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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



657
Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 12.13


nanBut as for ourselves, many afflictions and many wars have encircled us; the kings round about us have waged war against us.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

13 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 8, 2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 33.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

33.5. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אַתֶּם עַם־קְשֵׁה־עֹרֶף רֶגַע אֶחָד אֶעֱלֶה בְקִרְבְּךָ וְכִלִּיתִיךָ וְעַתָּה הוֹרֵד עֶדְיְךָ מֵעָלֶיךָ וְאֵדְעָה מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃ 33.5. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Say unto the children of Israel: Ye are a stiffnecked people; if I go up into the midst of thee for one moment, I shall consume thee; therefore now put off thy ornaments from thee, that I may know what to do unto thee.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 24.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

24.17. בִּנְפֹל אויביך [אוֹיִבְךָ] אַל־תִּשְׂמָח וּבִכָּשְׁלוֹ אַל־יָגֵל לִבֶּךָ׃ 24.17. Rejoice not when thine enemy falleth, And let not thy heart be glad when he stumbleth;"
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 48.7, 83.5, 93.3-93.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

48.7. רְעָדָה אֲחָזָתַם שָׁם חִיל כַּיּוֹלֵדָה׃ 83.5. אָמְרוּ לְכוּ וְנַכְחִידֵם מִגּוֹי וְלֹא־יִזָּכֵר שֵׁם־יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹד׃ 93.3. נָשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת יְהוָה נָשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת קוֹלָם יִשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת דָּכְיָם׃ 93.4. מִקֹּלוֹת מַיִם רַבִּים אַדִּירִים מִשְׁבְּרֵי־יָם אַדִּיר בַּמָּרוֹם יְהוָה׃ 48.7. Trembling took hold of them there, Pangs, as of a woman in travail." 83.5. They have said: 'Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; That the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance.'" 93.3. The floods have lifted up, O LORD, The floods have lifted up their voice; The floods lift up their roaring." 93.4. Above the voices of many waters, The mighty breakers of the sea, The LORD on high is mighty."
6. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 22.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

