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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



661
Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 12.42-12.45


nanand they turned to prayer, beseeching that the sin which had been committed might be wholly blotted out. And the noble Judas exhorted the people to keep themselves free from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what had happened because of the sin of those who had fallen.'


nanHe also took up a collection, man by man, to the amount of two thousand drachmas of silver, and sent it to Jerusalem to provide for a sin offering. In doing this he acted very well and honorably, taking account of the resurrection.'


nanFor if he were not expecting that those who had fallen would rise again, it would have been superfluous and foolish to pray for the dead.'


nanBut if he was looking to the splendid reward that is laid up for those who fall asleep in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. Therefore he made atonement for the dead, that they might be delivered from their sin.'


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

21 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 4.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.1. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לַהֲתָךְ וַתְּצַוֵּהוּ אֶל־מָרְדֳּכָי׃ 4.1. וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָדַע אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה וַיִּקְרַע מָרְדֳּכַי אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וַיִּלְבַּשׁ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר וַיֵּצֵא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר וַיִּזְעַק זְעָקָה גְדֹלָה וּמָרָה׃ 4.1. Now when Mordecai knew all that was done, Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a loud and a bitter cry;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.12. נָטִיתָ יְמִינְךָ תִּבְלָעֵמוֹ אָרֶץ׃ 15.12. Thou stretchedst out Thy right hand— The earth swallowed them."
3. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 3.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.8. וְיִתְכַּסּוּ שַׂקִּים הָאָדָם וְהַבְּהֵמָה וְיִקְרְאוּ אֶל־אֱלֹהִים בְּחָזְקָה וְיָשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ מִדַּרְכּוֹ הָרָעָה וּמִן־הֶחָמָס אֲשֶׁר בְּכַפֵּיהֶם׃ 3.8. but let them be covered with sackcloth, both man and beast, and let them cry mightily unto God; yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands."
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 26.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.10. and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up together with Korah, when that company died; what time the fire devoured two hundred and fifty men, and they became a sign."
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 106.11, 107.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

106.11. וַיְכַסּוּ־מַיִם צָרֵיהֶם אֶחָד מֵהֶם לֹא נוֹתָר׃ 107.11. כִּי־הִמְרוּ אִמְרֵי־אֵל וַעֲצַת עֶלְיוֹן נָאָצוּ׃ 106.11. And the waters covered their adversaries; There was not one of them left." 107.11. Because they rebelled against the words of God, And contemned the counsel of the Most High."
6. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence."
7. Polybius, Histories, 2.56.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.56.7.  In his eagerness to arouse the pity and attention of his readers he treats us to a picture of clinging women with their hair dishevelled and their breasts bare, or again of crowds of both sexes together with their children and aged parents weeping and lamenting as they are led away to slavery.
8. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.21-1.23, 3.43-3.54, 5.25, 5.54, 12.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.21. He arrogantly entered the sanctuary and took the golden altar, the lampstand for the light, and all its utensils. 1.22. He took also the table for the bread of the Presence, the cups for drink offerings, the bowls, the golden censers, the curtain, the crowns, and the gold decoration on the front of the temple; he stripped it all off. 1.23. He took the silver and the gold, and the costly vessels; he took also the hidden treasures which he found. 3.43. But they said to one another, "Let us repair the destruction of our people, and fight for our people and the sanctuary. 3.44. And the congregation assembled to be ready for battle, and to pray and ask for mercy and compassion. 3.45. Jerusalem was uninhabited like a wilderness;not one of her children went in or out. The sanctuary was trampled down,and the sons of aliens held the citadel;it was a lodging place for the Gentiles. Joy was taken from Jacob;the flute and the harp ceased to play. 3.46. So they assembled and went to Mizpah, opposite Jerusalem, because Israel formerly had a place of prayer in Mizpah. 3.47. They fasted that day, put on sackcloth and sprinkled ashes on their heads, and rent their clothes. 3.48. And they opened the book of the law to inquire into those matters about which the Gentiles were consulting the images of their idols. 