Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



661
Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.30


nanThen the priests sang the hymns.


nanThen the priests sang the hymns. 31 And when the materials of the sacrifice were consumed, Nehemiah ordered that the liquid that was left should be poured upon large stones. 32 When this was done, a flame blazed up; but when the light from the altar shone back, it went out. 33 When this matter became known, and it was reported to the king of the Persians that, in the place where the exiled priests had hidden the fire, the liquid had appeared with which Nehemiah and his associates had burned the materials of the sacrifice, 34 the king investigated the matter, and enclosed the place and made it sacred. 35 And with those persons whom the king favored he exchanged many excellent gifts. 36 Nehemiah and his associates called this "nephthar," which means purification, but by most people it is called naphtha.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

31 results
1. Septuagint, 1 Esdras, 5.48-5.49, 5.51-5.52, 5.59, 7.9, 8.46, 8.58 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

5.48. Then Jeshua the son of Jozadak, with his fellow priests, and Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, with his kinsmen, took their places and prepared the altar of the God of Israel 5.49. to offer burnt offerings upon it, in accordance with the directions in the book of Moses the man of God. 5.51. They kept the feast of booths, as it is commanded in the law, and offered the proper sacrifices every day 5.52. and thereafter the continual offerings and sacrifices on sabbaths and at new moons and at all the consecrated feasts. 5.59. And the priests stood arrayed in their garments, with musical instruments and trumpets, and the Levites, the sons of Asaph, with cymbals 7.9. and the priests and the Levites stood arrayed in their garments, according to kindred, for the services of the Lord God of Israel in accordance with the book of Moses; and the gatekeepers were at each gate. 8.46. and ordered them to tell Iddo and his brethren and the treasurers at that place to send us men to serve as priests in the house of our Lord. 8.58. And I said to them, "You are holy to the Lord, and the vessels are holy, and the silver and the gold are vowed to the Lord, the Lord of our fathers.
2. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.6 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar.
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 26.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.13. וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בִּעַרְתִּי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִן־הַבַּיִת וְגַם נְתַתִּיו לַלֵּוִי וְלַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה כְּכָל־מִצְוָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי לֹא־עָבַרְתִּי מִמִּצְוֺתֶיךָ וְלֹא שָׁכָחְתִּי׃ 26.13. then thou shalt say before the LORD thy God: ‘I have put away the hallowed things out of my house, and also have given them unto the Levite, and unto the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, according to all Thy commandment which Thou hast commanded me; I have not transgressed any of Thy commandments, neither have I forgotten them."
4. Hebrew Bible, Job, 42.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

42.8. וְעַתָּה קְחוּ־לָכֶם שִׁבְעָה־פָרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אֵילִים וּלְכוּ אֶל־עַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב וְהַעֲלִיתֶם עוֹלָה בַּעַדְכֶם וְאִיּוֹב עַבְדִּי יִתְפַּלֵּל עֲלֵיכֶם כִּי אִם־פָּנָיו אֶשָּׂא לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת עִמָּכֶם נְבָלָה כִּי לֹא דִבַּרְתֶּם אֵלַי נְכוֹנָה כְּעַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב׃ 42.8. Now therefore, take unto you seven bullocks and seven rams, and go to My servant Job, and offer up for yourselves a burnt-offering; and My servant Job shall pray for you; for him will I accept, that I do not unto you aught unseemly; for ye have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, as my servant Job hath.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 18.3, 18.7-18.11, 18.14, 18.18-18.20, 18.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.3. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת־חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְנֶחְשַׁב לַלְוִיִּם כִּתְבוּאַת גֹּרֶן וְכִתְבוּאַת יָקֶב׃ 18.3. וְשָׁמְרוּ מִשְׁמַרְתְּךָ וּמִשְׁמֶרֶת כָּל־הָאֹהֶל אַךְ אֶל־כְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִקְרָבוּ וְלֹא־יָמֻתוּ גַם־הֵם גַּם־אַתֶּם׃ 18.7. וְאַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתְּךָ תִּשְׁמְרוּ אֶת־כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם לְכָל־דְּבַר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּלְמִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וַעֲבַדְתֶּם עֲבֹדַת מַתָּנָה אֶתֵּן אֶת־כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃ 18.8. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת תְּרוּמֹתָי לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים לְמָשְׁחָה וּלְבָנֶיךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם׃ 18.9. זֶה־יִהְיֶה לְךָ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים מִן־הָאֵשׁ כָּל־קָרְבָּנָם לְכָל־מִנְחָתָם וּלְכָל־חַטָּאתָם וּלְכָל־אֲשָׁמָם אֲשֶׁר יָשִׁיבוּ לִי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים לְךָ הוּא וּלְבָנֶיךָ׃ 18.11. וְזֶה־לְּךָ תְּרוּמַת מַתָּנָם לְכָל־תְּנוּפֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכַל אֹתוֹ׃ 18.14. כָּל־חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃ 18.18. וּבְשָׂרָם יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ כַּחֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וּכְשׁוֹק הַיָּמִין לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃ 18.19. כֹּל תְּרוּמֹת הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה נָתַתִּי לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם בְּרִית מֶלַח עוֹלָם הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אִתָּךְ׃ 18.31. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּכָל־מָקוֹם אַתֶּם וּבֵיתְכֶם כִּי־שָׂכָר הוּא לָכֶם חֵלֶף עֲבֹדַתְכֶם בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 18.3. And they shall keep thy charge, and the charge of all the Tent; only they shall not come nigh unto the holy furniture and unto the altar, that they die not, neither they, nor ye." 18.7. And thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priesthood in everything that pertaineth to the altar, and to that within the veil; and ye shall serve; I give you the priesthood as a service of gift; and the common man that draweth nigh shall be put to death.’" 18.8. And the LORD spoke unto Aaron: ‘And I, behold, I have given thee the charge of My heave-offerings; even of all the hallowed things of the children of Israel unto thee have I given them for a consecrated portion, and to thy sons, as a due for ever." 18.9. This shall be thine of the most holy things, reserved from the fire: every offering of theirs, even every meal-offering of theirs, and every sin-offering of theirs, and every guilt-offering of theirs, which they may render unto Me, shall be most holy for thee and for thy sons." 18.10. In a most holy place shalt thou eat thereof; every male may eat thereof; it shall be holy unto thee." 18.11. And this is thine: the heave-offering of their gift, even all the wave-offerings of the children of Israel; I have given them unto thee, and to thy sons and to thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof." 18.14. Every thing devoted in Israel shall be thine." 18.18. And the flesh of them shall be thine, as the wave-breast and as the right thigh, it shall be thine." 18.19. All the heave-offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel offer unto the LORD, have I given thee, and thy sons and thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; it is an everlasting covet of salt before the LORD unto thee and to thy seed with thee.’" 18.20. And the LORD said unto Aaron: ‘Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any portion among them; I am thy portion and thine inheritance among the children of Israel." 18.31. And ye may eat it in every place, ye and your households; for it is your reward in return for your service in the tent of meeting."
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 27.7, 81.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.7. שְׁמַע־יְהוָה קוֹלִי אֶקְרָא וְחָנֵּנִי וַעֲנֵנִי׃ 81.4. תִּקְעוּ בַחֹדֶשׁ שׁוֹפָר בַּכֵּסֶה לְיוֹם חַגֵּנוּ׃ 27.7. Hear, O LORD, when I call with my voice, And be gracious unto me, and answer me." 81.4. Blow the horn at the new moon, at the full moon for our feast-day."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 56.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