22.4. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־יְהוֹשָׁפָט הֲתֵלֵךְ אִתִּי לַמִּלְחָמָה רָמֹת גִּלְעָד וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשָׁפָט אֶל־מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּמוֹנִי כָמוֹךָ כְּעַמִּי כְעַמֶּךָ כְּסוּסַי כְּסוּסֶיךָ׃ 22.4. וַיִּשְׁכַּב אַחְאָב עִם־אֲבֹתָיו וַיִּמְלֹךְ אֲחַזְיָהוּ בְנוֹ תַּחְתָּיו׃ 22.4. And he said unto Jehoshaphat: ‘Wilt thou go with me to battle to Ramoth-gilead?’ And Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel: ‘I am as thou art, my people as thy people, my horses as thy horses.’"
7. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.11-1.15, 1.64, 3.52, 3.58, 4.52-4.56, 7.40-7.42, 11.38-11.51, 12.1-12.4, 12.6-12.12, 12.14-12.23, 13.41, 14.13, 14.16-14.23, 15.15-15.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.11. In those days lawless men came forth from Israel, and misled many, saying, "Let us go and make a covet with the Gentiles round about us, for since we separated from them many evils have come upon us. 1.12. This proposal pleased them 1.13. and some of the people eagerly went to the king. He authorized them to observe the ordices of the Gentiles. 1.14. So they built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, according to Gentile custom 1.15. and removed the marks of circumcision, and abandoned the holy covet. They joined with the Gentiles and sold themselves to do evil. 1.64. And very great wrath came upon Israel. 3.52. And behold, the Gentiles are assembled against us to destroy us;thou knowest what they plot against us. 3.58. And Judas said, "Gird yourselves and be valiant. Be ready early in the morning to fight with these Gentiles who have assembled against us to destroy us and our sanctuary. 4.52. Early in the morning on the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month, which is the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-eighth year 4.53. they rose and offered sacrifice, as the law directs, on the new altar of burnt offering which they had built. 4.54. At the very season and on the very day that the Gentiles had profaned it, it was dedicated with songs and harps and lutes and cymbals. 4.55. All the people fell on their faces and worshiped and blessed Heaven, who had prospered them. 4.56. So they celebrated the dedication of the altar for eight days, and offered burnt offerings with gladness; they offered a sacrifice of deliverance and praise. 7.40. And Judas encamped in Adasa with three thousand men. Then Judas prayed and said 7.41. When the messengers from the king spoke blasphemy, thy angel went forth and struck down one hundred and eighty-five thousand of the Assyrians. 7.42. So also crush this army before us today; let the rest learn that Nicanor has spoken wickedly against the sanctuary, and judge him according to this wickedness. 11.38. Now when Demetrius the king saw that the land was quiet before him and that there was no opposition to him, he dismissed all his troops, each man to his own place, except the foreign troops which he had recruited from the islands of the nations. So all the troops who had served his fathers hated him. 11.39. Now Trypho had formerly been one of Alexanders supporters. He saw that all the troops were murmuring against Demetrius. So he went to Imalkue the Arab, who was bringing up Antiochus, the young son of Alexander 11.40. and insistently urged him to hand Antiochus over to him, to become king in place of his father. He also reported to Imalkue what Demetrius had done and told of the hatred which the troops of Demetrius had for him; and he stayed there many days. 11.41. Now Jonathan sent to Demetrius the king the request that he remove the troops of the citadel from Jerusalem, and the troops in the strongholds; for they kept fighting against Israel. 11.42. And Demetrius sent this message to Jonathan, "Not only will I do these things for you and your nation, but I will confer great honor on you and your nation, if I find an opportunity. 11.43. Now then you will do well to send me men who will help me, for all my troops have revolted. 11.44. So Jonathan sent three thousand stalwart men to him at Antioch, and when they came to the king, the king rejoiced at their arrival. 11.45. Then the men of the city assembled within the city, to the number of a hundred and twenty thousand, and they wanted to kill the king. 12.1. Now when Jonathan saw that the time was favorable for him, he chose men and sent them to Rome to confirm and renew the friendship with them. 12.2. He also sent letters to the same effect to the Spartans and to other places. 12.3. So they went to Rome and entered the senate chamber and said, "Jonathan the high priest and the Jewish nation have sent us to renew the former friendship and alliance with them. 12.4. And the Romans gave them letters to the people in every place, asking them to provide for the envoys safe conduct to the land of Judah. 12.6. Jonathan the high priest, the senate of the nation, the priests, and the rest of the Jewish people to their brethren the Spartans, greeting. 