3.49. They also brought the garments of the priesthood and the first fruits and the tithes, and they stirred up the Nazirites who had completed their days; 3.50. and they cried aloud to Heaven, saying, "What shall we do with these?Where shall we take them? 3.51. Thy sanctuary is trampled down and profaned,and thy priests mourn in humiliation. 3.52. And behold, the Gentiles are assembled against us to destroy us;thou knowest what they plot against us. 3.53. How will we be able to withstand them,if thou dost not help us? 3.54. Then they sounded the trumpets and gave a loud shout. 5.25. They encountered the Nabateans, who met them peaceably and told them all that had happened to their brethren in Gilead: 5.54. So they went up to Mount Zion with gladness and joy, and offered burnt offerings, because not one of them had fallen before they returned in safety. 12.9. Therefore, though we have no need of these things, since we have as encouragement the holy books which are in our hands
9. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.5, 1.7, 1.22, 3.1-3.3, 3.5, 3.15, 3.18, 3.20, 3.22, 3.30-3.32, 3.36-3.39, 4.6, 4.23, 4.32, 4.34-4.35, 4.45, 4.49, 5.1, 5.4, 5.16, 6.12-6.17, 6.31, 7.9-7.23, 7.37, 8.2-8.5, 8.14-8.20, 8.23, 8.29, 8.36, 9.1, 9.5-9.6, 9.12-9.17, 9.25, 10.3-10.4, 10.7, 10.16, 10.25-10.26, 10.38, 11.6, 11.13, 12.1-12.2, 12.6, 12.8, 12.10-12.41, 12.43-12.45, 13.10-13.12, 14.3, 14.5, 14.15, 14.34-14.36, 14.38, 14.46, 15.21-15.24, 15.26-15.27, 15.29, 15.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.5. May he hear your prayers and be reconciled to you, and may he not forsake you in time of evil.' 1.7. In the reign of Demetrius, in the one hundred and sixty-ninth year, we Jews wrote to you, in the critical distress which came upon us in those years after Jason and his company revolted from the holy land and the kingdom' 1.22. When this was done and some time had passed and the sun, which had been clouded over, shone out, a great fire blazed up, so that all marveled.' 3.1. While the holy city was inhabited in unbroken peace and the laws were very well observed because of the piety of the high priest Onias and his hatred of wickedness,' 3.2. it came about that the kings themselves honored the place and glorified the temple with the finest presents,' 3.3. o that even Seleucus, the king of Asia, defrayed from his own revenues all the expenses connected with the service of the sacrifices.' 3.5. and when he could not prevail over Onias he went to Apollonius of Tarsus, who at that time was governor of Coelesyria and Phoenicia.' 3.15. The priests prostrated themselves before the altar in their priestly garments and called toward heaven upon him who had given the law about deposits, that he should keep them safe for those who had deposited them.' 3.18. People also hurried out of their houses in crowds to make a general supplication because the holy place was about to be brought into contempt. 3.20. And holding up their hands to heaven, they all made entreaty.' 3.22. While they were calling upon the Almighty Lord that he would keep what had been entrusted safe and secure for those who had entrusted it,' 3.30. they praised the Lord who had acted marvelously for his own place. And the temple, which a little while before was full of fear and disturbance, was filled with joy and gladness, now that the Almighty Lord had appeared.' 3.31. Quickly some of Heliodorus' friends asked Onias to call upon the Most High and to grant life to one who was lying quite at his last breath. 3.32. And the high priest, fearing that the king might get the notion that some foul play had been perpetrated by the Jews with regard to Heliodorus, offered sacrifice for the man's recovery.' 3.36. And he bore testimony to all men of the deeds of the supreme God, which he had seen with his own eyes.' 3.37. When the king asked Heliodorus what sort of person would be suitable to send on another mission to Jerusalem, he replied,' 3.38. If you have any enemy or plotter against your government, send him there, for you will get him back thoroughly scourged, if he escapes at all, for there certainly is about the place some power of God.' 3.39. For he who has his dwelling in heaven watches over that place himself and brings it aid, and he strikes and destroys those who come to do it injury.' 4.6. For he saw that without the king's attention public affairs could not again reach a peaceful settlement, and that Simon would not stop his folly.' 4.23. After a period of three years Jason sent Menelaus, the brother of the previously mentioned Simon, to carry the money to the king and to complete the records of essential business.' 4.32. But Menelaus, thinking he had obtained a suitable opportunity, stole some of the gold vessels of the temple and gave them to Andronicus; other vessels, as it happened, he had sold to Tyre and the neighboring cities.' 