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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 11.17

nanAnd Zabdiel the Arab cut off the head of Alexander and sent it to Ptolemy.

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35 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.22 (10th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.22. Ahikar interceded for me, and I returned to Nineveh. Now Ahikar was cupbearer, keeper of the signet, and in charge of administration of the accounts, for Esarhaddon had appointed him second to himself. He was my nephew.
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 40.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

40.19. בְּעוֹד שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים יִשָּׂא פַרְעֹה אֶת־רֹאשְׁךָ מֵעָלֶיךָ וְתָלָה אוֹתְךָ עַל־עֵץ וְאָכַל הָעוֹף אֶת־בְּשָׂרְךָ מֵעָלֶיךָ׃ 40.19. within yet three days shall Pharaoh lift up thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee on a tree; and the birds shall eat thy flesh from off thee.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 22.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.16. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־בִּלְעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ כֹּה אָמַר בָּלָק בֶּן־צִפּוֹר אַל־נָא תִמָּנַע מֵהֲלֹךְ אֵלָי׃ 22.16. And they came to Balaam, and said to him: ‘Thus saith Balak the son of Zippor: Let nothing, I pray thee, hinder thee from coming unto me;"
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 11.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

11.5. יְהוָה צַדִּיק יִבְחָן וְרָשָׁע וְאֹהֵב חָמָס שָׂנְאָה נַפְשׁוֹ׃ 11.5. The LORD trieth the righteous; but the wicked and him that loveth violence His soul hateth."
5. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 17.46, 17.51, 17.54, 31.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

17.46. הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְסַגֶּרְךָ יְהוָה בְּיָדִי וְהִכִּיתִךָ וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־רֹאשְׁךָ מֵעָלֶיךָ וְנָתַתִּי פֶּגֶר מַחֲנֵה פְלִשְׁתִּים הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְחַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְיֵדְעוּ כָּל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי יֵשׁ אֱלֹהִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.51. וַיָּרָץ דָּוִד וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶל־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיִּקַּח אֶת־חַרְבּוֹ וַיִּשְׁלְפָהּ מִתַּעְרָהּ וַיְמֹתְתֵהוּ וַיִּכְרָת־בָּהּ אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּרְאוּ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּים כִּי־מֵת גִּבּוֹרָם וַיָּנֻסוּ׃ 17.54. וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד אֶת־רֹאשׁ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיְבִאֵהוּ יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְאֶת־כֵּלָיו שָׂם בְּאָהֳלוֹ׃ 31.9. וַיִּכְרְתוּ אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיַּפְשִׁיטוּ אֶת־כֵּלָיו וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ בְאֶרֶץ־פְּלִשְׁתִּים סָבִיב לְבַשֵּׂר בֵּית עֲצַבֵּיהֶם וְאֶת־הָעָם׃ 17.46. This day will the Lord deliver thee into my hand; and I will smite thee, and take thy head from thee; and I will give the carcass of the camp of the Pelishtim this day to the birds of the sky, and to the wild beasts of the earth; that all the earth may know that there is a God in Yisra᾽el." 17.51. Therefore David ran, and stood upon the Pelishtian, and took his sword, and drew it out of its sheath, and slew him, and with it he cut off his head. And when the Pelishtim saw that their champion was dead, they fled." 17.54. And David took the head of the Pelishtian, and brought it to Yerushalayim; and he put his armour in his tent." 31.9. And they cut off his head, and stripped off his armour, and sent into the land of the Pelishtim round about, to publish it in the house of their idols, and among the people."
6. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 10.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

10.7. וַיְהִי כְּבֹא הַסֵּפֶר אֲלֵיהֶם וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־בְּנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּשְׁחֲטוּ שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ וַיָּשִׂימוּ אֶת־רָאשֵׁיהֶם בַּדּוּדִים וַיִּשְׁלְחוּ אֵלָיו יִזְרְעֶאלָה׃ 10.7. And it came to pass, when the letter came to them, that they took the king’s sons, and slew them, even seventy persons, and put their heads in baskets, and sent them unto him to Jezreel."
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 16.9, 20.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

16.9. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲבִישַׁי בֶּן־צְרוּיָה אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ לָמָּה יְקַלֵּל הַכֶּלֶב הַמֵּת הַזֶּה אֶת־אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶעְבְּרָה־נָּא וְאָסִירָה אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ׃ 20.22. וַתָּבוֹא הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם בְּחָכְמָתָהּ וַיִּכְרְתוּ אֶת־רֹאשׁ שֶׁבַע בֶּן־בִּכְרִי וַיַּשְׁלִכוּ אֶל־יוֹאָב וַיִּתְקַע בַּשּׁוֹפָר וַיָּפֻצוּ מֵעַל־הָעִיר אִישׁ לְאֹהָלָיו וְיוֹאָב שָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִַם אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 16.9. Then said Avishay the son of Żeruya to the king, Why should this dead dog curse my lord the king? let me go over, I pray thee, and take off his head." 20.22. Then the woman went to all the people in her wisdom. And they cut off the head of Sheva the son of Bikhri, and cast it out to Yo᾽av. And he blew on the shofar, and they retired from the city, every man to his tent. And Yo᾽av returned to Yerushalayim to the king."
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 30.29, 33.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

