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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



661
Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.8


nanand burned the gate and shed innocent blood. We besought the Lord and we were heard, and we offered sacrifice and cereal offering, and we lighted the lamps and we set out the loaves.'


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

37 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.31, 6.7, 21.7, 32.36 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4.31. כִּי אֵל רַחוּם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַשְׁחִיתֶךָ וְלֹא יִשְׁכַּח אֶת־בְּרִית אֲבֹתֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לָהֶם׃ 6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 21.7. וְעָנוּ וְאָמְרוּ יָדֵינוּ לֹא שפכה [שָׁפְכוּ] אֶת־הַדָּם הַזֶּה וְעֵינֵינוּ לֹא רָאוּ׃ 32.36. כִּי־יָדִין יְהוָה עַמּוֹ וְעַל־עֲבָדָיו יִתְנֶחָם כִּי יִרְאֶה כִּי־אָזְלַת יָד וְאֶפֶס עָצוּר וְעָזוּב׃ 4.31. for the LORD thy God is a merciful God; He will not fail thee, neither destroy thee, nor forget the covet of thy fathers which He swore unto them." 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 21.7. And they shall speak and say: ‘Our hands have not shed this blood, neither have our eyes seen it." 32.36. For the LORD will judge His people, And repent Himself for His servants; When He seeth that their stay is gone, And there is none remaining, shut up or left at large."
2. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 10.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

10.3. כִּי מָרְדֳּכַי הַיְּהוּדִי מִשְׁנֶה לַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ וְגָדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים וְרָצוּי לְרֹב אֶחָיו דֹּרֵשׁ טוֹב לְעַמּוֹ וְדֹבֵר שָׁלוֹם לְכָל־זַרְעוֹ׃ 10.3. For Mordecai the Jew was next unto king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren; seeking the good of his people and speaking peace to all his seed."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.24, 40.34-40.35 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

40.34. וַיְכַס הֶעָנָן אֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 40.35. וְלֹא־יָכֹל מֹשֶׁה לָבוֹא אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד כִּי־שָׁכַן עָלָיו הֶעָנָן וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן׃ 40.34. Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle." 40.35. And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of meeting, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle.—"
4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 17.4, 17.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.4. וְאֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא הֱבִיאוֹ לְהַקְרִיב קָרְבָּן לַיהוָה לִפְנֵי מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה דָּם יֵחָשֵׁב לָאִישׁ הַהוּא דָּם שָׁפָךְ וְנִכְרַת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא מִקֶּרֶב עַמּוֹ׃ 17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 17.4. and hath not brought it unto the door of the tent of meeting, to present it as an offering unto the LORD before the tabernacle of the LORD, blood shall be imputed unto that man; he hath shed blood; and that man shall be cut off from among his people." 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 35.30-35.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

35.31. וְלֹא־תִקְחוּ כֹפֶר לְנֶפֶשׁ רֹצֵחַ אֲשֶׁר־הוּא רָשָׁע לָמוּת כִּי־מוֹת יוּמָת׃ 35.32. וְלֹא־תִקְחוּ כֹפֶר לָנוּס אֶל־עִיר מִקְלָטוֹ לָשׁוּב לָשֶׁבֶת בָּאָרֶץ עַד־מוֹת הַכֹּהֵן׃ 35.33. וְלֹא־תַחֲנִיפוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם בָּהּ כִּי הַדָּם הוּא יַחֲנִיף אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְלָאָרֶץ לֹא־יְכֻפַּר לַדָּם אֲשֶׁר שֻׁפַּךְ־בָּהּ כִּי־אִם בְּדַם שֹׁפְכוֹ׃ 35.34. וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם יֹשְׁבִים בָּהּ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹכָהּ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 35.30. Whoso killeth any person, the murderer shall be slain at the mouth of witnesses; but one witness shall not testify against any person that he die." 35.31. Moreover ye shall take no ransom for the life of a murderer, that is guilty of death; but he shall surely be put to death." 35.32. And ye shall take no ransom for him that is fled to his city of refuge, that he should come again to dwell in the land, until the death of the priest." 35.33. So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are; for blood, it polluteth the land; and no expiation can be made for the land for the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it." 35.34. And thou shalt not defile the land which ye inhabit, in the midst of which I dwell; for I the LORD dwell in the midst of the children of Israel.’"
6. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.27. בְּבֹא כשאוה [כְשׁוֹאָה ] פַּחְדְּכֶם וְאֵידְכֶם כְּסוּפָה יֶאֱתֶה בְּבֹא עֲלֵיכֶם צָרָה וְצוּקָה׃ 1.27. When your dread cometh as a storm, and your calamity cometh on as a whirlwind; When trouble and distress come upon you."
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 44.3, 51.12, 78.3, 80.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

44.3. אַתָּה יָדְךָ גּוֹיִם הוֹרַשְׁתָּ וַתִּטָּעֵם תָּרַע לְאֻמִּים וַתְּשַׁלְּחֵם׃ 51.12. לֵב טָהוֹר בְּרָא־לִי אֱלֹהִים וְרוּחַ נָכוֹן חַדֵּשׁ בְּקִרְבִּי׃ 78.3. לֹא־זָרוּ מִתַּאֲוָתָם עוֹד אָכְלָם בְּפִיהֶם׃ 78.3. אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְנוּ וַנֵּדָעֵם וַאֲבוֹתֵינוּ סִפְּרוּ־לָנוּ׃ 80.9. גֶּפֶן מִמִּצְרַיִם תַּסִּיעַ תְּגָרֵשׁ גּוֹיִם וַתִּטָּעֶהָ׃ 44.3. Thou with Thy hand didst drive out the nations, and didst plant them in; Thou didst break the peoples, and didst spread them abroad." 51.12. Create me a clean heart, O God; and renew a stedfast spirit within me." 78.3. That which we have heard and known, And our fathers have told us," 80.9. Thou didst pluck up a vine out of Egypt; Thou didst drive out the nations, and didst plant it."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 3.9-3.12, 8.2, 8.10, 8.65 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.9. וְנָתַתָּ לְעַבְדְּךָ לֵב שֹׁמֵעַ לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־עַמְּךָ לְהָבִין בֵּין־טוֹב לְרָע כִּי מִי יוּכַל לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־עַמְּךָ הַכָּבֵד הַזֶּה׃ 3.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֵלָיו יַעַן אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַלְתָּ אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וְלֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ יָמִים רַבִּים וְלֹא־שָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ עֹשֶׁר וְלֹא שָׁאַלְתָּ נֶפֶשׁ אֹיְבֶיךָ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ לְּךָ הָבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ מִשְׁפָּט׃ 3.12. הִנֵּה עָשִׂיתִי כִּדְבָרֶיךָ הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ לֵב חָכָם וְנָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר כָּמוֹךָ לֹא־הָיָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְאַחֲרֶיךָ לֹא־יָקוּם כָּמוֹךָ׃ 8.2. וַיָּקֶם יְהוָה אֶת־דְּבָרוֹ אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר וָאָקֻם תַּחַת דָּוִד אָבִי וָאֵשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה וָאֶבְנֶה הַבַּיִת לְשֵׁם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.2. וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה כָּל־אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּיֶרַח הָאֵתָנִים בֶּחָג הוּא הַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.65. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹה בָעֵת־הַהִיא אֶת־הֶחָג וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ קָהָל גָּדוֹל מִלְּבוֹא חֲמָת עַד־נַחַל מִצְרַיִם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְשִׁבְעַת יָמִים אַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם׃ 3.9. Give Thy servant therefore an understanding heart to judge Thy people, that I may discern between good and evil; for who is able to judge this Thy great people?’" 3.10. And the speech pleased the LORD, that Solomon had asked this thing." 3.11. And God said unto him: ‘Because thou hast asked this thing, and hast not asked for thyself long life; neither hast asked riches for thyself, nor hast asked the life of thine enemies; but hast asked for thyself understanding to discern justice;" 3.12. behold, I have done according to thy word: lo, I have given thee a wise and an understanding heart; so that there hath been none like thee before thee, neither after thee shall any arise like unto thee." 8.2. And all the men of Israel assembled themselves unto king Solomon at the feast, in the month Ethanim, which is the seventh month." 8.10. And it came to pass, when the priests were come out of the holy place, that the cloud filled the house of the LORD," 8.65. So Solomon held the feast at that time, and all Israel with him, a great congregation, from the entrance Hamath unto the Brook of Egypt, before the LORD our God, seven days and seven days, even fourteen days."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 16.11-16.16, 25.13-25.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.11. וַיִּבֶן אוּרִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ אָחָז מִדַּמֶּשֶׂק כֵּן עָשָׂה אוּרִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן עַד־בּוֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ־אָחָז מִדַּמָּשֶׂק׃ 16.12. וַיָּבֹא הַמֶּלֶךְ מִדַּמֶּשֶׂק וַיַּרְא הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיִּקְרַב הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וַיַּעַל עָלָיו׃ 16.13. וַיַּקְטֵר אֶת־עֹלָתוֹ וְאֶת־מִנְחָתוֹ וַיַּסֵּךְ אֶת־נִסְכּוֹ וַיִּזְרֹק אֶת־דַּם־הַשְּׁלָמִים אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 16.14. וְאֵת הַמִּזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיַּקְרֵב מֵאֵת פְּנֵי הַבַּיִת מִבֵּין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמִבֵּין בֵּית יְהוָה וַיִּתֵּן אֹתוֹ עַל־יֶרֶךְ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ צָפוֹנָה׃ 16.15. ויצוהו [וַיְצַוֶּה] הַמֶּלֶךְ־אָחָז אֶת־אוּרִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן לֵאמֹר עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַגָּדוֹל הַקְטֵר אֶת־עֹלַת־הַבֹּקֶר וְאֶת־מִנְחַת הָעֶרֶב וְאֶת־עֹלַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאֶת־מִנְחָתוֹ וְאֵת עֹלַת כָּל־עַם הָאָרֶץ וּמִנְחָתָם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם וְכָל־דַּם עֹלָה וְכָל־דַּם־זֶבַח עָלָיו תִּזְרֹק וּמִזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבַקֵּר׃ 16.16. וַיַּעַשׂ אוּרִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה הַמֶּלֶךְ אָחָז׃ 25.13. וְאֶת־עַמּוּדֵי הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר בֵּית־יְהוָה וְאֶת־הַמְּכֹנוֹת וְאֶת־יָם הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר בְּבֵית־יְהוָה שִׁבְּרוּ כַשְׂדִּים וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־נְחֻשְׁתָּם בָּבֶלָה׃ 25.14. וְאֶת־הַסִּירֹת וְאֶת־הַיָּעִים וְאֶת־הַמְזַמְּרוֹת וְאֶת־הַכַּפּוֹת וְאֵת כָּל־כְּלֵי הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר יְשָׁרְתוּ־בָם לָקָחוּ׃ 25.15. וְאֶת־הַמַּחְתּוֹת וְאֶת־הַמִּזְרָקוֹת אֲשֶׁר זָהָב זָהָב וַאֲשֶׁר־כֶּסֶף כָּסֶף לָקַח רַב־טַבָּחִים׃ 25.16. הָעַמּוּדִים שְׁנַיִם הַיָּם הָאֶחָד וְהַמְּכֹנוֹת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה שְׁלֹמֹה לְבֵית יְהוָה לֹא־הָיָה מִשְׁקָל לִנְחֹשֶׁת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 25.17. שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה קוֹמַת הָעַמּוּד הָאֶחָד וְכֹתֶרֶת עָלָיו נְחֹשֶׁת וְקוֹמַת הַכֹּתֶרֶת שָׁלֹשׁ אמה [אַמּוֹת] וּשְׂבָכָה וְרִמֹּנִים עַל־הַכֹּתֶרֶת סָבִיב הַכֹּל נְחֹשֶׁת וְכָאֵלֶּה לַעַמּוּד הַשֵּׁנִי עַל־הַשְּׂבָכָה׃ 16.11. And Urijah the priest built an altar; according to all that king Ahaz had sent from Damascus, so did Urijah the priest make it against the coming of king Ahaz from Damascus." 16.12. And when the king was come from Damascus, the king saw the altar; and the king drew near unto the altar, and offered thereon." 16.13. And he offered his burnt-offering and his meal-offering, and poured his drink-offering, and dashed the blood of his peace-offerings against the altar." 16.14. And the brazen altar, which was before the LORD, he brought from the forefront of the house, from between his altar and the house of the LORD, and put it on the north side of his altar." 16.15. And king Ahaz commanded Urijah the priest, saying: ‘Upon the great altar offer the morning burnt-offering, and the evening meal-offering, and the king’s burnt-offering, and his meal-offering, with the burnt-offering of all the people of the land, and their meal-offering, and their drink-offerings; and dash against it all the blood of the burnt-offering, and all the blood of the sacrifice; but the brazen altar shall be for me to look to.’" 16.16. Thus did Urijah the priest, according to all that king Ahaz commanded." 25.13. And the pillars of brass that were in the house of the LORD, and the bases and the brazen sea that were in the house of the LORD, did the Chaldeans break in pieces, and carried the brass of them to Babylon." 25.14. And the pots, and the shovels, and the snuffers, and the pans, and all the vessels of brass wherewith they ministered, took they away." 25.15. And the fire-pans, and the basins, that which was of gold, in gold, and that which was of silver, in silver, the captain of the guard took away." 25.16. The two pillars, the one sea, and the bases, which Solomon had made for the house of the LORD; the brass of all these vessels was without weight." 25.17. The height of the one pillar was eighteen cubits, and a capital of brass was upon it; and the height of the capital was three cubits; with network and pomegranates upon the capital round about, all of brass; and like unto these had the second pillar with network."
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 19.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