56.8. נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מְקַבֵּץ נִדְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹד אֲקַבֵּץ עָלָיו לְנִקְבָּצָיו׃ 56.8. Saith the Lord GOD who gathereth the dispersed of Israel: Yet I will gather others to him, beside those of him that are gathered."
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 15.16, 25.7 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.16. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד לְשָׂרֵי הַלְוִיִּם לְהַעֲמִיד אֶת־אֲחֵיהֶם הַמְשֹׁרְרִים בִּכְלֵי־שִׁיר נְבָלִים וְכִנֹּרוֹת וּמְצִלְתָּיִם מַשְׁמִיעִים לְהָרִים־בְּקוֹל לְשִׂמְחָה׃ 25.7. וַיְהִי מִסְפָּרָם עִם־אֲחֵיהֶם מְלֻמְּדֵי־שִׁיר לַיהוָה כָּל־הַמֵּבִין מָאתַיִם שְׁמוֹנִים וּשְׁמוֹנָה׃ 15.16. And David spoke to the chief of the Levites to appoint their brethren the singers, with instruments of music, psalteries and harps and cymbals, sounding aloud and lifting up the voice with joy." 25.7. And the number of them, with their brethren that were instructed in singing unto the LORD, even all that were skilful, was two hundred fourscore and eight."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 5.12, 23.13, 29.27 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.12. וְהַלְוִיִּם הַמְשֹׁרֲרִים לְכֻלָּם לְאָסָף לְהֵימָן לִידֻתוּן וְלִבְנֵיהֶם וְלַאֲחֵיהֶם מְלֻבָּשִׁים בּוּץ בִּמְצִלְתַּיִם וּבִנְבָלִים וְכִנֹּרוֹת עֹמְדִים מִזְרָח לַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְעִמָּהֶם כֹּהֲנִים לְמֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים מחצררים [מַחְצְרִים] בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת׃ 23.13. וַתֵּרֶא וְהִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹמֵד עַל־עַמּוּדוֹ בַּמָּבוֹא וְהַשָּׂרִים וְהַחֲצֹצְרוֹת עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכָל־עַם הָאָרֶץ שָׂמֵחַ וְתוֹקֵעַ בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת וְהַמְשׁוֹרֲרִים בִּכְלֵי הַשִּׁיר וּמוֹדִיעִים לְהַלֵּל וַתִּקְרַע עֲתַלְיָהוּ אֶת־בְּגָדֶיהָ וַתֹּאמֶר קֶשֶׁר קָשֶׁר׃ 29.27. וַיֹּאמֶר חִזְקִיָּהוּ לְהַעֲלוֹת הָעֹלָה לְהַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּבְעֵת הֵחֵל הָעוֹלָה הֵחֵל שִׁיר־יְהוָה וְהַחֲצֹצְרוֹת וְעַל־יְדֵי כְּלֵי דָּוִיד מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 5.12. also the Levites who were the singers, all of them, even Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, and their sons and their brethren, arrayed in fine linen, with cymbals and psalteries and harps, stood at the east end of the altar, and with them a hundred and twenty priests sounding with trumpets—" 23.13. and she looked, and, behold, the king stood on his platform at the entrance, and the captains and the trumpets by the king; and all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew with trumpets; the singers also [played] on instruments of music, and led the singing of praise. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said: ‘Treason, treason.’" 29.27. And Hezekiah commanded to offer the burnt-offering upon the altar. And when the burnt-offering began, the song of the LORD began also, and the trumpets, together with the instruments of David king of Israel."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 2.65, 7.24 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

2.65. מִלְּבַד עַבְדֵיהֶם וְאַמְהֹתֵיהֶם אֵלֶּה שִׁבְעַת אֲלָפִים שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שְׁלֹשִׁים וְשִׁבְעָה וְלָהֶם מְשֹׁרְרִים וּמְשֹׁרְרוֹת מָאתָיִם׃ 7.24. וּלְכֹם מְהוֹדְעִין דִּי כָל־כָּהֲנַיָּא וְלֵוָיֵא זַמָּרַיָּא תָרָעַיָּא נְתִינַיָּא וּפָלְחֵי בֵּית אֱלָהָא דְנָה מִנְדָּה בְלוֹ וַהֲלָךְ לָא שַׁלִּיט לְמִרְמֵא עֲלֵיהֹם׃ 2.65. beside their men-servants and their maid-servants, of whom there were seven thousand three hundred thirty and seven; and they had two hundred singing men and singing women." 7.24. Also we announce to you, that touching any of the priests and Levites, the singers, porters, Nethinim, or servants of this house of God, it shall not be lawful to impose tribute, impost, or toll, upon them."
11. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.6 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar.
12. Anon., Jubilees, 21.7-21.11, 21.16, 30.18-30.20, 31.14, 31.16, 32.3-32.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