30.29. הַשִּׁיר יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כְּלֵיל הִתְקַדֶּשׁ־חָג וְשִׂמְחַת לֵבָב כַּהוֹלֵךְ בֶּחָלִיל לָבוֹא בְהַר־יְהוָה אֶל־צוּר יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 33.7. הֵן אֶרְאֶלָּם צָעֲקוּ חֻצָה מַלְאֲכֵי שָׁלוֹם מַר יִבְכָּיוּן׃ 30.29. Ye shall have a song As in the night when a feast is hallowed; And gladness of heart, as when one goeth with the pipe To come into the mountain of the LORD, to the Rock of Israel." 33.7. Behold, their valiant ones cry without; The ambassadors of peace weep bitterly."
9. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.16, 11.14, 15.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

7.16. וְאַתָּה אַל־תִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאַל־תִּשָּׂא בַעֲדָם רִנָּה וּתְפִלָּה וְאַל־תִּפְגַּע־בִּי כִּי־אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ אֹתָךְ׃ 11.14. וְאַתָּה אַל־תִּתְפַּלֵּל בְּעַד־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאַל־תִּשָּׂא בַעֲדָם רִנָּה וּתְפִלָּה כִּי אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ בְּעֵת קָרְאָם אֵלַי בְּעַד רָעָתָם׃ 15.19. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אִם־תָּשׁוּב וַאֲשִׁיבְךָ לְפָנַי תַּעֲמֹד וְאִם־תּוֹצִיא יָקָר מִזּוֹלֵל כְּפִי תִהְיֶה יָשֻׁבוּ הֵמָּה אֵלֶיךָ וְאַתָּה לֹא־תָשׁוּב אֲלֵיהֶם׃ 7.16. Therefore pray not thou for this people, neither lift up cry nor prayer for them, neither make intercession to Me; for I will not hear thee." 11.14. Therefore pray not thou for this people, neither lift up cry nor prayer for them; for I will not hear them in the time that they cry unto Me for their trouble.’" 15.19. Therefore thus saith the LORD: If thou return, and I bring thee back, Thou shalt stand before Me; And if thou bring forth the precious out of the vile, Thou shalt be as My mouth; Let them return unto thee, But thou shalt not return unto them."
10. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

5.27. בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפַל שָׁכָב בֵּין רַגְלֶיהָ כָּרַע נָפָל בַּאֲשֶׁר כָּרַע שָׁם נָפַל שָׁדוּד׃ 5.27. At her feet he bent, he fell, he lay down: at her feet he bent, he fell: where he bowed, there he fell down, bereft of life."
11. Septuagint, Epistle of Jeremiah \ Epistula Jeremiae, 43, 40 (6th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

