judah had been routed; 6.6. that Lysias had gone first with a strong force, but had turned and fled before the Jews; that the Jews had grown strong from the arms, supplies, and abundant spoils which they had taken from the armies they had cut down; 6.7. that they had torn down the abomination which he had erected upon the altar in Jerusalem; and that they had surrounded the sanctuary with high walls as before, and also Beth-zur, his city. 6.8. When the king heard this news, he was astounded and badly shaken. He took to his bed and became sick from grief, because things had not turned out for him as he had planned. 6.9. He lay there for many days, because deep grief continually gripped him, and he concluded that he was dying. 6.10. So he called all his friends and said to them, "Sleep departs from my eyes and I am downhearted with worry. 6.11. I said to myself, `To what distress I have come! And into what a great flood I now am plunged! For I was kind and beloved in my power. 6.12. But now I remember the evils I did in Jerusalem. I seized all her vessels of silver and gold; and I sent to destroy the inhabitants of Judah without good reason. 6.13. I know that it is because of this that these evils have come upon me; and behold, I am perishing of deep grief in a strange land. 6.14. Then he called for Philip, one of his friends, and made him ruler over all his kingdom. 6.15. He gave him the crown and his robe and the signet, that he might guide Antiochus his son and bring him up to be king. 6.16. Thus Antiochus the king died there in the one hundred and forty-ninth year. 7.6. And they brought to the king this accusation against the people: "Judas and his brothers have destroyed all your friends, and have driven us out of our land. 7.10. So they marched away and came with a large force into the land of Judah; and he sent messengers to Judas and his brothers with peaceable but treacherous words. 7.27. So Nicanor came to Jerusalem with a large force, and treacherously sent to Judas and his brothers this peaceable message 7.36. Then the priests went in and stood before the altar and the temple, and they wept and said 7.37. Thou didst choose this house to be called by thy name,and to be for thy people a house of prayer and supplication. 7.38. Take vengeance on this man and on his army,and let them fall by the sword;remember their blasphemies,and let them live no longer. 8.20. Judas, who is also called Maccabeus, and his brothers and the people of the Jews have sent us to you to establish alliance and peace with you, that we may be enrolled as your allies and friends. 9.19. Then Jonathan and Simon took Judas their brother and buried him in the tomb of their fathers at Modein 9.31. And Jonathan at that time accepted the leadership and took the place of Judas his brother. 13.41. In the one hundred and seventieth year the yoke of the Gentiles was removed from Israel 13.42. and the people began to write in their documents and contracts, "In the first year of Simon the great high priest and commander and leader of the Jews. 14.5. To crown all his honors he took Joppa for a harbor,and opened a way to the isles of the sea. 14.12. Each man sat under his vine and his fig tree,and there was none to make them afraid. 14.13. No one was left in the land to fight them,and the kings were crushed in those days. 14.14. He strengthened all the humble of his people;he sought out the law,and did away with every lawless and wicked man. 14.16. It was heard in Rome, and as far away as Sparta, that Jonathan had died, and they were deeply grieved. 14.17. When they heard that Simon his brother had become high priest in his place, and that he was ruling over the country and the cities in it 14.18. they wrote to him on bronze tablets to renew with him the friendship and alliance which they had established with Judas and Jonathan his brothers. 14.19. And these were read before the assembly in Jerusalem. 14.20. This is a copy of the letter which the Spartans sent: "The rulers and the city of the Spartans to Simon the high priest and to the elders and the priests and the rest of the Jewish people, our brethren, greeting. 14.21. The envoys who were sent to our people have told us about your glory and honor, and we rejoiced at their coming. 14.22. And what they said we have recorded in our public decrees, as follows, `Numenius the son of Antiochus and Antipater the son of Jason, envoys of the Jews, have come to us to renew their friendship with us. 14.23. It has pleased our people to receive these men with honor and to put a copy of their words in the public archives, so that the people of the Spartans may have a record of them. And they have sent a copy of this to Simon the high priest. 14.24. After this Simon sent Numenius to Rome with a large gold shield weighing a thousand minas, to confirm the alliance with the Romans. 14.25. When the people heard these things they said, "How shall we thank Simon and his sons? 14.26. For he and his brothers and the house of his father have stood firm; they have fought and repulsed Israels enemies and established its freedom. 14.27. So they made a record on bronze tablets and put it upon pillars on Mount Zion. This is a copy of what they wrote: "On the eighteenth day of Elul, in the one hundred and seventy-second year, which is the third year of Simon the great high priest 14.28. in Asaramel, in the great assembly of the priests and the people and the rulers of the nation and the elders of the country, the following was proclaimed to us: 14.29. Since wars often occurred in the country, Simon the son of Mattathias, a priest of the sons of Joarib, and his brothers, exposed themselves to danger and resisted the enemies of their nation, in order that their sanctuary and the law might be perserved; and they brought great glory to their nation. 