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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10009
Quintilian, Institutes Of Oratory, 8.3.6


nan Cicero was right when, in one of his letters to Brutus, he wrote, "Eloquence which evokes no admiration is, in my opinion, unworthy of the name." Aristotle likewise thinks that the excitement of admiration should be one of our first aims. But such ornament must, as I have already said, be bold, manly and chaste, free from all artificial dyes, and must glow with health and vigour.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Cicero, Brutus, 111 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2. Cicero, Brutus, 111 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

111. quid dicam opus esse doctrina? sine qua etiam si quid bene dicitur adiuvante natura, tamen id, quia fortuito fit, semper paratum esse non potest. In Scauri oratione, sapientis hominis et recti, gravitas summa et naturalis quaedam inerat auctoritas, non ut causam, sed ut testimonium dicere putares, cum pro reo diceret cum pro reo diceret om. BHM : secl. Schütz .
3. Cicero, On Duties, 1.130-1.133 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.130. Cum autem pulchritudinis duo genera sint, quorum in altero venustas sit, in altero dignitas, venustatem muliebrem ducere debemus, dignitatem virilem. Ergo et a forma removeatur omnis viro non dignus ornatus, et huic simile vitium in gestu motuque caveatur. Nam et palaestrici motus sunt saepe odiosiores, et histrionum non nulli gestus ineptiis non vacant, et in utroque genere quae sunt recta et simplicia, laudantur. Formae autem dignitas coloris bonitate tuenda est, color exercitationibus corporis. Adhibenda praeterea munditia est non odiosa neque exquisita nimis, tantum quae fugiat agrestem et inhumanam neglegentiam. Eadem ratio est habenda vestitus, in quo, sicut in plerisque rebus, mediocritas optima est. 1.131. Cavendum autem est, ne aut tarditatibus utamur in ingressu mollioribus, ut pomparum ferculis similes esse videamur, aut in festinationibus suscipiamus nimias celeritates, quae cum fiunt, anhelitus moventur, vultus mutantur, ora torquentur; ex quibus magna significatio fit non adesse constantiam. Sed multo etiam magis elaborandum est, ne animi motus a natura recedant; quod assequemur, si cavebimus, ne in perturbationes atque exanimationes incidamus, et si attentos animos ad decoris conservationem tenebimus. 1.132. Motus autem animorum duplices sunt, alteri cogitationis, alteri appetitus; cogitatio in vero exquirendo maxime versatur, appetitus impellit ad agendum. Curandum est igitur, ut cogitatione ad res quam optimas utamur, appetitum rationi oboedientem praebeamus. Et quoniam magna vis orationis est, eaque duplex, altera contentionis, altera sermonis, contentio disceptationibus tribuatur iudiciorum, contionum, senatus, sermo in circulis, disputationibus, congressionibus familiarium versetur, sequatur etiam convivia. Contentionis praecepta rhetorum sunt, nulla sermonis, quamquam haud scio an possint haec quoque esse. Sed discentium studiis inveniuntur magistri, huic autem qui studeant, sunt nulli, rhetorum turba referta omnia; quamquam, quae verborum sententiarumque praecepta sunt, eadem ad sermonem pertinebunt. 1.133. Sed cum orationis indicem vocem habeamus, in voce autem duo sequamur, ut clara sit, ut suavis, utrumque omnino a natura petundum est, verum alterum exercitatio augebit, alterum imitatio presse loquentium et leniter. Nihil fuit in Catulis, ut eos exquisite iudicio putares uti litterarum, quamquam erant litterati; sed et alii; hi autem optime uti lingua Latina putabantur; sonus erat dulcis, litterae neque expressae neque oppressae, ne aut obscurum esset aut putidum, sine contentione vox nec languens nec canora. Uberior oratio L. Crassi nec minus faceta, sed bene loquendi de Catulis opinio non minor. Sale vero et facetiis Caesar, Catuli patris frater, vicit omnes, ut in illo ipso forensi genere dicendi contentiones aliorum sermone vinceret. In omnibus igitur his elaborandum est, si in omni re quid deceat exquirimus. 1.130.  