12. Herodotus, Histories, 3.79, 4.64-4.65, 4.103, 7.238, 9.78-9.79 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.79. When they had killed the Magi and cut off their heads, they left their wounded there because of their infirmity and for the sake of guarding the acropolis, while five of them carrying the Magi's heads ran outside with much shouting and commotion, calling all Persians to aid, telling what they had done and showing the heads; at the same time they killed every Magus that came in their way. ,The Persians, when they learned what had been done by the seven and how the Magi had tricked them, resolved to follow the example set, and drew their daggers and killed all the Magi they could find; and if nightfall had not stopped them they would not have left one Magus alive. ,This day is the greatest holy day that all Persians alike keep; they celebrate a great festival on it, which they call the Massacre of the Magi; while the festival lasts no Magus may go outdoors, but during this day the Magi remain in their houses. 4.64. As to war, these are their customs. A Scythian drinks the blood of the first man whom he has taken down. He carries the heads of all whom he has slain in the battle to his king; for if he brings a head, he receives a share of the booty taken, but not otherwise. ,He scalps the head by making a cut around it by the ears, then grasping the scalp and shaking the head off. Then he scrapes out the flesh with the rib of a steer, and kneads the skin with his hands, and having made it supple he keeps it for a hand towel, fastening it to the bridle of the horse which he himself rides, and taking pride in it; for he who has most scalps for hand towels is judged the best man. ,Many Scythians even make garments to wear out of these scalps, sewing them together like coats of skin. Many too take off the skin, nails and all, from their dead enemies' right hands, and make coverings for their quivers;the human skin was, as it turned out, thick and shining, the brightest and whitest skin of all, one might say. ,Many flay the skin from the whole body, too, and carry it about on horseback stretched on a wooden frame. 4.65. The heads themselves, not all of them but those of their bitterest enemies, they treat this way. Each saws off all the part beneath the eyebrows, and cleans the rest. If he is a poor man, then he covers the outside with a piece of raw hide, and so makes use of it; but if he is rich, he covers the head with the raw hide, and gilds the inside of it and uses it for a drinking-cup. ,Such a cup a man also makes out of the head of his own kinsman with whom he has been feuding, and whom he has defeated in single combat before the king; and if guests whom he honors visit him he will serve them with these heads, and show how the dead were his kinsfolk who fought him and were beaten by him; this they call manly valor. 4.103. Among these, the Tauri have the following customs: all ship-wrecked men, and any Greeks whom they capture in their sea-raids, they sacrifice to the Virgin goddess as I will describe: after the first rites of sacrifice, they strike the victim on the head with a club; ,according to some, they then place the head on a pole and throw the body off the cliff on which their temple stands; others agree as to the head, but say that the body is buried, not thrown off the cliff. The Tauri themselves say that this deity to whom they sacrifice is Agamemnon's daughter Iphigenia. ,As for enemies whom they defeat, each cuts his enemy's head off and carries it away to his house, where he places it on a tall pole and stands it high above the dwelling, above the smoke-vent for the most part. These heads, they say, are set up to guard the whole house. The Tauri live by plundering and war. 7.238. Having spoken in this way, Xerxes passed over the place where the dead lay and hearing that Leonidas had been king and general of the Lacedaemonians, he gave orders to cut off his head and impale it. ,It is plain to me by this piece of evidence among many others, that while Leonidas lived, king Xerxes was more incensed against him than against all others; otherwise he would never have dealt so outrageously with his dead body, for the Persians are beyond all men known in the habit of honoring valiant warriors. They, then, who received these orders did as I have said. 9.78. There was at Plataea in the army of the Aeginetans one Lampon, son of Pytheas, a leading man of Aegina. He hastened to Pausanias with really outrageous counsel and coming upon him, said to him: ,“son of Cleombrotus, you have done a deed of surpassing greatness and glory; the god has granted to you in saving Hellas to have won greater renown than any Greek whom we know. But now you must finish what remains for the rest, so that your fame may be greater still and so that no barbarian will hereafter begin doing reckless deeds against the Greeks. ,When Leonidas was killed at Thermopylae, Mardonius and Xerxes cut off his head and set it on a pole; make them a like return, and you will win praise from all Spartans and the rest of Hellas besides. For if you impale Mardonius, you will be avenged for your father's brother Leonidas.” 9.79. This is what Lampon, thinking to please, said. Pausanias, however, answered him as follows: “Aeginetan, I thank you for your goodwill and forethought, but you have missed the mark of right judgment. First you exalt me and my fatherland and my deeds, yet next you cast me down to mere nothingness when you advise me to insult the dead, and say that I shall win more praise if I do so. That would be an act more proper for barbarians than for Greeks and one that we consider worthy of censure even in barbarians. ,No, as for myself, I would prefer to find no favor either with the people of Aegina or anyone else who is pleased by such acts. It is enough for me if I please the Spartans by righteous deeds and speech. As for Leonidas, whom you would have me avenge, I think that he has received a full measure of vengeance; the uncounted souls of these that you see have done honor to him and the rest of those who died at Thermopylae. But to you this is my warning: do not come again to me with words like these nor give me such counsel. Be thankful now that you go unpunished.”
13. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.22 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.22. Ahikar interceded for me, and I returned to Nineveh. Now Ahikar was cupbearer, keeper of the signet, and in charge of administration of the accounts, for Esarhaddon had appointed him second to himself. He was my nephew.
14. Anon., 1 Enoch, 91.12, 95.3, 95.7, 96.1, 98.11-98.12 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

91.12. And after that there shall be another, the eighth week, that of righteousness, And a sword shall be given to it that a righteous judgement may be executed on the oppressors, And sinners shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous. 95.3. Fear not the sinners, ye righteous; For again will the Lord deliver them into your hands, That ye may execute judgement upon them according to your desires. 95.7. Woe to you, sinners, for ye persecute the righteous; For ye shall be delivered up and persecuted because of injustice, And heavy shall its yoke be upon you. 96.1. Be hopeful, ye righteous; for suddenly shall the sinners perish before you, And ye shall have lordship over them according to your desires. 98.11. Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who work wickedness and eat blood: Whence have ye good things to eat and to drink and to be filled From all the good things which the Lord the Most High has placed in abundance on the earth; therefore ye shall have no peace. 98.12. Woe to you who love the deeds of unrighteousness: wherefore do ye hope for good hap unto yourselves know that ye shall be delivered into the hands of the righteous, and they shall cut
15. Anon., Jubilees, 15.26, 20.12-20.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