14.30. Jonathan rallied the nation, and became their high priest, and was gathered to his people. 14.31. And when their enemies decided to invade their country and lay hands on their sanctuary 14.33. He fortified the cities of Judea, and Beth-zur on the borders of Judea, where formerly the arms of the enemy had been stored, and he placed there a garrison of Jews. 14.34. He also fortified Joppa, which is by the sea, and Gazara, which is on the borders of Azotus, where the enemy formerly dwelt. He settled Jews there, and provided in those cities whatever was necessary for their restoration. 14.35. The people saw Simons faithfulness and the glory which he had resolved to win for his nation, and they made him their leader and high priest, because he had done all these things and because of the justice and loyalty which he had maintained toward his nation. He sought in every way to exalt his people. 14.36. And in his days things prospered in his hands, so that the Gentiles were put out of the country, as were also the men in the city of David in Jerusalem, who had built themselves a citadel from which they used to sally forth and defile the environs of the sanctuary and do great damage to its purity. 14.37. He settled Jews in it, and fortified it for the safety of the country and of the city, and built the walls of Jerusalem higher. 14.38. In view of these things King Demetrius confirmed him in the high priesthood 14.39. and he made him one of the kings friends and paid him high honors. 14.40. For he had heard that the Jews were addressed by the Romans as friends and allies and brethren, and that the Romans had received the envoys of Simon with honor. 14.41. And the Jews and their priests decided that Simon should be their leader and high priest for ever, until a trustworthy prophet should arise 14.42. and that he should be governor over them and that he should take charge of the sanctuary and appoint men over its tasks and over the country and the weapons and the strongholds, and that he should take charge of the sanctuary 14.43. and that he should be obeyed by all, and that all contracts in the country should be written in his name, and that he should be clothed in purple and wear gold. 14.44. And none of the people or priests shall be permitted to nullify any of these decisions or to oppose what he says, or to convene an assembly in the country without his permission, or to be clothed in purple or put on a gold buckle. 14.45. Whoever acts contrary to these decisions or nullifies any of them shall be liable to punishment. 14.46. And all the people agreed to grant Simon the right to act in accord with these decisions. 14.47. So Simon accepted and agreed to be high priest, to be commander and ethnarch of the Jews and priests, and to be protector of them all. 14.48. And they gave orders to inscribe this decree upon bronze tablets, to put them up in a conspicuous place in the precincts of the sanctuary 14.49. and to deposit copies of them in the treasury, so that Simon and his sons might have them.
11. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.1, 1.1-2.18, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.10-2.18, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.21, 1.25, 1.31, 1.32, 1.33, 1.34, 1.35, 1.36, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.22, 2.23, 2.24, 2.25, 2.26, 2.27, 2.28, 2.29, 2.30, 2.31, 2.32, 3, 3.1, 3.1-4.6, 3.2, 3.3, 3.5, 3.15, 3.16, 3.19, 3.20, 3.24, 3.25, 3.26, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29, 3.30, 3.31, 3.32, 3.33, 3.34, 3.35, 3.36, 3.37, 3.38, 3.39, 3.40, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 4.16, 4.17, 4.18, 4.19, 4.20, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.34, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 4.38, 4.39, 4.40, 4.41, 4.42, 4.43, 4.44, 4.45, 4.46, 4.47, 4.48, 4.49, 4.50, 5, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6, 5.9, 5.12, 5.14, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.26, 5.27, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.5, 6.6, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.18-7.42, 6.20, 6.21, 7, 7.5, 7.6, 7.18, 7.31, 7.32, 7.33, 7.34, 7.37, 8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 8.14, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.18, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.24, 8.25, 8.26, 8.27, 8.28, 8.29, 8.30, 8.31, 8.32, 8.33, 8.34, 8.35, 8.36, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.20, 9.28, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.16, 10.19, 10.21, 10.25, 10.26, 10.29, 10.30, 10.33, 10.35, 10.38, 11, 11.1, 11.2, 11.4, 11.6, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10, 11.13, 11.15, 11.16, 11.24, 12.1, 12.11, 12.13, 12.15, 12.16, 12.19, 12.20, 12.22, 12.24, 12.27, 12.28, 12.30, 12.40, 12.41, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.14, 13.15, 13.17, 14, 14.1, 14.3, 14.4, 14.5, 14.6, 14.7, 14.8, 14.9, 14.10, 14.11, 14.12, 14.13, 14.14, 14.17, 14.26, 14.27, 14.29, 14.31, 14.32, 14.33, 14.34, 14.35, 14.36, 14.38, 14.45, 14.46, 15, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.7, 15.8, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 15.21, 15.22, 15.23, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 15.27, 15.29, 15.31, 15.34, 15.35, 15.37, 15.38, 15.39 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The Jewish brethren in Jerusalem and those in the land of Judea, To their Jewish brethren in Egypt, Greeting, and good peace.'
12. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 36.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

36.11. Gather all the tribes of Jacob,and give them their inheritance, as at the beginning.
13. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 4.11, 4.26 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.11. Then Apollonius fell down half dead in the temple area that was open to all, stretched out his hands toward heaven, and with tears besought the Hebrews to pray for him and propitiate the wrath of the heavenly army. 4.26. when, then, his decrees were despised by the people, he himself, through torture, tried to compel everyone in the nation to eat defiling foods and to renounce Judaism.
14. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 7.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.13. When they had applauded him in fitting manner, their priests and the whole multitude shouted the Hallelujah and joyfully departed.
15. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 36 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

36. Are there not even to the present day some of those persons who have attained to perfection in philosophy, who say that there is no such thing as wisdom in the world, since there is also no such thing as a wise man? for that from the very beginning of the creation of mankind up to the present moment, there has never been any one who could be considered entirely blameless, for that it is impossible for a man who is bound up in a mortal body to be entirely and altogether happy.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 128 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

128. These things, and more still are said in a philosophical spirit about the number seven, on account of which it has received the highest honours, in the highest nature. And it is honoured by those of the highest reputation among both Greeks and barbarians, who devote themselves to mathematical sciences. It was also greatly honoured by Moses, a man much attached to excellence of all sorts, who described its beauty on the most holy pillars of the law, and wrote it in the hearts of all those who were subject to him, commanding them at the end of each period of six days to keep the seventh holy; abstaining from all other works which are done in the seeking after and providing the means of life, devoting that day to the single object of philosophizing with a view to the improvement of their morals, and the examination of their consciences: for conscience being seated in the soul as a judge, is not afraid to reprove men, sometimes employing pretty vehement threats; at other times by milder admonitions, using threats in regard to matters where men appear to be disobedient, of deliberate purpose, and admonitions when their offences seem involuntary, through want of foresight, in order to prevent their hereafter offending in a similar manner. XLIV.
18. Vergil, Aeneis, 7.415-7.466 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7.415. the womb of Hecuba with burning brand 7.416. and brought forth nuptial fires; but Venus, too 7.417. uch offspring bore, a second Paris, who 7.419. So saying, with aspect terrible she sped 7.420. earthward her way; and called from gloom of hell 7.421. Alecto, woeful power, from cloudy throne 7.422. among the Furies, where her heart is fed 7.423. with horrid wars, wrath, vengeance, treason foul 7.424. and fatal feuds. Her father Pluto loathes 7.425. the creature he engendered, and with hate 7.426. her hell-born sister-fiends the monster view. 7.427. A host of shapes she wears, and many a front 7.428. of frowning black brows viper-garlanded. 7.429. Juno to her this goading speech addressed: 7.430. “O daughter of dark Night, arouse for me 7.431. thy wonted powers and our task begin! 7.432. Lest now my glory fail, my royal name 7.433. be vanquished, while Aeneas and his crew 7.434. cheat with a wedlock bond the Latin King 7.435. and seize Italia 's fields. Thou canst thrust on 7.436. two Ioving brothers to draw sword and slay 7.437. and ruin homes with hatred, calling in 7.438. the scourge of Furies and avenging fires. 7.439. A thousand names thou bearest, and thy ways 7.440. of ruin multiply a thousand-fold. 7.441. Arouse thy fertile breast! Go, rend in twain 7.442. this plighted peace! Breed calumnies and sow 7.443. causes of battle, till yon warrior hosts 7.445. Straightway Alecto, through whose body flows 7.446. the Gorgon poison, took her viewless way 7.447. to Latium and the lofty walls and towers 7.448. of the Laurentian King. Crouching she sate 7.449. in silence on the threshold of the bower 7.450. where Queen Amata in her fevered soul 7.451. pondered, with all a woman's wrath and fear 7.452. upon the Trojans and the marriage-suit 7.453. of Turnus. From her Stygian hair the fiend 7.454. a single serpent flung, which stole its way 7.455. to the Queen's very heart, that, frenzy-driven 7.456. he might on her whole house confusion pour. 7.457. Betwixt her smooth breast and her robe it wound 7.458. unfelt, unseen, and in her wrathful mind 7.459. instilled its viper soul. Like golden chain 7.460. around her neck it twined, or stretched along 7.461. the fillets on her brow, or with her hair 7.462. enwrithing coiled; then on from limb to limb 7.463. lipped tortuous. Yet though the venom strong 7.464. thrilled with its first infection every vein 7.465. and touched her bones with fire, she knew it not 7.466. nor yielded all her soul, but made her plea