21.7. And if thou dost slay a victim as an acceptable peace-offering, slay ye it, and pour out its blood upon the altar, and all the fat of the offering offer on the altar with fine flour (and the meat-offering) mingled with oil, with its drink-offering 21.8. --offer them all together on the altar of burnt-offering; it is a sweet savour before the Lord. 21.9. And thou wilt offer the fat of the sacrifice of thank-offerings on the fire which is upon the altar, and the fat which is on the belly, and all the fat on the inward 21.10. and the two kidneys, and all the fat that is upon them, and upon the loins and liver thou shalt remove together with the kidneys. 21.11. And offer all these for a sweet savour acceptable before the Lord, with its meat-offering and with its drink-offering, for a sweet savour, the bread of the offering unto the Lord 21.16. And as regards the wood of the sacrifices, beware lest thou bring (other) wood for the altar in addition to these: cypress, dêfrân, sagâd, pine, fir, cedar, savin, palm, olive, myrrh, laurel, and citron, juniper, and balsam. 30.18. For this reason I have written for thee in the words of the Law all the deeds of the Shechemites, which they wrought against Dinah 30.19. and how the sons of Jacob spake, saying: "We shall not give our daughter to a man who is uncircumcised; 30.20. for that were a reproach unto us." brAnd it is a reproach to Israel, to those who give, and to those who take the daughters of the Gentiles; for this is unclean and abominable to Israel. 31.14. And the darkness left the eyes of Isaac, and he saw the two sons of Jacob, Levi and Judah, and he said: "Are these thy sons, my son? for they are like thee. 31.16. And they came near to him, and he turned and kissed them and embraced them both together. 32.3. And Jacob rose early in the morning, on the fourteenth of this month, and he gave a tithe of all that came with him, both of men and cattle, both of gold and every vessel and garment, yea, he gave tithes of all. 32.4. And in those days Rachel became pregt with her son Benjamin. And Jacob counted his sons from him upwards and Levi fell to the portion of the Lord 32.5. and his father clothed him in the garments of the priesthood and filled his hands. 32.6. And on the fifteenth of this month, he brought to the altar fourteen oxen from amongst the cattle, and twenty-eight rams, and forty-nine sheep, and seven lambs, and twenty-one kids of the goats as a burnt-offering on the altar of sacrifice, well pleasing for a sweet savour before God 32.7. This was his offering, in consequence of the vow which he had vowed that he would give a tenth, with their fruit-offerings and their drink-offerings. 32.8. And when the fire had consumed it, he burnt incense on the fire over the fire 32.9. and for a thank-offering two oxen and four rams and four sheep, four he-goats, and two sheep of a year old, and two kids of the goats;
13. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 2.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14. Anon., Testament of Levi, 5.2, 8.1-8.19, 14.5-14.8, 17.9-17.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5.2. And He said to me: Levi, I have given thee the blessings of the priesthood until I come and sojourn in the midst of Israel. 8.1. And there again I saw a vision as the former, after we had spent there seventy days. 8.2. And I saw seven men in white raiment saying unto me: Arise, put on the robe of the priesthood, and the crown of righteousness, and the breastplate of understanding, and the garment of truth, and the plate of faith, and the turban of the head, and the ephod of prophecy. 8.3. And they severally carried (these things) and put (them,) on me, and said unto me: From henceforth become a priest of the Lord, thou and thy seed for ever. 8.4. And the first anointed me with holy oil, and gave to me the staff of judgment. 8.5. The second washed me with pure water, and fed me with bread and wine (even) the most holy things, and clad me with a holy and glorious robe. 8.6. The third clothed me with a linen vestment like an ephod. 8.7. The, fourth put round me a girdle like unto purple. 8.8. The fifth gave me a branch of rich olive. 8.9. The sixth placed a crown on my head. 14.5. The offerings of the Lord ye shall rob, and from His portion shall ye steal choice portions, eating (them) contemptuously with harlots. 14.6. And out of covetousness ye shall teach the commandments of the Lord, wedded women shall ye pollute, and the virgins of Jerusalem shall ye defile: and with harlots and adulteresses shall ye be joined, and the daughters of the Gentiles shall ye take to wife, purifying them with an unlawful purification; and your union shall be like unto Sodom and Gomorrah. 14.7. And ye shall be puffed up because of your priesthood, lifting yourselves up against men, and not only so, but also against the commands of God. 14.8. For ye shall contemn the holy things with jests and laughter. 17.9. Therefore shall they be taken captive and become a prey, and their land and their substance shall be destroyed.
15. Anon., Testament of Moses, 7.1-7.10, 10.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.46, 3.49, 3.51, 4.36-4.61, 7.33, 7.36, 10.42, 14.42 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.46. to defile the sanctuary and the priests 3.49. They also brought the garments of the priesthood and the first fruits and the tithes, and they stirred up the Nazirites who had completed their days; 3.51. Thy sanctuary is trampled down and profaned,and thy priests mourn in humiliation. 4.36. Then said Judas and his brothers, "Behold, our enemies are crushed; let us go up to cleanse the sanctuary and dedicate it. 4.37. So all the army assembled and they went up to Mount Zion. 4.38. And they saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, and the gates burned. In the courts they saw bushes sprung up as in a thicket, or as on one of the mountains. They saw also the chambers of the priests in ruins. 4.39. Then they rent their clothes, and mourned with great lamentation, and sprinkled themselves with ashes. 4.40. They fell face down on the ground, and sounded the signal on the trumpets, and cried out to Heaven. 4.41. Then Judas detailed men to fight against those in the citadel until he had cleansed the sanctuary. 4.42. He chose blameless priests devoted to the law 4.43. and they cleansed the sanctuary and removed the defiled stones to an unclean place. 4.44. They deliberated what to do about the altar of burnt offering, which had been profaned. 4.45. And they thought it best to tear it down, lest it bring reproach upon them, for the Gentiles had defiled it. So they tore down the altar 4.46. and stored the stones in a convenient place on the temple hill until there should come a prophet to tell what to do with them. 4.47. Then they took unhewn stones, as the law directs, and built a new altar like the former one. 4.48. They also rebuilt the sanctuary and the interior of the temple, and consecrated the courts. 4.49. They made new holy vessels, and brought the lampstand, the altar of incense, and the table into the temple. 4.50. Then they burned incense on the altar and lighted the lamps on the lampstand, and these gave light in the temple. 4.51. They placed the bread on the table and hung up the curtains. Thus they finished all the work they had undertaken. 4.52. Early in the morning on the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month, which is the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-eighth year 4.53. they rose and offered sacrifice, as the law directs, on the new altar of burnt offering which they had built. 4.54. At the very season and on the very day that the Gentiles had profaned it, it was dedicated with songs and harps and lutes and cymbals. 4.55. All the people fell on their faces and worshiped and blessed Heaven, who had prospered them. 4.56. So they celebrated the dedication of the altar for eight days, and offered burnt offerings with gladness; they offered a sacrifice of deliverance and praise. 4.57. They decorated the front of the temple with golden crowns and small shields; they restored the gates and the chambers for the priests, and furnished them with doors. 4.58. There was very great gladness among the people, and the reproach of the Gentiles was removed. 4.59. Then Judas and his brothers and all the assembly of Israel determined that every year at that season the days of dedication of the altar should be observed with gladness and joy for eight days, beginning with the twenty-fifth day of the month of Chislev. 4.60. At that time they fortified Mount Zion with high walls and strong towers round about, to keep the Gentiles from coming and trampling them down as they had done before. 4.61. And he stationed a garrison there to hold it. He also fortified Beth-zur, so that the people might have a stronghold that faced Idumea. 7.33. After these events Nicanor went up to Mount Zion. Some of the priests came out of the sanctuary, and some of the elders of the people, to greet him peaceably and to show him the burnt offering that was being offered for the king. 7.36. Then the priests went in and stood before the altar and the temple, and they wept and said 10.42. Moreover, the five thousand shekels of silver which my officials have received every year from the income of the services of the temple, this too is canceled, because it belongs to the priests who minister there. 14.42. and that he should be governor over them and that he should take charge of the sanctuary and appoint men over its tasks and over the country and the weapons and the strongholds, and that he should take charge of the sanctuary
17. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.10-2.18, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.31, 1.32, 1.33, 1.34, 1.35, 1.36, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.16, 3.15, 4.14, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 14.31, 14.34, 15.31 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The Jewish brethren in Jerusalem and those in the land of Judea, To their Jewish brethren in Egypt, Greeting, and good peace.'
18. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 7.29-7.31, 45.6-45.36, 50.12, 50.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.29. With all your soul fear the Lord,and honor his priests. 7.31. Fear the Lord and honor the priest,and give him his portion, as is commanded you:the first fruits, the guilt offering, the gift of the shoulders,the sacrifice of sanctification,and the first fruits of the holy things. 45.6. He exalted Aaron, the brother of Moses,a holy man like him, of the tribe of Levi. 45.7. He made an everlasting covet with him,and gave him the priesthood of the people. He blessed him with splendid vestments,and put a glorious robe upon him. 45.8. He clothed him with superb perfection,and strengthened him with the symbols of authority,the linen breeches, the long robe, and the ephod. 45.9. And he encircled him with pomegranates,with very many golden bells round about,to send forth a sound as he walked,to make their ringing heard in the temple as a reminder to the sons of his people; 45.11. with twisted scarlet, the work of a craftsman;with precious stones engraved like signets,in a setting of gold, the work of a jeweler,for a reminder, in engraved letters,according to the number of the tribes of Israel; 45.12. with a gold crown upon his turban,inscribed like a signet with "Holiness," a distinction to be prized, the work of an expert,the delight of the eyes, richly adorned. 45.13. Before his time there never were such beautiful things. No outsider ever put them on,but only his sons and his descendants perpetually. 45.14. His sacrifices shall be wholly burned twice every day continually. 45.15. Moses ordained him,and anointed him with holy oil;it was an everlasting covet for him and for his descendants all the days of heaven,to minister to the Lord and serve as priest and bless his people in his name. 45.16. He chose him out of all the living to offer sacrifice to the Lord,incense and a pleasing odor as a memorial portion,to make atonement for the people. 45.17. In his commandments he gave him authority and statutes and judgments,to teach Jacob the testimonies,and to enlighten Israel with his law. 45.18. Outsiders conspired against him,and envied him in the wilderness,Dathan and Abiram and their men and the company of Korah, in wrath and anger. 45.19. The Lord saw it and was not pleased,and in the wrath of his anger they were destroyed;he wrought wonders against them to consume them in flaming fire. 45.21. for they eat the sacrifices to the Lord,which he gave to him and his descendants. 45.22. But in the land of the people he has no inheritance,and he has no portion among the people;for the Lord himself is his portion and inheritance. 45.23. Phinehas the son of Eleazar is the third in glory,for he was zealous in the fear of the Lord,and stood fast, when the people turned away,in the ready goodness of his soul,and made atonement for Israel. 45.24. Therefore a covet of peace was established with him,that he should be leader of the sanctuary and of his people,that he and his descendants should have the dignity of the priesthood for ever. 45.25. A covet was also established with David,the son of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah:the heritage of the king is from son to son only;so the heritage of Aaron is for his descendants. 45.26. May the Lord grant you wisdom in your heart to judge his people in righteousness,so that their prosperity may not vanish,and that their glory may endure throughout their generations. 50.12. And when he received the portions from the hands of the priests,as he stood by the hearth of the altar with a garland of brethren around him,he was like a young cedar on Lebanon;and they surrounded him like the trunks of palm trees 50.16. Then the sons of Aaron shouted,they sounded the trumpets of hammered work,they made a great noise to be heard for remembrance before the Most High.
19. Septuagint, Judith, 4.14-4.15, 11.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