12.7. Already in time past a letter was sent to Onias the high priest from Arius, who was king among you, stating that you are our brethren, as the appended copy shows. 12.8. Onias welcomed the envoy with honor, and received the letter, which contained a clear declaration of alliance and friendship. 12.9. Therefore, though we have no need of these things, since we have as encouragement the holy books which are in our hands 12.10. we have undertaken to send to renew our brotherhood and friendship with you, so that we may not become estranged from you, for considerable time has passed since you sent your letter to us. 12.11. We therefore remember you constantly on every occasion, both in our feasts and on other appropriate days, at the sacrifices which we offer and in our prayers, as it is right and proper to remember brethren. 12.12. And we rejoice in your glory. 12.14. We were unwilling to annoy you and our other allies and friends with these wars 12.15. for we have the help which comes from Heaven for our aid; and we were delivered from our enemies and our enemies were humbled. 12.16. We therefore have chosen Numenius the son of Antiochus and Antipater the son of Jason, and have sent them to Rome to renew our former friendship and alliance with them. 12.17. We have commanded them to go also to you and greet you and deliver to you this letter from us concerning the renewal of our brotherhood. 12.18. And now please send us a reply to this. 12.19. This is a copy of the letter which they sent to Onias: 12.20. Arius, king of the Spartans, to Onias the high priest, greeting. 12.21. It has been found in writing concerning the Spartans and the Jews that they are brethren and are of the family of Abraham. 12.22. And now that we have learned this, please write us concerning your welfare; 12.23. we on our part write to you that your cattle and your property belong to us, and ours belong to you. We therefore command that our envoys report to you accordingly. 13.41. In the one hundred and seventieth year the yoke of the Gentiles was removed from Israel 14.13. No one was left in the land to fight them,and the kings were crushed in those days. 14.16. It was heard in Rome, and as far away as Sparta, that Jonathan had died, and they were deeply grieved. 14.17. When they heard that Simon his brother had become high priest in his place, and that he was ruling over the country and the cities in it 14.18. they wrote to him on bronze tablets to renew with him the friendship and alliance which they had established with Judas and Jonathan his brothers. 14.19. And these were read before the assembly in Jerusalem. 14.20. This is a copy of the letter which the Spartans sent: "The rulers and the city of the Spartans to Simon the high priest and to the elders and the priests and the rest of the Jewish people, our brethren, greeting. 14.21. The envoys who were sent to our people have told us about your glory and honor, and we rejoiced at their coming. 14.22. And what they said we have recorded in our public decrees, as follows, `Numenius the son of Antiochus and Antipater the son of Jason, envoys of the Jews, have come to us to renew their friendship with us. 14.23. It has pleased our people to receive these men with honor and to put a copy of their words in the public archives, so that the people of the Spartans may have a record of them. And they have sent a copy of this to Simon the high priest. 15.15. Then Numenius and his companions arrived from Rome, with letters to the kings and countries, in which the following was written: 15.16. Lucius, consul of the Romans, to King Ptolemy, greeting. 15.17. The envoys of the Jews have come to us as our friends and allies to renew our ancient friendship and alliance. They had been sent by Simon the high priest and by the people of the Jews 15.18. and have brought a gold shield weighing a thousand minas. 15.19. We therefore have decided to write to the kings and countries that they should not seek their harm or make war against them and their cities and their country, or make alliance with those who war against them. 15.20. And it has seemed good to us to accept the shield from them. 15.21. Therefore if any pestilent men have fled to you from their country, hand them over to Simon the high priest, that he may punish them according to their law. 15.22. The consul wrote the same thing to Demetrius the king and to Attalus and Ariarathes and Arsaces 15.23. and to all the countries, and to Sampsames, and to the Spartans, and to Delos, and to Myndos, and to Sicyon, and to Caria, and to Samos, and to Pamphylia, and to Lycia, and to Halicarnassus, and to Rhodes, and to Phaselis, and to Cos, and to Side, and to Aradus and Gortyna and Cnidus and Cyprus and Cyrene. 15.24. They also sent a copy of these things to Simon the high priest.
8. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 4.25, 5.6-5.10, 5.15, 7.27, 7.29, 8.21, 13.11, 13.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

