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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



661
Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 12.40-12.44


nanThen under the tunic of every one of the dead they found sacred tokens of the idols of Jamnia, which the law forbids the Jews to wear. And it became clear to all that this was why these men had fallen.'


nanThen under the tunic of every one of the dead they found sacred tokens of the idols of Jamnia, which the law forbids the Jews to wear. And it became clear to all that this was why these men had fallen. 41 So they all blessed the ways of the Lord, the righteous Judge, who reveals the things that are hidden; 42 and they turned to prayer, beseeching that the sin which had been committed might be wholly blotted out. And the noble Judas exhorted the people to keep themselves free from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what had happened because of the sin of those who had fallen. 43 He also took up a collection, man by man, to the amount of two thousand drachmas of silver, and sent it to Jerusalem to provide for a sin offering. In doing this he acted very well and honorably, taking account of the resurrection. 44 For if he were not expecting that those who had fallen would rise again, it would have been superfluous and foolish to pray for the dead. 45 But if he was looking to the splendid reward that is laid up for those who fall asleep in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. Therefore he made atonement for the dead, that they might be delivered from their sin.


nanSo they all blessed the ways of the Lord, the righteous Judge, who reveals the things that are hidden;'


nanand they turned to prayer, beseeching that the sin which had been committed might be wholly blotted out. And the noble Judas exhorted the people to keep themselves free from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what had happened because of the sin of those who had fallen.'


nanHe also took up a collection, man by man, to the amount of two thousand drachmas of silver, and sent it to Jerusalem to provide for a sin offering. In doing this he acted very well and honorably, taking account of the resurrection.'


nanFor if he were not expecting that those who had fallen would rise again, it would have been superfluous and foolish to pray for the dead.'


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

33 results
1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 1.19 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.19. And the people of Israel who were present at that time kept the passover and the feast of unleavened bread seven days.
2. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.1 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. When I arrived home and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of the seven weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I sat down to eat.
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 3.6, 3.10, 4.3, 4.16, 8.3, 8.5, 8.9, 8.12, 8.16-8.17, 9.6, 9.10, 9.13-9.15, 9.22, 10.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.3. וּבְכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה מְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ מַגִּיעַ אֵבֶל גָּדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים וְצוֹם וּבְכִי וּמִסְפֵּד שַׂק וָאֵפֶר יֻצַּע לָרַבִּים׃ 4.16. לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם גַּם־אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם כֵּן וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כַדָּת וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי אָבָדְתִּי׃ 8.3. וַתּוֹסֶף אֶסְתֵּר וַתְּדַבֵּר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתִּפֹּל לִפְנֵי רַגְלָיו וַתֵּבְךְּ וַתִּתְחַנֶּן־לוֹ לְהַעֲבִיר אֶת־רָעַת הָמָן הָאֲגָגִי וְאֵת מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר חָשַׁב עַל־הַיְּהוּדִים׃ 8.5. וַתֹּאמֶר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב וְאִם־מָצָאתִי חֵן לְפָנָיו וְכָשֵׁר הַדָּבָר לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְטוֹבָה אֲנִי בְּעֵינָיו יִכָּתֵב לְהָשִׁיב אֶת־הַסְּפָרִים מַחֲשֶׁבֶת הָמָן בֶּן־הַמְּדָתָא הָאֲגָגִי אֲשֶׁר כָּתַב לְאַבֵּד אֶת־הַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 8.9. וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ בָּעֵת־הַהִיא בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ סִיוָן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים וְאֶל הָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים־וְהַפַּחוֹת וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת אֲשֶׁר מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשֹׁנוֹ וְאֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים כִּכְתָבָם וְכִלְשׁוֹנָם׃ 8.12. בְּיוֹם אֶחָד בְּכָל־מְדִינוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר׃ 8.16. לַיְּהוּדִים הָיְתָה אוֹרָה וְשִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשֹׂן וִיקָר׃ 8.17. וּבְכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וּבְכָל־עִיר וָעִיר מְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ מַגִּיעַ שִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשׂוֹן לַיְּהוּדִים מִשְׁתֶּה וְיוֹם טוֹב וְרַבִּים מֵעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ מִתְיַהֲדִים כִּי־נָפַל פַּחַד־הַיְּהוּדִים עֲלֵיהֶם׃ 9.6. וּבְשׁוּשַׁן הַבִּירָה הָרְגוּ הַיְּהוּדִים וְאַבֵּד חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ׃ 9.13. וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר אִם־עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ טוֹב יִנָּתֵן גַּם־מָחָר לַיְּהוּדִים אֲשֶׁר בְּשׁוּשָׁן לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּדָת הַיּוֹם וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן יִתְלוּ עַל־הָעֵץ׃ 9.14. וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כֵּן וַתִּנָּתֵן דָּת בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְאֵת עֲשֶׂרֶת בְּנֵי־הָמָן תָּלוּ׃ 9.15. וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ היהודיים [הַיְּהוּדִים] אֲשֶׁר־בְּשׁוּשָׁן גַּם בְּיוֹם אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר לְחֹדֶשׁ אֲדָר וַיַּהַרְגוּ בְשׁוּשָׁן שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וּבַבִּזָּה לֹא שָׁלְחוּ אֶת־יָדָם׃ 9.22. כַּיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר־נָחוּ בָהֶם הַיְּהוּדִים מֵאוֹיְבֵיהֶם וְהַחֹדֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר נֶהְפַּךְ לָהֶם מִיָּגוֹן לְשִׂמְחָה וּמֵאֵבֶל לְיוֹם טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם יְמֵי מִשְׁתֶּה וְשִׂמְחָה וּמִשְׁלוֹחַ מָנוֹת אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ וּמַתָּנוֹת לָאֶבְיוֹנִים׃ 10.3. כִּי מָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי מִשְׁנֶה לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ וְגָדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים וְרָצוּי לְרֹב אֶחָיו דֹּרֵשׁ טוֹב לְעַמּוֹ וְדֹבֵר שָׁלוֹם לְכָל־זַרְעוֹ׃ 4.3. And in every province, whithersoever the king’s commandment and his decree came, there was great mourning among the Jews, and fasting, and weeping, and wailing; and many lay in sackcloth and ashes." 4.16. ’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’" 8.3. And Esther spoke yet again before the king, and fell down at his feet, and besought him with tears to put away the mischief of Haman the Agagite, and his device that he had devised against the Jews." 8.5. And she said: ‘If it please the king, and if I have found favour in his sight, and the thing seem right before the king, and I be pleasing in his eyes, let it be written to reverse the letters devised by Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, which he wrote to destroy the Jews that are in all the king’s provinces;" 8.9. Then were the king’s scribes called at that time, in the third month, which is the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded concerning the Jews, even to the satraps, and the governors and princes of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, a hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language." 8.12. upon one day in all the provinces of king Ahasuerus, namely, upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar." 8.16. The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honour." 8.17. And in every province, and in every city, whithersoever the king’s commandment and his decree came, the Jews had gladness and joy, a feast and a good day. And many from among the peoples of the land became Jews; for the fear of the Jews was fallen upon them." 9.6. And in Shushan the castle the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men." 9.10. the ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the Jews’enemy, slew they; but on the spoil they laid not their hand." 9.13. Then said Esther: ‘If it please the king, let it be granted to the Jews that are in Shushan to do to-morrow also according unto this day’s decree, and let Haman’s ten sons be hanged upon the gallows.’" 9.14. And the king commanded it so to be done; and a decree was given out in Shushan; and they hanged Haman’s ten sons." 9.15. And the Jews that were in Shushan gathered themselves together on the fourteenth day also of the month Adar, and slew three hundred men in Shushan; but on the spoil they laid not their hand." 9.22. the days wherein the Jews had rest from their enemies, and the month which was turned unto them from sorrow to gladness, and from mourning into a good day; that they should make them days of feasting and gladness, and of sending portions one to another, and gifts to the poor." 10.3. For Mordecai the Jew was next unto king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren; seeking the good of his people and speaking peace to all his seed."
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.12. נָטִיתָ יְמִינְךָ תִּבְלָעֵמוֹ אָרֶץ׃ 15.12. Thou stretchedst out Thy right hand— The earth swallowed them."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 26.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.10. and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up together with Korah, when that company died; what time the fire devoured two hundred and fifty men, and they became a sign."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 106.11, 107.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