19. Anon., 2 Baruch, 6.7-6.9, 80.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 2.44 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.107, 4.12, 13.354-13.356, 15.136, 19.5-19.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.107. Now I have for witnesses to what I have said, all those that have written Antiquities, both among the Greeks and barbarians; for even Manetho, who wrote the Egyptian History, and Berosus, who collected the Chaldean Monuments, and Mochus, and Hestieus, and, besides these, Hieronymus the Egyptian, and those who composed the Phoenician History, agree to what I here say: 4.12. I well remember by what entreaties both you and the Midianites so joyfully brought me hither, and on that account I took this journey. It was my prayer, that I might not put any affront upon you, as to what you desired of me; 4.12. Such a sedition overtook them, as we have not the like example either among the Greeks or the Barbarians, by which they were in danger of being all destroyed, but were notwithstanding saved by Moses, who would not remember that he had been almost stoned to death by them. 13.354. But Aias’s counsel was contrary to theirs, who said that “she would do an unjust action if she deprived a man that was her ally of that authority which belonged to him, and this a man who is related to us; for,” said he, “I would not have thee ignorant of this, that what injustice thou dost to him will make all us that are Jews to be thy enemies.” 13.355. This desire of Aias Cleopatra complied with, and did no injury to Alexander, but made a league of mutual assistance with him at Scythopolis, a city of Celesyria. 13.356. 3. So when Alexander was delivered from the fear he was in of Ptolemy, he presently made an expedition against Celesyria. He also took Gadara, after a siege of ten months. He took also Amathus, a very strong fortress belonging to the inhabitants above Jordan, where Theodorus, the son of Zeno, had his chief treasure, and what he esteemed most precious. This Zeno fell unexpectedly upon the Jews, and slew ten thousand of them, and seized upon Alexander’s baggage. 15.136. for these Arabians have done what both the Greeks and barbarians own to be an instance of the grossest wickedness, with regard to our ambassadors, which they have beheaded, while the Greeks declare that such ambassadors are sacred and inviolable. And for ourselves, we have learned from God the most excellent of our doctrines, and the most holy part of our law, by angels or ambassadors; for this name brings God to the knowledge of mankind, and is sufficient to reconcile enemies one to another. 19.5. And other pranks he did like a madman; as when he laid a bridge from the city Dicearchia, which belongs to Campania, to Misenum, another city upon the sea-side 19.5. for Caius was terrible to all the great men, as appearing ready to act a mad part towards each of them in particular, and towards all of: them in general; 19.6. from one promontory to another, of the length of thirty furlongs, as measured over the sea. And this was done because he esteemed it to be a most tedious thing to row over it in a small ship, and thought withal that it became him to make that bridge, since he was lord of the sea, and might oblige it to give marks of obedience as well as the earth; so he enclosed the whole bay within his bridge, and drove his chariot over it; and thought that, as he was a god, it was fit for him to travel over such roads as this was. 19.6. and some affirm that he thereby confirmed Minuclanus in the prosecution of what had been agreed among them; for as Cherea entered into the court, the report runs, that a voice came from among the multitude to encourage him, which bid him finish what he was about, and take the opportunity that Providence afforded;
22. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.358, 7.453 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.358. While those Athenians, who, in order to preserve the liberty of Greece, did once set fire to their own city; who pursued Xerxes, that proud prince, when he sailed upon the land, and walked upon the sea, and could not be contained by the seas, but conducted such an army as was too broad for Europe; and made him run away like a fugitive in a single ship, and brake so great a part of Asia as the Lesser Salamis; are yet at this time servants to the Romans; and those injunctions which are sent from Italy become laws to the principal governing city of Greece. 7.453. This his distemper grew still a great deal worse and worse continually, and his very entrails were so corroded, that they fell out of his body, and in that condition he died. Thus he became as great an instance of Divine Providence as ever was, and demonstrated that God punishes wicked men.
23. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.58, 1.116 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.58. and I suppose I have sufficiently declared that this custom of transmitting down the histories of ancient times hath been better preserved by those nations which are called Barbarians, than by the Greeks themselves. I am now willing, in the next place, to say a few things to those who endeavor to prove that our constitution is but of late time, for this reason, as they pretend, that the Greek writers have said nothing about us; 1.116. 18. And now I shall add Meder the Ephesian, as an additional witness. This Meder wrote the Acts that were done both by the Greeks and Barbarians, under every one of the Tyrian kings; and had taken much pains to learn their history out of their own records.
24. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.9. If one says “May the good bless you,” this is the way of heresy. [If one says], “May Your mercy reach the nest of a bird,” “May Your name be mentioned for the good,” “We give thanks, we give thanks,” they silence him. One who uses euphemisms in the portion dealing with forbidden marriages, he is silenced. If he says, [instead of] “And you shall not give any of your seed to be passed to Moloch,” (Leviticus 18:21) “You shall not give [your seed] to pass to a Gentile woman,” he silenced with a rebuke."