4.34. Therefore Menelaus, taking Andronicus aside, urged him to kill Onias. Andronicus came to Onias, and resorting to treachery offered him sworn pledges and gave him his right hand, and in spite of his suspicion persuaded Onias to come out from the place of sanctuary; then, with no regard for justice, he immediately put him out of the way.' 4.35. For this reason not only Jews, but many also of other nations, were grieved and displeased at the unjust murder of the man.' 4.45. But Menelaus, already as good as beaten, promised a substantial bribe to Ptolemy son of Dorymenes to win over the king.' 4.49. Therefore even the Tyrians, showing their hatred of the crime, provided magnificently for their funeral.' 5.1. About this time Antiochus made his second invasion of Egypt. 5.4. Therefore all men prayed that the apparition might prove to have been a good omen. 5.16. He took the holy vessels with his polluted hands, and swept away with profane hands the votive offerings which other kings had made to enhance the glory and honor of the place.' 6.12. Now I urge those who read this book not to be depressed by such calamities, but to recognize that these punishments were designed not to destroy but to discipline our people.' 6.13. In fact, not to let the impious alone for long, but to punish them immediately, is a sign of great kindness.' 6.14. For in the case of the other nations the Lord waits patiently to punish them until they have reached the full measure of their sins; but he does not deal in this way with us,' 6.15. in order that he may not take vengeance on us afterward when our sins have reached their height. 6.16. Therefore he never withdraws his mercy from us. Though he disciplines us with calamities, he does not forsake his own people.' 6.17. Let what we have said serve as a reminder; we must go on briefly with the story. 6.31. So in this way he died, leaving in his death an example of nobility and a memorial of courage, not only to the young but to the great body of his nation.' 7.9. And when he was at his last breath, he said, 'You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.' 7.10. After him, the third was the victim of their sport. When it was demanded, he quickly put out his tongue and courageously stretched forth his hands,' 7.11. and said nobly, 'I got these from Heaven, and because of his laws I disdain them, and from him I hope to get them back again.' 7.12. As a result the king himself and those with him were astonished at the young man's spirit, for he regarded his sufferings as nothing.' 7.13. When he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way.' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 7.15. Next they brought forward the fifth and maltreated him. 7.16. But he looked at the king, and said, 'Because you have authority among men, mortal though you are, you do what you please. But do not think that God has forsaken our people.' 7.17. Keep on, and see how his mighty power will torture you and your descendants!' 7.18. After him they brought forward the sixth. And when he was about to die, he said, 'Do not deceive yourself in vain. For we are suffering these things on our own account, because of our sins against our own God. Therefore astounding things have happened.' 7.19. But do not think that you will go unpunished for having tried to fight against God!' 7.20. The mother was especially admirable and worthy of honorable memory. Though she saw her seven sons perish within a single day, she bore it with good courage because of her hope in the Lord.' 7.21. She encouraged each of them in the language of their fathers. Filled with a noble spirit, she fired her woman's reasoning with a man's courage, and said to them,' 7.22. I do not know how you came into being in my womb. It was not I who gave you life and breath, nor I who set in order the elements within each of you.' 7.23. Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.' 7.37. I, like my brothers, give up body and life for the laws of our fathers, appealing to God to show mercy soon to our nation and by afflictions and plagues to make you confess that he alone is God,' 8.2. They besought the Lord to look upon the people who were oppressed by all, and to have pity on the temple which had been profaned by ungodly men,' 8.3. and to have mercy on the city which was being destroyed and about to be leveled to the ground, and to hearken to the blood that cried out to him,' 8.4. and to remember also the lawless destruction of the innocent babies and the blasphemies committed against his name, and to show his hatred of evil.' 8.5. As soon as Maccabeus got his army organized, the Gentiles could not withstand him, for the wrath of the Lord had turned to mercy.' 8.14. Others sold all their remaining property, and at the same time besought the Lord to rescue those who had been sold by the ungodly Nicanor before he ever met them,' 8.15. if not for their own sake, yet for the sake of the covets made with their fathers, and because he had called them by his holy and glorious name.' 8.16. But Maccabeus gathered his men together, to the number six thousand, and exhorted them not to be frightened by the enemy and not to fear the great multitude of Gentiles who were wickedly coming against them, but to fight nobly,' 8.17. keeping before their eyes the lawless outrage which the Gentiles had committed against the holy place, and the torture of the derided city, and besides, the overthrow of their ancestral way of life.' 8.18. For they trust to arms and acts of daring,'he said, 'but we trust in the Almighty God, who is able with a single nod to strike down those who are coming against us and even the whole world.' 