106.11. וַיְכַסּוּ־מַיִם צָרֵיהֶם אֶחָד מֵהֶם לֹא נוֹתָר׃ 107.11. כִּי־הִמְרוּ אִמְרֵי־אֵל וַעֲצַת עֶלְיוֹן נָאָצוּ׃ 106.11. And the waters covered their adversaries; There was not one of them left." 107.11. Because they rebelled against the words of God, And contemned the counsel of the Most High."
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 5.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5.1. וְאַף שְׁמָהָתְהֹם שְׁאֵלְנָא לְּהֹם לְהוֹדָעוּתָךְ דִּי נִכְתֻּב שֻׁם־גֻּבְרַיָּא דִּי בְרָאשֵׁיהֹם׃ 5.1. וְהִתְנַבִּי חַגַּי נביאה [נְבִיָּא] וּזְכַרְיָה בַר־עִדּוֹא נביאיא [נְבִיַּיָּא] עַל־יְהוּדָיֵא דִּי בִיהוּד וּבִירוּשְׁלֶם בְּשֻׁם אֱלָהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲלֵיהוֹן׃ 5.1. Now the prophets, Haggai the prophet, and Zechariah the son of Iddo, prophesied unto the Jews that were in Judah and Jerusalem; in the name of the God of Israel prophesied they unto them."
8. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.1 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.1. When I arrived home and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me, at the feast of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of the seven weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I sat down to eat.
9. Anon., 1 Enoch, 91.5-91.7, 91.9-91.11, 99.7, 99.9, 99.14, 103.14-103.15 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