25. New Testament, Acts, 9.7, 16.37, 19.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

9.7. The men who traveled with him stood speechless, hearing the voice, but seeing no one. 16.37. But Paul said to them, "They have beaten us publicly, without a trial, men who are Romans, and have cast us into prison! Do they now release us secretly? No, most assuredly, but let them come themselves and bring us out! 19.9. But when some were hardened and disobedient, speaking evil of the Way before the multitude, he departed from them, and separated the disciples, reasoning daily in the school of Tyrannus.
26. New Testament, John, 4.21-4.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.21. Jesus said to her, "Woman, believe me, the hour comes, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, will you worship the Father. 4.22. You worship that which you don't know. We worship that which we know; for salvation is from the Jews. 4.23. But the hour comes, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to be his worshippers. 4.24. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.
27. New Testament, Luke, 24.13-24.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24.13. Behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 24.14. They talked with each other about all of these things which had happened. 24.15. It happened, while they talked and questioned together, that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 24.16. But their eyes were kept from recognizing him. 24.17. He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad? 24.18. One of them, named Cleopas, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days? 24.19. He said to them, "What things?"They said to him, "The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 24.20. and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 24.21. But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 24.22. Also, certain women of our company amazed us, having arrived early at the tomb; 24.23. and when they didn't find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24.24. Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him. 24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory? 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 24.28. They drew near to the village, where they were going, and he acted like he would go further. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them. 24.30. It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks. Breaking it, he gave to them. 24.31. Their eyes were opened, and they recognized him, and he vanished out of their sight. 24.32. They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way, and while he opened the Scriptures to us? 24.33. Rising rose up that very hour, they returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them 24.34. saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon! 24.35. They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread.
28. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 2.25-2.30 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

29. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11a. אף אנו נאמר איילונית דוכרנית דלא ילדה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הגיורת והשבויה והשפחה שנפדו ושנתגיירו ושנשתחררו פחותות מבנות שלש שנים ויום אחד כתובתן מאתים ויש להן טענת בתולין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב הונא גר קטן מטבילין אותו על דעת בית דין,מאי קמ"ל דזכות הוא לו וזכין לאדם שלא בפניו תנינא זכין לאדם שלא בפניו ואין חבין לאדם שלא בפניו,מהו דתימא עובד כוכבים בהפקירא ניחא ליה דהא קיימא לן דעבד ודאי בהפקירא ניחא ליה,קמ"ל דהני מילי גדול דטעם טעם דאיסורא אבל קטן זכות הוא לו,לימא מסייע ליה הגיורת והשבויה והשפחה שנפדו ושנתגיירו ושנשתחררו פחותות מבנות שלש שנים ויום אחד מאי לאו דאטבלינהו על דעת בית דין,לא הכא במאי עסקינן בגר שנתגיירו בניו ובנותיו עמו דניחא להו במאי דעביד אבוהון,אמר רב יוסף הגדילו יכולין למחות איתיביה אביי הגיורת והשבויה והשפחה שנפדו ושנתגיירו ושנשתחררו פחותות מבנות שלש שנים ויום אחד כתובתן מאתים ואי ס"ד הגדילו יכולין למחות יהבינן לה כתובה דאזלה ואכלה בגיותה,לכי גדלה לכי גדלה נמי ממחייא ונפקא כיון שהגדילה שעה אחת ולא מיחתה שוב אינה יכולה למחות,מתיב רבא אלו נערות שיש להן קנס הבא על הממזרת ועל הנתינה ועל הכותית ועל הגיורת ועל השבויה ועל השפחה שנפדו ושנתגיירו ושנשתחררו פחותות מבנות שלש שנים ויום אחד יש להן קנס ואי אמרת הגדילו יכולין למחות יהבינן לה קנס דאזלה ואכלה בגיותה,לכי גדלה לכי גדלה נמי ממחייא ונפקא כיון שהגדילה שעה אחת ולא מיחתה שוב אינה יכולה למחות,אביי לא אמר כרבא התם קנסא היינו טעמא שלא יהא חוטא נשכר,רבא לא אמר כאביי כתובה היינו טעמא שלא תהא קלה בעיניו להוציאה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הגדול שבא על הקטנה וקטן שבא על הגדולה ומוכת עץ כתובתן מאתים דברי רבי מאיר וחכ"א מוכת עץ כתובתה מנה,בתולה אלמנה גרושה וחלוצה מן הנישואין כתובתן מנה 11a. bWe too will say: iAilonit /i,a sexually underdeveloped woman, is a term meaning: Like a bram [ idukhranit /i], becauselike a male sheep [ iayyil /i] bshe does not bear children. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to ba female convert, or a captive woman, or a maidservant, who were ransomedwith regard to the captive, or bwho convertedwith regard to the convert, bor who were freedwith regard to the maidservant, when they were bless than three years and one day old, their marriage contract is two hundreddinars, as their presumptive status is that of a virgin. Even if they were subject to intercourse when they were younger than that age, the hymen remains intact. bAnd they aresubject to ba claimconcerning their bvirginity. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Huna said:With regard to ba convertwho is ba minor, one immerses himin a ritual bath bwith the consent of the court.As a minor lacks the capacity to make halakhic decisions, the court is authorized to make those decisions in his stead., bWhat isRav Huna bcoming to teach us?Is he teaching bthat it is a privilege forthe minor to convert, band one may act in a person’s interestseven bin his absence? Wealready blearnedthat explicitly in a mishna ( iEiruvin81b): One bmay act in a person’s interests in his absence, but one may not act against a person’s interests in his absence. /b,Rav Huna’s statement was necessary blest you say:With regard to ba gentile, licentiousness is preferable for him,so conversion is contrary to his interests, just bas we maintain thatwith regard to ba slave, licentiousness is certainly preferable.Just as a slave has no interest in assuming the restrictions that come with freedom, in that a freed Canaanite slave is a convert to Judaism, a gentile would have the same attitude toward conversion.,Therefore, Rav Huna bteaches us: That appliesonly with regard to ban adult, who has experienced a taste of prohibition.Therefore, presumably he prefers to remain a slave and indulge in licentiousness. bHowever,with regard to a bminor,who did not yet engage in those activities, bit is a privilege for himto convert.,The Gemara suggests: bLet us saythat the mishna bsupportsRav Huna’s statement: With regard to ba female convert, or a captive woman, or a maidservant, who were ransomedwith regard to the captive, or bwho convertedwith regard to the convert, bor who were freedwith regard to the maidservant, when they were bless than three years and one day old; what, is it notreferring to a case where bthey immersedthe minor converts and the maidservants bwith the consent of the court?Apparently, a conversion of that sort is valid.,The Gemara rejects that proof: bNo, with what are we dealing here?It is bwith a convert whoseminor bsons and daughters converted with him, as they are content with whatever their father doesin their regard. However, that does not apply to a child who is converting on his own., bRav Yosef said:In any case where minors convert, when bthey reach majority they can protestand annul their conversion. bAbaye raised an objection to hisopinion from the mishna: With regard to ba female convert, or a captive woman, or a maidservant who were ransomed,or bwho converted, or who were freedwhen they were bless than three years and one day old, their marriage contract is two hundreddinars. bAnd if it enters your mindto say that when bthey reach majority they can protestand annul their conversion, bdo we give herthe payment of the bmarriage contract that shewill bgo and consume in