19.19. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוָה בְּתוֹךְ אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וּמַצֵּבָה אֵצֶל־גְּבוּלָהּ לַיהוָה׃ 19.19. In that day shall there be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the LORD."
11. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.1, 7.6, 27.16-27.22, 29.8, 29.10, 29.13, 29.17-29.18, 29.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.1. כִּי עִבְרוּ אִיֵּי כִתִּיִּים וּרְאוּ וְקֵדָר שִׁלְחוּ וְהִתְבּוֹנְנוּ מְאֹד וּרְאוּ הֵן הָיְתָה כָּזֹאת׃ 2.1. וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 7.6. גֵּר יָתוֹם וְאַלְמָנָה לֹא תַעֲשֹׁקוּ וְדָם נָקִי אַל־תִּשְׁפְּכוּ בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאַחֲרֵי אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים לֹא תֵלְכוּ לְרַע לָכֶם׃ 27.16. וְאֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָם הַזֶּה דִּבַּרְתִּי לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה אַל־תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־דִּבְרֵי נְבִיאֵיכֶם הַנִּבְּאִים לָכֶם לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה כְלֵי בֵית־יְהוָה מוּשָׁבִים מִבָּבֶלָה עַתָּה מְהֵרָה כִּי שֶׁקֶר הֵמָּה נִבְּאִים לָכֶם׃ 27.17. אַל־תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֲלֵיהֶם עִבְדוּ אֶת־מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל וִחְיוּ לָמָּה תִהְיֶה הָעִיר הַזֹּאת חָרְבָּה׃ 27.18. וְאִם־נְבִאִים הֵם וְאִם־יֵשׁ דְּבַר־יְהוָה אִתָּם יִפְגְּעוּ־נָא בַּיהוָה צְבָאוֹת לְבִלְתִּי־בֹאוּ הַכֵּלִים הַנּוֹתָרִים בְּבֵית־יְהוָה וּבֵית מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם בָּבֶלָה׃ 27.19. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֶל־הָעַמֻּדִים וְעַל־הַיָּם וְעַל־הַמְּכֹנוֹת וְעַל יֶתֶר הַכֵּלִים הַנּוֹתָרִים בָּעִיר הַזֹּאת׃ 27.21. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־הַכֵּלִים הַנּוֹתָרִים בֵּית יְהוָה וּבֵית מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 27.22. בָּבֶלָה יוּבָאוּ וְשָׁמָּה יִהְיוּ עַד יוֹם פָּקְדִי אֹתָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְהַעֲלִיתִים וַהֲשִׁיבֹתִים אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 29.8. כִּי כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אַל־יַשִּׁיאוּ לָכֶם נְבִיאֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וְקֹסְמֵיכֶם וְאַל־תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל־חֲלֹמֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם מַחְלְמִים׃ 29.13. וּבִקַּשְׁתֶּם אֹתִי וּמְצָאתֶם כִּי תִדְרְשֻׁנִי בְּכָל־לְבַבְכֶם׃ 29.17. כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הִנְנִי מְשַׁלֵּחַ בָּם אֶת־הַחֶרֶב אֶת־הָרָעָב וְאֶת־הַדָּבֶר וְנָתַתִּי אוֹתָם כַּתְּאֵנִים הַשֹּׁעָרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵאָכַלְנָה מֵרֹעַ׃ 29.18. וְרָדַפְתִּי אַחֲרֵיהֶם בַּחֶרֶב בָּרָעָב וּבַדָּבֶר וּנְתַתִּים לזועה [לְזַעֲוָה] לְכֹל מַמְלְכוֹת הָאָרֶץ לְאָלָה וּלְשַׁמָּה וְלִשְׁרֵקָה וּלְחֶרְפָּה בְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־הִדַּחְתִּים שָׁם׃ 29.23. יַעַן אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ נְבָלָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְנַאֲפוּ אֶת־נְשֵׁי רֵעֵיהֶם וַיְדַבְּרוּ דָבָר בִּשְׁמִי שֶׁקֶר אֲשֶׁר לוֹא צִוִּיתִם וְאָנֹכִי הוידע [הַיּוֹדֵעַ] וָעֵד נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 2.1. And the word of the LORD came to me, saying:" 7.6. if ye oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and shed not innocent blood in this place, neither walk after other gods to your hurt;" 27.16. Also I spoke to the priests and to all this people, saying: ‘Thus saith the LORD: Hearken not to the words of your prophets that prophesy unto you, saying: Behold, the vessels of the LORD’S house shall now shortly be brought back from Babylon; for they prophesy a lie unto you." 27.17. Hearken not unto them; serve the king of Babylon, and live; wherefore should this city become desolate?" 27.18. But if they be prophets, and if the word of the LORD be with them, let them now make intercession to the LORD of hosts, that the vessels which are left in the house of the LORD, and in the house of the king of Judah, and at Jerusalem, go not to Babylon." 27.19. For thus saith the LORD of hosts concerning the pillars, and concerning the sea, and concerning the bases, and concerning the residue of the vessels that remain in this city," 27.20. which Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon took not, when he carried away captive Jeconiah the son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, from Jerusalem to Babylon, and all the nobles of Judah and Jerusalem;" 27.21. yea, thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel, concerning the vessels that remain in the house of the LORD, and in the house of the king of Judah, and at Jerusalem:" 27.22. They shall be carried to Babylon, and there shall they be, until the day that I remember them, saith the LORD, and bring them up, and restore them to this place.’" 29.8. For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Let not your prophets that are in the midst of you, and your diviners, beguile you, neither hearken ye to your dreams which ye cause to be dreamed." 29.10. For thus saith the LORD: After seventy years are accomplished for Babylon, I will remember you, and perform My good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place." 29.13. And ye shall seek Me, and find Me, when ye shall search for Me with all your heart." 29.17. thus saith the LORD of hosts: Behold, I will send upon them the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, and will make them like vile figs, that cannot be eaten, they are so bad." 29.18. And I will pursue after them with the sword, with the famine, and with the pestilence, and will make them a horror unto all the kingdoms of the earth, a curse, and an astonishment, and a hissing, and a reproach, among all the nations whither I have driven them;" 29.23. because they have wrought vile deeds in Israel, and have committed adultery with their neighbours’wives, and have spoken words in My name falsely, which I commanded them not; but I am He that knoweth, and am witness, saith the LORD."
12. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 22.6, 22.9, 22.12 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.6. הִנֵּה נְשִׂיאֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ לִזְרֹעוֹ הָיוּ בָךְ לְמַעַן שְׁפָךְ־דָּם׃ 22.9. אַנְשֵׁי רָכִיל הָיוּ בָךְ לְמַעַן שְׁפָךְ־דָּם וְאֶל־הֶהָרִים אָכְלוּ בָךְ זִמָּה עָשׂוּ בְתוֹכֵךְ׃ 22.12. שֹׁחַד לָקְחוּ־בָךְ לְמַעַן שְׁפָךְ־דָּם נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית לָקַחַתְּ וַתְּבַצְּעִי רֵעַיִךְ בַּעֹשֶׁק וְאֹתִי שָׁכַחַתְּ נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃ 22.6. Behold, the princes of Israel, every one according to his might, have been in thee to shed blood." 22.9. In thee have been talebearers to shed blood; and in thee they have eaten upon the mountains; in the midst of thee they have committed lewdness." 22.12. In thee have they taken gifts to shed blood; thou hast taken interest and increase, and thou hast greedily gained of thy neighbours by oppression, and hast forgotten Me, saith the Lord GOD."
13. Aristophanes, The Women Celebrating The Thesmophoria, 1.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 22.8, 28.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.8. וַיְהִי עָלַי דְּבַר־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר דָּם לָרֹב שָׁפַכְתָּ וּמִלְחָמוֹת גְּדֹלוֹת עָשִׂיתָ לֹא־תִבְנֶה בַיִת לִשְׁמִי כִּי דָּמִים רַבִּים שָׁפַכְתָּ אַרְצָה לְפָנָי׃ 28.9. וְאַתָּה שְׁלֹמֹה־בְנִי דַּע אֶת־אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ וְעָבְדֵהוּ בְּלֵב שָׁלֵם וּבְנֶפֶשׁ חֲפֵצָה כִּי כָל־לְבָבוֹת דּוֹרֵשׁ יְהוָה וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחֲשָׁבוֹת מֵבִין אִם־תִּדְרְשֶׁנּוּ יִמָּצֵא לָךְ וְאִם־תַּעַזְבֶנּוּ יַזְנִיחֲךָ לָעַד׃ 22.8. But the word of the LORD came to me, saying: Thou hast shed blood abundantly, and hast made great wars; thou shalt not build a house unto My name, because thou hast shed much blood upon the earth in My sight." 28.9. And thou, Solomon my son, know thou the God of thy father, and serve Him with a whole heart and with a willing mind; for the LORD searcheth all hearts, and understandeth all the imaginations of the thoughts; if thou seek Him, He will be found of thee; but if thou forsake Him, He will cast thee off for ever."
15. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 5.3, 7.1-7.3, 7.8-7.10, 30.1 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.3. וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ כָּל־אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּחָג הוּא הַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִי׃ 7.1. וּבְיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי שִׁלַּח אֶת־הָעָם לְאָהֳלֵיהֶם שְׂמֵחִים וְטוֹבֵי לֵב עַל־הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה לְדָוִיד וְלִשְׁלֹמֹה וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַמּוֹ׃ 7.1. וּכְכַלּוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל וְהָאֵשׁ יָרְדָה מֵהַשָּׁמַיִם וַתֹּאכַל הָעֹלָה וְהַזְּבָחִים וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַבָּיִת׃ 7.2. וְלֹא יָכְלוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים לָבוֹא אֶל־בֵּית יְהוָה כִּי־מָלֵא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה׃ 7.2. וּנְתַשְׁתִּים מֵעַל אַדְמָתִי אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לָהֶם וְאֶת־הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר הִקְדַּשְׁתִּי לִשְׁמִי אַשְׁלִיךְ מֵעַל פָּנָי וְאֶתְּנֶנּוּ לְמָשָׁל וְלִשְׁנִינָה בְּכָל־הָעַמִּים׃ 7.3. וְכֹל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל רֹאִים בְּרֶדֶת הָאֵשׁ וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה עַל־הַבָּיִת וַיִּכְרְעוּ אַפַּיִם אַרְצָה עַל־הָרִצְפָה וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ וְהוֹדוֹת לַיהוָה כִּי טוֹב כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃ 7.8. וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־הֶחָג בָּעֵת הַהִיא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ קָהָל גָּדוֹל מְאֹד מִלְּבוֹא חֲמָת עַד־נַחַל מִצְרָיִם׃ 7.9. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי עֲצָרֶת כִּי חֲנֻכַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עָשׂוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְהֶחָג שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃ 30.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה וְגַם־אִגְּרוֹת כָּתַב עַל־אֶפְרַיִם וּמְנַשֶּׁה לָבוֹא לְבֵית־יְהוָה בִּירוּשָׁלִָם לַעֲשׂוֹת פֶּסַח לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 30.1. וַיִּהְיוּ הָרָצִים עֹבְרִים מֵעִיר לָעִיר בְּאֶרֶץ־אֶפְרַיִם וּמְנַשֶּׁה וְעַד־זְבֻלוּן וַיִּהְיוּ מַשְׂחִיקִים עֲלֵיהֶם וּמַלְעִגִים בָּם׃ 5.3. And all the men of Israel assembled themselves unto the king at the feast, which was in the seventh month." 7.1. Now when Solomon had made an end of praying, the fire came down from heaven, and consumed the burnt-offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the LORD filled the house." 7.2. And the priests could not enter into the house of the LORD, because the glory of the LORD filled the LORD’S house." 7.3. And all the children of Israel looked on, when the fire came down, and the glory of the LORD was upon the house; and they bowed themselves with their faces to the ground upon the pavement, and prostrated themselves, and gave thanks unto the LORD; ‘for He is good, for His mercy endureth for ever.’" 7.8. So Solomon held the feast at that time seven days, and all Israel with him, a very great congregation, from the entrance of Hamath unto the Brook of Egypt." 7.9. And on the eighth day they held a solemn assembly; for they kept the dedication of the altar seven days, and the feast seven days." 7.10. And on the three and twentieth day of the seventh month he sent the people away unto their tents, joyful and glad of heart for the goodness that the LORD had shown unto David, and to Solomon, and to Israel His people." 30.1. And Hezekiah sent to all Israel and Judah, and wrote letters also to Ephraim and Manasseh, that they should come to the house of the LORD at Jerusalem, to keep the passover unto the LORD, the God of Israel."
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 1.7, 3.1-3.6, 5.13-5.16 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

