Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.16

nanOpening the secret door in the ceiling, they threw stones and struck down the leader and his men, and dismembered them and cut off their heads and threw them to the people outside.'

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 40.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

40.19. בְּעוֹד שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים יִשָּׂא פַרְעֹה אֶת־רֹאשְׁךָ מֵעָלֶיךָ וְתָלָה אוֹתְךָ עַל־עֵץ וְאָכַל הָעוֹף אֶת־בְּשָׂרְךָ מֵעָלֶיךָ׃ 40.19. within yet three days shall Pharaoh lift up thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee on a tree; and the birds shall eat thy flesh from off thee.’"
2. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 10.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.7. וַיְהִי כְּבֹא הַסֵּפֶר אֲלֵיהֶם וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ וַיָּשִׂימוּ אֶת־רָאשֵׁיהֶם בַּדּוּדִים וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ אֵלָיו יִזְרְעֶאלָה׃ 10.7. And it came to pass, when the letter came to them, that they took the king’s sons, and slew them, even seventy persons, and put their heads in baskets, and sent them unto him to Jezreel."
3. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 16.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲבִישַׁי בֶּן־צְרוּיָה אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ לָמָּה יְקַלֵּל הַכֶּלֶב הַמֵּת הַזֶּה אֶת־אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶעְבְּרָה־נָּא וְאָסִירָה אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ׃ 16.9. Then said Avishay the son of Żeruya to the king, Why should this dead dog curse my lord the king? let me go over, I pray thee, and take off his head."
4. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 7.1 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

7.1. וּבְיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי שִׁלַּח אֶת־הָעָם לְאָהֳלֵיהֶם שְׂמֵחִים וְטוֹבֵי לֵב עַל־הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה לְדָוִיד וְלִשְׁלֹמֹה וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַמּוֹ׃ 7.1. וּכְכַלּוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה לְהִתְפַּלֵּל וְהָאֵשׁ יָרְדָה מֵהַשָּׁמַיִם וַתֹּאכַל הָעֹלָה וְהַזְּבָחִים וּכְבוֹד יְהוָה מָלֵא אֶת־הַבָּיִת׃ 7.1. Now when Solomon had made an end of praying, the fire came down from heaven, and consumed the burnt-offering and the sacrifices; and the glory of the LORD filled the house."
5. Herodotus, Histories, 3.79, 4.64-4.65, 4.103, 7.238, 9.78-9.79 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.79. When they had killed the Magi and cut off their heads, they left their wounded there because of their infirmity and for the sake of guarding the acropolis, while five of them carrying the Magi's heads ran outside with much shouting and commotion, calling all Persians to aid, telling what they had done and showing the heads; at the same time they killed every Magus that came in their way. ,The Persians, when they learned what had been done by the seven and how the Magi had tricked them, resolved to follow the example set, and drew their daggers and killed all the Magi they could find; and if nightfall had not stopped them they would not have left one Magus alive. ,This day is the greatest holy day that all Persians alike keep; they celebrate a great festival on it, which they call the Massacre of the Magi; while the festival lasts no Magus may go outdoors, but during this day the Magi remain in their houses. 4.64. As to war, these are their customs. A Scythian drinks the blood of the first man whom he has taken down. He carries the heads of all whom he has slain in the battle to his king; for if he brings a head, he receives a share of the booty taken, but not otherwise. ,He scalps the head by making a cut around it by the ears, then grasping the scalp and shaking the head off. Then he scrapes out the flesh with the rib of a steer, and kneads the skin with his hands, and having made it supple he keeps it for a hand towel, fastening it to the bridle of the horse which he himself rides, and taking pride in it; for he who has most scalps for hand towels is judged the best man. ,Many Scythians even make garments to wear out of these scalps, sewing them together like coats of skin. Many too take off the skin, nails and all, from their dead enemies' right hands, and make coverings for their quivers;the human skin was, as it turned out, thick and shining, the brightest and whitest skin of all, one might say. ,Many flay the skin from the whole body, too, and carry it about on horseback stretched on a wooden frame. 4.65. The heads themselves, not all of them but those of their bitterest enemies, they treat this way. Each saws off all the part beneath the eyebrows, and cleans the rest. If he is a poor man, then he covers the outside with a piece of raw hide, and so makes use of it; but if he is rich, he covers the head with the raw hide, and gilds the inside of it and uses it for a drinking-cup. ,Such a cup a man also makes out of the head of his own kinsman with whom he has been feuding, and whom he has defeated in single combat before the king; and if guests whom he honors visit him he will serve them with these heads, and show how the dead were his kinsfolk who fought him and were beaten by him; this they call manly valor. 4.103. Among these, the Tauri have the following customs: all ship-wrecked men, and any Greeks whom they capture in their sea-raids, they sacrifice to the Virgin goddess as I will describe: after the first rites of sacrifice, they strike the victim on the head with a club; ,according to some, they then place the head on a pole and throw the body off the cliff on which their temple stands; others agree as to the head, but say that the body is buried, not thrown off the cliff. The Tauri themselves say that this deity to whom they sacrifice is Agamemnon's daughter Iphigenia. ,As for enemies whom they defeat, each cuts his enemy's head off and carries it away to his house, where he places it on a tall pole and stands it high above the dwelling, above the smoke-vent for the most part. These heads, they say, are set up to guard the whole house. The Tauri live by plundering and war. 7.238. Having spoken in this way, Xerxes passed over the place where the dead lay and hearing that Leonidas had been king and general of the Lacedaemonians, he gave orders to cut off his head and impale it. ,It is plain to me by this piece of evidence among many others, that while Leonidas lived, king Xerxes was more incensed against him than against all others; otherwise he would never have dealt so outrageously with his dead body, for the Persians are beyond all men known in the habit of honoring valiant warriors. They, then, who received these orders did as I have said. 9.78. There was at Plataea in the army of the Aeginetans one Lampon, son of Pytheas, a leading man of Aegina. He hastened to Pausanias with really outrageous counsel and coming upon him, said to him: ,“son of Cleombrotus, you have done a deed of surpassing greatness and glory; the god has granted to you in saving Hellas to have won greater renown than any Greek whom we know. But now you must finish what remains for the rest, so that your fame may be greater still and so that no barbarian will hereafter begin doing reckless deeds against the Greeks. ,When Leonidas was killed at Thermopylae, Mardonius and Xerxes cut off his head and set it on a pole; make them a like return, and you will win praise from all Spartans and the rest of Hellas besides. For if you impale Mardonius, you will be avenged for your father's brother Leonidas.” 9.79. This is what Lampon, thinking to please, said. Pausanias, however, answered him as follows: “Aeginetan, I thank you for your goodwill and forethought, but you have missed the mark of right judgment. First you exalt me and my fatherland and my deeds, yet next you cast me down to mere nothingness when you advise me to insult the dead, and say that I shall win more praise if I do so. That would be an act more proper for barbarians than for Greeks and one that we consider worthy of censure even in barbarians. ,No, as for myself, I would prefer to find no favor either with the people of Aegina or anyone else who is pleased by such acts. It is enough for me if I please the Spartans by righteous deeds and speech. As for Leonidas, whom you would have me avenge, I think that he has received a full measure of vengeance; the uncounted souls of these that you see have done honor to him and the rest of those who died at Thermopylae. But to you this is my warning: do not come again to me with words like these nor give me such counsel. Be thankful now that you go unpunished.”
6. Polybius, Histories, 21.38, 31.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