her gentilestate?,The Gemara answers: She receives payment of her marriage contract bonce she has reached majorityand does not protest, but not while still a minor. The Gemara asks: bWhen she reaches majority too,is there not the same concern that bshe will protest and abandonJudaism? The Gemara answers: bOnce she reached majorityfor even bone moment and did not protest, she may no longer protest.This mishna poses no difficulty to the opinion of Rav Yosef., bRava raised an objectionfrom a mishna (29a): bTheseare the cases of byoung women for whom there is a finepaid to their fathers by one who rapes them: bOne who engages in intercourse with a imamzeret /i; or with a Gibeonite woman [ inetina /i],who are given [ inetunim /i] to the service of the people and the altar (see Joshua 9:27); bor with a Samaritan woman [ ikutit /i].In addition, the same applies to one who engages in intercourse bwith a female convert, or with a captive woman, or with a maidservant,provided bthatthe captives bwere ransomed or thatthe converts bconverted, or thatthe maidservants bwere freedwhen they were bless than three years and one day old,as only in that case do they maintain the presumptive status of a virgin. In all of these cases, bthere is a finepaid bto theirfathers if they are raped. bAnd if you saythat bwhen they reach majority they can protestand annul their conversion, bdo we give herpayment of the bfine that shewill bgo and consume in her gentilestate?,The Gemara answers: Her father receives payment of the fine bonce she has reached majorityand does not protest, but not while she is still a minor. The Gemara asks: bWhen she reaches majority too,is there not the same concern that bshe will protest and abandonJudaism? The Gemara answers: bOnce she reached majorityfor even bone moment and did not protest, she may no longer protest. /b, bAbaye did not statehis objection from the same source basdid bRava,because bthere,in the mishna cited by Rava, it is referring to ba fine,and in that case bthis is the reason: So that the sinner will not profit.The Sages did not absolve the rapist from payment of the fine merely due to the concern that the woman he raped may ultimately negate the conversion., bRava did not statehis objection from the same source basdid bAbaye, aswith regard to ba marriage contract, this is the reasonthat the Sages instituted it: bSo thathis wife bwill not be inconsequential in his eyes,enabling him btoeasily bdivorce her.As long as this woman does not negate her conversion, she is a Jewish woman and the Sages saw to her interests., strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to ban adult man who engaged in intercourse with a minor girlless than three years old; bor a minor boyless than nine years old bwho engaged in intercourse with an adult woman; or awoman who had her hymen bruptured by woodor any other foreign object, for all these women btheir marriage contract is two hundreddinars, as their legal status is that of a virgin. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: The marriage contractof a woman whose hymen was bruptured by wood is one hundred dinars,as physically, since her hymen is not intact, she is no longer a virgin.,With regard to ba virginwho is either a bwidow,a bdivorcée, or a iḥalutza /iwho achieved that status bfroma state of bmarriage,for all these women btheir marriage contract is one hundred dinars, /b
30. Jerome, Commentaria In Danielem, 11.44-11.45 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

31. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 96, 310

310. After the books had been read, the priests and the elders of the translators and the Jewish community and the leaders of the people stood up and said, that since so excellent and sacred and accurate a translation had been made, it was only right that it should remain as it was and no
32. Epigraphy, Ig Iv, 123

33. Epigraphy, Ig Iv ,1, 122-124, 121

34. Papyri, P.Oxy., 11.1382



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, descent from Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
alexander the great see hellenistic kings/\nalexandria" Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 213
alexandria Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
altar (of the temple), its dedication, inauguration Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 70, 71, 72
ancestral Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
ancestral language Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 423
andronicus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 281
antiochos iv epiphanes, his assault on jerusalem Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
antiochos iv epiphanes, his campaigns in egypt Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
antiochos iv epiphanes, his death Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
antiochos iv epiphanes, his desecration of the temple Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 72
antiochos iv epiphanes, his plunder of the jerusalem temple Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
antiochos iv epiphanes Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
antiochos v eupator Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 70, 71
antiochos vs time unit Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
antiochus iv epiphanes, campaign to egypt Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 251
antiochus iv epiphanes, death of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 37
antiochus iv epiphanes Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 262; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 4, 156
apollo Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218
apollonius son of menestheus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 4
apollonius son of thraseas Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 4
apparitions Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 444; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
aramaic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
aristeas Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
artemis Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218
asclepius Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218
athena Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218
author, of 2 maccabees, lack of interest in details of temple cult Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
author, of 2 maccabees, preface Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 16, 24, 519
author, of 2 maccabees, reflections of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 24
author, of 2 maccabees, versus epitomator Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 171
author, of 2 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 24, 37, 199
azariah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
barbarism Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 239
battle, battles, inaugural, entitling, and legitimizing Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
body de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 508
calendar Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
causality Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70, 72
chislev Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230
chronicles, books of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 72
chronology of events, in ii maccabees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
culture Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
demetrios i Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
diaspora, judaism in the diaspora Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 238
diaspora Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 213, 230; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 156; Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
diasporan historiography Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
divine plan/βουλή Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 173
divine providence Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
doran, robert Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70, 71, 72
dreams Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 173
dreams and visions, dream/reality confusion Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 444