Again, there are two orders of beauty: in the one, loveliness predominates; in the other, dignity; of these, we ought to regard loveliness as the attribute of woman, and dignity as the attribute of man. Therefore, let all finery not suitable to a man's dignity be kept off his person, and let him guard against the like fault in gesture and action. The manners taught in the palaestra, for example, are often rather objectionable, and the gestures of actors on the stage are not always free from affectation; but simple, unaffected manners are commendable in both instances. Now dignity of mien is also to be enhanced by a good complexion; the complexion is the result of physical exercise. We must besides present an appearance of neatness — not too punctilious or exquisite, but just enough to avoid boorish and ill-bred slovenliness. We must follow the same principle in regard to dress. In this, as in most things, the best rule is the golden mean. 1.131.  We must be careful, too, not to fall into a habit of listless sauntering in our gait, so as to look like carriers in festal processions, or of hurrying too fast, when time presses. If we do this, it puts us out of breath, our looks are changed, our features distorted; and all this is clear evidence of a lack of poise. But it is much more important that we succeed in keeping our mental operations in harmony with Nature's laws. And we shall not fall in this if we guard against violent excitement or depression, and if we keep our minds intent on the observance of propriety. 1.132.  Our mental operations, moreover, are of two kinds: some have to do with thought, others with impulse. Thought is occupied chiefly with the discovery of truth; impulse prompts to action. We must be careful, therefore, to employ our thoughts on themes as elevating as possible and to keep our impulses under the control of reason. The power of speech in the attainment of propriety is great, and its function is twofold: the first is oratory; the second, conversation. Oratory is the kind of discourse to be employed in pleadings in court and speeches in popular assemblies and in the senate; conversation should find its natural place in social gatherings, in informal discussions, and in intercourse with friends; it should also seek admission at dinners. There are rules for oratory laid down by rhetoricians; there are none for conversation; and yet I do not know why there should not be. But where there are students to learn, teachers are found; there are, however, none who make conversation a subject of study, whereas pupils throng about the rhetoricians everywhere. And yet the same rules that we have for words and sentences in rhetoric will apply also to conversation. 1.133.  Now since we have the voice as the organ of speech, we should aim to secure two properties for it: that it be clear, and that it be musical. We must, of course, look to Nature for both gifts. But distinctness may be improved by practice; the musical qualities, by imitating those who speak with smooth and articulate enunciation. There was nothing in the two Catuli to lead one to suppose that they had a refined literary taste; they were men of culture, it is true; and so were others; but the Catuli were looked upon as the perfect masters of the Latin tongue. Their pronunciation was charming; their words were neither mouthed nor mumbled: they avoided both indistinctness and affectation; their voices were free from strain, yet neither faint nor shrill. More copious was the speech of Lucius Crassus and not less brilliant, but the reputation of the two Catuli for eloquence was fully equal to his. But in wit and humour Caesar, the elder Catulus's half-brother, surpassed them all: even at the bar he would with his conversational style defeat other advocates with their elaborate orations. If, therefore, we are aiming to secure propriety in every circumstance of life, we must master all these points.
4. Cicero, De Oratore, 2.188 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2.188. Haec sunt illa, quae me ludens Crassus modo flagitabat, cum a me divinitus tractari solere diceret et in causa M'. Aquili Gaique Norbani non nullisque aliis quasi praeclare acta laudaret, quae me hercule ego, Crasse, cum a te tractantur in causis, horrere soleo: tanta vis animi, tantus impetus, tantus dolor oculis, vultu, gestu, digito denique isto tuo significari solet; tantum est flumen gravissimorum optimorumque verborum, tam integrae sententiae, tum verae, tam novae, tam sine pigmentis fucoque puerili, ut mihi non solum tu incendere iudicem, sed ipse ardere videaris.