21.38. 1.  Chiomara, the wife of Ortiagon, was captured with the other women when the Asiatic Gauls were defeated by the Romans under Manlius.,2.  The centurion into whose hands she fell took advantage of his capture with a soldier's brutality and did violence to her.,3.  The man was indeed an ill-bred lout, the slave both of gain and of lust, but his love of gain prevailed; and as a considerable sum had been promised him for the woman's ransom, he brought her to a certain place to deliver her up, a river running between him and the messengers.,4.  When the Gauls crossed and after handing him the money were taking possession of Chiomara, she signed to one of them to strike the man as he was taking an affectionate leave of her.,5.  The man obeyed and cut off his head, which she took up and wrapped in the folds of her dress, and then drove off.,6.  When she came into the presence of her husband and threw the head at his feet, he was astonished and said, "Ah! my wife, it is good to keep faith." "Yes," she replied, "but it is better still that only one man who has lain with me should remain alive.",7.  Polybius tells us that he met and conversed with the lady at Sardis and admired her high spirit and intelligence. (Cp. Livy XXXVIII.25) 31.9. 1.  In Syria King Antiochus, wishing to provide himself with money, decided to make an expedition against the sanctuary of Artemis in Elymaïs.,2.  On reaching the spot he was foiled in his hopes, as the barbarian tribes who dwelt in the neighbourhood would not permit the outrage,,3.  and on his retreat he died at Tabae in Persia, smitten with madness, as some people say,,4.  owing to certain manifestations of divine displeasure when he was attempting this outrage on the above sanctuary. IV. Affairs of Italy The Rival Ptolemie
7. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 6.1-6.2, 6.5-6.13, 11.17, 16.23-16.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

6.1. King Antiochus was going through the upper provinces when he heard that Elymais in Persia was a city famed for its wealth in silver and gold. 6.2. Its temple was very rich, containing golden shields, breastplates, and weapons left there by Alexander, the son of Philip, the Macedonian king who first reigned over the Greeks. 6.5. Then some one came to him in Persia and reported that the armies which had gone into the land of Judah had been routed; 6.6. that Lysias had gone first with a strong force, but had turned and fled before the Jews; that the Jews had grown strong from the arms, supplies, and abundant spoils which they had taken from the armies they had cut down; 6.7. that they had torn down the abomination which he had erected upon the altar in Jerusalem; and that they had surrounded the sanctuary with high walls as before, and also Beth-zur, his city. 6.8. When the king heard this news, he was astounded and badly shaken. He took to his bed and became sick from grief, because things had not turned out for him as he had planned. 6.9. He lay there for many days, because deep grief continually gripped him, and he concluded that he was dying. 6.10. So he called all his friends and said to them, "Sleep departs from my eyes and I am downhearted with worry. 6.11. I said to myself, `To what distress I have come! And into what a great flood I now am plunged! For I was kind and beloved in my power. 6.12. But now I remember the evils I did in Jerusalem. I seized all her vessels of silver and gold; and I sent to destroy the inhabitants of Judah without good reason. 6.13. I know that it is because of this that these evils have come upon me; and behold, I am perishing of deep grief in a strange land. 11.17. And Zabdiel the Arab cut off the head of Alexander and sent it to Ptolemy. 16.23. The rest of the acts of John and his wars and the brave deeds which he did, and the building of the walls which he built, and his achievements 16.24. behold, they are written in the chronicles of his high priesthood, from the time that he became high priest after his father.
8. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, None (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. The Jewish brethren in Jerusalem and those in the land of Judea, To their Jewish brethren in Egypt, Greeting, and good peace.'
9. Septuagint, Judith, 14.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