dreams and visions, examples, apocrypha and non-apocalyptic pseudepigrapha Moxon, Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective (2017) 444
egypt Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230
egyptian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
enargeia (ἐνάργεια) de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 508
epiphaneia Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218
epiphanes Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 262
epiphany Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218
epitomator, see also author Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 25, 37
eschatology Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230
ethnicity Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
eupolemus Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218
externality Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 4, 37
ezra, book of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 72
festivals Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230
first-person singular Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 24, 37, 171
food laws Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
gentiles Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 225
glosses Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 37
god, of heaven Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47, 156
greek, language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
greek-jewish (graeco-jewish), literature and culture Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
gymnasion (in jerusalem) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
hananiah Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
hanukka Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
hanukkah, holiday of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 24, 37
hanukkah festival Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 72
hanukkah story Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
hasmonean dynasty Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 213, 218
hebrew (ethnonym) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
hebrew language Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
heliodoros story Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71, 72
heliodorus, story of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 281
heliodorus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 4
hellenism, hellenistic Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
hellenism/hellenistic period Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 213
hellenistic kings/rulers, antiochus iv epiphanes Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218
hellenistic kings/rulers, antiochus v eupator Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218
henten, jan willem van Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70, 71, 72
hera Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218
heracles Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218
herodotus Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 262
high (chief) priest Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
historiography Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
history Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 213
i maccabees, author of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
i maccabees, compositional structure Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
i and ii maccabees, their value for historical reconstruction, ii maccabees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
identity, in the ancient world Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
identity, jewish Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 213
idyll Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 132
ii maccabees, author of, disingenuous Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
ii maccabees, author of, his authorial comments Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
ii maccabees, author of, his literary and intellectual skills Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
ii maccabees, author of, his pro-hasmonean bias Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
ii maccabees, compositional structure Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 70
ii maccabees, literary genre Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 70
ii maccabees, purpose Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71, 72
ii maccabees, subject matter Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 70, 71, 72
illness' Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 262
interpolations Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71, 72
ioudaïsmos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 72
isaiah Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 156
jason, and onias iiis deposition Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
jason, civil strife between j. and menelaos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
jason, founded the gymnasion Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
jason, his delegitimization Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
jason, his impiety Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
jason, his measure-for-measure retribution Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
jason (high priest) Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 225; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 4
jason of cyrene Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 213, 218; Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218; Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 70, 71; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 16, 171
jeremiah Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230
jerusalem, temple Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 173
jews (and judaism), nationalists/traditionalists Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 251
jews (and judaism) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
judaism, as opposed to hellenism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18, 109
judaism, as pluralistic Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
judaism, law Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218
judaism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18, 109
judas maccabaeus Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 132
judas maccabee, fights for ioudaïsmos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 72
judas maccabee, his death Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
judas maccabee, his first temple refoundation Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 72
judas maccabee, his legitimation Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 72
judas maccabee, his legitimizing victories Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
judas maccabee, his partisans Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 72
judas maccabee, his piety and righteousness Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
judas maccabee, his second refoundation Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
judas maccabee, his wars Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
judas maccabee Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70, 71, 72
judas maccabeus Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 225, 230
judas the maccabee Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 508
kings, books of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 72
laws, ancestral Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70, 71
letter, first, 2 macc. Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 132
letter, letters, festal letters Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
letter, second, 2 macc. Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 132
letters, distinctiveness, see also hanukkah narrative Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 4
letters, semitic vorlage Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 132
letters Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 37, 132, 519
maccabean period Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
maccabees, family, clan, maccabees, family, clan Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