4.14. And Joakim the high priest and all the priests who stood before the Lord and ministered to the Lord, with their loins girded with sackcloth, offered the continual burnt offerings and the vows and freewill offerings of the people. 4.15. With ashes upon their turbans, they cried out to the Lord with all their might to look with favor upon the whole house of Israel. 11.3. And now tell me why you have fled from them and have come over to us -- since you have come to safety.
20. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.16, 2.1-2.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.16. Then the priests in all their vestments prostrated themselves and entreated the supreme God to aid in the present situation and to avert the violence of this evil design, and they filled the temple with cries and tears; 2.1. Then the high priest Simon, facing the sanctuary, bending his knees and extending his hands with calm dignity, prayed as follows: 2.1. And because you love the house of Israel, you promised that if we should have reverses, and tribulation should overtake us, you would listen to our petition when we come to this place and pray. 2.2. Lord, Lord, king of the heavens, and sovereign of all creation, holy among the holy ones, the only ruler, almighty, give attention to us who are suffering grievously from an impious and profane man, puffed up in his audacity and power. 2.2. Speedily let your mercies overtake us, and put praises in the mouth of those who are downcast and broken in spirit, and give us peace. 2.3. For you, the creator of all things and the governor of all, are a just Ruler, and you judge those who have done anything in insolence and arrogance. 2.3. In order that he might not appear to be an enemy to all, he inscribed below: "But if any of them prefer to join those who have been initiated into the mysteries, they shall have equal citizenship with the Alexandrians. 2.4. You destroyed those who in the past committed injustice, among whom were even giants who trusted in their strength and boldness, whom you destroyed by bringing upon them a boundless flood. 2.5. You consumed with fire and sulphur the men of Sodom who acted arrogantly, who were notorious for their vices; and you made them an example to those who should come afterward. 2.6. You made known your mighty power by inflicting many and varied punishments on the audacious Pharaoh who had enslaved your holy people Israel. 2.7. And when he pursued them with chariots and a mass of troops, you overwhelmed him in the depths of the sea, but carried through safely those who had put their confidence in you, the Ruler over the whole creation. 2.8. And when they had seen works of your hands, they praised you, the Almighty. 2.9. You, O King, when you had created the boundless and immeasurable earth, chose this city and sanctified this place for your name, though you have no need of anything; and when you had glorified it by your magnificent manifestation, you made it a firm foundation for the glory of your great and honored name. 2.11. And indeed you are faithful and true. 2.12. And because oftentimes when our fathers were oppressed you helped them in their humiliation, and rescued them from great evils 2.13. see now, O holy King, that because of our many and great sins we are crushed with suffering, subjected to our enemies, and overtaken by helplessness. 2.14. In our downfall this audacious and profane man undertakes to violate the holy place on earth dedicated to your glorious name. 2.15. For your dwelling, the heaven of heavens, is unapproachable by man. 2.16. But because you graciously bestowed your glory upon your people Israel, you sanctified this place. 2.17. Do not punish us for the defilement committed by these men, or call us to account for this profanation, lest the transgressors boast in their wrath or exult in the arrogance of their tongue, saying 2.18. `We have trampled down the house of the sanctuary as offensive houses are trampled down.' 2.19. Wipe away our sins and disperse our errors, and reveal your mercy at this hour.
21. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 7.305, 8.94, 12.138-12.144, 13.1, 20.216 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.305. 3. And now David being freed from wars and dangers, and enjoying for the future a profound peace, composed songs and hymns to God of several sorts of metre; some of those which he made were trimeters, and some were pentameters. He also made instruments of music, and taught the Levites to sing hymns to God, both on that called the sabbath day, and on other festivals. 8.94. and two hundred thousand trumpets, according to the command of Moses; also two hundred thousand garments of fine linen for the singers, that were Levites. And he made musical instruments, and such as were invented for singing of hymns, called Nablee and Cindree, [psalteries and harps,] which were made of electrum, [the finest brass,] forty thousand. 12.138. “King Antiochus To Ptolemy, Sendeth Greeting. /p“Since the Jews, upon our first entrance on their country, demonstrated their friendship towards us, and when we came to their city [Jerusalem], received us in a splendid manner, and came to meet us with their senate, and gave abundance of provisions to our soldiers, and to the elephants, and joined with us in ejecting the garrison of the Egyptians that were in the citadel 12.139. we have thought fit to reward them, and to retrieve the condition of their city, which hath been greatly depopulated by such accidents as have befallen its inhabitants, and to bring those that have been scattered abroad back to the city. 12.141. And these payments I would have fully paid them, as I have sent orders to you. I would also have the work about the temple finished, and the cloisters, and if there be any thing else that ought to be rebuilt. And for the materials of wood, let it be brought them out of Judea itself and out of the other countries, and out of Libanus tax free; and the same I would have observed as to those other materials which will be necessary, in order to render the temple more glorious; 12.142. and let all of that nation live according to the laws of their own country; and let the senate, and the priests, and the scribes of the temple, and the sacred singers, be discharged from poll-money and the crown tax and other taxes also. 12.143. And that the city may the sooner recover its inhabitants, I grant a discharge from taxes for three years to its present inhabitants, and to such as shall come to it, until the month Hyperberetus. 12.144. We also discharge them for the future from a third part of their taxes, that the losses they have sustained may be repaired. And all those citizens that have been carried away, and are become slaves, we grant them and their children their freedom, and give order that their substance be restored to them.” 13.1. 1. By what means the nation of the Jews recovered their freedom when they had been brought into slavery by the Macedonians, and what struggles, and how many great battles, Judas, the general of their army, ran through, till he was slain as he was fighting for them, hath been related in the foregoing book; 13.1. But when Jonathan knew that Bacchides Was coming upon him, he sent his brother John, who was also called Gaddis, to the Nabatean Arabs, that he might lodge his baggage with them until the battle with Bacchides should be over, for they were the Jews’ friends. 13.1. nor did he abstain from the temple of Dagon itself, but burnt it also, and destroyed those that had fled to it. Now the entire multitude of the enemies that fell in the battle, and were consumed in the temple, were eight thousand. 20.216. 6. Now as many of the Levites, which is a tribe of ours, as were singers of hymns, persuaded the king to assemble a sanhedrim, and to give them leave to wear linen garments, as well as the priests for they said that this would be a work worthy the times of his government, that he might have a memorial of such a novelty, as being his doing.
22. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.31. And he added, that it was the foresight his father had of that his barbarity, which made him never give him any hopes of the kingdom, but when his mind was more infirm than his body, and he was not able to reason soundly, and did not well know what was the character of that son, whom in his second testament he made his successor; and this was done by him at a time when he had no complaints to make of him whom he had named before, when he was sound in body, and when his mind was free from all passion. 2.31. but as his sister Bernice was come to Jerusalem, and saw the wicked practices of the soldiers, she was sorely affected at it, and frequently sent the masters of her horse and her guards to Florus, and begged of him to leave off these slaughters;
23. Mishnah, Arakhin, 2.3, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.3. There are never less than twenty-one blasts in the Temple and never more than forty-eight. There are never less than two harps, nor more than six. There are never less than two flutes, nor more than twelve. On twelve days in the year the flute was played before the altar: At the slaughtering of the first pesah, At the killing of the second pesah, On the first festival day of Pesah, On the festival day of Atzeret (Shavuot), And on the eight days of Sukkot. And they did not play on a pipe [abuv] of bronze but on a pipe of reed, because its tune is sweeter. Nor was anything but a single pipe used for closing a tune, because it makes a pleasant finale. 2.6. There were never less than twelve levites standing on the platform and their number could be increased into infinity. No minor could enter the court of the sanctuary to take part in the service except when the Levites stood up to sing. Nor did they join in the singing with harp and lyre, but with the mouth alone, to add flavor to the music. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: they did not count in the required number, nor did they stand on the platform. Rather they would stand on the ground, so that their heads were between the feet of the levites. And they were called the youth of the Levites."
24. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"
25. Mishnah, Tamid, 4.1, 5.1, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. They would not tie up the lamb but rather they would string its legs together. Those who merited [to bring up] the limbs took hold of it. Thus it was strung up: its head was to the south while its face was turned to the west. The slaughterer stood to the east of it, facing the west. The morning tamid was killed by the north-western corner of the altar at the second ring. The evening tamid was killed by the north-eastern corner at the second ring. While one slaughtered another received the blood. He then proceeded to the north-eastern corner and cast the blood on the eastern and northern sides; he then proceeded to the southwestern corner and cast the blood on the western and southern sides. The remt of the blood he poured out at the southern base of the altar." 5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving." 7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen."
26. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.3, 2.10-2.18, 8.1-8.2, 13.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; 2.10. For it became him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to make the author of their salvation perfect through sufferings. 2.11. For both he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified are all from one, for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brothers 2.12. saying, "I will declare your name to my brothers. In the midst of the congregation I will sing your praise. 2.13. Again, "I will put my trust in him." Again, "Behold, here am I and the children whom God has given me. 2.14. Since then the children have shared in flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner partook of the same, that through death he might bring to nothing him who had the power of death, that is, the devil 2.15. and might deliver all of them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage. 2.16. For most assuredly, not to angels does he give help, but he gives help to the seed of Abraham. 2.17. Therefore he was obligated in all things to be made like his brothers, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. 2.18. For in that he himself has suffered being tempted, he is able to help those who are tempted. 8.1. Now in the things which we are saying, the main point is this. We have such a high priest, who sat down on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens 8.2. a minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, not man. 13.10. We have an altar from which those who serve the holy tabernacle have no right to eat.
27. Anon., Odes of Solomon, 20.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