5. Cicero, Orator, 79 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

6. Varro, On The Latin Language, 5.129 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Dionysius of Halycarnassus, De Veterum Censura, 3, 2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.509, 1.513-1.522, 1.729 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

9. Juvenal, Satires, 1.1, 1.85-1.86 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. Longinus, On The Sublime, 15.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 1.11.1-1.11.2, 2.4.18-2.4.21, 2.4.24, 2.5.10, 5.9.14, 5.12.19, 5.12.21, 6.2, 8.3.2-8.3.5, 11.3.137-11.3.149, 11.3.160-11.3.161, 12.10.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11.1.  The comic actor will also claim a certain amount of our attention, but only in so far as our future orator must be a master of the art of delivery. For I do not of course wish the boy, whom we are training to this end, to talk with the shrillness of a woman or in the tremulous accents of old age. 1.11.2.  Nor for that matter must he ape the vices of the drunkard, or copy the cringing manners of a slave, or learn to express the emotions of love, avarice or fear. Such accomplishments are not necessary to an orator and corrupt the mind, especially while it is still pliable and unformed. 2.4.18.  To narratives is annexed the task of refuting and confirming them, styled anaskeue and kataskeue, from which no little advantage may be derived. This may be done not merely in connexion with fiction and stories transmitted by the poets, but with the actual records of history as well. For instance we may discuss the credibility of the story that a raven settled on the head of Valerius in the midst of a combat and with its wings and beak struck the eyes of the Gaul who was his adversary, and a quantity of arguments may be produced on either side: 2.4.19.  or we may discuss the tradition that Scipio was begotten by a serpent, or that Romulus was suckled by a she-wolf, or the story of Numa and Egeria. As regards Greek history, it allows itself something very like poetic licence. Again the time and place of some particular occurrence and sometimes even the persons concerned often provide matter for discussion: Livy for instance is frequently in doubt as to what actually occurred and historians often disagree. 2.4.20.  From this our pupil will begin to proceed to more important themes, such as the praise of famous men and the denunciation of the wicked. Such tasks are profitable in more than one respect. The mind is exercised by the variety and multiplicity of the subject matter, while the character is moulded by the contemplation of virtue and vice. Further wide knowledge of facts is thus acquired, from which examples may be drawn if circumstances so demand, such illustrations being of the utmost value in every kind of case. 2.4.21.  It is but a step from this to practice in the comparison of the respective merits of two characters. This is of course a very similar theme to the preceding, but involves a duplication of the subject matter and deals not merely with the nature of virtues and vices, but with their degree as well. But the method to be followed in panegyric and invective will be dealt with in its proper place, as it forms the third department of rhetoric. 2.4.24.  Theses on the other hand are concerned with the comparison of things and involve questions such as "Which is preferable, town or country life?" or "Which deserves the greatest praise, the lawyer or the soldier?" These provide the most attractive and copious practice in the art of speaking, and are most useful whether we have an eye to the duties of deliberative oratory or the arguments of the courts. For instance Cicero in his pro Murena deals very fully with the second of the two problems mentioned above. 2.5.10.  It will even at times be of value to read speeches which are corrupt and faulty in style, but still meet with general admiration thanks to the perversity of modern tastes, and to point out how many expressions in them are inappropriate, obscure, high-flown, grovelling, mean, extravagant or effeminate, although they are not merely praised by the majority of critics, but, worse still, praised just because they are bad. 5.9.14.  However, I fear that this line of reasoning will carry us too far. For if it is an indication of adultery that a woman bathes with men, the fact that she revels with young men or even an intimate friendship will also be indications of the same offence. Again depilation, a voluptuous gait, or womanish attire may be regarded as indications of effeminacy and unmanliness by anyone who thinks that such symptoms are the result of an immoral character, just as blood is the result of a wound: for anything, that springs from the matter under investigation and comes to our notice, may properly be called an indication. 5.12.19.  But I take Nature for my guide and regard any man whatsoever as fairer to view than a eunuch, nor can I believe that Providence is ever so indifferent to what itself has created as to allow weakness to be an excellence, nor again can I think that the knife can render beautiful that which, if produced in the natural course of birth, would be regarded as a monster. A false resemblance to the female sex may in itself delight lust, if it will, but depravity of morals will never acquire such ascendancy as to succeed in giving real value to that to which it has succeeded in giving a high price. 5.12.21.  When the masters of sculpture and hand desired to carve or paint forms of ideal beauty, they never fell into the error of taking some Bagoas or Megabyzus as models, but rightly selected the well-known Doryphorus, equally adapted either for the fields of war or for the wrestling school, and other warlike and athletic youths as types of physical beauty. Shall we then, who are endeavouring to mould the ideal orator, equip eloquence not with weapons but with timbrels? 8.3.2.  Even the untrained often possess the gift of invention, and no great learning need be assumed for the satisfactory arrangement of our matter, while if any more recondite art is required, it is generally concealed, since unconcealed it would cease to be an art, while all these qualities are employed solely to serve the interests of the actual case. On the other hand, by the employment of skilful ornament the orator commends himself at the same time, and whereas his other accomplishments appeal to the considered judgment of the learned, this gift appeals to the enthusiastic approval of the world at large, and the speaker who possesses it fights not merely with effective, but with flashing weapons. 8.3.3.  