91.5. For I know that violence must increase on the earth, And a great chastisement be executed on the earth, And all unrighteousness come to an end:Yea, it shall be cut off from its roots, And its whole structure be destroyed. 91.6. And unrighteousness shall again be consummated on the earth, And all the deeds of unrighteousness and of violence And transgression shall prevail in a twofold degree. 91.7. And when sin and unrighteousness and blasphemy And violence in all kinds of deeds increase, And apostasy and transgression and uncleanness increase,A great chastisement shall come from heaven upon all these, And the holy Lord will come forth with wrath and chastisement To execute judgement on earth. 91.9. And all the idols of the heathen shall be abandoned, And the temples burned with fire, And they shall remove them from the whole earth,And they (i.e. the heathen) shall be cast into the judgement of fire, And shall perish in wrath and in grievous judgement for ever. 99.7. And again I swear to you, ye sinners, that sin is prepared for a day of unceasing bloodshed. And they who worship stones, and grave images of gold and silver and wood (and stone) and clay, and those who worship impure spirits and demons, and all kinds of idols not according to knowledge, shall get no manner of help from them. 99.9. Through these they shall become godless and fearful; For they shall have wrought all their work in a lie, And shall have worshiped a stone: Therefore in an instant shall they perish. 99.14. Woe to them who reject the measure and eternal heritage of their fathers And whose souls follow after idols; For they shall have no rest. 103.14. And are complained to the rulers in our tribulation, And cried out against those who devoured us, But they did not attend to our cries And would not hearken to our voice. 103.15. And they helped those who robbed us and devoured us and those who made us few; and they concealed their oppression, and they did not remove from us the yoke of those that devoured us and dispersed us and murdered us, and they concealed their murder, and remembered not that they had lifted up their hands against us. 100. And in those days in one place the fathers together with their sons shall be smitten And brothers one with another shall fall in death Till the streams flow with their blood.",For a man shall not withhold his hand from slaying his sons and his sons' sons, And the sinner shall not withhold his hand from his honoured brother: From dawn till sunset they shall slay one another.,And the horse shall walk up to the breast in the blood of sinners, And the chariot shall be submerged to its height.,In those days the angels shall descend into the secret places And gather together into one place all those who brought down sin And the Most High will arise on that day of judgement To execute great judgement amongst sinners.",And over all the righteous and holy He will appoint guardians from amongst the holy angels To guard them as the apple of an eye, Until He makes an end of all wickedness and all sin, And though the righteous sleep a long sleep, they have nought to fear.,And (then) the children of the earth shall see the wise in security, And shall understand all the words of this book, And recognize that their riches shall not be able to save them In the overthrow of their sins.,Woe to you, Sinners, on the day of strong anguish, Ye who afflict the righteous and burn them with fire: Ye shall be requited according to your works.,Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, Who watch in order to devise wickedness: Therefore shall fear come upon you And there shall be none to help you.,Woe to you, ye sinners, on account of the words of your mouth, And on account of the deeds of your hands which your godlessness as wrought, In blazing flames burning worse than fire shall ye burn.,And now, know ye that from the angels He will inquire as to your deeds in heaven, from the sun and from the moon and from the stars in reference to your sins because upon the earth ye execute,judgement on the righteous. And He will summon to testify against you every cloud and mist and dew and rain; for they shall all be withheld because of you from descending upon you, and they,shall be mindful of your sins. And now give presents to the rain that it be not withheld from descending upon you, nor yet the dew, when it has received gold and silver from you that it may descend. When the hoar-frost and snow with their chilliness, and all the snow-storms with all their plagues fall upon you, in those days ye shall not be able to stand before them.
10. Anon., Jubilees, 1.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. THIS is the history of the division of the days of the law and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their (year) weeks, of their jubilees throughout all the years of the world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the tables of the law and of the commandment, according to the voice of God as He said unto him, "Go up to the top of the Mount." br) And it came to pass in the first year of the A.M. (A.M. = Anno Mundi) exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the third month, on the sixteenth day of the month, that God spake to Moses, saying:
11. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 12.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12.2. וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃ 12.2. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence."
12. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.43, 1.47, 4.2, 4.15, 5.25, 5.65-5.68, 13.47, 14.41 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.43. All the Gentiles accepted the command of the king. Many even from Israel gladly adopted his religion; they sacrificed to idols and profaned the sabbath. 1.47. to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and unclean animals 4.2. to fall upon the camp of the Jews and attack them suddenly. Men from the citadel were his guides. 4.15. and all those in the rear fell by the sword. They pursued them to Gazara, and to the plains of Idumea, and to Azotus and Jamnia; and three thousand of them fell. 5.25. They encountered the Nabateans, who met them peaceably and told them all that had happened to their brethren in Gilead: 5.65. Then Judas and his brothers went forth and fought the sons of Esau in the land to the south. He struck Hebron and its villages and tore down its strongholds and burned its towers round about. 5.66. Then he marched off to go into the land of the Philistines, and passed through Marisa. 5.67. On that day some priests, who wished to do a brave deed, fell in battle, for they went out to battle unwisely. 5.68. But Judas turned aside to Azotus in the land of the Philistines; he tore down their altars, and the graven images of their gods he burned with fire; he plundered the cities and returned to the land of Judah. 13.47. So Simon reached an agreement with them and stopped fighting against them. But he expelled them from the city and cleansed the houses in which the idols were, and then entered it with hymns and praise. 14.41. And the Jews and their priests decided that Simon should be their leader and high priest for ever, until a trustworthy prophet should arise
13. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.7, 1.10, 2.21, 3.15, 3.19-3.20, 3.32, 3.34, 3.39, 4.6, 4.11, 4.16-4.17, 4.27, 4.36, 5.6, 5.9-5.10, 5.14, 5.17-5.20, 5.22-5.23, 5.25-5.26, 6.1-6.2, 6.6, 6.8, 6.12-6.14, 6.31, 7.1, 7.9-7.23, 7.28-7.29, 7.31, 7.33, 8.4-8.5, 8.20, 8.25, 8.36, 9.4-9.28, 10.5, 10.8, 10.29-10.31, 10.34, 10.38, 11.3, 11.8, 11.10, 11.15, 12.1, 12.6, 12.8, 12.10-12.39, 12.41-12.45, 13.3-13.8, 13.11, 13.13-13.17, 14.34, 14.45-14.46, 15.3-15.4, 15.8, 15.21, 15.23, 15.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.7. In the reign of Demetrius, in the one hundred and sixty-ninth year, we Jews wrote to you, in the critical distress which came upon us in those years after Jason and his company revolted from the holy land and the kingdom' 1.10. Those in Jerusalem and those in Judea and the senate and Judas,To Aristobulus, who is of the family of the anointed priests, teacher of Ptolemy the king, and to the Jews in Egypt,Greeting, and good health.' 2.21. and the appearances which came from heaven to those who strove zealously on behalf of Judaism, so that though few in number they seized the whole land and pursued the barbarian hordes,' 3.15. The priests prostrated themselves before the altar in their priestly garments and called toward heaven upon him who had given the law about deposits, that he should keep them safe for those who had deposited them.' 3.19. Women, girded with sackcloth under their breasts, thronged the streets. Some of the maidens who were kept indoors ran together to the gates, and some to the walls, while others peered out of the windows.' 3.20. And holding up their hands to heaven, they all made entreaty.' 3.32. And the high priest, fearing that the king might get the notion that some foul play had been perpetrated by the Jews with regard to Heliodorus, offered sacrifice for the man's recovery.' 3.34. And see that you, who have been scourged by heaven, report to all men the majestic power of God.'Having said this they vanished.' 3.39. For he who has his dwelling in heaven watches over that place himself and brings it aid, and he strikes and destroys those who come to do it injury.' 4.6. For he saw that without the king's attention public affairs could not again reach a peaceful settlement, and that Simon would not stop his folly.' 4.11. He set aside the existing royal concessions to the Jews, secured through John the father of Eupolemus, who went on the mission to establish friendship and alliance with the Romans; and he destroyed the lawful ways of living and introduced new customs contrary to the law.' 4.16. For this reason heavy disaster overtook them, and those whose ways of living they admired and wished to imitate completely became their enemies and punished them.' 4.17. For it is no light thing to show irreverence to the divine laws -- a fact which later events will make clear. 4.27. And Menelaus held the office, but he did not pay regularly any of the money promised to the king.' 4.36. When the king returned from the region of Cilicia, the Jews in the city appealed to him with regard to the unreasonable murder of Onias, and the Greeks shared their hatred of the crime.' 5.6. But Jason kept relentlessly slaughtering his fellow citizens, not realizing that success at the cost of one's kindred is the greatest misfortune, but imagining that he was setting up trophies of victory over enemies and not over fellow countrymen.' 5.9. and he who had driven many from their own country into exile died in exile, having embarked to go to the Lacedaemonians in hope of finding protection because of their kinship.' 5.10. He who had cast out many to lie unburied had no one to mourn for him; he had no funeral of any sort and no place in the tomb of his fathers. 5.14. Within the total of three days eighty thousand were destroyed, forty thousand in hand-to-hand fighting; and as many were sold into slavery as were slain.' 5.17. Antiochus was elated in spirit, and did not perceive that the Lord was angered for a little while because of the sins of those who dwelt in the city, and that therefore he was disregarding the holy place.' 5.18. But if it had not happened that they were involved in many sins, this man would have been scourged and turned back from his rash act as soon as he came forward, just as Heliodorus was, whom Seleucus the king sent to inspect the treasury.' 5.19. But the Lord did not choose the nation for the sake of the holy place, but the place for the sake of the nation.' 5.20. Therefore the place itself shared in the misfortunes that befell the nation and afterward participated in its benefits; and what was forsaken in the wrath of the Almighty was restored again in all its glory when the great Lord became reconciled. 5.22. And he left governors to afflict the people: at Jerusalem, Philip, by birth a Phrygian and in character more barbarous than the man who appointed him;' 5.23. and at Gerizim, Andronicus; and besides these Menelaus, who lorded it over his fellow citizens worse than the others did. In his malice toward the Jewish citizens,' 5.25. When this man arrived in Jerusalem, he pretended to be peaceably disposed and waited until the holy sabbath day; then, finding the Jews not at work, he ordered his men to parade under arms.' 5.26. He put to the sword all those who came out to see them, then rushed into the city with his armed men and killed great numbers of people.' 6.1. Not long after this, the king sent an Athenian senator to compel the Jews to forsake the laws of their fathers and cease to live by the laws of God,' 6.2. and also to pollute the temple in Jerusalem and call it the temple of Olympian Zeus, and to call the one in Gerizim the temple of Zeus the Friend of Strangers, as did the people who dwelt in that place.' 6.6. A man could neither keep the sabbath, nor observe the feasts of his fathers, nor so much as confess himself to be a Jew.' 6.8. At the suggestion of Ptolemy a decree was issued to the neighboring Greek cities, that they should adopt the same policy toward the Jews and make them partake of the sacrifices,' 6.12. Now I urge those who read this book not to be depressed by such calamities, but to recognize that these punishments were designed not to destroy but to discipline our people.' 6.13. In fact, not to let the impious alone for long, but to punish them immediately, is a sign of great kindness.' 6.14. For in the case of the other nations the Lord waits patiently to punish them until they have reached the full measure of their sins; but he does not deal in this way with us,' 6.31. So in this way he died, leaving in his death an example of nobility and a memorial of courage, not only to the young but to the great body of his nation.' 7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.' 7.9. And when he was at his last breath, he said, 'You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.' 7.10. After him, the third was the victim of their sport. When it was demanded, he quickly put out his tongue and courageously stretched forth his hands,' 7.11. and said nobly, 'I got these from Heaven, and because of his laws I disdain them, and from him I hope to get them back again.' 7.12. As a result the king himself and those with him were astonished at the young man's spirit, for he regarded his sufferings as nothing.' 7.13. When he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way.' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 7.15. Next they brought forward the fifth and maltreated him. 7.16. But he looked at the king, and said, 'Because you have authority among men, mortal though you are, you do what you please. But do not think that God has forsaken our people.' 7.17. Keep on, and see how his mighty power will torture you and your descendants!' 7.18. After him they brought forward the sixth. And when he was about to die, he said, 'Do not deceive yourself in vain. For we are suffering these things on our own account, because of our sins against our own God. Therefore astounding things have happened.' 7.19. But do not think that you will go unpunished for having tried to fight against God!' 7.20. The mother was especially admirable and worthy of honorable memory. Though she saw her seven sons perish within a single day, she bore it with good courage because of her hope in the Lord.' 7.21. She encouraged each of them in the language of their fathers. Filled with a noble spirit, she fired her woman's reasoning with a man's courage, and said to them,' 7.22. I do not know how you came into being in my womb. It was not I who gave you life and breath, nor I who set in order the elements within each of you.' 7.23. Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.' 7.28. I beseech you, my child, to look at the heaven and the earth and see everything that is in them, and recognize that God did not make them out of things that existed. Thus also mankind comes into being.' 7.29. Do not fear this butcher, but prove worthy of your brothers. Accept death, so that in God's mercy I may get you back again with your brothers.' 7.31. But you, who have contrived all sorts of evil against the Hebrews, will certainly not escape the hands of God.' 7.33. And if our living Lord is angry for a little while, to rebuke and discipline us, he will again be reconciled with his own servants.' 8.4. and to remember also the lawless destruction of the innocent babies and the blasphemies committed against his name, and to show his hatred of evil.' 8.5. As soon as Maccabeus got his army organized, the Gentiles could not withstand him, for the wrath of the Lord had turned to mercy.' 8.20. and the time of the battle with the Galatians that took place in Babylonia, when eight thousand in all went into the affair, with four thousand Macedonians; and when the Macedonians were hard pressed, the eight thousand, by the help that came to them from heaven, destroyed one hundred and twenty thousand and took much booty.' 8.25. They captured the money of those who had come to buy them as slaves. After pursuing them for some distance, they were obliged to return because the hour was late.' 8.36. Thus he who had undertaken to secure tribute for the Romans by the capture of the people of Jerusalem proclaimed that the Jews had a Defender, and that therefore the Jews were invulnerable, because they followed the laws ordained by him.' 9.4. Transported with rage, he conceived the idea of turning upon the Jews the injury done by those who had put him to flight; so he ordered his charioteer to drive without stopping until he completed the journey. But the judgment of heaven rode with him! For in his arrogance he said, 'When I get there I will make Jerusalem a cemetery of Jews.' 9.5. But the all-seeing Lord, the God of Israel, struck him an incurable and unseen blow. As soon as he ceased speaking he was seized with a pain in his bowels for which there was no relief and with sharp internal tortures --' 9.6. and that very justly, for he had tortured the bowels of others with many and strange inflictions.' 9.7. Yet he did not in any way stop his insolence, but was even more filled with arrogance, breathing fire in his rage against the Jews, and giving orders to hasten the journey. And so it came about that he fell out of his chariot as it was rushing along, and the fall was so hard as to torture every limb of his body.' 9.8. Thus he who had just been thinking that he could command the waves of the sea, in his superhuman arrogance, and imagining that he could weigh the high mountains in a balance, was brought down to earth and carried in a litter, making the power of God manifest to all.' 9.9. And so the ungodly man's body swarmed with worms, and while he was still living in anguish and pain, his flesh rotted away, and because of his stench the whole army felt revulsion at his decay.' 9.10. Because of his intolerable stench no one was able to carry the man who a little while before had thought that he could touch the stars of heaven. 