28. Anon., Testament of Adam, 1.12 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

29. Babylonian Talmud, Arakhin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

11b. על עסקי קול רב אשי אמר מהכא (דה"ב ה, יג) ויהי כאחד למחצצרים ולמשוררים להשמיע קול אחד,רבי יונתן אמר מהכא (במדבר יח, ג) ולא ימותו גם הם גם אתם מה אתם בעבודת מזבח אף הם בעבודת מזבח,תניא נמי הכי ולא ימותו גם הם גם אתם אתם בשלהם והם בשלכם במיתה הם בשלהם אינן במיתה אלא באזהרה,אמר אביי נקיטינן משורר ששיער בשל חבירו במיתה שנאמר (במדבר ג, לח) והחונים לפני המשכן קדמה לפני אהל מועד וגו' והזר הקרב יומת מאי זר אילימא זר ממש הכתיב חדא זימנא אלא לאו זר דאותה עבודה:,מיתיבי משורר ששיער ומשוער ששורר אינן במיתה אלא באזהרה,תנאי היא דתניא מעשה בר' יהושע בר חנניה שהלך לסייע בהגפת דלתות אצל ר' יוחנן בן גודגדא אמר לו בני חזור לאחוריך שאתה מן המשוררים ולא מן המשוערים,מאי לאו בהא קמיפלגי דמר סבר מיתה היא וגזרו בה רבנן ומ"ס אזהרה היא ולא גזרו בה,דכ"ע אזהרה היא מר סבר מסייע גזרו ביה רבנן ומר סבר לא גזרו ביה רבנן,בעי רבי אבין עולת נדבת ציבור טעונה שירה או אינה טעונה שירה {במדבר י } עולותיכם אמר רחמנא אחת עולת חובה ואחת עולת נדבה או דלמא עולותיכם דכולהו ישראל קאמר רחמנא,ת"ש (דה"ב כט, כז) ויאמר חזקיהו להעלות העולה (על המזבח) ובעת החל העולה החל שיר ה' והחצוצרות ע"י כלי (שיר) דוד מלך ישראל האי שירה מאי עבידתה אילימא דעולת חובה ל"ל אימלוכי אלא לאו דעולת נדבה,א"ר יוסף לא עולת ראש חודש הוה וקא מיבעיא להו מי הוקבע ר"ח בזמנו דליקרב או לא,אמר ליה אביי ומי מצית אמרת הכי והכתיב (דה"ב כט, יז) ביום ששה עשר לחדש הראשון וגו' ויאמר חזקיהו להעלות העולה (על המזבח),אלא אמר רמי בריה דרב ייבא כבש הבא עם העומר קמיבעיא להו מי קבע ר"ח בזמנו דליקריב או לא,מתקיף לה רב אויא וליחזי פסח היכי עביד מצה היכי אכיל,אלא אמר רב אשי מידי דהוה אשליחא דציבורא דממליך השתא דאתית להכי אפילו תימא עולת חובה מידי דהוה אשליחא דציבורא דממליך,ת"ש רבי יוסי אומר מגלגלין זכות ליום זכאי וחובה ליום חייב,אמרו כשחרב הבית בראשונה אותו היום תשעה באב היה ומוצאי שבת היה ומוצאי שביעית היתה ומשמרתו של יהויריב היתה והיו כהנים ולוים עומדים על דוכנן ואומרים שירה ומה שירה אמרו (תהלים צד, כג) וישב עליהם את אונם וברעתם יצמיתם ולא הספיקו לומר יצמיתם ה' אלהינו עד שבאו אויבים וכבשום וכן בשניה,האי שירה מאי עבידתיה אילימא דעולת חובה מי הואי בי"ז בתמוז בטל התמיד אלא לאו דעולת נדבה,ותסברא מ"ש דעולת חובה דלא הואי ומ"ש דעולת נדבה דהואי הא לא קשיא בן בקר אקראי בעלמא הוא דאיתרמיא להו,אמר רבא ואיתימא רב אשי ותסברא שירה דיומיה (תהלים כד, א) לה' הארץ ומלואה וישב עליהם את אונם בשיר דארבעה בשבת הוא אלא אילייא בעלמא הוא דנפל להו בפומייהו,והא עומדין על דוכנן קתני כדר"ל דאמר אומר שלא על הקרבן אי הכי בעולת נדבה נמי לימא נפיק מינה חורבא,מאי הוה עלה ת"ש דתני רב מרי בריה דרב כהנא (במדבר י, י) על עולותיכם ועל זבחי שלמיכם,מה עולה קודש קדשים אף שלמים קודש קדשים ומה שלמים קבוע להם זמן אף עולה קבוע לה זמן: 11b. This indicates that God responded to Moses, who was a Levite, by commanding him babout matterspertaining to the bvoice,i.e., that the Levites must accompany the sacrifices with song. bRav Ashi saysthat the obligation for the Levites to sing in the Temple is derived bfrom here: “It came to pass, when the trumpeters and singers were as one, to make one soundto be heard in praising and thanking the Lord” (II Chronicles 5:13). This indicates that just as there is a requirement for trumpets to be sounded during the sacrifice of communal offerings (see Numbers 10:10), there is likewise a requirement for the Levites to sing., bRabbi Yonatan saysthat the requirement for the Levites to sing in the Temple is derived bfrom here:The Torah commands the priests with regard to the Levites: “They shall not come near the altar, bthat they die not, neither they nor you”(Numbers 18:3). The verse equates the Levites with the priests, indicating that bjust as you,the priests, are obligated btoperform the bserviceon the baltar, so too they,the Levites, are obligated btoperform ba servicepertaining to the baltar,i.e., the song that accompanies the offerings.,A derivation of ihalakhotbased on the comparison between priests and Levites in bthisverse bis also taughtin a ibaraita /i: It is stated: b“That they die not, neither they nor you.”This indicates that if byou,the priests, perform btheirduties, i.e., the Levites’ duties, bor they,the Levites, perform byours,e.g., the sacrificial rites, the perpetrator is liable btoreceive bdeathat the hand of Heaven. But if bthey,the Levites, perform a function that belongs to a different group of Levites, but is nevertheless a duty of btheirs,i.e., the Levites in general, e.g., if Levites assigned to open and close the gates of the Temple decide instead to sing, bthey are notpunished bwith death; rather,they have merely violated ba prohibition. /b, bAbaye said: We holdthat a Levite designated to serve as ba singer whoinstead bserved in anotherLevite’s position bas a gatekeeperis liable to be put bto death, as it is stated: “And those that were to pitch tent before the Tabernacle eastward, before the Tent of Meetingtoward the sunrising, were Moses and Aaron and his sons, keeping the charge of the Sanctuary, for the charge of the children of Israel; band the stranger that drew near was to be put to death”(Numbers 3:38). bWhat isthe meaning of the term b“stranger”in this verse? bIf we sayit is referring to ban actual stranger,i.e., a non-Levite, bisn’t it writtenalready on banother occasionthat he is liable to be put to death (see Numbers 3:10)? bRather,this is bnotits meaning; instead, it is referring to one who is a Levite but is ba stranger to that service. /b,The Gemara braises an objectionto Abaye’s statement from a ibaraita /i: bA singer who served as a gatekeeper and a gatekeeper who sang are notpunished bwith death; rather,they have merely violated ba prohibition. /b,The Gemara explains that this matter bisa dispute between itanna’im /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: There was ban incident involving Rabbi Yehoshua bar Ḥaya,a Levite, bwho went to Rabbi Yoḥa ben Gudgeda,also a Levite, in order bto assist in closingthe bdoorsof the Temple. Rabbi Yoḥa ben Gudgeda bsaid to him: My son, go back, as you are among the singers and not among the gatekeepers. /b,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i: bWhat, is it notthe case that these two Levite Sages bdisagree about this, thatone bSage,Rabbi Yoḥa ben Gudgeda, bholdsthat if a Levite who is a singer closes the gate by himself, bit isa prohibition punishable by bdeath, andtherefore bthe Sages decreedthat a Levite who is a singer should not even assist the gatekeepers in closing the gates; bandone bSage,Rabbi Yehoshua bar Ḥaya, bholdsthat bit is a prohibitionthat is not punishable by death, bandtherefore the Sages bdid not decreethat a Levite who is a singer should not assist the gatekeepers in closing the gates?,The Gemara responds: No, that is not necessarily the correct analysis of the ibaraita /i. Rather, beveryoneagrees that one Levite performing another Levite’s task by himself is ba prohibitionthat is not punishable by death. One bSage holdsthat bthe Sagesnevertheless bdecreedthat a Levite who is a singer should not even bassistthe gatekeepers, bandone bSage holdsthat bthe Sages did not decreethat a Levite who is a singer should not assist the gatekeepers in closing the gates.,§ bRabbi Avin raises a dilemma:Does ba communal voluntary burnt offering requirean accompanying bsong ordoes it bnot require song?He explains the two sides of the dilemma: bThe Merciful One statesin the Torah: “You shall blow with the trumpets bover your burnt offerings”(Numbers 10:10). Does the term “burnt offerings” include bboth an obligatory burnt offering and a voluntary burnt offering, or perhaps the Merciful One is sayingthat the trumpets and song must accompany bthe burnt offerings of the entire Jewish people,i.e., they must be burnt offerings that are an obligation of the people?,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from a verse: b“And Hezekiah commanded to offer the burnt offering upon the altar, and when the burnt offering began, the song of the Lord began also, and the trumpets, together with the instruments of David king of Israel /b…And Hezekiah the king and the princes commanded the Levites to sing praises unto the Lord” (II Chronicles 29:27–30). The Gemara analyzes the description of this service: bThis song, what was its purpose? If we say thatit accompanied ban obligatory burnt offeringthat was brought on that day, bwhydid they have bto seek authorizationfrom Hezekiah? Why did Hezekiah need to issue a specific command that they should accompany this offering with song? bRather, is it notthe case bthatthis song served to accompany bthe voluntary burnt offeringthat Hezekiah brought on that day?, bRav Yosef said: No,that day was a New Moon, and bit was theadditional bburnt offering of the New Moon,an obligatory burnt offering, that was accompanied by the song. As for the need for Hezekiah’s approval, the explanation is as follows: It was the thirtieth day following the previous New Moon, band