4.25. After receiving the king's orders he returned, possessing no qualification for the high priesthood, but having the hot temper of a cruel tyrant and the rage of a savage wild beast.' 5.6. But Jason kept relentlessly slaughtering his fellow citizens, not realizing that success at the cost of one's kindred is the greatest misfortune, but imagining that he was setting up trophies of victory over enemies and not over fellow countrymen.' 5.7. He did not gain control of the government, however; and in the end got only disgrace from his conspiracy, and fled again into the country of the Ammonites.' 5.8. Finally he met a miserable end. Accused before Aretas the ruler of the Arabs, fleeing from city to city, pursued by all men, hated as a rebel against the laws, and abhorred as the executioner of his country and his fellow citizens, he was cast ashore in Egypt;' 5.9. and he who had driven many from their own country into exile died in exile, having embarked to go to the Lacedaemonians in hope of finding protection because of their kinship.' 5.10. He who had cast out many to lie unburied had no one to mourn for him; he had no funeral of any sort and no place in the tomb of his fathers. 5.15. Not content with this, Antiochus dared to enter the most holy temple in all the world, guided by Menelaus, who had become a traitor both to the laws and to his country.' 7.27. But, leaning close to him, she spoke in their native tongue as follows, deriding the cruel tyrant: 'My son, have pity on me. I carried you nine months in my womb, and nursed you for three years, and have reared you and brought you up to this point in your life, and have taken care of you.' 7.29. Do not fear this butcher, but prove worthy of your brothers. Accept death, so that in God's mercy I may get you back again with your brothers.' 8.21. With these words he filled them with good courage and made them ready to die for their laws and their country; then he divided his army into four parts. 13.11. and not to let the people who had just begun to revive fall into the hands of the blasphemous Gentiles. 13.14. So, committing the decision to the Creator of the world and exhorting his men to fight nobly to the death for the laws, temple, city, country, and commonwealth, he pitched his camp near Modein.'
9. Strabo, Geography, 16.2.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.2.8. Then follows the district of Cyrrhestica, which extends as far as that of Antioch. On the north near it are Mount Amanus and Commagene. Cyrrhestica extends as far as these places, and touches them. Here is situated a city, Gindarus, the acropolis of Cyrrhestica, and a convenient resort for robbers, and near it a place called Heracleium. It was near these places that Pacorus, the eldest of the sons of the Parthian king, who had invaded Syria, was defeated by Ventidius, and killed.Pagrae, in the district of Antioch, is close to Gindarus. It is a strong fortress situated on the pass over the Amanus, which leads from the gates of the Amanus into Syria. Below Pagrae lies the plain of Antioch, through which flow the rivers Arceuthus, Orontes, and Labotas. In this plain is also the trench of Meleagrus, and the river Oenoparas, on the banks of which Ptolemy Philometor, after having defeated Alexander Balas, died of his wounds.Above these places is a hill called Trapezon from its form, and upon it Ventidius engaged Phranicates the Parthian general.After these places, near the sea, are Seleuceia and Pieria, a mountain continuous with the Amanus and Rhosus, situated between Issus and Seleuceia.Seleuceia formerly had the name of Hydatopotami (rivers of water). It is a considerable fortress, and may defy all attacks; wherefore Pompey, having excluded from it Tigranes, declared it a free city.To the south of Antioch is Apameia, situated in the interior, and to the south of Seleuceia, the mountains Casius and Anti-Casius.Still further on from Seleuceia are the mouths of the Orontes, then the Nymphaeum, a kind of sacred cave, next Casium, then follows Poseidium a small city, and Heracleia.
10. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.224-12.225, 13.164, 13.166-13.170, 13.324, 14.297, 18.271 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.224. And [now] Hyrcanus’s father, Joseph, died. He was a good man, and of great magimity; and brought the Jews out of a state of poverty and meanness, to one that was more splendid. He retained the farm of the taxes of Syria, and Phoenicia, and Samaria twenty-two years. His uncle also, Onias, died [about this time], and left the high priesthood to his son Simeon. 12.225. And when he was dead, Onias his son succeeded him in that dignity. To him it was that Areus, king of the Lacedemonians, sent an embassage, with an epistle; the copy whereof here follows: 13.164. He enjoined the same ambassadors, that, as they came back, they should go to the Spartans, and put them in mind of their friendship and kindred. So when the ambassadors came to Rome, they went into their senate, and said what they were commanded by Jonathan the high priest to say, how he had sent them to confirm their friendship. 13.166. a copy of which here follows: “Jonathan the high priest of the Jewish nation, and the senate, and body of the people of the Jews, to the ephori, and senate, and people of the Lacedemonians, send greeting. If you be well, and both your public and private affairs be agreeable to your mind, it is according to our wishes. We are well also. 13.167. When in former times an epistle was brought to Onias, who was then our high priest, from Areus, who at that time was your king, by Demoteles, concerning the kindred that was between us and you, a copy of which is here subjoined, we both joyfully received the epistle, and were well pleased with Demoteles and Areus, although we did not need such a demonstration, because we were well satisfied about it from the sacred writing 13.168. yet did not we think fit first to begin the claim of this relation to you, lest we should seem too early in taking to ourselves the glory which is now given us by you. It is a long time since this relation of ours to you hath been renewed; and when we, upon holy and festival days, offer sacrifices to God, we pray to him for your preservation and victory. 13.169. As to ourselves, although we have had many wars that have compassed us around, by reason of the covetousness of our neighbors, yet did not we determine to be troublesome either to you, or to others that were related to us; but since we have now overcome our enemies, and have occasion to send Numenius the son of Antiochus, and Antipater the son of Jason, who are both honorable men belonging to our senate, to the Romans, we gave them this epistle to you also, that they might renew that friendship which is between us. 13.324. 2. When Alexander Janneus had settled the government in the manner that he judged best, he made an expedition against Ptolemais; and having overcome the men in battle, he shut them up in the city, and sat round about it, and besieged it; for of the maritime cities there remained only Ptolemais and Gaza to be conquered, besides Strato’s Tower and Dora, which were held by the tyrant Zoilus. 14.297. 1. Now Ptolemy, the son of Menneus, brought back into Judea Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, who had already raised an army, and had, by money, made Fabius to be his friend, add this because he was of kin to him. Marion also gave him assistance. He had been left by Cassius to tyrannize over Tyre; for this Cassius was a man that seized on Syria, and then kept it under, in the way of a tyrant. 18.271. and made supplication to him, that he would by no means reduce them to such distresses, nor defile their city with the dedication of the statue. Then Petronius said to them, “Will you then make war with Caesar, without considering his great preparations for war, and your own weakness?” They replied, “We will not by any means make war with him, but still we will die before we see our laws transgressed.” So they threw themselves down upon their faces, and stretched out their throats, and said they were ready to be slain;
11. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.225-2.231 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.225. Yet do some men look upon Plato’s discourses as no better than certain idle words set off with great artifice. However, they admire Lycurgus as the principal lawgiver; and all men celebrate Sparta for having continued in the firm observance of his laws for a very long time. 2.226. So far then we have gained, that it is to be confessed a mark of virtue to submit to laws. But then let such as admire this in the Lacedemonians compare that duration of theirs with more than two thousand years which our political government hath continued; 2.227. and let them farther consider, that though the Lacedemonians did seem to observe their laws exactly while they enjoyed their liberty, yet that when they underwent a change of their fortune, they forgot almost all those laws; 2.228. while we, having been under ten thousand changes in our fortune by the changes that happened among the kings of Asia, have never betrayed our laws under the most pressing distresses we have been in; nor have we neglected them either out of sloth or for a livelihood. Nay, if any one will consider it, the difficulties and labors laid upon us have been greater than what appears to have been borne by the Lacedemonian fortitude 2.229. while they neither ploughed their land nor exercised any trades, but lived in their own city, free from all such painstaking, in the enjoyment of plenty, and using such exercises as might improve their bodies 2.231. I need not add this, that they have not been fully able to observe their laws; for not only a few single persons, but multitudes of them, have in heaps neglected those laws, and have delivered themselves, together with their arms, into the hands of their enemies. /p
12. Mishnah, Avot, 4.19 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.19. Shmuel Hakatan said: “If your enemy falls, do not exult; if he trips, let your heart not rejoice, lest the Lord see it and be displeased, and avert his wrath from you” (Proverbs 24:17)."
13. Anon., Soferim, 18.2