9.11. Then it was that, broken in spirit, he began to lose much of his arrogance and to come to his senses under the scourge of God, for he was tortured with pain every moment.' 9.12. And when he could not endure his own stench, he uttered these words: 'It is right to be subject to God, and no mortal should think that he is equal to God.' 9.13. Then the abominable fellow made a vow to the Lord, who would no longer have mercy on him, stating' 9.14. that the holy city, which he was hastening to level to the ground and to make a cemetery, he was now declaring to be free;' 9.15. and the Jews, whom he had not considered worth burying but had planned to throw out with their children to the beasts, for the birds to pick, he would make, all of them, equal to citizens of Athens;' 9.16. and the holy sanctuary, which he had formerly plundered, he would adorn with the finest offerings; and the holy vessels he would give back, all of them, many times over; and the expenses incurred for the sacrifices he would provide from his own revenues;' 9.17. and in addition to all this he also would become a Jew and would visit every inhabited place to proclaim the power of God. 9.18. But when his sufferings did not in any way abate, for the judgment of God had justly come upon him, he gave up all hope for himself and wrote to the Jews the following letter, in the form of a supplication. This was its content:' 9.19. To his worthy Jewish citizens, Antiochus their king and general sends hearty greetings and good wishes for their health and prosperity.' 9.20. If you and your children are well and your affairs are as you wish, I am glad. As my hope is in heaven,' 9.21. I remember with affection your esteem and good will. On my way back from the region of Persia I suffered an annoying illness, and I have deemed it necessary to take thought for the general security of all.' 9.22. I do not despair of my condition, for I have good hope of recovering from my illness,' 9.23. but I observed that my father, on the occasions when he made expeditions into the upper country, appointed his successor,' 9.24. o that, if anything unexpected happened or any unwelcome news came, the people throughout the realm would not be troubled, for they would know to whom the government was left.' 9.25. Moreover, I understand how the princes along the borders and the neighbors to my kingdom keep watching for opportunities and waiting to see what will happen. So I have appointed my son Antiochus to be king, whom I have often entrusted and commended to most of you when I hastened off to the upper provinces; and I have written to him what is written here.' 9.26. I therefore urge and beseech you to remember the public and private services rendered to you and to maintain your present good will, each of you, toward me and my son.' 9.27. For I am sure that he will follow my policy and will treat you with moderation and kindness.' 9.28. So the murderer and blasphemer, having endured the more intense suffering, such as he had inflicted on others, came to the end of his life by a most pitiable fate, among the mountains in a strange land.' 10.5. It happened that on the same day on which the sanctuary had been profaned by the foreigners, the purification of the sanctuary took place, that is, on the twenty-fifth day of the same month, which was Chislev.' 10.8. They decreed by public ordice and vote that the whole nation of the Jews should observe these days every year. 10.29. When the battle became fierce, there appeared to the enemy from heaven five resplendent men on horses with golden bridles, and they were leading the Jews.' 10.30. Surrounding Maccabeus and protecting him with their own armor and weapons, they kept him from being wounded. And they showered arrows and thunderbolts upon the enemy, so that, confused and blinded, they were thrown into disorder and cut to pieces.' 10.31. Twenty thousand five hundred were slaughtered, besides six hundred horsemen.' 10.34. The men within, relying on the strength of the place, blasphemed terribly and hurled out wicked words.' 10.38. When they had accomplished these things, with hymns and thanksgivings they blessed the Lord who shows great kindness to Israel and gives them the victory.' 11.3. and to levy tribute on the temple as he did on the sacred places of the other nations, and to put up the high priesthood for sale every year.' 11.8. And there, while they were still near Jerusalem, a horseman appeared at their head, clothed in white and brandishing weapons of gold.' 11.10. They advanced in battle order, having their heavenly ally, for the Lord had mercy on them.' 11.15. Maccabeus, having regard for the common good, agreed to all that Lysias urged. For the king granted every request in behalf of the Jews which Maccabeus delivered to Lysias in writing.' 12.1. When this agreement had been reached, Lysias returned to the king, and the Jews went about their farming.' 12.6. and, calling upon God the righteous Judge, attacked the murderers of his brethren. He set fire to the harbor by night, and burned the boats, and massacred those who had taken refuge there.' 12.8. But learning that the men in Jamnia meant in the same way to wipe out the Jews who were living among them,' 12.10. When they had gone more than a mile from there, on their march against Timothy, not less than five thousand Arabs with five hundred horsemen attacked them.' 12.11. After a hard fight Judas and his men won the victory, by the help of God. The defeated nomads besought Judas to grant them pledges of friendship, promising to give him cattle and to help his people in all other ways.' 12.12. Judas, thinking that they might really be useful in many ways, agreed to make peace with them; and after receiving his pledges they departed to their tents.' 12.13. He also attacked a certain city which was strongly fortified with earthworks and walls, and inhabited by all sorts of Gentiles. Its name was Caspin.' 12.14. And those who were within, relying on the strength of the walls and on their supply of provisions, behaved most insolently toward Judas and his men, railing at them and even blaspheming and saying unholy things.' 12.15. But Judas and his men, calling upon the great Sovereign of the world, who without battering-rams or engines of war overthrew Jericho in the days of Joshua, rushed furiously upon the walls.' 12.16. They took the city by the will of God, and slaughtered untold numbers, so that the adjoining lake, a quarter of a mile wide, appeared to be running over with blood.' 12.17. When they had gone ninety-five miles from there, they came to Charax, to the Jews who are called Toubiani.' 12.18. They did not find Timothy in that region, for he had by then departed from the region without accomplishing anything, though in one place he had left a very strong garrison.' 12.19. Dositheus and Sosipater, who were captains under Maccabeus, marched out and destroyed those whom Timothy had left in the stronghold, more than ten thousand men.' 12.20. But Maccabeus arranged his army in divisions, set men in command of the divisions, and hastened after Timothy, who had with him a hundred and twenty thousand infantry and two thousand five hundred cavalry.' 12.21. When Timothy learned of the approach of Judas, he sent off the women and the children and also the baggage to a place called Carnaim; for that place was hard to besiege and difficult of access because of the narrowness of all the approaches.' 12.22. But when Judas' first division appeared, terror and fear came over the enemy at the manifestation to them of him who sees all things; and they rushed off in flight and were swept on, this way and that, so that often they were injured by their own men and pierced by the points of their swords.' 12.23. And Judas pressed the pursuit with the utmost vigor, putting the sinners to the sword, and destroyed as many as thirty thousand men.' 12.24. Timothy himself fell into the hands of Dositheus and Sosipater and their men. With great guile he besought them to let him go in safety, because he held the parents of most of them and the brothers of some and no consideration would be shown them.' 12.25. And when with many words he had confirmed his solemn promise to restore them unharmed, they let him go, for the sake of saving their brethren.' 12.26. Then Judas marched against Carnaim and the temple of Atargatis, and slaughtered twenty-five thousand people.' 12.27. After the rout and destruction of these, he marched also against Ephron, a fortified city where Lysias dwelt with multitudes of people of all nationalities. Stalwart young men took their stand before the walls and made a vigorous defense; and great stores of war engines and missiles were there.' 12.28. But the Jews called upon the Sovereign who with power shatters the might of his enemies, and they got the city into their hands, and killed as many as twenty-five thousand of those who were within it.' 12.29. Setting out from there, they hastened to Scythopolis, which is seventy-five miles from Jerusalem.' 12.30. But when the Jews who dwelt there bore witness to the good will which the people of Scythopolis had shown them and their kind treatment of them in times of misfortune,' 12.31. they thanked them and exhorted them to be well disposed to their race in the future also. Then they went up to Jerusalem, as the feast of weeks was close at hand.' 12.32. After the feast called Pentecost, they hastened against Gorgias, the governor of Idumea.' 12.33. And he came out with three thousand infantry and four hundred cavalry. 12.34. When they joined battle, it happened that a few of the Jews fell.' 12.35. But a certain Dositheus, one of Bacenor's men, who was on horseback and was a strong man, caught hold of Gorgias, and grasping his cloak was dragging him off by main strength, wishing to take the accursed man alive, when one of the Thracian horsemen bore down upon him and cut off his arm; so Gorgias escaped and reached Marisa.' 12.36. As Esdris and his men had been fighting for a long time and were weary, Judas called upon the Lord to show himself their ally and leader in the battle.' 12.37. In the language of their fathers he raised the battle cry, with hymns; then he charged against Gorgias' men when they were not expecting it, and put them to flight.' 12.38. Then Judas assembled his army and went to the city of Adullam. As the seventh day was coming on, they purified themselves according to the custom, and they kept the sabbath there.' 12.39. On the next day, as by that time it had become necessary, Judas and his men went to take up the bodies of the fallen and to bring them back to lie with their kinsmen in the sepulchres of their fathers.' 12.41. So they all blessed the ways of the Lord, the righteous Judge, who reveals the things that are hidden;' 12.42. and they turned to prayer, beseeching that the sin which had been committed might be wholly blotted out. And the noble Judas exhorted the people to keep themselves free from sin, for they had seen with their own eyes what had happened because of the sin of those who had fallen.' 12.43. He also took up a collection, man by man, to the amount of two thousand drachmas of silver, and sent it to Jerusalem to provide for a sin offering. In doing this he acted very well and honorably, taking account of the resurrection.' 12.44. For if he were not expecting that those who had fallen would rise again, it would have been superfluous and foolish to pray for the dead.' 12.45. But if he was looking to the splendid reward that is laid up for those who fall asleep in godliness, it was a holy and pious thought. Therefore he made atonement for the dead, that they might be delivered from their sin.' 13.3. Menelaus also joined them and with utter hypocrisy urged Antiochus on, not for the sake of his country's welfare, but because he thought that he would be established in office.' 13.4. But the King of kings aroused the anger of Antiochus against the scoundrel; and when Lysias informed him that this man was to blame for all the trouble, he ordered them to take him to Beroea and to put him to death by the method which is the custom in that place.' 13.5. For there is a tower in that place, fifty cubits high, full of ashes, and it has a rim running around it which on all sides inclines precipitously into the ashes.' 13.6. There they all push to destruction any man guilty of sacrilege or notorious for other crimes. 13.7. By such a fate it came about that Menelaus the lawbreaker died, without even burial in the earth.' 13.8. And this was eminently just; because he had committed many sins against the altar whose fire and ashes were holy, he met his death in ashes.' 13.11. and not to let the people who had just begun to revive fall into the hands of the blasphemous Gentiles. 13.13. After consulting privately with the elders, he determined to march out and decide the matter by the help of God before the king's army could enter Judea and get possession of the city.' 13.14. So, committing the decision to the Creator of the world and exhorting his men to fight nobly to the death for the laws, temple, city, country, and commonwealth, he pitched his camp near Modein.' 13.15. He gave his men the watchword, 'God's victory,'and with a picked force of the bravest young men, he attacked the king's pavilion at night and slew as many as two thousand men in the camp. He stabbed the leading elephant and its rider.' 13.16. In the end they filled the camp with terror and confusion and withdrew in triumph. 13.17. This happened, just as day was dawning, because the Lord's help protected him.' 14.34. Having said this, he went away. Then the priests stretched forth their hands toward heaven and called upon the constant Defender of our nation, in these words:' 14.45. Still alive and aflame with anger, he rose, and though his blood gushed forth and his wounds were severe he ran through the crowd; and standing upon a steep rock,' 14.46. with his blood now completely drained from him, he tore out his entrails, took them with both hands and hurled them at the crowd, calling upon the Lord of life and spirit to give them back to him again. This was the manner of his death.' 15.3. the thrice-accursed wretch asked if there were a sovereign in heaven who had commanded the keeping of the sabbath day. 15.4. And when they declared, 'It is the living Lord himself, the Sovereign in heaven, who ordered us to observe the seventh day,' 15.8. And he exhorted his men not to fear the attack of the Gentiles, but to keep in mind the former times when help had come to them from heaven, and now to look for the victory which the Almighty would give them.' 15.21. Maccabeus, perceiving the hosts that were before him and the varied supply of arms and the savagery of the elephants, stretched out his hands toward heaven and called upon the Lord who works wonders; for he knew that it is not by arms, but as the Lord decides, that he gains the victory for those who deserve it.' 15.23. So now, O Sovereign of the heavens, send a good angel to carry terror and trembling before us.' 15.34. And they all, looking to heaven, blessed the Lord who had manifested himself, saying, 'Blessed is he who has kept his own place undefiled.'
14. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 5.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.6. Before I begin to torture you, old man, I would advise you to save yourself by eating pork
15. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.8, 3.3, 3.27, 4.17, 4.21, 5.6, 5.18, 5.25, 5.42, 6.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. Since the Jews had sent some of their council and elders to greet him, to bring him gifts of welcome, and to congratulate him on what had happened, he was all the more eager to visit them as soon as possible. 3.3. The Jews, however, continued to maintain good will and unswerving loyalty toward the dynasty; 3.3. The letter was written in the above form. 3.27. But whoever shelters any of the Jews, old people or children or even infants, will be tortured to death with the most hateful torments, together with his family. 4.17. But after the previously mentioned interval of time the scribes declared to the king that they were no longer able to take the census of the Jews because of their innumerable multitude 4.21. But this was an act of the invincible providence of him who was aiding the Jews from heaven. 5.6. For to the Gentiles it appeared that the Jews were left without any aid 5.18. After the party had been going on for some time, the king summoned Hermon and with sharp threats demanded to know why the Jews had been allowed to remain alive through the present day. 5.25. But the Jews, at their last gasp, since the time had run out, stretched their hands toward heaven and with most tearful supplication and mournful dirges implored the supreme God to help them again at once. 5.42. Upon this the king, a Phalaris in everything and filled with madness, took no account of the changes of mind which had come about within him for the protection of the Jews, and he firmly swore an irrevocable oath that he would send them to death without delay, mangled by the knees and feet of the beasts 6.18. Then the most glorious, almighty, and true God revealed his holy face and opened the heavenly gates, from which two glorious angels of fearful aspect descended, visible to all but the Jews.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Eternity of The World, 19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. and a very long time before him Moses, the lawgiver of the Jews, had said in his sacred volumes that the world was both created and indestructible, and the number of the books is five. The first of which he entitled Genesis, in which he begins in the following manner: "in the beginning God created the heaven and the earth; and the earth was invisible and without form." Then proceeding onwards he relates in the following verses, that days and nights, and seasons, and years, and the sun and moon, which showed the nature of the measurement of time, were created, which, having received an immortal portion in common with the whole heaven, continue for ever indestructible.
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.1, 1.7 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.1. I have conceived the idea of writing the life of Moses, who, according to the account of some persons, was the lawgiver of the Jews, but according to others only an interpreter of the sacred laws, the greatest and most perfect man that ever lived, having a desire to make his character fully known to those who ought not to remain in ignorance respecting him 1.7. And his father and mother were among the most excellent persons of their time, and though they were of the same time, still they were induced to unite themselves together more from an uimity of feeling than because they were related in blood; and Moses is the seventh generation in succession from the original settler in the country who was the founder of the whole race of the Jews.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 316, 346, 350, 373, 216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