If in his defence of Cornelius Cicero had confined himself merely to instructing the judge and speaking in clear and idiomatic Latin without a thought beyond the interests of his case, would he ever have compelled the Roman people to proclaim their admiration not merely by acclamation, but by thunders of applause? No, it was the sublimity and splendour, the brilliance and the weight of his eloquence that evoked such clamorous enthusiasm. 8.3.4.  Nor, again, would his words have been greeted with such extraordinary approbation if his speech had been like the ordinary speeches of every day. In my opinion the audience did not know what they were doing, their applause sprang neither from their judgment nor their will; they were seized with a kind of frenzy and, unconscious of the place in which they stood, burst forth spontaneously into a perfect ecstasy of delight. 8.3.5. But rhetorical ornament contributes not a little to the furtherance of our case as well. For when our audience find it a pleasure to listen, their attention and their readiness to believe what they hear are both alike increased, while they are generally filled with delight, and sometimes even transported by admiration. The flash of the sword in itself strikes something of terror to the eye, and we should be less alarmed by the thunderbolt if we feared its violence alone, and not its flash as well. 11.3.137.  With regard to dress, there is no special garb peculiar to the orator, but his dress comes more under the public eye than that of other men. It should, therefore, be distinguished and manly, as, indeed, it ought to be with all men of position. For excessive care with regard to the cut of the toga, the style of the shoes, or the arrangement of the hair, is just as reprehensible as excessive carelessness. There are also details of dress which are altered to some extent by successive changes in fashion. The ancients, for example, wore no folds, and their successors wore them very short. 11.3.138.  Consequently it follows that in view of the fact that their arms were, like those of the Greeks, covered by the garment, they must have employed a different form of gesture in the exordium from that which is now in use. However, I am speaking of our own day. The speaker who has not the right to wear the broad stripe, will wear his girdle in such a way that the front edges of the tunic fall a little below his knees, while the edges in rear reach to the middle of his hams. For only women draw them lower and only centurions higher. 11.3.139.  If we wear the purple stripe, it requires but little care to see that it falls becomingly; negligence in this respect sometimes excites criticism. Among those who wear the broad stripe, it is the fashion to let it hang somewhat lower than in garments that are retained by the girdle. The toga itself should, in my opinion, be round, and cut to fit, otherwise there are a number of ways in which it may be unshapely. Its front edge should by preference reach to the middle of the shin, while the back should be higher in proportion as the girdle is higher behind than in front. 11.3.140.  The fold is most becoming, if it fall to a point a little above the lower edge of the tunic, and should certainly never fall below it. The other fold which passes obliquely like a belt under the right shoulder and over the left, should neither be too tight nor too loose. The portion of the toga which is last to be arranged should fall rather low, since it will sit better thus and be kept in its place. A portion of the tunic also should be drawn back in order that it may not fall over the arm when we are pleading, and the fold should be thrown over the shoulder, while it will not be unbecoming if the edge be turned back. 11.3.141.  On the other hand, we should not cover the shoulder and the whole of the throat, otherwise our dress will be unduly narrowed and will lose the impressive effect produced by breadth at the chest. The left arm should only be raised so far as to form a right angle at the elbow, while the edge of the toga should fall in equal lengths on either side. 11.3.142.  The hand should not be overloaded with rings, which should under no circumstances encroach upon the middle joint of the finger. The most becoming attitude for the hand is produced by raising the thumb and slightly curving the fingers, only it is occupied with holding manuscript. But we should not go out of our way to carry the latter, for it suggests an acknowledgment that we do not trust our memory, and is a hindrance to a number of gestures. 11.3.143.  The ancients used to let the toga fall to the heels, as the Greeks are in the habit of doing with the cloak: Plotius and Nigidius both recommend this in the books which they wrote about gesture as practised in their own day. I am consequently all the more surprised at the view expressed by so learned a man as Plinius Secundus, especially since it occurs in a book which carries minute research almost to excess: for he asserts that Cicero was in the habit of wearing his toga in such a fashion to conceal his varicose veins, despite the fact that this fashion is to be seen in the statues of persons who lived after Cicero's day. 11.3.144.  As regards the short cloak, bandages used to protect the legs, mufflers and coverings for the ears, nothing short of ill-health can excuse their use. But such attention to our dress is only possible at the beginning of a speech, since, as the pleading develops, in fact, almost from the beginning of the statement of facts, the fold will slip down from the shoulder quite naturally and as it were of its own accord, while when we come to arguments and commonplaces, it will be found convenient to throw back the toga from the left shoulder, and even to throw down the fold if it should stick. 11.3.145.  The left hand may be employed to pluck the toga from the throat and the upper portion of the chest, for by now the whole body will be hot. And just as at this point the voice becomes more vehement and more varied in its utterance, so the clothing begins to assume something of a combative pose. 11.3.146.  Consequently, although to wrap the toga round the left hand or to pull it about us as a girdle would be almost a symptom of madness, while to throw back the fold from its bottom over the right shoulder would be a foppish and effeminate gesture, and there are yet worse effects than these, there is, at any rate, no reason why we should not place the looser portions of the fold under the left arm, since it gives an air of vigour and freedom not ill-suited to the warmth and energy of our action. 11.3.147.  When, however, our speech draws near its close, more especially if fortune shows herself kind, practically everything is becoming; we may stream with sweat, show signs of fatigue, and let our dress fall in careless disorder and the toga slip loose from us on every side. 11.3.148.  