1.7. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ כּוֹרֶשׁ הוֹצִיא אֶת־כְּלֵי בֵית־יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הוֹצִיא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מִירוּשָׁלִַם וַיִּתְּנֵם בְּבֵית אֱלֹהָיו׃ 3.1. וְיִסְּדוּ הַבֹּנִים אֶת־הֵיכַל יְהוָה וַיַּעֲמִידוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים מְלֻבָּשִׁים בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת וְהַלְוִיִּם בְּנֵי־אָסָף בַּמְצִלְתַּיִם לְהַלֵּל אֶת־יְהוָה עַל־יְדֵי דָּוִיד מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 3.1. וַיִּגַּע הַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּעָרִים וַיֵּאָסְפוּ הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 3.2. וַיָּקָם יֵשׁוּעַ בֶּן־יוֹצָדָק וְאֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים וּזְרֻבָּבֶל בֶּן־שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל וְאֶחָיו וַיִּבְנוּ אֶת־מִזְבַּח אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַעֲלוֹת עָלָיו עֹלוֹת כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים׃ 3.3. וַיָּכִינוּ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עַל־מְכוֹנֹתָיו כִּי בְּאֵימָה עֲלֵיהֶם מֵעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת ויעל [וַיַּעֲלוּ] עָלָיו עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה עֹלוֹת לַבֹּקֶר וְלָעָרֶב׃ 3.4. וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת כַּכָּתוּב וְעֹלַת יוֹם בְּיוֹם בְּמִסְפָּר כְּמִשְׁפַּט דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ׃ 3.5. וְאַחֲרֵיכֵן עֹלַת תָּמִיד וְלֶחֳדָשִׁים וּלְכָל־מוֹעֲדֵי יְהוָה הַמְקֻדָּשִׁים וּלְכֹל מִתְנַדֵּב נְדָבָה לַיהוָה׃ 3.6. מִיּוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הֵחֵלּוּ לְהַעֲלוֹת עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה וְהֵיכַל יְהוָה לֹא יֻסָּד׃ 5.13. בְּרַם בִּשְׁנַת חֲדָה לְכוֹרֶשׁ מַלְכָּא דִּי בָבֶל כּוֹרֶשׁ מַלְכָּא שָׂם טְעֵם בֵּית־אֱלָהָא דְנָה לִבְּנֵא׃ 5.14. וְאַף מָאנַיָּא דִי־בֵית־אֱלָהָא דִּי דַהֲבָה וְכַסְפָּא דִּי נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הַנְפֵּק מִן־הֵיכְלָא דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם וְהֵיבֵל הִמּוֹ לְהֵיכְלָא דִּי בָבֶל הַנְפֵּק הִמּוֹ כּוֹרֶשׁ מַלְכָּא מִן־הֵיכְלָא דִּי בָבֶל וִיהִיבוּ לְשֵׁשְׁבַּצַּר שְׁמֵהּ דִּי פֶחָה שָׂמֵהּ׃ 5.15. וַאֲמַר־לֵהּ אלה [אֵל] מָאנַיָּא שֵׂא אֵזֶל־אֲחֵת הִמּוֹ בְּהֵיכְלָא דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם וּבֵית אֱלָהָא יִתְבְּנֵא עַל־אַתְרֵהּ׃ 5.16. אֱדַיִן שֵׁשְׁבַּצַּר דֵּךְ אֲתָא יְהַב אֻשַּׁיָּא דִּי־בֵית אֱלָהָא דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם וּמִן־אֱדַיִן וְעַד־כְּעַן מִתְבְּנֵא וְלָא שְׁלִם׃ 1.7. Also Cyrus the king brought forth the vessels of the house of the LORD, which Nebuchadnezzar had brought forth out of Jerusalem, and had put them in the house of his gods;" 3.1. And when the seventh month was come, and the children of Israel were in the cities, the people gathered themselves together as one man to Jerusalem." 3.2. Then stood up Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and his brethren the priests, and Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and his brethren, and builded the altar of the God of Israel, to offer burnt-offerings thereon, as it is written in the Law of Moses the man of God." 3.3. And they set the altar upon its bases; for fear was upon them because of the people of the countries, and they offered burnt-offerings thereon unto the LORD, even burnt-offerings morning and evening." 3.4. And they kept the feast of tabernacles, as it is written, and offered the daily burnt-offerings by number, according to the ordice, as the duty of every day required;" 3.5. and afterward the continual burnt-offering, and the offerings of the new moons, and of all the appointed seasons of the LORD that were hallowed, and of every one that willingly offered a freewill-offering unto the LORD." 3.6. From the first day of the seventh month began they to offer burnt-offerings unto the LORD; but the foundation of the temple of the LORD was not yet laid." 5.13. But in the first year of Cyrus king of Babylon, Cyrus the king made a decree to build this house of God." 5.14. And the gold and silver vessels also of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took out of the temple that was in Jerusalem, and brought them into the temple of Babylon, those did Cyrus the king take out of the temple of Babylon, and they were delivered unto one whose name was Sheshbazzar, whom he had made governor;" 5.15. and he said unto him: Take these vessels, go, put them in the temple that is in Jerusalem, and let the house of God be builded in its place." 5.16. Then came the same Sheshbazzar, and laid the foundations of the house of God which is in Jerusalem; and since that time even until now hath it been in building, and yet it is not completed."
17. Dead Sea Scrolls, Epistle of Jeremiah, 30, 4, 57, 11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

18. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.13, 7.25, 8.14, 9.4, 11.39, 12.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.13. חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 7.25. וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא [עִלָּאָה] יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃ 8.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי עַד עֶרֶב בֹּקֶר אַלְפַּיִם וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וְנִצְדַּק קֹדֶשׁ׃ 9.4. וָאֶתְפַּלְלָה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהַי וָאֶתְוַדֶּה וָאֹמְרָה אָנָּא אֲדֹנָי הָאֵל הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא שֹׁמֵר הַבְּרִית וְהַחֶסֶד לְאֹהֲבָיו וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְוֺתָיו׃ 11.39. וְעָשָׂה לְמִבְצְרֵי מָעֻזִּים עִם־אֱלוֹהַּ נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר הכיר [יַכִּיר] יַרְבֶּה כָבוֹד וְהִמְשִׁילָם בָּרַבִּים וַאֲדָמָה יְחַלֵּק בִּמְחִיר׃ 12.7. וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־הָאִישׁ לְבוּשׁ הַבַּדִּים אֲשֶׁר מִמַּעַל לְמֵימֵי הַיְאֹר וַיָּרֶם יְמִינוֹ וּשְׂמֹאלוֹ אֶל־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיִּשָּׁבַע בְּחֵי הָעוֹלָם כִּי לְמוֹעֵד מוֹעֲדִים וָחֵצִי וּכְכַלּוֹת נַפֵּץ יַד־עַם־קֹדֶשׁ תִּכְלֶינָה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃ 7.13. I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him." 7.25. And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time." 8.14. And he said unto me: ‘Unto two thousand and three hundred evenings and mornings; then shall the sanctuary be victorious.’" 9.4. And I prayed unto the LORD my God, and made confession, and said: ‘O Lord, the great and awful God, who keepest covet and mercy with them that love Thee and keep Thy commandments," 11.39. And he shall deal with the strongest fortresses with the help of a foreign god; whom he shall acknowledge, shall increase glory; and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for a price." 12.7. And I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he lifted up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and swore by Him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when they have made an end of breaking in pieces the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished."
19. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.3, 1.5, 1.34, 1.37, 1.45, 1.47, 1.54, 3.45, 4.10, 4.26, 4.38, 4.41-4.59, 6.26, 7.39-7.49, 8.17-8.18, 9.18-9.22, 11.18, 12.6, 12.11, 12.39, 12.42, 13.34, 13.41-13.42, 14.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.3. He advanced to the ends of the earth, and plundered many nations. When the earth became quiet before him, he was exalted, and his heart was lifted up. 1.5. After this he fell sick and perceived that he was dying. 1.34. And they stationed there a sinful people, lawless men. These strengthened their position; 1.37. On every side of the sanctuary they shed innocent blood;they even defiled the sanctuary. 1.45. to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and feasts 1.47. to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and unclean animals 1.54. Now on the fifteenth day of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-fifth year, they erected a desolating sacrilege upon the altar of burnt offering. They also built altars in the surrounding cities of Judah 3.45. Jerusalem was uninhabited like a wilderness;not one of her children went in or out. The sanctuary was trampled down,and the sons of aliens held the citadel;it was a lodging place for the Gentiles. Joy was taken from Jacob;the flute and the harp ceased to play. 4.10. And now let us cry to Heaven, to see whether he will favor us and remember his covet with our fathers and crush this army before us today. 4.26. Those of the foreigners who escaped went and reported to Lysias all that had happened. 4.38. And they saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, and the gates burned. In the courts they saw bushes sprung up as in a thicket, or as on one of the mountains. They saw also the chambers of the priests in ruins. 4.41. Then Judas detailed men to fight against those in the citadel until he had cleansed the sanctuary. 4.42. He chose blameless priests devoted to the law 4.43. and they cleansed the sanctuary and removed the defiled stones to an unclean place. 4.44. They deliberated what to do about the altar of burnt offering, which had been profaned. 4.45. And they thought it best to tear it down, lest it bring reproach upon them, for the Gentiles had defiled it. So they tore down the altar 4.46. and stored the stones in a convenient place on the temple hill until there should come a prophet to tell what to do with them. 4.47. Then they took unhewn stones, as the law directs, and built a new altar like the former one. 4.48. They also rebuilt the sanctuary and the interior of the temple, and consecrated the courts. 4.49. They made new holy vessels, and brought the lampstand, the altar of incense, and the table into the temple. 4.50. Then they burned incense on the altar and lighted the lamps on the lampstand, and these gave light in the temple. 4.51. They placed the bread on the table and hung up the curtains. Thus they finished all the work they had undertaken. 4.52. Early in the morning on the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month, which is the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-eighth year 4.53. they rose and offered sacrifice, as the law directs, on the new altar of burnt offering which they had built. 4.54. At the very season and on the very day that the Gentiles had profaned it, it was dedicated with songs and harps and lutes and cymbals. 4.55. All the people fell on their faces and worshiped and blessed Heaven, who had prospered them. 4.56. So they celebrated the dedication of the altar for eight days, and offered burnt offerings with gladness; they offered a sacrifice of deliverance and praise. 4.57. They decorated the front of the temple with golden crowns and small shields; they restored the gates and the chambers for the priests, and furnished them with doors. 4.58. There was very great gladness among the people, and the reproach of the Gentiles was removed. 4.59. Then Judas and his brothers and all the assembly of Israel determined that every year at that season the days of dedication of the altar should be observed with gladness and joy for eight days, beginning with the twenty-fifth day of the month of Chislev. 6.26. And behold, today they have encamped against the citadel in Jerusalem to take it; they have fortified both the sanctuary and Beth-zur; 7.39. Now Nicanor went out from Jerusalem and encamped in Beth-horon, and the Syrian army joined him. 7.40. And Judas encamped in Adasa with three thousand men. Then Judas prayed and said 7.41. When the messengers from the king spoke blasphemy, thy angel went forth and struck down one hundred and eighty-five thousand of the Assyrians. 7.42. So also crush this army before us today; let the rest learn that Nicanor has spoken wickedly against the sanctuary, and judge him according to this wickedness. 7.43. So the armies met in battle on the thirteenth day of the month of Adar. The army of Nicanor was crushed, and he himself was the first to fall in the battle. 7.44. When his army saw that Nicanor had fallen, they threw down their arms and fled. 7.45. The Jews pursued them a days journey, from Adasa as far as Gazara, and as they followed kept sounding the battle call on the trumpets. 7.46. And men came out of all the villages of Judea round about, and they out-flanked the enemy and drove them back to their pursuers, so that they all fell by the sword; not even one of them was left. 7.47. Then the Jews seized the spoils and the plunder, and they cut off Nicanors head and the right hand which he so arrogantly stretched out, and brought them and displayed them just outside Jerusalem. 7.48. The people rejoiced greatly and celebrated that day as a day of great gladness. 7.49. And they decreed that this day should be celebrated each year on the thirteenth day of Adar. 8.17. So Judas chose Eupolemus the son of John, son of Accos, and Jason the son of Eleazar, and sent them to Rome to establish friendship and alliance 8.18. and to free themselves from the yoke; for they saw that the kingdom of the Greeks was completely enslaving Israel. 9.18. Judas also fell, and the rest fled. 9.19. Then Jonathan and Simon took Judas their brother and buried him in the tomb of their fathers at Modein 9.20. and wept for him. And all Israel made great lamentation for him; they mourned many days and said 9.21. How is the mighty fallen,the savior of Israel! 9.22. Now the rest of the acts of Judas, and his wars and the brave deeds that he did, and his greatness, have not been recorded, for they were very many. 11.18. But King Ptolemy died three days later, and his troops in the strongholds were killed by the inhabitants of the strongholds. 12.6. Jonathan the high priest, the senate of the nation, the priests, and the rest of the Jewish people to their brethren the Spartans, greeting. 12.11. We therefore remember you constantly on every occasion, both in our feasts and on other appropriate days, at the sacrifices which we offer and in our prayers, as it is right and proper to remember brethren. 12.39. Then Trypho attempted to become king in Asia and put on the crown, and to raise his hand against Antiochus the king. 12.42. When Trypho saw that he had come with a large army, he was afraid to raise his hand against him. 13.34. Simon also chose men and sent them to Demetrius the king with a request to grant relief to the country, for all that Trypho did was to plunder. 13.41. In the one hundred and seventieth year the yoke of the Gentiles was removed from Israel 13.42. and the people began to write in their documents and contracts, "In the first year of Simon the great high priest and commander and leader of the Jews. 14.27. So they made a record on bronze tablets and put it upon pillars on Mount Zion. This is a copy of what they wrote: "On the eighteenth day of Elul, in the one hundred and seventy-second year, which is the third year of Simon the great high priest
20. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, None (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The Jewish brethren in Jerusalem and those in the land of Judea, To their Jewish brethren in Egypt, Greeting, and good peace.'
21. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 28.11, 47.12-47.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