216. And the state of all the nations which lie beyond the Euphrates added to his alarm; for he was aware that Babylon and many others of the satrapies of the east were occupied by the Jews, knowing this not merely by report but likewise by personal experience; for every year sacred messengers are sent to convey large amounts of gold and silver to the temple, which has been collected from all the subordinate governments, travelling over rugged, and difficult, and almost impassable roads, which they look upon as level and easy inasmuch as they serve to conduct them to piety.
19. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 75 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

75. Moreover Palestine and Syria too are not barren of exemplary wisdom and virtue, which countries no slight portion of that most populous nation of the Jews inhabits. There is a portion of those people called Essenes, in number something more than four thousand in my opinion, who derive their name from their piety, though not according to any accurate form of the Grecian dialect, because they are above all men devoted to the service of God, not sacrificing living animals, but studying rather to preserve their own minds in a state of holiness and purity.
20. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.252 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.252. And truly he did not speak falsely in saying so; for that festival, which we call Pentecost, did then fall out to be the next day to the Sabbath. Nor is it lawful for us to journey, either on the Sabbath day, or on a festival day.
21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.253 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.253. 3. Now, when that festival which we call Pentecost was at hand, all the places about the temple, and the whole city, was full of a multitude of people that were come out of the country, and which were the greatest part of them armed also, at which time Phasaelus guarded the wall, and Herod, with a few, guarded the royal palace; and when he made an assault upon his enemies, as they were out of their ranks, on the north quarter of the city, he slew a very great number of them, and put them all to flight; and some of them he shut up within the city, and others within the outward rampart.
22. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.218. but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before.
23. Josephus Flavius, Life, 26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