This fact makes me all the more surprised that Pliny should think it worth while to enjoin the orator to dry his brow with a handkerchief in such a way as not to disorder the hair, although a little later he most properly, and with a certain gravity and sternness of language, forbids us to rearrange it. For my own part, I feel that the dishevelled locks make an additional appeal to the emotions, and that neglect of such precautions creates a pleasing impression. 11.3.149.  On the other hand, if the toga falls down at the beginning of our speech, or when we have only proceeded but a little way, the failure to replace it is a sign of indifference, or sloth, or sheer ignorance of the way in which clothes should be worn. The above are the chief adornments and faults of delivery. But there are a number of further considerations which the orator must bear in mind. 11.3.160.  For it is a mistake to look at the ceiling, to rub the face and give it a flush of impudence, to crane it boldly forward, to frown in order to secure a fierce expression, or brush back the hair from the forehead against its natural direction in order to produce a terrifying effect by making it stand on end. Again, there are other unseemly tricks, such as that so dear to the Greeks of twitching our fingers and lips as though studying what to say, clearing the throat with a loud noise, thrusting out one foot to a considerable distance, grasping a portion of the toga in the left hand, standing with feet wide apart, holding ourselves stiffly, leaning backwards, stooping, or hunching our shoulders toward the back of the head, as wrestlers do when about to engage. 11.3.161.  A gentle delivery is most often best suited to the exordium. For there is nothing better calculated than modesty to win the good-will of the judge, although there are exceptions to the rule, since, as I have already pointed out, all exordia are not delivered in the same manner. But, generally speaking, a quiet voice, a modest gesture, a toga sitting well upon the shoulder, and a gentle motion of the sides to right and left, accompanied by a corresponding movement of the eyes, will all be found to produce a becoming effect. 12.10.12.  But in Cicero we have one who is not, like Euphranor, merely distinguished in a number of different forms of art, but is supreme in all the different qualities which are praised in each individual orator. And yet even his own contemporaries ventured to attack him on the ground that he was bombastic, Asiatic, redundant, given to excessive witticisms, sensuous, extravagant and (an outrageous accusation!) almost effeminate in his rhythm.
12. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 1.11.1-1.11.2, 5.9.14, 5.12.19, 8.3.6, 11.3.138-11.3.139, 12.10.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11.1.  The comic actor will also claim a certain amount of our attention, but only in so far as our future orator must be a master of the art of delivery. For I do not of course wish the boy, whom we are training to this end, to talk with the shrillness of a woman or in the tremulous accents of old age. 1.11.2.  Nor for that matter must he ape the vices of the drunkard, or copy the cringing manners of a slave, or learn to express the emotions of love, avarice or fear. Such accomplishments are not necessary to an orator and corrupt the mind, especially while it is still pliable and unformed. 5.9.14.  However, I fear that this line of reasoning will carry us too far. For if it is an indication of adultery that a woman bathes with men, the fact that she revels with young men or even an intimate friendship will also be indications of the same offence. Again depilation, a voluptuous gait, or womanish attire may be regarded as indications of effeminacy and unmanliness by anyone who thinks that such symptoms are the result of an immoral character, just as blood is the result of a wound: for anything, that springs from the matter under investigation and comes to our notice, may properly be called an indication. 5.12.19.  But I take Nature for my guide and regard any man whatsoever as fairer to view than a eunuch, nor can I believe that Providence is ever so indifferent to what itself has created as to allow weakness to be an excellence, nor again can I think that the knife can render beautiful that which, if produced in the natural course of birth, would be regarded as a monster. A false resemblance to the female sex may in itself delight lust, if it will, but depravity of morals will never acquire such ascendancy as to succeed in giving real value to that to which it has succeeded in giving a high price. 8.3.6.  Cicero was right when, in one of his letters to Brutus, he wrote, "Eloquence which evokes no admiration is, in my opinion, unworthy of the name." Aristotle likewise thinks that the excitement of admiration should be one of our first aims. But such ornament must, as I have already said, be bold, manly and chaste, free from all artificial dyes, and must glow with health and vigour. 11.3.138.  Consequently it follows that in view of the fact that their arms were, like those of the Greeks, covered by the garment, they must have employed a different form of gesture in the exordium from that which is now in use. However, I am speaking of our own day. The speaker who has not the right to wear the broad stripe, will wear his girdle in such a way that the front edges of the tunic fall a little below his knees, while the edges in rear reach to the middle of his hams. For only women draw them lower and only centurions higher. 11.3.139.  If we wear the purple stripe, it requires but little care to see that it falls becomingly; negligence in this respect sometimes excites criticism. Among those who wear the broad stripe, it is the fashion to let it hang somewhat lower than in garments that are retained by the girdle. The toga itself should, in my opinion, be round, and cut to fit, otherwise there are a number of ways in which it may be unshapely. Its front edge should by preference reach to the middle of the shin, while the back should be higher in proportion as the girdle is higher behind than in front. 12.10.12.  But in Cicero we have one who is not, like Euphranor, merely distinguished in a number of different forms of art, but is supreme in all the different qualities which are praised in each individual orator. And yet even his own contemporaries ventured to attack him on the ground that he was bombastic, Asiatic, redundant, given to excessive witticisms, sensuous, extravagant and (an outrageous accusation!) almost effeminate in his rhythm.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
accessories Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