14.15. But when no one answered, he opened it and went into the bedchamber and found him thrown down on the platform dead, with his head cut off and missing.
10. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

11. Anon., 2 Baruch, 6.7-6.9, 80.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.354-13.356, 18.74 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.354. But Aias’s counsel was contrary to theirs, who said that “she would do an unjust action if she deprived a man that was her ally of that authority which belonged to him, and this a man who is related to us; for,” said he, “I would not have thee ignorant of this, that what injustice thou dost to him will make all us that are Jews to be thy enemies.” 13.355. This desire of Aias Cleopatra complied with, and did no injury to Alexander, but made a league of mutual assistance with him at Scythopolis, a city of Celesyria. 13.356. 3. So when Alexander was delivered from the fear he was in of Ptolemy, he presently made an expedition against Celesyria. He also took Gadara, after a siege of ten months. He took also Amathus, a very strong fortress belonging to the inhabitants above Jordan, where Theodorus, the son of Zeno, had his chief treasure, and what he esteemed most precious. This Zeno fell unexpectedly upon the Jews, and slew ten thousand of them, and seized upon Alexander’s baggage. 18.74. Accordingly, she went to the temple, and after she had supped there, and it was the hour to go to sleep, the priest shut the doors of the temple, when, in the holy part of it, the lights were also put out. Then did Mundus leap out, (for he was hidden therein,) and did not fail of enjoying her, who was at his service all the night long, as supposing he was the god;
13. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 31.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
1 maccabees,dating of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 520, 521
alexander the great Gera (2014), Judith, 397
antiochus iv epiphanes,death of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 133, 520, 527
antiochus vii sidetes Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 521
aristobulus,identity of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 144
ashurbanipal Gera (2014), Judith, 397
assyrian royal inscriptions Gera (2014), Judith, 397
barak Gera (2014), Judith, 397
beheadings and decapitations Gera (2014), Judith, 397
book of judith,and greek writings Gera (2014), Judith, 397
book of judith,author Gera (2014), Judith, 397
book of judith,date Gera (2014), Judith, 397
calendrical systems Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 144, 520
caves Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 133
chiomara Gera (2014), Judith, 397
corpses Gera (2014), Judith, 397
divine plan/βουλή Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 173
dreams Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 173
editors,jerusalemite Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 144, 527
epitomator,see also author Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 25
externality Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 527
fire,liquid from altar Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 133, 150, 527
god,kingdom of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 147
hanukkah,holiday of,festival of lights Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 150
hanukkah,holiday of,secondary interest Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 520
herodotus Gera (2014), Judith, 397
holophernes,death and decapitation Gera (2014), Judith, 397
holophernes Gera (2014), Judith, 397
irony Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 147
jael,of judges Gera (2014), Judith, 397
jason (high priest) Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 133, 147, 527
jerusalem,temple Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 173
jerusalem Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 133
john hyrcanus,death of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 520
judas maccabaeus Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 520
kings,haughty Gera (2014), Judith, 397
letter,first,2 macc.,connection to 2 macc. Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 527
letter,first,2 macc. Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 133
letter,second,2 macc. Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 133
letters,author of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 144
letters,dating Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 520, 521
letters,distinctiveness,see also hanukkah narrative Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 144
letters,number of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 520, 521
letters,semitic vorlage' Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 147
letters Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 520, 521, 527
martyrologies,as secondary source Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 25
motifs (thematic),games with epiphanes Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 25
motifs (thematic),tit for tat Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 25
nehemiah Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 133, 527
nicanors day Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 520
polybius Gera (2014), Judith, 397
portents Crabb (2020), Luke/Acts and the End of History, 173
ptolemy vi philometor Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 144
rape Gera (2014), Judith, 397
scythians Gera (2014), Judith, 397
sexual encounters Gera (2014), Judith, 397
sisera,of judges Gera (2014), Judith, 397
slaves Gera (2014), Judith, 397
sources of 2 maccabees Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 25
spitamenes Gera (2014), Judith, 397
swords Gera (2014), Judith, 397
temple (first) Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 133
temple (second),legitimacy of Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 133, 150
tents,holophernes Gera (2014), Judith, 397
tomyris Gera (2014), Judith, 397
wine and drunkenness,drinking parties Gera (2014), Judith, 397