15.26. This law is for all the generations for ever 20.12. And work uprightness and righteousness before Him, That He may have pleasure in you and grant you His mercy, And send rain upon you morning and evening, And bless all your works which ye have wrought upon the earth 20.13. And bless thy bread and thy water, And bless the fruit of thy womb and the fruit of thy land, And the herds of thy cattle, and the flocks of thy sheep.
16. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.8, 2.16, 2.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 2.16. וְדָנִיֵּאל עַל וּבְעָה מִן־מַלְכָּא דִּי זְמָן יִנְתֵּן־לֵהּ וּפִשְׁרָא לְהַחֲוָיָה לְמַלְכָּא׃ 2.23. לָךְ אֱלָהּ אֲבָהָתִי מְהוֹדֵא וּמְשַׁבַּח אֲנָה דִּי חָכְמְתָא וּגְבוּרְתָא יְהַבְתְּ לִי וּכְעַן הוֹדַעְתַּנִי דִּי־בְעֵינָא מִנָּךְ דִּי־מִלַּת מַלְכָּא הוֹדַעְתֶּנָא׃ 1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself." 2.16. Then Daniel went in, and desired of the king that he would give him time, that he might declare unto the king the interpretation." 2.23. I thank Thee, and praise Thee, O Thou God of my fathers, w Who hast given me wisdom and might, And hast now made known unto me what we desired of Thee; For Thou hast made known unto us the king’s matter."
17. Polybius, Histories, 21.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