8.19. Moreover, he told them of the times when help came to their ancestors; both the time of Sennacherib, when one hundred and eighty-five thousand perished,' 8.20. and the time of the battle with the Galatians that took place in Babylonia, when eight thousand in all went into the affair, with four thousand Macedonians; and when the Macedonians were hard pressed, the eight thousand, by the help that came to them from heaven, destroyed one hundred and twenty thousand and took much booty.' 8.23. Besides, he appointed Eleazar to read aloud from the holy book, and gave the watchword, 'God's help'; then, leading the first division himself, he joined battle with Nicanor.' 8.29. When they had done this, they made common supplication and besought the merciful Lord to be wholly reconciled with his servants.' 8.36. Thus he who had undertaken to secure tribute for the Romans by the capture of the people of Jerusalem proclaimed that the Jews had a Defender, and that therefore the Jews were invulnerable, because they followed the laws ordained by him.' 9.1. About that time, as it happened, Antiochus had retreated in disorder from the region of Persia.' 9.5. But the all-seeing Lord, the God of Israel, struck him an incurable and unseen blow. As soon as he ceased speaking he was seized with a pain in his bowels for which there was no relief and with sharp internal tortures --' 9.6. and that very justly, for he had tortured the bowels of others with many and strange inflictions.' 9.12. And when he could not endure his own stench, he uttered these words: 'It is right to be subject to God, and no mortal should think that he is equal to God.' 9.13. Then the abominable fellow made a vow to the Lord, who would no longer have mercy on him, stating' 9.14. that the holy city, which he was hastening to level to the ground and to make a cemetery, he was now declaring to be free;' 9.15. and the Jews, whom he had not considered worth burying but had planned to throw out with their children to the beasts, for the birds to pick, he would make, all of them, equal to citizens of Athens;' 9.16. and the holy sanctuary, which he had formerly plundered, he would adorn with the finest offerings; and the holy vessels he would give back, all of them, many times over; and the expenses incurred for the sacrifices he would provide from his own revenues;' 9.17. and in addition to all this he also would become a Jew and would visit every inhabited place to proclaim the power of God. 9.25. Moreover, I understand how the princes along the borders and the neighbors to my kingdom keep watching for opportunities and waiting to see what will happen. So I have appointed my son Antiochus to be king, whom I have often entrusted and commended to most of you when I hastened off to the upper provinces; and I have written to him what is written here.' 10.3. They purified the sanctuary, and made another altar of sacrifice; then, striking fire out of flint, they offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years, and they burned incense and lighted lamps and set out the bread of the Presence.' 10.4. And when they had done this, they fell prostrate and besought the Lord that they might never again fall into such misfortunes, but that, if they should ever sin, they might be disciplined by him with forbearance and not be handed over to blasphemous and barbarous nations.' 10.7. Therefore bearing ivy-wreathed wands and beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had given success to the purifying of his own holy place.' 10.16. But Maccabeus and his men, after making solemn supplication and beseeching God to fight on their side, rushed to the strongholds of the Idumeans.' 10.25. As he drew near, Maccabeus and his men sprinkled dust upon their heads and girded their loins with sackcloth, in supplication to God.' 10.26. Falling upon the steps before the altar, they besought him to be gracious to them and to be an enemy to their enemies and an adversary to their adversaries, as the law declares.' 10.38. When they had accomplished these things, with hymns and thanksgivings they blessed the Lord who shows great kindness to Israel and gives them the victory.' 11.6. When Maccabeus and his men got word that Lysias was besieging the strongholds, they and all the people, with lamentations and tears, besought the Lord to send a good angel to save Israel.' 11.13. And as he was not without intelligence, he pondered over the defeat which had befallen him, and realized that the Hebrews were invincible because the mighty God fought on their side. So he sent to them' 12.1. When this agreement had been reached, Lysias returned to the king, and the Jews went about their farming.' 