24. Mishnah, Keritot, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. In the case of all forbidden relations, if one partner was an adult and the other a minor, the minor is exempt; If one is awake and the other asleep, the one asleep is exempt; If one is an inadvertent and the other intentional, the former is liable to a hatat, the latter to karet."
25. Mishnah, Shabbat, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.2. One who carries out rope, as much as is required for making a handle for a basket; A reed cord: as much as is required for making a hanger for a sifter or a sieve. Rabbi Judah says: as much as is required for taking the measure of a child's shoe. Paper, in order to write a tax-collector’s receipt on it. And one who carries out a tax-collector’s receipt is liable. Erased paper, as much as is required to wrap round a small vial of perfume."
26. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.8. The sin-offering and the certain guilt-offering effect atonement. Death and Yom HaKippurim effect atonement together with repentance. Repentance effects atonement for light transgressions: [the transgression of] positive commandments and negative commandments. And for severer transgressions [repentance] suspends [the divine punishment], until Yom HaKippurim arrives and effects atonement."
27. New Testament, Acts, 2.1, 10.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.1. Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all with one accord in one place. 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean.
28. New Testament, John, 4.21-4.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.21. Jesus said to her, "Woman, believe me, the hour comes, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, will you worship the Father. 4.22. You worship that which you don't know. We worship that which we know; for salvation is from the Jews. 4.23. But the hour comes, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to be his worshippers. 4.24. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.
29. Tosefta, Hulin, 2.22-2.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