28.11. A hasty quarrel kindles fire,and urgent strife sheds blood. 47.12. After him rose up a wise son who fared amply because of him; 47.13. Solomon reigned in days of peace,and God gave him rest on every side,that he might build a house for his name and prepare a sanctuary to stand for ever. 47.14. How wise you became in your youth!You overflowed like a river with understanding. 47.15. Your soul covered the earth,and you filled it with parables and riddles. 47.16. Your name reached to far-off islands,and you were loved for your peace. 47.17. For your songs and proverbs and parables,and for your interpretations, the countries marveled at you.
22. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 17.2, 18.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

17.2. For when lawless men supposed that they held the holy nation in their power,they themselves lay as captives of darkness and prisoners of long night,shut in under their roofs, exiles from eternal providence. 18.15. thy all-powerful word leaped from heaven, from the royal throne,into the midst of the land that was doomed,a stern warrior
23. Anon., 2 Baruch, 85.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

24. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 59.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

59.3. ... ἐλπίζειν There appears to be a lucuna in the Greek : Lightfoot supplies *do\s h\mi=n, ku/rie. ἐπὶ τὸ ἀρχεγόνον πάσης κτίσεως ὄνομά σου, Eph 1, 18 ἀνοίξας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τῆς καρδίας ἡμῶν εἰς τὸ Is. 57, 15 γινώσκειν σε τὸν μόνον ὕψιστον ἐν ὑψίστοις, Is. 13, 11 Ps. 32, 10 ἅγιον ἐν ἀγίοις ἀναπαυόμενον. τὸν ταπεινοῦντα ὕβριν ὑπερηφάνων, τὸν διαλύοντα λογισμοὺς Job 5, 11 ἐθνῶν, τὸν ποιοῦντα ταπεινοὺς εἰς ὕψος καὶ τοὺς I Sam, 2, 7; cf. Luke 1, 53 ὑψηλοὺς ταπεινοῦντα, τὸν πλουτίζοντα καὶ πτωχίζοντα, τὸν ἀποκτείνοντα καὶ ζῆν ποιοῦντα, kai\ sw/zonta appears to be inserted before kai\ zh=n by SL, but is omitted by CK. Deut. 32, 39; cf. I Sam. 2,6; 11 Kings 5, 7 μόνον εὑρέτην eu)erge/thn ( "benefactor" ) C, "creator" K; the text is doubiful but eu(re/thn (LS) seems more likely to be implied by K than eu)erge/thn, and is therefore slightly more probable. πνευμάτων καὶ θεὸν πάσης σαρκός: τὸν ἐπιβλέποντα ἐν τοῖς ἀβύσσοις, τὸν ἐπόπτην Num. 16, 22; 27, 16 ἀνθρωπίνων ἔργων, τὸν τῶν κινδυνευόντων Dan, 3, 31 (*wulg. 3, 55); cf. Sirach 16, 18. 19 Judith 9, 11 βοηθόν, τὸν τῶν ἀπηλπισμένων σωτῆρα, τὸν παντὸς πνεύματος κτίστην καὶ ἐπίσκοπον: τὸν πληθύνοντα ἔθνη ἐπὶ γῆς καὶ ἐκ πάντων ἐκλεξάμενον τοὺς ἀγαπῶντάς σε διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ ἠγαπημένου παιδός σου, δἰ οὗ ἡμᾶς ἐπαίδευσας, Ps. 118, 114; cf, Judith 9, 11 ἡγίασας, ἐτίμησας:
25. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.253, 15.410-15.420 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.253. And when the king had built an idol altar upon God’s altar, he slew swine upon it, and so offered a sacrifice neither according to the law, nor the Jewish religious worship in that country. He also compelled them to forsake the worship which they paid their own God, and to adore those whom he took to be gods; and made them build temples, and raise idol altars in every city and village, and offer swine upon them every day. 15.411. but the fourth front of the temple, which was southward, had indeed itself gates in its middle, as also it had the royal cloisters, with three walks, which reached in length from the east valley unto that on the west, for it was impossible it should reach any farther: 15.412. and this cloister deserves to be mentioned better than any other under the sun; for while the valley was very deep, and its bottom could not be seen, if you looked from above into the depth, this further vastly high elevation of the cloister stood upon that height, insomuch that if any one looked down from the top of the battlements, or down both those altitudes, he would be giddy, while his sight could not reach to such an immense depth. 15.413. This cloister had pillars that stood in four rows one over against the other all along, for the fourth row was interwoven into the wall, which [also was built of stone]; and the thickness of each pillar was such, that three men might, with their arms extended, fathom it round, and join their hands again, while its length was twenty-seven feet, with a double spiral at its basis; 15.414. and the number of all the pillars [in that court] was a hundred and sixty-two. Their chapiters were made with sculptures after the Corinthian order, and caused an amazement [to the spectators], by reason of the grandeur of the whole. 15.415. These four rows of pillars included three intervals for walking in the middle of this cloister; two of which walks were made parallel to each other, and were contrived after the same manner; the breadth of each of them was thirty feet, the length was a furlong, and the height fifty feet; but the breadth of the middle part of the cloister was one and a half of the other, and the height was double, for it was much higher than those on each side; 15.416. but the roofs were adorned with deep sculptures in wood, representing many sorts of figures. The middle was much higher than the rest, and the wall of the front was adorned with beams, resting upon pillars, that were interwoven into it, and that front was all of polished stone, insomuch that its fineness, to such as had not seen it, was incredible, and to such as had seen it, was greatly amazing. 15.417. Thus was the first enclosure. In the midst of which, and not far from it, was the second, to be gone up to by a few steps: this was encompassed by a stone wall for a partition, with an inscription, which forbade any foreigner to go in under pain of death. 15.418. Now this inner enclosure had on its southern and northern quarters three gates [equally] distant one from another; but on the east quarter, towards the sun-rising, there was one large gate, through which such as were pure came in, together with their wives; 15.419. but the temple further inward in that gate was not allowed to the women; but still more inward was there a third [court of the] temple, whereinto it was not lawful for any but the priests alone to enter. The temple itself was within this; and before that temple was the altar, upon which we offer our sacrifices and burnt-offerings to God.
26. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.32, 5.198-5.206, 5.225 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.32. 7. Hereupon Herod was very angry at him, and was going to fight against Macheras as his enemy; but he restrained his indignation, and marched to Antony to accuse Macheras of mal-administration. But Macheras was made sensible of his offenses, and followed after the king immediately, and earnestly begged and obtained that he would be reconciled to him. 1.32. who fled to Antiochus, and besought him to make use of them for his leaders, and to make an expedition into Judea. The king being thereto disposed beforehand, complied with them, and came upon the Jews with a great army, and took their city by force, and slew a great multitude of those that favored Ptolemy, and sent out his soldiers to plunder them without mercy. He also spoiled the temple, and put a stop to the constant practice of offering a daily sacrifice of expiation for three years and six months. 5.198. whence there were other steps, each of five cubits a piece, that led to the gates, which gates on the north and south sides were eight, on each of those sides four, and of necessity two on the east. For since there was a partition built for the women on that side, as the proper place wherein they were to worship, there was a necessity for a second gate for them: this gate was cut out of its wall, over against the first gate. 5.199. There was also on the other sides one southern and one northern gate, through which was a passage into the court of the women; for as to the other gates, the women were not allowed to pass through them; nor when they went through their own gate could they go beyond their own wall. This place was allotted to the women of our own country, and of other countries, provided they were of the same nation, and that equally. 5.201. 3. Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and silver, as were the jambs of their doors and their lintels; but there was one gate that was without [the inward court of] the holy house, which was of Corinthian brass, and greatly excelled those that were only covered over with silver and gold. 5.202. Each gate had two doors, whose height was severally thirty cubits, and their breadth fifteen. 5.203. However, they had large spaces within of thirty cubits, and had on each side rooms, and those, both in breadth and in length, built like towers, and their height was above forty cubits. Two pillars did also support these rooms, and were in circumference twelve cubits. 5.204. Now the magnitudes of the other gates were equal one to another; but that over the Corinthian gate, which opened on the east over against the gate of the holy house itself, was much larger; 5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius. 5.206. Now there were fifteen steps, which led away from the wall of the court of the women to this greater gate; whereas those that led thither from the other gates were five steps shorter. 5.225. Before this temple stood the altar, fifteen cubits high, and equal both in length and breadth; each of which dimensions was fifty cubits. The figure it was built in was a square, and it had corners like horns; and the passage up to it was by an insensible acclivity. It was formed without any iron tool, nor did any such iron tool so much as touch it at any time.
27. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.198 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.198. There is about the middle of the city, a wall of stone, the length of which is five hundred feet, and the breadth a hundred cubits, with double cloisters; wherein there is a square altar, not made of hewn stone, but composed of white stones gathered together, having each side twenty cubits long, and its altitude ten cubits. Hard by it is a large edifice, wherein there is an altar and a candlestick, both of gold, and in weight two talents;
28. New Testament, Acts, 1.9-1.11, 15.22, 16.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