they were askinghim bif thecurrent bNew Moon was established in its time,i.e., on that day, so bthatthe burnt offering of the New Moon should bbe sacrificed, orif the New Moon had bnotbeen declared on that day. Hezekiah clarified that the court had declared the New Moon, and therefore they should sacrifice the offering., bAbaye said toRav Yosef: bAnd how can you saythat that day was the New Moon? bIsn’t it written: “On the sixteenth day of the first month”(II Chronicles 29:17), and later, in that context, it states: b“And Hezekiah commanded to offer the burnt offering upon the altar”? /b, bRather, Rami, son of Rav Yeiva, said:The question bthey were askingHezekiah referred to the obligatory, communal burnt offering blamb that comes with the iomer /i,i.e., the barley offering brought on the sixteenth of the first month, Nisan. They asked: bWas the New Moonof Nisan bestablished in itscorrect btime,which means bthatit is now in fact the sixteenth of Nisan and the iomeroffering and the lamb brought with it should bbe sacrificed, orwas it bnotreally the sixteenth of Nisan?, bRav Avya objects to thisexplanation: How is it possible that they were unsure whether it was the sixteenth of Nisan? bLet them see how the Paschal offering was performedon the fourteenth of Nisan and bhow imatzawas eatenthe following night. The day of the sixteenth of Nisan could easily be determined from when those mitzvot were performed., bRather, Rav Ashi said:They asked permission from Hezekiah before sacrificing the lamb that comes with the iomeroffering, bjust as it is withregard to ba prayer leader, who,as a gesture of respect, basks permissionfrom the congregation before leading them in prayer. Likewise, the people asked permission from Hezekiah as a formal gesture of respect, not because they required his advice. The Gemara notes: bNow that you have arrived at thisexplanation, byoumay beven saythat it was a common bobligatory burnt offering,e.g., the daily offering, and they asked permission of Hezekiah before sacrificing it, bjust as it is withregard to ba prayer leader, who asks permissionfrom the congregation before leading it in prayer.,The Gemara has still not proven whether or not a communal voluntary burnt offering must be accompanied with song. The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof from the following ibaraita /i. bRabbi Yosei says: A fortunatematter bis brought about on an auspicious day, and a deleteriousmatter bon an inauspicious day. /b,As the Sages bsaid: When the Temple was destroyed for the firsttime, bthat day was the Ninth of Av,a date on which several calamities had already occurred; band it was the conclusion of Shabbat,i.e., it was on the day after Shabbat, a Sunday; band it was the year after a SabbaticalYear; band it was the week of the priestly watch of Jehoiarib; and the priests and Levites were standing on their platform and singing song. And what song were they singing?They were singing the verse: b“And He brought upon them their own iniquity, and He will cut them off in their own evil”(Psalms 94:23). bAnd they did not manage to recitethe end of that verse: b“The Lord our God will cut them off,” before gentiles came and conquered them. And likewise,the same happened bwhen the SecondTemple was destroyed.,The Gemara analyzes the ibaraita /i: bThis song, what was its purpose? If we say thatit accompanied ban obligatory burnt offering, was thereany obligatory communal burnt offering sacrificed at that time? bThe daily offering hadalready bceasedto be sacrificed, due to a lack of animals, bon the seventeenth of Tammuz,three weeks before the Ninth of Av. bRather, is it notcorrect to say bthatthis song accompanied ba voluntary burnt offering? /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd can you understandthis to be the case? bWhat is different about an obligatory burnt offering, which was notsacrificed at this time because they did not have animals to bring, band what is different about a voluntary burnt offering, that it wassacrificed? Just as there were no animals available for obligatory offerings, there were none available for voluntary burnt offerings either. The Gemara answers: bThatis bnot difficult. A young bull,which cannot be sacrificed as the daily offering, for which lambs are required, bhappened to come into theirpossession bmerely by coincidence,and they sacrificed it as a voluntary burnt offering. This indicates that the Levites are required to sing as an accompaniment to the sacrifice of a communal voluntary burnt offering., bRava said, and some say Rav Ashisaid: bAndhow can byou understandthe description of the destruction cited in the ibaraita /i? bThe song of the dayfor Sunday, which is when the ibaraitasays that the Temple was destroyed, is the psalm that begins: b“The earth is the Lord’s, and the fullness thereof”(Psalms 24:1). And yet the verse that the ibaraitasays that the Levites were singing, b“And He brought upon them their own iniquity,” is in the song for Wednesday,not the song for Sunday. bRather, it was merelya portentous blamentation[ieiliyya/b] bthat came into their mouths,not an actual song recited over an offering.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin the ibaraitathat the Levites were bstanding on their platformnear the altar, which is where they stood when they sang to accompany offerings? The Gemara answers: This can be explained bin accordance withthe opinion of bReish Lakish, who says:The Levites are permitted to brecitesongs on the platform even when it is bnot for an offering.The Gemara asks: bIf so,if the Levites may recite songs on the platform at will, bletthem balso recitea song bfor a voluntary burnt offering,even if it is not required. The Gemara answers: That could bresult in a mishap,as the Levites might assume that just as singing for a voluntary burnt offering is optional, so too singing for an obligatory burnt offering is also optional.,The question of whether a song must be recited for a communal voluntary burnt offering has still not been resolved. The Gemara asks: bWhat came of it,i.e., what is the resolution to that question? The Gemara responds: bComeand bheara proof, bas Rav Mari, son of Rav Kahana, teachesthat the verse: “You shall blow with the trumpets bover your burnt offerings, and over the sacrifices of your peace offerings”(Numbers 10:10), juxtaposes burnt offerings to peace offerings, which indicates that there is a relevant comparison between them with regard to the sounding of trumpets, and, by extension, to song.,There are two conclusions that are to be drawn from this comparison: bJust asthe bburnt offering is an offering of the most sacred order, so too,the bpeace offeringthat must be accompanied by song is one that is ban offering of the most sacred order,and the only peace offering of this kind is the lambs that are brought together with the two loaves on iShavuot /i. bAnd just asthis bpeace offering has a set timewhen it must be brought, bso too,the bburnt offeringthat must be accompanied by song is one that bhas a set time,which excludes voluntary burnt offerings. Consequently, voluntary burnt offerings are not accompanied by song.
30. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27b. וחלקום והעמידום על עשרים וארבעה בללום ונתנום בקלפי בא ידעיה ונטל חלקו וחלק חבריו שש בא [חרים] ונטל חלקו וחלק חבריו שש וכן פשחור וכן אימר,וכן התנו נביאים שביניהם שאפי' (יהוידיב) ראש משמרת עולה לא ידחה ידעיה ממקומו אלא ידעיה עיקר (ויהוידיב) טפל לו:,וישראל שבאותו משמר מתכנסין בעריהן וקורין במעשה בראשית: מנהני מילי א"ר יעקב בר אחא אמר רב אסי אלמלא מעמדות לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר (בראשית טו, ב) ויאמר ה' אלהים במה אדע כי אירשנה,אמר אברהם רבש"ע שמא ישראל חוטאין לפניך אתה עושה להם כדור המבול וכדור הפלגה א"ל לאו אמר לפניו רבש"ע הודיעני במה אירשנה א"ל (בראשית טו, ט) קחה לי עגלה משולשת ועז משולשת וגו',אמר לפניו רבש"ע תינח בזמן שבית המקדש קיים בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מה תהא עליהם אמר לו כבר תקנתי להם סדר קרבנות בזמן שקוראין בהן לפני מעלה אני עליהם כאילו הקריבום לפני ואני מוחל להם על כל עונותיהם,ת"ר אנשי משמר היו מתפללין על קרבן אחיהם שיתקבל ברצון ואנשי מעמד מתכנסין לבית הכנסת ויושבין ד' תעניות בשני בשבת בשלישי ברביעי ובחמישי בשני על יורדי הים בשלישי על הולכי מדברות,ברביעי על אסכרא שלא תיפול על התינוקות בחמישי על עוברות ומיניקות עוברות שלא יפילו מיניקות שיניקו את בניהם ובערב שבת לא היו מתענין מפני כבוד השבת ק"ו בשבת עצמה,באחד בשבת מ"ט לא אמר ר' יוחנן מפני הנוצרים ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר מפני שהוא שלישי ליצירה,ריש לקיש אמר מפני נשמה יתירה דאמר ריש לקיש נשמה יתירה ניתנה בו באדם בע"ש במוצאי שבת נוטלין אותה ממנו שנאמר (שמות לא, יז) שבת וינפש כיון ששבת וי אבדה נפש:,ביום הראשון בראשית ויהי רקיע: תנא בראשית בשנים יהי רקיע באחד בשלמא יהי רקיע באחד תלתא פסוקי הוו אלא בראשית בשנים (מ"ט) ה' פסוקי הויין (ותנן) הקורא בתורה אל יפחות מג' פסוקים,רב אמר דולג ושמואל אמר פוסק ורב דאמר דולג מ"ט