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 304; Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 256
antioch Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
antiochus, iv, death Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 312
antoninus pius, m. antony Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 312
areus Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 304, 305
augustus Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 312
ben sira (ecclesiasticus) Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 84
chronology/chronological Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 84
creation battle Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 221
fiction Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
gender, men Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
genocide Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
greeks, common roots with jews Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 256
high priest/high priesthood Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 84
history (as a discursive practice) Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
hybridity' Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 255
identity Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
interpretatio judaica Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 304
jews (and judaism), common roots with greeks Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 256
jonathan Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 256
kingship of yahweh Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 221
kinship relations, and jewish identity Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 304, 305
legitimacy Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
letters/epistles Allison, 4 Baruch (2018) 295
maccabees (books) Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 312
military Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
motifs (thematic), poetic justice Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 256
name/named/unnamed Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 84
narrative Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
noah, sons of Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 256
oniad authorship, genealogy (high priestly succession) Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 84
onias Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 304, 305
onias iv (of leontopolis) Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 312
rabbinic, literature and texts Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 84
retaliation Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
rome, alliance with maccabees Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 312
rome, policy towards jews Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 312
rome, privileges granted jews Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 312
rome Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
samaritans Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 312
seleucids, privileges granted jews Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 312
sparta Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81; Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 312
sparta and spartans, and jews Gruen, Rethinking the Other in Antiquity (2011) 304, 305
spartan Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 84
story Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
tamid psalms, and maccabean revolt Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 221
temple Bickerman and Tropper, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (2007) 312
theme, zion in Trudinger, The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple (2004) 221
threat of violence Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81
tobiad romance (tale of the tobiads) Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 84
tobiads (sons of) Piotrkowski, Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period (2019) 84
war Ammann et al., Collective Violence and Memory in the Ancient Mediterranean (2023) 81