21.38. 1.  Chiomara, the wife of Ortiagon, was captured with the other women when the Asiatic Gauls were defeated by the Romans under Manlius.,2.  The centurion into whose hands she fell took advantage of his capture with a soldier's brutality and did violence to her.,3.  The man was indeed an ill-bred lout, the slave both of gain and of lust, but his love of gain prevailed; and as a considerable sum had been promised him for the woman's ransom, he brought her to a certain place to deliver her up, a river running between him and the messengers.,4.  When the Gauls crossed and after handing him the money were taking possession of Chiomara, she signed to one of them to strike the man as he was taking an affectionate leave of her.,5.  The man obeyed and cut off his head, which she took up and wrapped in the folds of her dress, and then drove off.,6.  When she came into the presence of her husband and threw the head at his feet, he was astonished and said, "Ah! my wife, it is good to keep faith." "Yes," she replied, "but it is better still that only one man who has lain with me should remain alive.",7.  Polybius tells us that he met and conversed with the lady at Sardis and admired her high spirit and intelligence. (Cp. Livy XXXVIII.25)
18. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.1, 1.10-1.11, 1.34, 2.8, 2.44, 3.4, 3.6, 3.8, 3.15, 3.20, 3.31, 4.15, 4.29, 4.61, 5.3-5.4, 5.13, 5.39, 5.65, 6.2, 6.21, 6.31, 7.5, 7.9, 7.28, 7.47, 8.1-8.32, 9.15, 9.23, 10.16, 10.61, 11.14-11.15, 11.18, 11.20-11.26, 11.28-11.37, 11.39, 11.41-11.43, 12.1, 12.3, 12.24, 12.42, 14.14, 14.17-14.19, 14.24-14.26, 15.17-15.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.1. After Alexander son of Philip, the Macedonian, who came from the land of Kittim, had defeated Darius, king of the Persians and the Medes, he succeeded him as king. (He had previously become king of Greece.) 1.10. From them came forth a sinful root, Antiochus Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the king; he had been a hostage in Rome. He began to reign in the one hundred and thirty-seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks. 1.11. In those days lawless men came forth from Israel, and misled many, saying, "Let us go and make a covet with the Gentiles round about us, for since we separated from them many evils have come upon us. 1.34. And they stationed there a sinful people, lawless men. These strengthened their position; 2.8. Her temple has become like a man without honor; 2.44. They organized an army, and struck down sinners in their anger and lawless men in their wrath; the survivors fled to the Gentiles for safety. 3.4. He was like a lion in his deeds,like a lions cub roaring for prey. 3.6. Lawless men shrank back for fear of him;all the evildoers were confounded;and deliverance prospered by his hand. 3.8. He went through the cities of Judah;he destroyed the ungodly out of the land;thus he turned away wrath from Israel. 3.15. And again a strong army of ungodly men went up with him to help him, to take vengeance on the sons of Israel. 3.20. They come against us in great pride and lawlessness to destroy us and our wives and our children, and to despoil us; 3.31. He was greatly perplexed in mind, and determined to go to Persia and collect the revenues from those regions and raise a large fund. 4.15. and all those in the rear fell by the sword. They pursued them to Gazara, and to the plains of Idumea, and to Azotus and Jamnia; and three thousand of them fell. 4.29. They came into Idumea and encamped at Beth-zur, and Judas met them with ten thousand men. 4.61. And he stationed a garrison there to hold it. He also fortified Beth-zur, so that the people might have a stronghold that faced Idumea. 5.3. But Judas made war on the sons of Esau in Idumea, at Akrabattene, because they kept lying in wait for Israel. He dealt them a heavy blow and humbled them and despoiled them. 5.4. He also remembered the wickedness of the sons of Baean, who were a trap and a snare to the people and ambushed them on the highways. 5.13. and all our brethren who were in the land of Tob have been killed; the enemy have captured their wives and children and goods, and have destroyed about a thousand men there. 5.39. They also have hired Arabs to help them, and they are encamped across the stream, ready to come and fight against you." And Judas went to meet them. 5.65. Then Judas and his brothers went forth and fought the sons of Esau in the land to the south. He struck Hebron and its villages and tore down its strongholds and burned its towers round about. 6.2. Its temple was very rich, containing golden shields, breastplates, and weapons left there by Alexander, the son of Philip, the Macedonian king who first reigned over the Greeks. 6.21. But some of the garrison escaped from the siege and some of the ungodly Israelites joined them. 6.31. They came through Idumea and encamped against Beth-zur, and for many days they fought and built engines of war; but the Jews sallied out and burned these with fire, and fought manfully. 7.5. Then there came to him all the lawless and ungodly men of Israel; they were led by Alcimus, who wanted to be high priest. 7.9. And he sent him, and with him the ungodly Alcimus, whom he made high priest; and he commanded him to take vengeance on the sons of Israel. 7.28. Let there be no fighting between me and you; I shall come with a few men to see you face to face in peace. 7.47. Then the Jews seized the spoils and the plunder, and they cut off Nicanors head and the right hand which he so arrogantly stretched out, and brought them and displayed them just outside Jerusalem. 8.1. Now Judas heard of the fame of the Romans, that they were very strong and were well-disposed toward all who made an alliance with them, that they pledged friendship to those who came to them 8.2. and that they were very strong. Men told him of their wars and of the brave deeds which they were doing among the Gauls, how they had defeated them and forced them to pay tribute 8.3. and what they had done in the land of Spain to get control of the silver and gold mines there 8.4. and how they had gained control of the whole region by their planning and patience, even though the place was far distant from them. They also subdued the kings who came against them from the ends of the earth, until they crushed them and inflicted great disaster upon them; the rest paid them tribute every year. 8.5. Philip, and Perseus king of the Macedonians, and the others who rose up against them, they crushed in battle and conquered. 