12.2. But some of the governors in various places, Timothy and Apollonius the son of Gennaeus, as well as Hieronymus and Demophon, and in addition to these Nicanor the governor of Cyprus, would not let them live quietly and in peace.' 12.6. and, calling upon God the righteous Judge, attacked the murderers of his brethren. He set fire to the harbor by night, and burned the boats, and massacred those who had taken refuge there.' 12.8. But learning that the men in Jamnia meant in the same way to wipe out the Jews who were living among them,' 12.10. When they had gone more than a mile from there, on their march against Timothy, not less than five thousand Arabs with five hundred horsemen attacked them.' 12.11. After a hard fight Judas and his men won the victory, by the help of God. The defeated nomads besought Judas to grant them pledges of friendship, promising to give him cattle and to help his people in all other ways.' 12.12. Judas, thinking that they might really be useful in many ways, agreed to make peace with them; and after receiving his pledges they departed to their tents.' 12.13. He also attacked a certain city which was strongly fortified with earthworks and walls, and inhabited by all sorts of Gentiles. Its name was Caspin.' 12.14. And those who were within, relying on the strength of the walls and on their supply of provisions, behaved most insolently toward Judas and his men, railing at them and even blaspheming and saying unholy things.' 12.15. But Judas and his men, calling upon the great Sovereign of the world, who without battering-rams or engines of war overthrew Jericho in the days of Joshua, rushed furiously upon the walls.' 12.16. They took the city by the will of God, and slaughtered untold numbers, so that the adjoining lake, a quarter of a mile wide, appeared to be running over with blood.' 12.17. When they had gone ninety-five miles from there, they came to Charax, to the Jews who are called Toubiani.' 12.18. They did not find Timothy in that region, for he had by then departed from the region without accomplishing anything, though in one place he had left a very strong garrison.' 12.19. Dositheus and Sosipater, who were captains under Maccabeus, marched out and destroyed those whom Timothy had left in the stronghold, more than ten thousand men.' 12.20. But Maccabeus arranged his army in divisions, set men in command of the divisions, and hastened after Timothy, who had with him a hundred and twenty thousand infantry and two thousand five hundred cavalry.' 12.21. When Timothy learned of the approach of Judas, he sent off the women and the children and also the baggage to a place called Carnaim; for that place was hard to besiege and difficult of access because of the narrowness of all the approaches.' 12.22. But when Judas' first division appeared, terror and fear came over the enemy at the manifestation to them of him who sees all things; and they rushed off in flight and were swept on, this way and that, so that often they were injured by their own men and pierced by the points of their swords.' 12.23. And Judas pressed the pursuit with the utmost vigor, putting the sinners to the sword, and destroyed as many as thirty thousand men.' 12.24. Timothy himself fell into the hands of Dositheus and Sosipater and their men. With great guile he besought them to let him go in safety, because he held the parents of most of them and the brothers of some and no consideration would be shown them.' 12.25. And when with many words he had confirmed his solemn promise to restore them unharmed, they let him go, for the sake of saving their brethren.' 12.26. Then Judas marched against Carnaim and the temple of Atargatis, and slaughtered twenty-five thousand people.' 12.27. After the rout and destruction of these, he marched also against Ephron, a fortified city where Lysias dwelt with multitudes of people of all nationalities. Stalwart young men took their stand before the walls and made a vigorous defense; and great stores of war engines and missiles were there.' 12.28. But the Jews called upon the Sovereign who with power shatters the might of his enemies, and they got the city into their hands, and killed as many as twenty-five thousand of those who were within it.' 12.29. Setting out from there, they hastened to Scythopolis, which is seventy-five miles from Jerusalem.' 12.30. But when the Jews who dwelt there bore witness to the good will which the people of Scythopolis had shown them and their kind treatment of them in times of misfortune,' 12.31. they thanked them and exhorted them to be well disposed to their race in the future also. Then they went up to Jerusalem, as the feast of weeks was close at hand.' 12.32. After the feast called Pentecost, they hastened against Gorgias, the governor of Idumea.' 12.33. And he came out with three thousand infantry and four hundred cavalry. 12.34. When they joined battle, it happened that a few of the Jews fell.' 12.35. But a certain Dositheus, one of Bacenor's men, who was on horseback and was a strong man, caught hold of Gorgias, and grasping his cloak was dragging him off by main strength, wishing to take the accursed man alive, when one of the Thracian horsemen bore down upon him and cut off his arm; so Gorgias escaped and reached Marisa.' 