1.9. When he had said these things, as they were looking, he was taken up, and a cloud received him out of their sight. 1.10. While they were looking steadfastly into the sky as he went, behold, two men stood by them in white clothing 1.11. who also said, "You men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus, who was received up from you into the sky will come back in the same way as you saw him going into the sky. 15.22. Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole assembly, to choose men out of their company, and send them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas: Judas called Barsabbas, and Silas, chief men among the brothers. 16.14. A certain woman named Lydia, a seller of purple, of the city of Thyatira, one who worshiped God, heard us; whose heart the Lord opened to listen to the things which were spoken by Paul.
29. New Testament, James, 1.2, 1.5, 1.12-1.13, 1.18, 1.25, 2.5, 2.8-2.13, 3.6, 5.1-5.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.2. Count it all joy, my brothers, when you fall into various temptations 1.5. But if any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all liberally and without reproach; and it will be given to him. 1.12. Blessed is the man who endures temptation, for when he has been approved, he will receive the crown of life, which the Lord promised to those who love him. 1.13. Let no man say when he is tempted, "I am tempted by God," for God can't be tempted by evil, and he himself tempts no one. 1.18. of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures. 1.25. But he who looks into the perfect law, the law of freedom, and continues, not being a hearer who forgets but a doer of the work, this man will be blessed in what he does. 2.5. Listen, my beloved brothers. Didn't God choose those who are poor in this world to be rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he promised to those who love him? 2.8. However, if you fulfill the royal law, according to the Scripture, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself," you do well. 2.9. But if you show partiality, you commit sin, being convicted by the law as transgressors. 2.10. For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he has become guilty of all. 2.11. For he who said, "Do not commit adultery," said also, "Do not commit murder." Now if you do not commit adultery, but murder, you have become a transgressor of the law. 2.12. So speak, and so do, as men who are to be judged by a law of freedom. 2.13. For judgment is without mercy to him who has shown no mercy. Mercy triumphs over judgment. 3.6. And the tongue is a fire. The world of iniquity among our members is the tongue, which defiles the whole body, and sets on fire the course of nature, and is set on fire by Gehenna. 5.1. Come now, you rich, weep and howl for your miseries that are coming on you. 5.2. Your riches are corrupted and your garments are moth-eaten. 5.3. Your gold and your silver are corroded, and their corrosion will be for a testimony against you, and will eat your flesh like fire. You have laid up your treasure in the last days. 5.4. Behold, the wages of the laborers who mowed your fields, which you have kept back by fraud, cry out, and the cries of those who reaped have entered into the ears of the Lord of Hosts. 5.5. You have lived delicately on the earth, and taken your pleasure. You have nourished your hearts as in a day of slaughter. 5.6. You have condemned, you have murdered the righteous one. He doesn't resist you. 5.7. Be patient therefore, brothers, until the coming of the Lord. Behold, the farmer waits for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient over it, until it receives the early and late rain. 5.8. You also be patient. Establish your hearts, for the coming of the Lord is at hand. 5.9. Don't grumble, brothers, against one another, so that you won't be judged. Behold, the judge stands at the door.
30. New Testament, Hebrews, 9.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

9.22. According to the law, nearly everything is cleansed with blood, and apart from shedding of blood there is no remission.
31. New Testament, Romans, 1.7, 11.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.7. to all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 11.28. Concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sake. But concerning the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sake.
32. New Testament, John, 10.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.22. It was the Feast of the Dedication at Jerusalem.
33. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