לא אמר פוסק קסבר כל פסוקא דלא פסקיה משה אנן לא פסקינן ליה,ושמואל אמר פוסק ומי פסקינן והאמר רבי חנינא קרא צער גדול היה לי אצל ר' חנינא הגדול ולא התיר לי לפסוק אלא לתינוקות של בית רבן הואיל ולהתלמד עשוין ושמואל התם טעמא מאי משום דלא אפשר הכא נמי לא אפשר,ושמואל אמר פוסק מ"ט לא אמר דולג גזירה משום הנכנסין וגזירה משום היוצאין,מיתיבי פרשה של ששה פסוקים קורין אותה בשנים ושל חמשה [ביחיד ואם] הראשון קורא ג' השני קורא שנים מפרשה זו ואחד מפרשה אחרת וי"א ג' לפי שאין מתחילין בפרשה פחות משלשה פסוקין,למ"ד דולג לידלוג ולמאן דאמר פוסק ליפסוק שאני התם 27b. band divided them and established them as twenty-fourwatches. They achieved this by writing the names of these new twenty-four watches on pieces of paper, bmixing them up, and putting them in a receptacle [ ikalfei /i]from which lots were drawn. A representative from the family of bJedaiah came and drew his portion and the lot offive botherwatches, for a total of bsix. Harim came andalso bdrew his portion and the lot offive botherwatches, a total of bsix. And likewise Pashhur, and likewise Immer. /b, bAnd likewise the prophets among them stipulated that evenif the descendants of bJehoiarib, whooriginally bheaded the priestly watches, ascendedto Eretz Yisrael, bJedaiah would not be demoted from its placeas the first of the watches. Rather, the watch of bJedaiahwould retain bprecedence, and Jehoiaribwould be bsubordinate to it. /b,§ The mishna taught: bAnd the Israelites of that priestly watch assembled in their towns and read the act of Creation.The Gemara asks: bFrom where is this matter,that they must read this specific portion, derived? bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa saidthat bRav Asi said: Were it not forthe bnon-priestly watchesand the Temple service, bheaven and earth would not continue to exist, as it is stated: “And he said: Lord God, by what shall I know that I shall inherit it?”(Genesis 15:8).,The Gemara explains this verse. bAbraham said: Master of the Universe, perhaps the Jewswill bsin before You.Will bYou treat them asYou did bthe generation of the flood and the generation of the dispersion,and destroy them? God bsaid to him: No.Abraham bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, tell me, with what shall I inherit it?How can my descendants ensure that You will maintain the world? God bsaid toAbraham: b“Take for Me a three-year-old heifer, and a three-year-old goat,and a three-year-old ram, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon” (Genesis 15:9). God was alluding to the offerings, in whose merit the Jewish people, and through them the entire world, will be spared divine punishment.,Abraham bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe,this bworks out well when the Temple is standing,but bwhen the Temple is not standing, what will become of them?God bsaid to him: I have already enacted for them the order of offerings. When they read them before Me, I will ascribe themcredit bas though they had sacrificed them before Me and I will pardon them for all their transgressions.Since the offerings ensure the continued existence of the Jewish people and the rest of the world, the act of Creation is read in their honor.,§ bThe Sages taught: The members of the priestly watch would pray for the offerings of their brothers,the daily offering, bthat it should be accepted with favor. Andmeanwhile, bthe members ofthe bnon-priestly watchremained in their towns and would bassemble in the synagogue and observe four fasts: On Monday ofthat bweek, on Tuesday, on Wednesday, and on Thursday. On Mondaythey would fast bfor seafarers,that they should be rescued from danger, as the sea was created on Monday. bOn Tuesdaythey would fast bfor those who walk in the desert,as the dry land was created on Tuesday., bOn Wednesdaythey would fast bover croup, that it should not befall the children,as on the fourth day the bodies of light [ ime’orot /i] were created, a textual allusion to curses [ ime’erot /i]. bOn Thursdaythey would fast bfor pregt women and nursing women,as living beings were first created on this day. For bpregt womenthey would fast bthat they should not miscarry,while for bnursing womenthey would fast bthat theyshould be able to bnurse their childrenproperly. bAnd on Shabbat eve they would not fast, in deference to Shabbat,and ia fortiori /ithey would not fast bon Shabbat itself. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat is the reasonthat they would bnotfast bon Sunday? Rabbi Yoḥa said: Due to the Christians,as Sunday is their day of rest, and they would claim that even the Jews ascribe significance to their special day. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Because it is the third day after the creationof man, who was created on Friday, and the third day of recovery from a wound or sickness, in this case one’s very creation, is considered the most painful., bReish Lakish said:They would not fast on Sunday bdue to the added soul, as Reish Lakish said: An added soul is given to man on Shabbat eve,and bat the conclusion of Shabbat it is removed it from him, as it is stated: “He ceased from work and rested[ivayinafash/b]” (Exodus 31:17), which he expounds as follows: bSince one has restedand Shabbat has passed, bwoe for the soul [ ivai nefesh /i]that is blost,the added soul that each individual relinquishes. Consequently, one is still weak from this loss on Sunday.,The mishna taught that bon Sundaythey would read the portions starting with: b“In the beginning”(Genesis 1:1–5) band “Let there be a firmament”(Genesis 1:6–8). It bis taughtin a ibaraita /i: The section: b“In the beginning”is read bby twopeople, while b“Let there be a firmament”is read bby one.The Gemara asks: bGranted,the passage b“Let there be a firmament”is read bby oneindividual, as bit is three verseslong, and one who is called to the Torah reads at least three verses. bHowever, what is the reasonthat the section b“In the beginning”is read bby twoindividuals? It is five verses long, band it is taughtin a mishna ( iMegilla22a): bOne who reads from the Torahmay bnotread bfewer than three verses.How, then, are five verses read by two individuals?,The Gemara cites two answers. bRav said:The first reader reads the first three verses, and the second reader brepeatsthe last verse read by the first, and continues with the final two verses. bAnd Shmuel said:They bsplitthe middle verse into two, so that each of the pair reads half of it. The Gemara asks: bAndwith regard to bRav, who saidthat one brepeats, what is the reasonthat bhe did not saythey should bsplita verse? The Gemara answers that Rav bmaintainsthat with regard to bany verse that was not divided by Moses, we do not divide it. /b, bAnd Shmuel saidthat one bsplitsthe middle verse into two. The Gemara asks: bAnd may one splita single verse? bBut didn’t Rabbi Ḥanina Kara,the Bible expert, who taught the Bible to schoolchildren, bsay: I had great trouble with Rabbi Ḥanina the Greatwhen I asked him this question, band he permitted me to splitlong verses into two bonly forthe benefit of bschoolchildren, since it is performed tohelp them blearn. And Shmuelcan respond that bwhat is the reason there,in the case of schoolchildren, that it is permitted to split verses? bBecause it is not possibleto proceed in any other way. bHere too, it is not possiblefor two people to read five verses other than by splitting one of them into two.,The Gemara questions this last conclusion. bAnd Shmuel saidthat one bsplitsthe middle verse into two. bWhat is the reasonthat bhe did not saythat he brepeatsone of the verses, in accordance with the opinion of Rav? The Gemara explains: It is a rabbinic bdecree due to those who enterthe synagogue in the middle of the reading, and ba decree due to those who leavein the middle. If someone entered or exited in the middle of the reading and heard three full verses, he might think that one of the readers had read fewer than three full verses, which might lead him to conclude that it is permitted to read fewer than three verses.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: bA chapterconsisting bof six versesmay bbe read by twoindividuals, banda chapter bof fiveverses must be read bby one. And if the firstindividual breads threeverses from the five-verse chapter, bthe secondone reads the last btwoverses bof that chapter and onemore from banother chapter. And some saythat bthreeverses are read from the next chapter, bas one may not begin to read a chapterfor bfewer than three verses. /b,The Gemara explains the objection: bAccording to the one who saidthat they brepeatthe middle verse, bletthe second reader brepeata verse here as well. bAnd according to the one who saidthat they bsplita verse, here too, bletthem bsplitit. Apparently, the ibaraitacontradicts the opinions of both Rav and Shmuel. The Gemara answers: bIt is different there, /b
31. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 92-93, 95, 87