addressee, victimization of Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 65
adviser, satirist as, on clienthood Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 65
apuleius Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
art, skill, expertise, technique techne, ars, doctrina Pezzini and Taylor,Language and Nature in the Classical Roman World (2019)" 179
beards Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
christians Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
cicero Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 60; Pezzini and Taylor,Language and Nature in the Classical Roman World (2019)" 179
class status Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
cosmetics Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
cultus Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
curling iron Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
declinatio Pezzini and Taylor,Language and Nature in the Classical Roman World (2019)" 179
demetrius of phaleron Pezzini and Taylor,Language and Nature in the Classical Roman World (2019)" 179
depilation Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
deportment Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
dionysius of halicarnassus Pezzini and Taylor,Language and Nature in the Classical Roman World (2019)" 179
dress, christian Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
dress, elite Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, female Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
dress, imperial Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, masculine Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, military Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, mourning Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, orators Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
dress, ordinary Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, philosophers Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, religious Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
dress, triumphal Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dyes Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
effeminacy Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
epic, mock-epic Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 36
etruscan Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
eunuchs Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
fashion Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
flavius (clement of alexandria) Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
footwear Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
friendship and the satirist Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 60, 65
gender Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
grooming Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
haircombs Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
hairstyles, masculine Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
hairstyles Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
identity Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
indignatio, in satiric plot Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 36, 60, 65
jewellery Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
law courts Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
libertas, exercised by juvenal Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 65
masculinity Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249; Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 36, 60, 65
mirrors Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
modesty Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
morality Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
mourning Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
mundus muliebris Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
north africa, roman Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
oils Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
ornatus Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
patronage Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 65
pearls Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
phantasia Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 36, 65
philosophers Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
pleasure, of audiences Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 60
pliny, the elder Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
portraits, principate Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
proxy satirist Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 36, 60
pumice Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
quintilian Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
reliefs, mundus muliebris Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
republic Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
rhetoric, rhetorical Pezzini and Taylor,Language and Nature in the Classical Roman World (2019)" 179
rhetoric as entertainment Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 60
rhetorical education, controversiae and suasoriae Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 36
rhetorical education, juvenal’s evidenced Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 36
rhetorical theory, emotion in Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 60
romanitas ideology Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
satire Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
self-fashioning Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177, 249
seneca the younger Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 65
silk Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
slaves Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
style, stylistic theory, natural' Pezzini and Taylor,Language and Nature in the Classical Roman World (2019)" 179
sulla Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 36
tertullian Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
toga Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
toiletries Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
tunic, mens Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
tunic Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
umbricius Keane, Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions (2015) 60
unguents Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
varro, m. terentius Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
varro Pezzini and Taylor,Language and Nature in the Classical Roman World (2019)" 179
weaving Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
widows Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
wife, wives Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177
womens toilette Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 177