7a. א"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי מנין שהקב"ה מתפלל שנאמר (ישעיהו נו, ז) והביאותים אל הר קדשי ושמחתים בבית תפלתי תפלתם לא נאמר אלא תפלתי מכאן שהקב"ה מתפלל.,מאי מצלי,אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב יה"ר מלפני שיכבשו רחמי את כעסי ויגולו רחמי על מדותי ואתנהג עם בני במדת רחמים ואכנס להם לפנים משורת הדין.,תניא א"ר ישמעאל בן אלישע פעם אחת נכנסתי להקטיר קטורת לפני ולפנים וראיתי אכתריאל יה ה' צבאות שהוא יושב על כסא רם ונשא ואמר לי ישמעאל בני ברכני אמרתי לו יה"ר מלפניך שיכבשו רחמיך את כעסך ויגולו רחמיך על מדותיך ותתנהג עם בניך במדת הרחמים ותכנס להם לפנים משורת הדין ונענע לי בראשו וקמ"ל שלא תהא ברכת הדיוט קלה בעיניך,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי מנין שאין מרצין לו לאדם בשעת כעסו דכתיב (שמות לג, יד) פני ילכו והנחותי לך אמר לו הקב"ה למשה המתן לי עד שיעברו פנים של זעם ואניח לך,ומי איכא רתחא קמיה דקודשא בריך הוא,אין דתניא (תהלים ז, יב) ואל זועם בכל יום,וכמה זעמו רגע וכמה רגע אחד מחמשת רבוא ושמונת אלפים ושמנה מאות ושמנים ושמנה בשעה וזו היא רגע ואין כל בריה יכולה לכוין אותה שעה חוץ מבלעם הרשע דכתיב ביה (במדבר כד, טז) ויודע דעת עליון,השתא דעת בהמתו לא הוה ידע דעת עליון הוה ידע,אלא מלמד שהיה יודע לכוין אותה שעה שהקב"ה כועס בה,והיינו דאמר להו נביא לישראל (מיכה ו, ה) עמי זכר נא מה יעץ בלק מלך מואב וגו' מאי (מיכה ו, ה) למען דעת צדקות ה',א"ר אלעזר אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל דעו כמה צדקות עשיתי עמכם שלא כעסתי בימי בלעם הרשע שאלמלי כעסתי לא נשתייר משונאיהם של ישראל שריד ופליט,והיינו דקא"ל בלעם לבלק (במדבר כג, ח) מה אקב לא קבה אל ומה אזעם לא זעם ה' מלמד שכל אותן הימים לא זעם.,וכמה זעמו רגע וכמה רגע א"ר אבין ואיתימא רבי אבינא רגע כמימריה.,ומנא לן דרגע רתח שנא' (תהלים ל, ו) כי רגע באפו חיים ברצונו ואב"א מהכא (ישעיהו כו, כ) חבי כמעט רגע עד יעבור זעם,ואימת רתח אמר אביי בהנך תלת שעי קמייתא כי חיורא כרבלתא דתרנגולא וקאי אחד כרעא,כל שעתא ושעתא נמי קאי הכי,כל שעתא אית ביה שורייקי סומקי בההיא שעתא לית ביה שורייקי סומקי.,ההוא צדוקי דהוה בשבבותיה דר' יהושע בן לוי הוה קא מצער ליה טובא בקראי יומא חד שקל תרנגולא ואוקמיה בין כרעי' דערסא ועיין ביה סבר כי מטא ההיא שעתא אלטייה כי מטא ההיא שעתא ניים אמר ש"מ לאו אורח ארעא למעבד הכי (תהלים קמה, ט) ורחמיו על כל מעשיו כתיב,וכתיב (משלי יז, כו) גם ענוש לצדיק לא טוב,תנא משמיה דר' מאיר בשעה שהחמה זורחת וכל מלכי מזרח ומערב מניחים כתריהם בראשיהם ומשתחוים לחמה מיד כועס הקב"ה:,וא"ר יוחנן משום רבי יוסי טובה מרדות אחת בלבו של אדם יותר מכמה מלקיות שנא' (הושע ב, ט) ורדפה את מאהביה וגו' ואמרה אלכה ואשובה אל אישי הראשון כי טוב לי אז מעתה וריש לקיש אמר יותר ממאה מלקיות שנאמר (משלי יז, י) תחת גערה במבין מהכות כסיל מאה:,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי שלשה דברים בקש משה מלפני הקב"ה ונתן לו בקש שתשרה שכינה על ישראל ונתן לו שנאמר (שמות לג, טז) הלוא בלכתך עמנו,בקש שלא תשרה שכינה על עובדי כוכבים ונתן לו שנאמר (שמות לג, טז) ונפלינו אני ועמך,בקש להודיעו דרכיו של הקב"ה ונתן לו שנא' (שמות לג, יג) הודיעני נא את דרכיך אמר לפניו רבש"ע מפני מה יש צדיק וטוב לו ויש צדיק ורע לו יש רשע וטוב לו ויש רשע ורע לו אמר לו משה צדיק וטוב לו צדיק בן צדיק צדיק ורע לו צדיק בן רשע רשע וטוב לו רשע בן צדיק רשע ורע לו רשע בן רשע:,אמר מר צדיק וטוב לו צדיק בן צדיק צדיק ורע לו צדיק בן רשע איני והא כתיב (שמות לד, ז) פקד עון אבות על בנים וכתיב (דברים כד, טז) ובנים לא יומתו על אבות ורמינן קראי אהדדי,ומשנינן לא קשיא הא כשאוחזין מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם הא כשאין אוחזין מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם,אלא הכי קא"ל צדיק וטוב לו צדיק גמור צדיק ורע לו צדיק שאינו גמור רשע וטוב לו רשע שאינו גמור רשע ורע לו רשע גמור,ופליגא דר' מאיר דא"ר מאיר שתים נתנו לו ואחת לא נתנו לו שנא' (שמות לג, יט) וחנתי את אשר אחון אע"פ שאינו הגון ורחמתי את אשר ארחם אע"פ שאינו הגון,(שמות לג, כ) ויאמר לא תוכל לראות את פני תנא משמיה דר' יהושע בן קרחה כך א"ל הקב"ה למשה כשרציתי לא רצית עכשיו שאתה רוצה איני רוצה,ופליגא דר' שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בשכר שלש זכה לשלש,בשכר (שמות ג, ו) ויסתר משה פניו זכה לקלסתר פנים בשכר כי ירא זכה (שמות לד, ל) לוייראו מגשת אליו בשכר מהביט זכה (במדבר יב, ח) לותמונת ה' יביט:,(שמות לג, כג)והסירתי את כפי וראית את אחרי אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא א"ר שמעון חסידא מלמד שהראה הקב"ה למשה קשר של תפילין:,וא"ר יוחנן משום ר' יוסי כל דבור ודבור שיצא מפי הקב"ה לטובה אפי' על תנאי לא חזר בו,מנא לן ממשה רבינו שנא' (דברים ט, יד) הרף ממני ואשמידם וגו' ואעשה אותך לגוי עצום אע"ג דבעא משה רחמי עלה דמלתא ובטלה אפ"ה אוקמה בזרעיה שנא' (דברי הימים א כג, טו) בני משה גרשום ואליעזר ויהיו בני אליעזר רחביה הראש וגו' ובני רחביה רבו למעלה וגו',ותני רב יוסף למעלה מששים רבוא אתיא רביה רביה כתיב הכא רבו למעלה וכתיב התם (שמות א, ז) ובני ישראל פרו וישרצו וירבו: 7a. Along the same lines, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: From whereis it derived bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, prays? As it is stated: “I will bring them to My holy mountain, and make them joyful in the house of My prayer”(Isaiah 56:7). The verse bdoes not saythe house of btheir prayer, but rather, “ /bthe house of bMy prayer”; from herewe see bthat the Holy One, Blessed be He, prays. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat doesGod bpray? /b, bRav Zutra bar Tovia saidthat bRav said: brGod says: bMay it be My will that My mercy will overcome My angertowards Israel for their transgressions, br band may My mercy prevail over Myother battributesthrough which Israel is punished, br band may I conductmyself btoward My children,Israel, bwith the attribute of mercy, br band may I enter before them beyond the letter of the law. /b,Similarly, bit was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael ben Elisha,the High Priest, said: bOnce,on Yom Kippur, bI entered the innermost sanctum,the Holy of Holies, bto offer incense, andin a vision bI saw Akatriel Ya, the Lord of Hosts,one of the names of God expressing His ultimate authority, bseated upon a high and exalted throne(see Isaiah 6). br bAnd He said to me: Yishmael, My son, bless Me. br bI said to Himthe prayer that God prays: b“May it be Your will that Your mercy overcome Your anger, br band may Your mercy prevail over Yourother battributes, br band may You act toward Your children with the attribute of mercy, br band may You enter before them beyond the letter of the law.”brThe Holy One, Blessed be He, bnodded His headand accepted the blessing. This event bteaches us that you should not take the blessing of an ordinary person lightly.If God asked for and accepted a man’s blessing, all the more so that a man must value the blessing of another man., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: From whereis it derived bthat one must not placate a person whilehe is in the throes of bhis anger,rather he should mollify him after he has calmed down? bAs it is written,when following the sin of the Golden Calf, Moses requested that the Divine Presence rest upon Israel as it had previously, God said to him: b“My face will go, and I will give you rest”(Exodus 33:14). Rabbi Yoḥa explained: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said toMoses: bWait until My face of wrath will pass and I will grant yourrequest. One must wait for a person’s anger to pass as well.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is there anger before the Holy One, Blessed be He?Can we speak of God using terms like anger?,The Gemara answers: bYes, as it was taughtin a ibaraita /i, God becomes angry, as it is stated: “God vindicates the righteous, bGod is furious every day”(Psalms 7:12)., bHow muchtime does bHis angerlast? God’s anger lasts ba moment. And howlong bis a moment? One fifty-eight thousand, eight hundred and eighty-eighth of an hour, that is a moment.The Gemara adds: bAnd no creature canprecisely bdetermine that momentwhen God becomes angry, bexcept for Balaam the wicked, about whom it is written: “He who knows the knowledge of the Most High”(Numbers 24:16).,This should not be understood to mean that Balaam was a full-fledged prophet. bNow,clearly, Balaam bdid not know the mind of his animal; and he did know the mind of the Most High?If he could not understand the rebuke of his donkey, he was certainly unable to understand the mind of the Most High., bRather, thisverse from Numbers bteaches thatBalaam bwas able toprecisely bdetermine the hour that the Holy One, Blessed be He, is angry.At that moment, Balaam would utter his curse and, through God’s anger, it would be fulfilled., bAnd that is what the prophet said to Israel: “My nation, remember what Balak king of Moab advised,and how Balaam, son of Beor, responded; from Shittim to Gilgal, so that you may know the righteous acts of the Lord” (Micah 6:5). bWhat ismeant by the statement: b“So that you may know the righteous acts of the Lord”? /b, bRabbi Elazar saidthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Israel: Know how many acts of kindness I performed on your behalf, that I did not become angry during the days of Balaam the wicked, for had I become angry, there would have been no remt or survivor remaining among the enemies of Israel,a euphemism for Israel itself. Instead, God restrained His anger and Balaam’s curse went unfulfilled., bAnd that is what Balaam said to Balak: “How can I curse whom God has not cursed? And how can I condemn whom God has not condemned?”(Numbers 23:8). This verse bteaches that all those days,God bwas not angry. /b, bAnd howlong bdoes His angerlast? God’s anger lasts ba moment. And howlong bis a moment? Rabbi Avin, and some say Rabbi Avina, said:A moment lasts as long as it takes bto say it [ irega /i] /b., bFrom where do wederive that God bisonly bangry for a moment? As it is stated: “His anger is but for a moment, His favor, for a lifetime”(Psalms 30:6). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead, bfrom here,as it is stated: b“Hide yourself for a brief moment, until the anger passes”(Isaiah 26:20), meaning that God’s anger passes in a mere moment.,The Gemara asks: bWhen isthe Holy One, Blessed be He, bangry? Abaye said:God’s anger is revealed through animals. bDuring the first three hoursof the day, bwhen the sun whitens the crest of the rooster and it stands on one leg.When it appears that its life has left him and he suddenly turns white, that is when God is angry.,The Gemara asks: The rooster balso stands that way every hour.What kind of sign is this?,The Gemara answers: The difference is that beveryother bhourwhen the rooster stands in that way, bthere are red streaksin his crest. But bwhenGod is angry, bthere are no red streaksin his crest.,The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic who was in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s neighborhood would upset himby incessantly challenging the legitimacy of bverses. One day,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi btook a rooster and placed it between the legs of the bedupon which he sat band looked at it. He thought: When the momentof God’s anger barrives, I will curse himand be rid of him. bWhen the momentof God’s anger barrived,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi bslept.When he woke up, bhe saidto himself: bConclude fromthe fact that I nodded off bthat it is not proper conduct to do so,to curse people, even if they are wicked. b“His mercy is over all His creations”(Psalms 145:9) bis writteneven with regard to sinners.,Moreover, it is inappropriate to cause the punishment of another, as bit is written: “Punishment, even for the righteous, is not good”(Proverbs 17:26), even for a righteous person, it is improper to punish another.,Explaining the cause of God’s anger, bit is taught in the name of Rabbi Meir: When the sun rises and the kings of the East and the West place their crowns on their heads and bow down to the sun, the Holy One, Blessed be He, immediately grows angry.Since this occurs in the early hours every day, God becomes angry at His world at that moment every day., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: A single regretor pang of guilt bin one’s heart is preferable to many lashesadministered by others that cause only physical pain, bas it is stated: “And she chases her lovers,but she does not overtake them; she seeks them, but she will not find them; band she will say ‘I will go and return to my first husband; for it was better for me then than now’”(Hosea 2:9). Remorse is more effective than any externally imposed punishment listed in the verses that follow (Hosea 2:11–19). bAnd Reish Lakish saidthat in the Bible, it seems that such remorse is bpreferable to one hundred lashes, as it is stated: “A rebuke enters deeper into a man of understanding than a hundred lashes to a fool”(Proverbs 17:10)., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yoseiregarding Moses’ request that the Divine Presence rest upon Israel as it once had: Moses brequested three things from the Holy One, Blessed be He,at that time, ball of which were granted him. He requested that the Divine Presence rest upon Israeland not leave, band He grantedit bto him, as it is stated:“For how can it be known that I have found grace in Your sight, I and Your people? bIs it not in that You go with us,so that we are distinguished, I and Your people, from all the people that are on the face of the earth?” (Exodus 33:16). The request: Is it not in that You go with us, refers to the resting of the Divine Presence upon Israel.,Moses brequested that the Divine Presence not rest upon the nations of the world, and He grantedit bto him, as it is stated: “So that we are distinguished, I and Your people,from all the people on the face of the earth” (Exodus 33:16).,Lastly, Moses brequested that the waysin which bGodconducts the bworld be revealed to him, and He grantedit bto him, as it is stated: “Show me Your waysand I will know You” (Exodus 33:13). brMoses bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe. Why is it thatthe brighteous prosper, the righteous suffer,the bwicked prosper,the bwicked suffer? brGod bsaid to him: Moses, the righteousperson bwho prospers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a righteousperson, who is rewarded for the actions of his ancestors. bThe righteousperson bwho suffers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a wickedperson, who is punished for the transgressions of his ancestors. bThe wickedperson bwho prospers is a wickedperson, bthe son of a righteousperson, who is rewarded for the actions of his ancestors. bThe wickedperson bwho suffers is a wicked person, the son of a wicked person,who is punished for the transgressions of his ancestors.,The Gemara expands upon these righteous and wicked individuals: bThe Master said: The righteousperson bwho prospers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a righteousperson. bThe righteousperson bwho suffers is a righteousperson, bthe son of a wickedperson. The Gemara asks: bIs it sothat one is always punished for his ancestors’ transgressions? bIsn’t it written: “He visits iniquity of the fathers upon the children,and upon the children’s children, unto the third and fourth generations” (Exodus 34:7). bAnd it is writtenelsewhere: “Fathers shall not die for their children, band children shall not be put to death for the fathers;every man shall die for his own transgression” (Deuteronomy 24:16). bAndthe Gemara braises a contradiction between the two verses. /b,The Gemara bresolvesthe contradiction: bThis is not difficult. Thisverse from Exodus, which states that God punishes descendants for the transgressions of their ancestors, refers to a case bwhere they adopt the actions of their ancestors as their own. While thisverse from Deuteronomy, which states that descendants are not punished for the actions of their ancestors, refers to a case bwhere they do not adopt the actions of their ancestors as their own,as it is stated: “I visit iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and fourth generations of my enemies” (Exodus 20:5).,A righteous person is clearly not punished for the transgressions of his ancestors. bRather,it must be that God bsaid toMoses bas follows: br bThe righteousperson bwho prospers isa bcompletely righteousperson whose actions are entirely good and whose reward is entirely good both in this world and in the World-to-Come. br bThe righteousperson bwho suffers isone who is bnot a completely righteousperson. Because he does have some transgressions, he is punished in this world so that he will receive a complete reward in the World-to-Come. br bThe wickedperson bwho prospers isone who is bnot a completely wickedperson. God rewards him in this world for the good deeds that he performed, so that he will receive a complete punishment in the World-to-Come. brFinally, bthe wickedperson bwho suffers isa bcompletely wickedperson. Since he performed absolutely no mitzvot and deserves no reward, he receives only punishment both in this world and in the World-to-Come (Maharsha).,Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion, that God granted Moses all three of his requests, bdisagrees withthat of bRabbi Meir,as bRabbi Meir said: Twoof Moses’ requests bwere granted to him, and one was not granted to him.God granted him that the Divine Presence would rest upon Israel and not leave, and that the Divine Presence would not rest upon the nations of the world, but God did not reveal to Moses the ways in which He conducts the world. bAs it is said: “And I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious”(Exodus 33:19); in His mercy, God bestows His grace upon every person, beven though he is not worthy.Similarly, God says: b“And I will have mercy upon whom I will have mercy,” even though he is not worthy.According to Rabbi Meir, the way in which God conducts the world and bestows grace and mercy was not revealed even to Moses.,The Gemara continues to cite the Sages’ explanation of verses that require clarification on the same topic. With regard to God’s statement to Moses, b“And He said: ‘You cannot see My face,for man shall not see Me and live’” (Exodus 33:20), bit was taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said toMoses bas follows: When I wantedto show you My glory at the burning bush, byou did not wantto see it, as it is stated: “And Moses concealed his face, fearing to gaze upon God” (Exodus 3:6). But bnow that you wantto see My glory, as you said: “Show me Your glory,” bI do not wantto show it to you. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa interprets Moses’ initial refusal to look upon God’s glory negatively, as he rebuffed God’s desire to be close to him.,This bdisagrees withthat which bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatansaid, as bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said:Specifically bas a reward for threeacts of humility in averting his glance at the burning bush, Moses bwas privilegedto experience bthreegreat revelations:,Because “Moses bconcealed his face,fearing to gaze upon God” (Exodus 3:6), bhe was privileged tohave his bcountece [ ikelaster /i]glow. brBecause bhe “feared,” he was privileged that “they feared to approach him”(Exodus 34:30). brBecause he did not b“gaze,” he was privileged to “behold the likeness of the Lord”(Numbers 12:8).,What did Moses see? It is said: b“And I will remove My hand, and you will see My back,but My face you will not see” (Exodus 33:23). bRav Ḥana bar Bizna said in the name of Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida,the expression: “And you will see My back,” should be understood as follows: bThis teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He,Who, as mentioned above, wears phylacteries, bshowed him the knot of the phylacteriesof His head, which is worn on the back of the head.,On this subject, bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yosei: Every statementto a person or to a nation bthat emerged from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He,with a promise bof good, even if it was conditional, He did not renegeon it. Ultimately, every promise made by God will be fulfilled., bFrom where do wederive that all of God’s promises are fulfilled? We know this bfrom Moses our teacher,as God promised and bsaid: “Leave Me alone; I will destroy themand blot out their name from under heaven; band I will make from you a nation mightierand greater than they” (Deuteronomy 9:14). bEven thoughMoses bprayedto have the decree repealed, bandit bwas nullified, the promise was fulfilledand Moses’ bdescendantsbecame a nation mightier and greater than the 600,000 Israelites in the desert. bAs it is statedwith regard to the Levites: b“The sons of Moses: Gershom and Eliezer…and the sons of Eliezer were Reḥaviya the chief.And Eliezer had no other sons; band the sons of Reḥaviya were very many”(I Chronicles 23:15–17)., bAnd Rav Yosef taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Many”means more bthan 600,000.This is learned through a verbal analogy between the words bmanyand bmany. It is written herewith regard to Reḥaviya’s sons: b“Were very many.” And it is written therewith regard to the Israelites in Egypt: b“And the children of Israel became numerous and multiplied and were very many,and waxed exceeding mighty; and the land was filled with them” (Exodus 1:7). Just as when the children of Israel were in Egypt, very many meant that there were 600,000 of them, so too the descendants of Reḥaviya were 600,000.
34. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.39.5 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