8.6. They also defeated Antiochus the Great, king of Asia, who went to fight against them with a hundred and twenty elephants and with cavalry and chariots and a very large army. He was crushed by them; 8.7. they took him alive and decreed that he and those who should reign after him should pay a heavy tribute and give hostages and surrender some of their best provinces 8.8. the country of India and Media and Lydia. These they took from him and gave to Eumenes the king. 8.9. The Greeks planned to come and destroy them 8.10. but this became known to them, and they sent a general against the Greeks and attacked them. Many of them were wounded and fell, and the Romans took captive their wives and children; they plundered them, conquered the land, tore down their strongholds, and enslaved them to this day. 8.11. The remaining kingdoms and islands, as many as ever opposed them, they destroyed and enslaved; 8.12. but with their friends and those who rely on them they have kept friendship. They have subdued kings far and near, and as many as have heard of their fame have feared them. 8.13. Those whom they wish to help and to make kings, they make kings, and those whom they wish they depose; and they have been greatly exalted. 8.14. Yet for all this not one of them has put on a crown or worn purple as a mark of pride 8.15. but they have built for themselves a senate chamber, and every day three hundred and twenty senators constantly deliberate concerning the people, to govern them well. 8.16. They trust one man each year to rule over them and to control all their land; they all heed the one man, and there is no envy or jealousy among them. 8.17. So Judas chose Eupolemus the son of John, son of Accos, and Jason the son of Eleazar, and sent them to Rome to establish friendship and alliance 8.18. and to free themselves from the yoke; for they saw that the kingdom of the Greeks was completely enslaving Israel. 8.19. They went to Rome, a very long journey; and they entered the senate chamber and spoke as follows: 8.20. Judas, who is also called Maccabeus, and his brothers and the people of the Jews have sent us to you to establish alliance and peace with you, that we may be enrolled as your allies and friends. 8.21. The proposal pleased them 8.22. and this is a copy of the letter which they wrote in reply, on bronze tablets, and sent to Jerusalem to remain with them there as a memorial of peace and alliance: 8.23. May all go well with the Romans and with the nation of the Jews at sea and on land for ever, and may sword and enemy be far from them. 8.24. If war comes first to Rome or to any of their allies in all their dominion 8.25. the nation of the Jews shall act as their allies wholeheartedly, as the occasion may indicate to them. 8.26. And to the enemy who makes war they shall not give or supply grain, arms, money, or ships, as Rome has decided; and they shall keep their obligations without receiving any return. 8.27. In the same way, if war comes first to the nation of the Jews, the Romans shall willingly act as their allies, as the occasion may indicate to them. 8.28. And to the enemy allies shall be given no grain, arms, money, or ships, as Rome has decided; and they shall keep these obligations and do so without deceit. 8.29. Thus on these terms the Romans make a treaty with the Jewish people. 8.30. If after these terms are in effect both parties shall determine to add or delete anything, they shall do so at their discretion, and any addition or deletion that they may make shall be valid. 8.31. And concerning the wrongs which King Demetrius is doing to them we have written to him as follows, `Why have you made your yoke heavy upon our friends and allies the Jews? 8.32. If now they appeal again for help against you, we will defend their rights and fight you on sea and on land. 9.15. and they crushed the right wing, and he pursued them as far as Mount Azotus. 9.23. After the death of Judas, the lawless emerged in all parts of Israel; all the doers of injustice appeared. 10.16. So he said, "Shall we find another such man? Come now, we will make him our friend and ally. 10.61. A group of pestilent men from Israel, lawless men, gathered together against him to accuse him; but the king paid no attention to them. 11.14. Now Alexander the king was in Cilicia at that time, because the people of that region were in revolt. 11.15. And Alexander heard of it and came against him in battle. Ptolemy marched out and met him with a strong force, and put him to flight. 11.18. But King Ptolemy died three days later, and his troops in the strongholds were killed by the inhabitants of the strongholds. 11.20. In those days Jonathan assembled the men of Judea to attack the citadel in Jerusalem, and he built many engines of war to use against it. 11.21. But certain lawless men who hated their nation went to the king and reported to him that Jonathan was besieging the citadel. 11.22. When he heard this he was angry, and as soon as he heard it he set out and came to Ptolemais; and he wrote Jonathan not to continue the siege, but to meet him for a conference at Ptolemais as quickly as possible. 11.23. When Jonathan heard this, he gave orders to continue the siege; and he chose some of the elders of Israel and some of the priests, and put himself in danger 11.24. for he went to the king at Ptolemais, taking silver and gold and clothing and numerous other gifts. And he won his favor. 11.25. Although certain lawless men of his nation kept making complaints against him 11.26. the king treated him as his predecessors had treated him; he exalted him in the presence of all his friends. 11.28. Then Jonathan asked the king to free Judea and the three districts of Samaria from tribute, and promised him three hundred talents. 