87. pectacle from which a man could scarcely tear himself away. The construction of the altar was in keeping with the place itself and with the burnt offerings which were consumed by fire upon it, and the approach to it was on a similar scale. There was a gradual slope up to it, conveniently arranged for the purpose of decency, and the ministering priests were robed in linen garments, down to their


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aaron Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
abomination Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
agrippa ii Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
altar Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
altar (of the temple), its dedication, inauguration Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
altar (of the temple) Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
ancestral language' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 438
antiochos iv epiphanes, and cultic changes in jerusalem Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
antiochos iv epiphanes, his desecration of the temple Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
antiochus, iii Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
aramaic Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 438
artaxerxes i Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
brother, brotherhood Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
chislev Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227
community Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
diaspora Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227
disruption, cycles of, and time of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
egypt Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227
eschatology, eschatological Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
eschatology Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227
familial Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
family Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
festivals Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227
gaius caligula Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 438
god Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
hanukkah festival Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
hanukkah story Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
hasmonean dynasty, hasmoneans Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
hebrew (language) Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 438
high priest Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
i and ii maccabees Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
identity, jewish Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227
index of subjects\nabraham" Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227
isaac Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227
jacob Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227
jeremiah Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
judas maccabee, his first temple refoundation Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
judas maccabee Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
justice, social Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
kings, books of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
letter, letters, festal letters Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
levites Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
maccabees, family, clan, maccabees, family, clan, their reconquest and rededication of the temple Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
maimonides Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
martyrdom, martyr, desire Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
martyrdom, martyr, judaism, jewish Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
martyrdom, martyr, sacrifice Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
martyrdom, martyr, trauma, traumatic experience Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
medium, media Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
ministry Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
nehemiah Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227; Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
order, political Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
pain Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
prayer, and sacrifice Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 578
prayer Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 578
priest, priestly Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
priesthood Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 578; Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
ptolemy, seleucid governor Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
sacrifice Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 578
sacrifices, resumption of Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
sacrifices Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
sanctuary Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
seleucid monarchy Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
seleucids, privileges granted jews Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
seleucids, tax exemptions Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 578
solidarity Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
solomon Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 578; Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
sukkot Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227
sukkoth festival Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
tamid Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 578
tefillah, and tamid Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 578
tefillah, civic prayer for jerusalem Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 578
temple, daily prayer service Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 578
temple, personnel Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333
temple, singers Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 333, 578
temple Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227
temple dedication (rededication), by judas maccabee Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
temple dedication (rededication), in the judahite/judean tradition Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
temple foundation (refoundation), royal prerogative Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132
tent of testimony Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
testimony, testify Maier and Waldner, Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time (2022) 31
torah, obedience to Beyerle and Goff, Notions of Time in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature (2022) 227
zerubbabel and joshua Honigman, Tales of High Priests and Taxes: The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV (2014) 132