35. Anon., 4 Baruch, 3.14

3.14. And the Lord said to Jeremiah: Send him to the vineyard of Agrippa, and I will hide him in the shadow of the mountain until I cause the people to return to the city.
36. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 1.7, 7.5, 8.10, 22.3, 23.13, 25.5

37. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 310, 1

1. Since I have collected Material for a memorable history of my visit to Eleazar the High priest of the Jews, and because you, Philocrates, as you lose no opportunity of reminding me, have set great store upon receiving an account of the motives and object of my mission, I have attempted to draw up a clear exposition of the matter for you, for I perceive that you possess a natural love of learning


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
1 maccabees,dating of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 521
abraham van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 110
acra Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 1080
administration/administrative Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
afterlife Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
alexander balas Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 430
alexander jannaeus van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 110
alexander polyhistor Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
alexandria Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
alexandrian,readership Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241
andronicus Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 345
angel Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 152
antiochus,iv,death Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 409
antiochus,iv,persecution Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 412
antiochus,iv Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 429, 430
antiochus,n. Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 1080, 1106
antiochus,vi Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 415, 416
antiochus iv epiphanes,death of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372
antiochus iv epiphanes,persecutes jews Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 301
antiochus vii sidetes Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 521
aristeas Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
aristobulus Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 212
ark of the covenant Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 152
artapanos Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
atonement,as medium of life-for-life exchange nan
atonement,lexical issues surrounding nan
augustus Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 409
biblical nature,see also deuteronomy,allusions Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 140, 526
calendars,liturgical Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
cemetery (tell el-yahoudieh) Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
channuka Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 301
chislev Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 227, 229, 230, 232
civil war Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241
clement of alexandria Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
cleopatra ii Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 301
cleopatra iii Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 301
court,gossip Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
court,protocol Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
court Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
cult/cultic Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
daniel,book of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372
defense/defensive Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
deuteronomy 32 Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 526
diaspora Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 212, 227, 228, 229, 230; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241, 290; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
editors,jerusalemite Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 526
egypt,jews persecuted in Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 301
egypt Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 212, 227, 230, 232
egyptian,diaspora Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
egyptian,jews/jewry Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241, 259
egyptian Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
eleazar the high priest Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
epigraphy (inscriptions) Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
eschatology Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 227, 230, 232
ethnic boundary making model,distribution of power van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 110
ethnic boundary making model,nation-building van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 110
ethnic boundary making model,networks of alliances van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 110
eupolemos Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
eupolemus Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 212
eusebius Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
externality Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 140, 526
festival Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241
festivals Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 6, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232
funerary epitaphs Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
gorgias Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372
greek,language Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
greek Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
greek esther Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
hades Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
halakha/halakhic Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
halakha Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
halakhic letter (4qmmt) Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
hanukkah,holiday of,secondary interest Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 526
hanukkah,holiday of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 163
hanukkah narrative,connection to opening letters Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372, 526
hanukkah narrative,distinctiveness Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372, 526
hanukkah narrative,historicity Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372
hasmonean Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259, 290
hasmonean kingdom van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 110
hellenism,hellenistic Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
hellenism/hellenistic period,culture Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
hellenistic kings/rulers,antiochus iv epiphanes Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 212
hellenistic kings/rulers,nicanor Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 212
hellenistic kings/rulers,ptolemy vi philopater Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 212
hellenistic kings/rulers,seleucus iv philopater Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 212
high (chief) priest Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
high priest/high priesthood Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
hippodrome Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241
history Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
identity,jewish Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 227, 228
identity Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
idumaeans Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372
idyll Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 132
index of subjects\nabraham" Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 227
ioudaios Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
isaac Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 227, 232
jacob Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 227
jason (high priest) Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 345, 526
jason of cyrene Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 212; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
jeremiah Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 230; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 163
jerusalem temple,purification and rededication Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241
jerusalem temple Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241, 259
john hyrcanus i van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 110
judas maccabaeus Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 132, 372
judas maccabeus Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 228, 230, 232
judea van Maaren (2022), The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE, 110
kingship/kingdom Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
lamps Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 526
land of onias Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
letter,first,2 macc.,connection to 2 macc. Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 526
letter,first,2 macc. Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 132
letter,second,2 macc. Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 132
letters,dating Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 521
letters,formulae and style Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 408, 409, 410, 414, 419, 420, 421
letters,number of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 521
letters,semitic vorlage Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 132, 140
letters/epistles Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 297
letters Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 132, 372, 521, 526
life after death Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 297
loyal/loyalty Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
maccabees,ii Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 301
maccabees,revolt,course of events Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 1080
maccabees/maccabean Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241, 259, 290
maccabees (books) Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 430, 1080, 1106
manuscript corrections,interpolations and revisions Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 409, 410, 411, 420
martyrdom Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 230
martyrologies,as secondary source Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372
martyrs Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
mattathias Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 1106
memory Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
menelaus Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 345
mercenary/-ies Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
military Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
moses Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 152; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 132; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
motifs (thematic),reconciliation Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 526
motifs (thematic),tit for tat Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 345
mount nebo Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 152
nehemiah Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 227, 228; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 132, 163, 376
nicanors day Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 526
oniad authorship,jews Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
onias iii Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 212, 228, 232
onias iv (of leontopolis) Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 426, 430
onias temple,legitimacy Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241
onias temple Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
passover/pesaḥ Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 6
paul Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 424
persecution of jews Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 301
philo Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
politeuma (body of citizens) Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
prayer,jewish and christian Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 425
prayer Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 422, 423, 424, 425, 428, 430; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372
priest / priestly Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259
priest and high priest Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 152
pseudo-aristeas Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 427
pseudo-hecataeus Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
ptolemies Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 428, 429, 430; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
ptolemy i Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 204
purity/impurity Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
qumran,community Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
redemption nan
religion/religious Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
repentance Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 425, 426, 429
restoration,temple cult Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 230
rival/rivalry Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 259, 290
roman,period Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241
roman Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241
sabbath Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 6
sacrifice Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 228
sacrifices,sin-offerings Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 132
sacrifices,suspension of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372
samaria Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 427
sect/sectarian' Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
seleucid Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 241
seleucid empire Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 212
seleucid era Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 414, 415, 416, 417, 421
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431
showbread Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 526
simon maccabee Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 415, 430
simon maccabeus Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 212
solomon Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 228, 229; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 132, 376
sparta Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 429
sukkot Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 6, 227, 229, 232
tcherikover,v. Bar Kochba (1997), Pseudo-Hecataeus on the Jews: Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora, 301
teacher of righteousness Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
temple Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 6, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232
temple (first) Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 376
temple (second),cult of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372
temple (second),legitimacy of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 163
temple (second) Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372
temple in jerusalem,altar of Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 152
temple in jerusalem,destruction of Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 152
temple in jerusalem,instruments,vessels,furnishings in Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 152
temporality,approaches to Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 230
theodicy Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 430, 431
time,concepts of Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 6
time,construction of Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
timothy Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 372
torah,ancestral laws Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 232
torah,obedience to Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 227, 232
torah Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 297; Beyerle and Goff (2022), Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature, 6
translators errors Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 412, 420, 421
wicked priest Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 290
wilderness/desert Allison (2018), 4 Baruch, 152