11.29. The king consented, and wrote a letter to Jonathan about all these things; its contents were as follows: 11.30. King Demetrius to Jonathan his brother and to the nation of the Jews, greeting. 11.31. This copy of the letter which we wrote concerning you to Lasthenes our kinsman we have written to you also, so that you may know what it says. 11.32. `King Demetrius to Lasthenes his father, greeting. 11.33. To the nation of the Jews, who are our friends and fulfil their obligations to us, we have determined to do good, because of the good will they show toward us. 11.34. We have confirmed as their possession both the territory of Judea and the three districts of Aphairema and Lydda and Rathamin; the latter, with all the region bordering them, were added to Judea from Samaria. To all those who offer sacrifice in Jerusalem, we have granted release from the royal taxes which the king formerly received from them each year, from the crops of the land and the fruit of the trees. 11.35. And the other payments henceforth due to us of the tithes, and the taxes due to us, and the salt pits and the crown taxes due to us -- from all these we shall grant them release. 11.36. And not one of these grants shall be canceled from this time forth for ever. 11.37. Now therefore take care to make a copy of this, and let it be given to Jonathan and put up in a conspicuous place on the holy mountain. 11.39. Now Trypho had formerly been one of Alexanders supporters. He saw that all the troops were murmuring against Demetrius. So he went to Imalkue the Arab, who was bringing up Antiochus, the young son of Alexander 11.41. Now Jonathan sent to Demetrius the king the request that he remove the troops of the citadel from Jerusalem, and the troops in the strongholds; for they kept fighting against Israel. 11.42. And Demetrius sent this message to Jonathan, "Not only will I do these things for you and your nation, but I will confer great honor on you and your nation, if I find an opportunity. 11.43. Now then you will do well to send me men who will help me, for all my troops have revolted. 12.1. Now when Jonathan saw that the time was favorable for him, he chose men and sent them to Rome to confirm and renew the friendship with them. 12.3. So they went to Rome and entered the senate chamber and said, "Jonathan the high priest and the Jewish nation have sent us to renew the former friendship and alliance with them. 12.24. Now Jonathan heard that the commanders of Demetrius had returned, with a larger force than before, to wage war against him. 12.42. When Trypho saw that he had come with a large army, he was afraid to raise his hand against him. 14.14. He strengthened all the humble of his people;he sought out the law,and did away with every lawless and wicked man. 14.17. When they heard that Simon his brother had become high priest in his place, and that he was ruling over the country and the cities in it 14.18. they wrote to him on bronze tablets to renew with him the friendship and alliance which they had established with Judas and Jonathan his brothers. 14.19. And these were read before the assembly in Jerusalem. 14.24. After this Simon sent Numenius to Rome with a large gold shield weighing a thousand minas, to confirm the alliance with the Romans. 14.25. When the people heard these things they said, "How shall we thank Simon and his sons? 14.26. For he and his brothers and the house of his father have stood firm; they have fought and repulsed Israels enemies and established its freedom. 15.17. The envoys of the Jews have come to us as our friends and allies to renew our ancient friendship and alliance. They had been sent by Simon the high priest and by the people of the Jews 15.18. and have brought a gold shield weighing a thousand minas.
19. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.16, 3.30, 10.30, 11.25, 13.16, 14.3, 14.33, 14.38, 15.6, 15.13, 15.32-15.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.16. Opening the secret door in the ceiling, they threw stones and struck down the leader and his men, and dismembered them and cut off their heads and threw them to the people outside.' 3.30. they praised the Lord who had acted marvelously for his own place. And the temple, which a little while before was full of fear and disturbance, was filled with joy and gladness, now that the Almighty Lord had appeared.' 10.30. Surrounding Maccabeus and protecting him with their own armor and weapons, they kept him from being wounded. And they showered arrows and thunderbolts upon the enemy, so that, confused and blinded, they were thrown into disorder and cut to pieces.' 11.25. Accordingly, since we choose that this nation also be free from disturbance, our decision is that their temple be restored to them and that they live according to the customs of their ancestors.' 13.16. In the end they filled the camp with terror and confusion and withdrew in triumph. 14.3. Now a certain Alcimus, who had formerly been high priest but had wilfully defiled himself in the times of separation, realized that there was no way for him to be safe or to have access again to the holy altar,' 14.33. he stretched out his right hand toward the sanctuary, and swore this oath: 'If you do not hand Judas over to me as a prisoner, I will level this precinct of God to the ground and tear down the altar, and I will build here a splendid temple to Dionysus.' 14.38. For in former times, when there was no mingling with the Gentiles, he had been accused of Judaism, and for Judaism he had with all zeal risked body and life.' 15.6. This Nicanor in his utter boastfulness and arrogance had determined to erect a public monument of victory over Judas and his men. 15.13. Then likewise a man appeared, distinguished by his gray hair and dignity, and of marvelous majesty and authority.' 15.32. He showed them the vile Nicanor's head and that profane man's arm, which had been boastfully stretched out against the holy house of the Almighty;' 15.33. and he cut out the tongue of the ungodly Nicanor and said that he would give it piecemeal to the birds and hang up these rewards of his folly opposite the sanctuary.
20. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 25.8, 51.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