30. Tosefta, Shabbat, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

31. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 7.15 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

32. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

61b. בשיר ובטבעת ויצא בו ברשות הרבים משום מראית העין,והתניא איזהו קמיע מומחה כל שריפא ג' בני אדם כאחד,לא קשיא הא למחויי גברא הא למחויי קמיעא,אמר רב פפא פשיטא לי תלת קמיע לתלת גברי תלתא תלתא זימני איתמחי גברא ואתמחי קמיע תלתא קמיע לתלתא גברי חד חד זימנא גברא איתמחי קמיעא לא איתמחי חד קמיע לתלתא גברי קמיעא איתמחי גברא לא איתמחי,בעי רב פפא תלתא קמיע לחד גברא מאי קמיעא ודאי לא איתמחי גברא איתמחי או לא איתמחי מי אמרינן הא אסי ליה או דילמא מזלא דהאי גברא הוא דקא מקבל כתבא תיקו.,איבעיא להו קמיעין יש . בהן משום קדושה או דילמא אין בהן משום קדושה למאי הילכתא אילימא לאצולינהו מפני הדליקה ת"ש הברכות והקמיעין אע"פ שיש בהן אותיות ומענינות הרבה שבתורה אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה ונשרפים במקומן,אלא לענין גניזה ת"ש * היה כתוב על ידות הכלים ועל כרעי המטה יגוד ויגנזנו,אלא ליכנס בהן בבית הכסא מאי יש בהן קדושה ואסיר או דילמא אין בהן קדושה ושרי ת"ש ולא בקמיע בזמן שאינו מן המומחה הא מן המומחה נפיק,ואי אמרת קמיעין יש בהן משום קדושה זמנין דמיצטריך לבית הכסא ואתי לאיתויינהו ד' אמות ברה"ר הכא במאי עסקינן בקמיע של עיקרין,והתניא אחד קמיע של כתב ואחד קמיע של עיקרין אלא הכא במאי עסקינן בחולה שיש בו סכנה והתניא אחד חולה שיש בו סכנה ואחד חולה שאין בו סכנה,אלא כיון דמסי אף על גב דנקיט ליה בידיה נמי שפיר דמי 61b. bto a bracelet or a ring and go out with it into the public domain.The reason for the prohibition is bdue tothe bappearanceof transgression, as, in that case, it appears that he is wearing the amulet strictly for ornamental purposes, which is prohibited.,With regard to the definition of an effective amulet as one which healed one person three times, the Gemara raises an objection. bWasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhich is an effective amulet; anyamulet bthat healed three people as one? /b,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. This,where it was taught in the ibaraitathat the amulet must have healed three different people, is referring bto proving the expertise of the manwho wrote it. Once his amulets have proven themselves by healing three different people stricken with different illnesses, clearly the one who wrote them is an expert. bThat,where it was taught in the iToseftathat even if the amulet healed one person three times, is referring bto proving that the amulet is effectivein fulfilling its designated purpose., bRav Pappa said:It is bobvious to mein a case where bthree amuletswere written bfor three peopleand effectively healed beach three timesthat both bthe manwho wrote them bis proven an expert and the amulet is proven effective.Likewise, it is obvious to me that in the case of one who writes bthree amulets for three peopleand healed beach one time, the man is provento be ban expert;however, bthe amulet is not proven effective.Similarly, if one wrote bone amulet for three peopleand it healed them, bthe amulet is proven effective,while bthe manwho wrote it bis notthereby bproven an expert. /b, bRav Pappa raised a dilemma: Three amulets for one person, whatis the status of the amulet and the one who wrote it in that case? bThe amulet is certainly not proven effective;however, with regard to bthe manwho wrote it, bis he proven an expert or is he not proven an expert?This is the dilemma: bDo we saythat the person is an expert since bthe amuletthat he wrote bhealedthe person who was ill? bOr, perhapswe say that bit was the fortune of thatsick bman who receivedthe influence of bthe writingof the amulet, but a different person would not be healed? The Gemara concludes: Let this dilemma bstandunresolved., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bDo amulets have an element of sanctity, or perhaps they have no element of sanctity?The Gemara asks: bWith regard to what ihalakha /iis this dilemma relevant? bIf you sayit is relevant bwith regard to rescuing them from fireon Shabbat, there is a clear resolution to the dilemma. bComeand bhearwhat was taught: bThe blessings and the amulets, even though there are lettersof holy names band many matters that are in the Torahwritten in them, bone may not rescue them from the fire, and they burn in their place. /b, bRather,the dilemma is relevant with regard bto the matter of intermentof sacred documents. Must an amulet no longer in use be buried, or may it be discarded? However, with regard to the matter of interment as well, bcomeand bheara resolution from what was taught: If one of the names of God bwas writteneven bon the handles of the vessels andeven bon legs of the bed, he must cut offthe name band bury it,as one must be exacting with regard to the name of God, wherever it is written., bRather,the dilemma was raised with regard to whether or not it is permitted bto enter the bathroom with them. What isthe ihalakha /i? Do bthey have sanctity, and it istherefore bprohibited? Or, perhaps they have no sanctity, and it is permitted? Comeand bheara resolution from that which we learned in our mishna: bNor with an amulet, when it is not from an expert.By inference: bIf it is from an expert, he may go outwith it., bAnd, if you saythat bamulets have an element of sanctity, at times he will needto go bto the bathroom,will be required to remove the amulets, forget that he removed them, band come to carry them four cubits in the public domain.Since the mishna did not address these complications, apparently amulets do not have an element of sanctity in that regard and one may enter the bathroom with them. The Gemara rejects this: bWith what we are dealing here? With an amuletmade bofherbal brootsthat certainly has no sanctity.,The Gemara asks: bWasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: This is the case with regard to bboth a written amulet and an amulet ofherbal broots,indicating that their ihalakhotare equal? bRather, with what we are dealing here? With a person who is dangerously ill.Because of the life-threatening situation, he is permitted to enter the bathroom with his amulet, despite the resulting degradation of the Holy Name. bWasn’t it taughtin the same ibaraitathat the ihalakhaapplies to bboth a sick person who is dangerouslyill band a sick person who is not dangerouslyill, indicating that they share the same status in this regard?, bRather, since the amulet heals, even though he holds it in his hand,he may bwellgo out with it btoo.In terms of healing, there is no difference whether the amulet is hanging around his neck or whether it is in his hand; just as they permitted him to wear it around his neck on Shabbat, so too they permitted him to carry it in his hand.
33. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 10, 107, 11-12, 22-23, 30, 307, 318, 35, 6, 83, 1