12.36. As Esdris and his men had been fighting for a long time and were weary, Judas called upon the Lord to show himself their ally and leader in the battle.' 12.37. In the language of their fathers he raised the battle cry, with hymns; then he charged against Gorgias' men when they were not expecting it, and put them to flight.' 12.38. Then Judas assembled his army and went to the city of Adullam. As the seventh day was coming on, they purified themselves according to the custom, and they kept the sabbath there.' 12.39. On the next day, as by that time it had become necessary, Judas and his men went to take up the bodies of the fallen and to bring them back to lie with their kinsmen in the sepulchres of their fathers.' 12.40. Then under the tunic of every one of the dead they found sacred tokens of the idols of Jamnia, which the law forbids the Jews to wear. And it became clear to all that this was why these men had fallen.' 12.41. So they all blessed the ways of the Lord, the righteous Judge, who reveals the things that are hidden;' 12.43. He also took up a collection, man by man, to the amount of two thousand drachmas of silver, and sent it to Jerusalem to provide for a sin offering. In doing this he acted very well and honorably, taking account of the resurrection.' 12.44. For if he were not expecting that those who had fallen would rise again, it would have been superfluous and foolish to pray for the dead.' 12.45. But if he was looking to the splendid reward that is laid up for those who fall asleep in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. Therefore he made atonement for the dead, that they might be delivered from their sin.' 13.10. But when Judas heard of this, he ordered the people to call upon the Lord day and night, now if ever to help those who were on the point of being deprived of the law and their country and the holy temple,' 13.11. and not to let the people who had just begun to revive fall into the hands of the blasphemous Gentiles. 13.12. When they had all joined in the same petition and had besought the merciful Lord with weeping and fasting and lying prostrate for three days without ceasing, Judas exhorted them and ordered them to stand ready.' 14.3. Now a certain Alcimus, who had formerly been high priest but had wilfully defiled himself in the times of separation, realized that there was no way for him to be safe or to have access again to the holy altar,' 14.5. But he found an opportunity that furthered his mad purpose when he was invited by Demetrius to a meeting of the council and was asked about the disposition and intentions of the Jews. He answered: 14.15. When the Jews heard of Nicanor's coming and the gathering of the Gentiles, they sprinkled dust upon their heads and prayed to him who established his own people for ever and always upholds his own heritage by manifesting himself.' 14.34. Having said this, he went away. Then the priests stretched forth their hands toward heaven and called upon the constant Defender of our nation, in these words:' 14.35. O Lord of all, who hast need of nothing, thou wast pleased that there be a temple for thy habitation among us;' 14.36. o now, O holy One, Lord of all holiness, keep undefiled for ever this house that has been so recently purified.' 14.38. For in former times, when there was no mingling with the Gentiles, he had been accused of Judaism, and for Judaism he had with all zeal risked body and life.' 14.46. with his blood now completely drained from him, he tore out his entrails, took them with both hands and hurled them at the crowd, calling upon the Lord of life and spirit to give them back to him again. This was the manner of his death.' 15.21. Maccabeus, perceiving the hosts that were before him and the varied supply of arms and the savagery of the elephants, stretched out his hands toward heaven and called upon the Lord who works wonders; for he knew that it is not by arms, but as the Lord decides, that he gains the victory for those who deserve it.' 15.22. And he called upon him in these words: 'O Lord, thou didst send thy angel in the time of Hezekiah king of Judea, and he slew fully a hundred and eighty-five thousand in the camp of Sennacherib.' 15.23. So now, O Sovereign of the heavens, send a good angel to carry terror and trembling before us.' 15.24. By the might of thy arm may these blasphemers who come against thy holy people be struck down.'With these words he ended his prayer.' 15.26. and Judas and his men met the enemy in battle with invocation to God and prayers. 15.27. So, fighting with their hands and praying to God in their hearts, they laid low no less than thirty-five thousand men, and were greatly gladdened by God's manifestation.' 15.29. Then there was shouting and tumult, and they blessed the Sovereign Lord in the language of their fathers.' 15.34. And they all, looking to heaven, blessed the Lord who had manifested himself, saying, 'Blessed is he who has kept his own place undefiled.'
10. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 42.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

42.11. Keep strict watch over a headstrong daughter,lest she make you a laughingstock to your enemies,a byword in the city and notorious among the people,and put you to shame before the great multitude. 42.11. Look upon the rainbow, and praise him who made it,exceedingly beautiful in its brightness.
11. Septuagint, Judith, 4.10-4.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.10. They and their wives and their children and their cattle and every resident alien and hired laborer and purchased slave -- they all girded themselves with sackcloth. 4.11. And all the men and women of Israel, and their children, living at Jerusalem, prostrated themselves before the temple and put ashes on their heads and spread out their sackcloth before the Lord. 4.12. They even surrounded the altar with sackcloth and cried out in unison, praying earnestly to the God of Israel not to give up their infants as prey and their wives as booty, and the cities they had inherited to be destroyed, and the sanctuary to be profaned and desecrated to the malicious joy of the Gentiles. 4.13. So the Lord heard their prayers and looked upon their affliction; for the people fasted many days throughout Judea and in Jerusalem before the sanctuary of the Lord Almighty. 4.14. And Joakim the high priest and all the priests who stood before the Lord and ministered to the Lord, with their loins girded with sackcloth, offered the continual burnt offerings and the vows and freewill offerings of the people. 4.15. With ashes upon their turbans, they cried out to the Lord with all their might to look with favor upon the whole house of Israel.
12. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them.
13. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.18, 2.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.18. The virgins who had been enclosed in their chambers rushed out with their mothers, sprinkled their hair with dust, and filled the streets with groans and lamentations. 2.1. Then the high priest Simon, facing the sanctuary, bending his knees and extending his hands with calm dignity, prayed as follows: 2.1. And because you love the house of Israel, you promised that if we should have reverses, and tribulation should overtake us, you would listen to our petition when we come to this place and pray.
14. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 17.35 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17.35. 1.  When night fell, the remainder of the Persian army easily succeeded in scattering in various directions while the Macedonians gave over the pursuit and turned to plunder, being particularly attracted by the royal pavilions because of the mass of wealth that was there.,2.  This included much silver, no little gold, and vast numbers of rich dresses from the royal treasure, which they took, and likewise a great store of wealth belonging to the King's Friends, Relatives, and military commanders.,3.  Not only the ladies of the royal house but also those of the King's Relatives and Friends, borne on gilded chariots, had accompanied the army according to an ancestral custom of the Persians,,4.  and each of them had brought with her a store of rich future and feminine adornment, in keeping with their vast wealth and luxury. The lot of these captured women was pathetic in the extreme.,5.  They who previously from daintiness only with reluctance had been conveyed in luxurious carriages and had exposed no part of their bodies unveiled now burst wailing out of the tents clad only in a single chiton, rending their garments, calling on the gods, and falling at the knees of the conquerors.,6.  Flinging off their jewelry with trembling hands and with their hair flying, they fled for their lives over rugged ground and, collecting into groups, they called to help them those who were themselves in need of help from others.,7.  Some of their captors dragged these unfortunates by the hair, others, ripping off their clothing, drove them with blows of their hands or spear-butts against their naked bodies, thus outraging the dearest and proudest of the Persian possessions by virtue of Fortune's generosity to them.
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.169 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

3.169. Market places, and council chambers, and courts of justice, and large companies and assemblies of numerous crowds, and a life in the open air full of arguments and actions relating to war and peace, are suited to men; but taking care of the house and remaining at home are the proper duties of women; the virgins having their apartments in the centre of the house within the innermost doors, and the full-grown women not going beyond the vestibule and outer courts;
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 267, 266 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

266. And when he was about to add other charges against them Agrippa fell into such a state of grief that he changed into all sorts of colours, becoming at the same moment bloodshot, and pale, and livid
17. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.218. but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before.
18. Mishnah, Keritot, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. In the case of all forbidden relations, if one partner was an adult and the other a minor, the minor is exempt; If one is awake and the other asleep, the one asleep is exempt; If one is an inadvertent and the other intentional, the former is liable to a hatat, the latter to karet."
19. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.8. The sin-offering and the certain guilt-offering effect atonement. Death and Yom HaKippurim effect atonement together with repentance. Repentance effects atonement for light transgressions: [the transgression of] positive commandments and negative commandments. And for severer transgressions [repentance] suspends [the divine punishment], until Yom HaKippurim arrives and effects atonement."
20. Tosefta, Shabbat, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 7.15 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abiram Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
amoraim Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
ancestral language' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 443
ancestral language Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417, 418
angels, witnesses of sin Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
apocalypse, genre Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
aristobulus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
artisans Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
atonement Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
atonement for Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
author, of 2 maccabees, lack of interest in details of temple cult Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
babylonia Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
beloved ones, children Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
bones Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
canon of hebrew bible/old testament, for hellenistic jewish writings Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
cemetery, cemeteries Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
charity Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
children/offspring, exposing of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
children Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 198
chosen ones; see also election Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
christians Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
coffins Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
commemoration Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
dathan Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
day, of the destruction of iniquity/sin/wickedness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
death Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
death and burial, mourning Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 198
death and burial Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417, 418
demetrius the chronographer Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
deuteronomy 32 Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 155
diasporan historiography Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48, 341
distances Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 418
en gedi" '205.0_48.0@1 maccabees, martyrdom in Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
family Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
four- (or five‐) kingdom paradigm Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 93
general Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88, 93
gentiles Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
god, as legislator Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 341
god, help of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
god, most high Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
god, of heaven Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
god, titles of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 155
god Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
goliath Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
hellenistic Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
hellenistic jewish writings, aristobulus Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
hellenistic jewish writings, canonical bible for Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
hellenistic jewish writings, demetrius Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
hellenistic jewish writings, forms and methods of exegesis in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
hellenistic jewish writings, letter of aristeas Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
hellenistic jewish writings, prophetic exegesis in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
hellenistic jewish writings Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
historicity Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 93
idolatry Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
idols Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
individual eschatology Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
inscribed bowl Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
inscriptions Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
jericho Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
jerusalem Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
jewish Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
jews (and judaism) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
josephus (flavius josephus), canonicity and scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
judas maccabeus Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
judgement, final Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88, 93
justice Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 155
kallon Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
kaspin Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 418
korah, rebellion of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
letter of aristeas Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
limestone Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
loculi Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
martyrdom Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88; Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 22; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
mercy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
messianic woes Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
mother and seven sons, razis suicide Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 360
mother and seven sons, resurrection Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 360
motifs (thematic), by gentiles Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
motifs (thematic), greek, see also under greek Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 253
motifs (thematic), jewish fatalities require explanation Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 418
motifs (thematic), martyrdom catalyzes reconciliation (and redemption) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
motifs (thematic), problems are caused by misunderstanding Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
motifs (thematic), sinning causes suffering Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
mouth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
nobility Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
opponents Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
orality, pagan Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
ossilegium Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
ossuary, ossuaries Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
pathetic historiography Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 198
periodisation of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88, 93
petitions / prayers, by the oppressed Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
philo of alexandria, canonicity and scripture in Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
philo of alexandria, exegetical forms and methods used by Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
piety Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
popilius laenas Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 253
post-mortem reward or punishment Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88, 93
posthumous vindication, resurrection Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 360
prayer, prayer for dead Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
prayer Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
prayers, of the righteous ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
prepared, for punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
prophetic exegesis in hellenistic jewish writings Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
ptolemy ii philadelphus (egyptian ruler) Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
razis suicide, post-humous vindication Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 360
repository Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
restoration within history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
resurrection, as reward of righteousness Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 22
resurrection, extent of (generality) Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 22
resurrection, principle of continuity Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 22
resurrection, timing of Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 22
resurrection, views in second temple judaism Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 22
resurrection Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417, 418
rome Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
sacred Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
sacrifice Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
sacrifices, as a form of prayer Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 443
sacrifices, sin-offerings Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
sacrifices Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
sarcophagus, sarcophagi Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
second temple Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
secondary burial Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
sheol Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
soldiers Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
sources of 2 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
swallow Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
tannaitic Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
teleology\n, view of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88, 93
temple Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
temple (second), cult of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 48
temporal terminology\n, καιρός Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 93
temporal terminology\n, χρόνος Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 93
timothy Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
transjordan Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 418
virgil Carleton Paget and Schaper, The New Cambridge History of the Bible (2013) 301
zion, glorious Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
zoroastrian Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338