maccabees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70, 71, 72
maiden of chersonesus Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218
marriage Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
martyr/martyrdom de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 508
martyr and martyrdom Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 239
martyrdom Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
martyrologies, as secondary source Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 24, 25
martyrologies Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 37
martyrs Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 225
measure-for-measure Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70, 72
menelaos, his measure-for-measure retribution Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
menelaos Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
menelaus Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 225
metaphor de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 508
mishael Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
moses Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 132
motifs (thematic), concealing divisiveness Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
motifs (thematic), despised nation Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 156
motifs (thematic), games with epiphanes Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 25, 81
motifs (thematic), persian Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
motifs (thematic), punishment as pedagogy Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
motifs (thematic), reconciliation Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 24
motifs (thematic), sinning causes suffering Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
motifs (thematic), tit for tat Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 25, 47, 423
mount gerizim (argarizin) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
narratee de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 508
nehemiah Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 132
nicanor Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 171
nikanor (demetrios is general) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71
nikanors day festival Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71
nikanors day story Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
numbers, accuracy of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80
onias iii, and heliodoros Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
onias iii, his deposition Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
onias iii Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 4, 423
orthodoxy, in judaism Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
painting de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 508
palestinian Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
pathetic historiography Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80, 281, 423
persecuted faithful judeans Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 70
persecution, religious Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
petasos Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 224
philo Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 18
piety, political significance of p. and impiety Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
politai Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 423
polybius Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
portents Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 173
prayer Boustan Janssen and Roetzel, Violence, Scripture, and Textual Practices in Early Judaism and Christianity (2010) 239
proem (of ii maccabees) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 70, 71, 72
proselytes Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 238
ptolemies Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
purity Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
purity (see also food laws) Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
rabbinic judaism, rabbinic jews Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 238
rabbinic judaism Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 238
rebellion, etiology Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 251
rebellion, judean Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70, 71
restoration, temple cult Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 218, 230
rome, seleucus iv philopator Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 4
sabbath Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 109
sacrifices, disruption of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
sacrifices, sin-offerings Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 132
sacrifices Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
samaritans Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
sarapis Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218
schwartz, daniel r. Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71, 72
second maccabees de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster, Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond (2022) 508
seleukos iv Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 71
septuagint Tomson, Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries (2019) 156
simon (hasmonean) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 423
sin-retribution Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 72
sinning Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 24, 47
solomon Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 132
sources of 2 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 16, 24, 25, 37
stern, sacha Goodman, Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays (2006) 238
struggles Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80, 81
style, linguistic and literary, alliteration Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80
style, linguistic and literary, lively diction Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80
style, linguistic and literary, pathetic Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80
style, linguistic and literary, prepositional prefixes Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 81
style, linguistic and literary, word play Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80, 81
style, linguistic and literary Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80, 81
temple, purification of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70, 71, 72
temple Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 213, 218, 225, 230
temple (second), cult of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
temple (second) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
temple dedication (rededication) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
temple desecration, accounts of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 72
temple desecration, by antiochos iv Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
temple liberation accounts, greek Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 72
temporal language Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 213, 225
temporality, approaches to Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 230
time, chronological Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 213
time, construction of, and cyclical composition of i and ii maccabees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
time, construction of, as cyclical Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
time Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 213
torah, ancestral laws Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 225
torah, obedience to Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 213, 225
universalism Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 423
victory, victories, judass v. Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7
war, warfare, judass w. and antiochos vs time unit Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 7, 71
wickedness Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 70
xerxes Lidonnici and Lieber, Heavenly Tablets: Interpretation, Identity and Tradition in Ancient Judaism (2007) 262
zeus Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 218