1. Since I have collected Material for a memorable history of my visit to Eleazar the High priest of the Jews, and because you, Philocrates, as you lose no opportunity of reminding me, have set great store upon receiving an account of the motives and object of my mission, I have attempted to draw up a clear exposition of the matter for you, for I perceive that you possess a natural love of learning


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abiram Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
alexander jannaeus Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 212
amoraim Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
amulets, definition of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
amulets, jewish elite rhetoric on Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
amulets, names inscribed in Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
amulets, recipes for Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
amulets Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101; Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 57
analogies, misguided Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
ancestral language' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 436
ancestral language Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417, 418
angels, names of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
angels, witnesses of sin Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
angels Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101; Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 57
antiochenes Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
antiochus, n. Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1102
antiochus iv Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 218
antiochus iv epiphanes Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 212
apocalypse, genre Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
apparitions Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
artisans Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
atonement Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
atonement for Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
author, of 2 maccabees, lack of interest in details of temple cult Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
babylonia Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
beloved ones, children Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
biblical nature, see also deuteronomy, historiography, see under motifs Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
biblical nature, see also deuteronomy, structure Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
blood Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
body Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
bones Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
book of secrets Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
causality Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
cemetery, cemeteries Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
charity Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
children/offspring, exposing of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
chosen ones; see also election Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
christians Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
city Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
clement of alexandria Schliesser et al., Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World (2021) 458
coffins Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
commemoration Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
creation Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 218
dathan Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
day, of the destruction of iniquity/sin/wickedness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
death Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
death and burial Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417, 418
deuteronomistic theology Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 218
diasporan historiography Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
dionysius the areopagite Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
distances Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 418
divine name Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
divine names, wearing Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
divine names, writing on body Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
divine providence Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47, 65
divine speech Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
egypt, exodus from Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
egypt, magic Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
egyptian religion Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 57
eleazar ben dama Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
en gedi" '205.0_65.0@antigone Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
epitomizing Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 277
family Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
formulas, verbal Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
general Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
gentiles Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
god, help of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
god, most high Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
god, of heaven Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
goliath Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
gymnasion (in jerusalem), antitemple Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
gymnasion (in jerusalem) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
hellenistic Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
icon, amulets as Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
icon, use of Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
idolatry Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338; Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 277; Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 212
idols/idolatry Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
idols Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
ii maccabees, author of, his literary and intellectual skills Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
ii maccabees, author of, his pro-hasmonean bias Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
ii maccabees, author of, slanderous and defamatory Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
imprecations Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
individual eschatology Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
inscribed bowl Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
inscriptions Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
instruction/teaching Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 212
ishmael, rabbi Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jamnia Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
jason, disrupter Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
jericho Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
jerusalem Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
jesus ben pandera, name invoked Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jesus ben pandera Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jewish Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
jewish elite rhetoric, amulets and tefillin Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jewish elite rhetoric, christian cures Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jewish elite rhetoric, miracles, legitimacy of Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jewish elite rhetoric Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
jews, used amulets Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
jews (and judaism) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47, 65
judas maccabeus Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
judgement, final Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88, 218
kallon Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
kaspin Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 418
kings, books of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
korah, rebellion of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
limestone Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
loculi Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
love-rites Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 57
maccabees (books) Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1102
martyrdom Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88, 218; Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 22; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47, 65
martyrs, revolt Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 212
mattathias Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1102
mercy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
messianic woes Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
miracle Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
moses Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
mother and her seven sons Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
mother and seven sons, razis suicide Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 360
mother and seven sons, resurrection Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 360
motifs (thematic), concealing divisiveness Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
motifs (thematic), god rules history Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
motifs (thematic), jewish fatalities require explanation Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 418, 436
motifs (thematic), martyrdom catalyzes reconciliation (and redemption) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
motifs (thematic), persian Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
motifs (thematic), punishment as pedagogy Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
motifs (thematic), sinning causes suffering Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
motifs (thematic), struggle is between good and evil, see also universalism Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 436
motifs (thematic), tit for tat Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
motifs (thematic), villains as acting alone Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
mount gerizim (argarizin) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
mouth Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
murder Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 212
nebuchadnezzar, treatment of jerusalem Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 1102
nobility Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
numbers, accuracy of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80
opponents Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
oppressed ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 212
orality, pagan Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
ossilegium Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
ossuary, ossuaries Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
passover Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 436
pathetic historiography Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80, 277
pentecost Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 436
periodisation of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
persecuted faithful judeans Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
persecution Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 212
persecutions Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
petitions / prayers, by the oppressed Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
pharisees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 212
piety Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
post-mortem reward or punishment Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88, 218
posthumous vindication, resurrection Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 360
prayer, prayer for dead Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
prayer Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
prayers, of the righteous ones Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
prepared, for punishment Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
punishment of wrongdoers Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
razis, martyrdom of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
razis suicide, post-humous vindication Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 360
reconciliation (between deity and people) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
repository Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
restoration within history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88, 218
resurrection, as reward of righteousness Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 22
resurrection, extent of (generality) Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 22
resurrection, principle of continuity Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 22
resurrection, timing of Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 22
resurrection, views in second temple judaism Mcglothlin, Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism (2018) 22
resurrection Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417, 418
ritual authority Nutzman, Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine (2022) 185
ritual bathing/washing Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 41
ritual texts Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
ritual theory Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 41
rome Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
sabbath, the Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 57
sacred Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
sacrifice Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
sacrifices, disruption of, and gymnasion Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
sacrifices, sin-offerings Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
sacrifices, unlawful Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 205
sacrifices Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
sadducees Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 212
samaritans Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
sarcophagus, sarcophagi Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
scythians Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
second temple Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302, 524
secondary burial Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 524
septuagint lxx Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 41
sheol Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
sinning Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
socrates, see also under eleazar Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 65
soldiers Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
sources of 2 maccabees Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
statues, idolatry and Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 57
statues Janowitz, Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians (2002) 57
struggles Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80
style, linguistic and literary, alliteration Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80
style, linguistic and literary, lively diction Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80
style, linguistic and literary, pathetic Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80
style, linguistic and literary, word play Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80
style, linguistic and literary Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 80
swallow Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 381
tannaitic Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338
teleology\n, view of history Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
temple Hachlili, Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period (2005) 302
temple (second), cult of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
temple (second) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 47
theodicy Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 218
timothy Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 417
transjordan Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 418
vessels Janowitz, Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity (2002b) 101
zion, glorious Crabb, Luke/Acts and the End of History (2020) 88
zoroastrian Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 338