25.8. happy is he who lives with an intelligent wife,and he who has not made a slip with his tongue,and he who has not served a man inferior to himself; 51.14. Before the temple I asked for her,and I will search for her to the last.
21. Septuagint, Judith, 13.8, 13.18, 14.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)

13.8. And she struck his neck twice with all her might, and severed it from his body. 13.18. And Uzziah said to her, "O daughter, you are blessed by the Most High God above all women on earth; and blessed be the Lord God, who created the heavens and the earth, who has guided you to strike the head of the leader of our enemies. 14.15. But when no one answered, he opened it and went into the bedchamber and found him thrown down on the platform dead, with his head cut off and missing.
22. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 13.18, 25.8, 51.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

13.18. For health he appeals to a thing that is weak;for life he prays to a thing that is dead;for aid he entreats a thing that is utterly inexperienced;for a prosperous journey, a thing that cannot take a step;
23. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 7.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

24. Strabo, Geography, 16.2.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

16.2.8. Then follows the district of Cyrrhestica, which extends as far as that of Antioch. On the north near it are Mount Amanus and Commagene. Cyrrhestica extends as far as these places, and touches them. Here is situated a city, Gindarus, the acropolis of Cyrrhestica, and a convenient resort for robbers, and near it a place called Heracleium. It was near these places that Pacorus, the eldest of the sons of the Parthian king, who had invaded Syria, was defeated by Ventidius, and killed.Pagrae, in the district of Antioch, is close to Gindarus. It is a strong fortress situated on the pass over the Amanus, which leads from the gates of the Amanus into Syria. Below Pagrae lies the plain of Antioch, through which flow the rivers Arceuthus, Orontes, and Labotas. In this plain is also the trench of Meleagrus, and the river Oenoparas, on the banks of which Ptolemy Philometor, after having defeated Alexander Balas, died of his wounds.Above these places is a hill called Trapezon from its form, and upon it Ventidius engaged Phranicates the Parthian general.After these places, near the sea, are Seleuceia and Pieria, a mountain continuous with the Amanus and Rhosus, situated between Issus and Seleuceia.Seleuceia formerly had the name of Hydatopotami (rivers of water). It is a considerable fortress, and may defy all attacks; wherefore Pompey, having excluded from it Tigranes, declared it a free city.To the south of Antioch is Apameia, situated in the interior, and to the south of Seleuceia, the mountains Casius and Anti-Casius.Still further on from Seleuceia are the mouths of the Orontes, then the Nymphaeum, a kind of sacred cave, next Casium, then follows Poseidium a small city, and Heracleia.
25. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 6.308, 13.80, 13.372 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.308. So he sent to Nabal’s wife, and invited her to come to him, to live with him, and to be his wife. Whereupon she replied to those that came, that she was not worthy to touch his feet; however, she came, with all her servants, and became his wife, having received that honor on account of her wise and righteous course of life. She also obtained the same honor partly on account of her beauty. 13.372. 5. As to Alexander, his own people were seditious against him; for at a festival which was then celebrated, when he stood upon the altar, and was going to sacrifice, the nation rose upon him, and pelted him with citrons [which they then had in their hands, because] the law of the Jews required that at the feast of tabernacles every one should have branches of the palm tree and citron tree; which thing we have elsewhere related. They also reviled him, as derived from a captive, and so unworthy of his dignity and of sacrificing.
26. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 6.2, 11.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.2. Don't youknow that the saints will judge the world? And if the world is judgedby you, are you unworthy to judge the smallest matters? 11.27. Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks the Lord's cup i unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and the blood of theLord.
27. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.17. Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and in teaching.
28. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 1.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11. To this end we also pray always for you, that our God may count you worthy of your calling, and fulfill every desire of goodness and work of faith, with power;
29. New Testament, Hebrews, 3.3, 10.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.3. For he has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, inasmuch as he who built the house has more honor than the house. 10.26. For if we sin willfully after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remains no more a sacrifice for sins
30. New Testament, John, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.19. This is the judgment, that the light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil.
31. New Testament, Luke, 7.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.7. Therefore I didn't even think myself worthy to come to you; but say the word, and my servant will be healed.
32. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 31.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

33. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 9.39.5 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

34. Justinus, Epitome Historiarum Philippicarum, 36.1-36.2

35. Trogus, Historiae Philippicae, 36

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham, and haran Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
abraham Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
alexander balas Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
alexander the great Gera, Judith (2014) 397
ammonites van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
anger, wild Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
antiochus iv Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
antiochus iv epiphanes Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
antiochus v sidetes Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
arabs van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
ashurbanipal Gera, Judith (2014) 397
assyrian royal inscriptions Gera, Judith (2014) 397
balsam (opobalsam), and the hasmoneans Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
barak Gera, Judith (2014) 397
beheadings and decapitations Gera, Judith (2014) 397
birds Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
book of judith, and greek writings Gera, Judith (2014) 397
book of judith, author Gera, Judith (2014) 397
book of judith, date Gera, Judith (2014) 397
cherubim Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
children Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
chiomara Gera, Judith (2014) 397
corpses Gera, Judith (2014) 397
darkness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
dead sea and area, name of Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
dead sea and area Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
death, adam, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
demetrius ii Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
diodotus trypho Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
divine providence Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 508
egyptians van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
eschatology/eschatological, salvation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
ethnicity (common features), proper name van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
greeks van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
hasmonean dynasty Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
hasmonean kingdom van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
head, beheading Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
head Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
herod the great Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
herodotus Gera, Judith (2014) 397
holophernes, death and decapitation Gera, Judith (2014) 397
holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 397
hope/hopelessness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
idumeans van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
irony Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 367
itureans van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
jael, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 397
jesus Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
joseph Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
justice, divine Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
justice, retribution Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
justin martyr Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
kings, haughty Gera, Judith (2014) 397
lights, versus darkness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
love, of darkness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
love, of iniquity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
love, of transgression Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
love, of unrighteousness Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
love, of vain words Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
love, of violence Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
love, of works of iniquity Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
mercy Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
moabites van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
moses Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036; Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
motifs (thematic), tit for tat Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 508
nabateans van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
nebuchadnezzar Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
neck Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
onias iii Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 367
phoenicians van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
polybius Gera, Judith (2014) 397
posidonius Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222
ptolemy viii euergetes' Schwartz, 2 Maccabees (2008) 367
rape Gera, Judith (2014) 397
repentance, eve, of Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
romans van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
salvation Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
scythians Gera, Judith (2014) 397
sex/sexual Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
sexual encounters Gera, Judith (2014) 397
sinner Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
sinners/wicked ones, slaying of Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
sisera, of judges Gera, Judith (2014) 397
slaves Gera, Judith (2014) 397
spitamenes Gera, Judith (2014) 397
sword Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
swords Gera, Judith (2014) 397
syrians van Maaren, The Boundaries of Jewishness in the Southern Levant 200 BCE–132 CE (2022) 129
tent Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
tents, holophernes Gera, Judith (2014) 397
throne, immovable Levison, The Greek Life of Adam and Eve (2023) 1036
tomyris Gera, Judith (2014) 397
violence Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91-108 (2007) 369
wine and drunkenness, drinking parties Gera, Judith (2014) 397
yardley, j. Taylor, The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea (2012) 222