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10009
Quintilian, Institutes Of Oratory, 5.12.21


nan When the masters of sculpture and hand desired to carve or paint forms of ideal beauty, they never fell into the error of taking some Bagoas or Megabyzus as models, but rightly selected the well-known Doryphorus, equally adapted either for the fields of war or for the wrestling school, and other warlike and athletic youths as types of physical beauty. Shall we then, who are endeavouring to mould the ideal orator, equip eloquence not with weapons but with timbrels?


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

6 results
1. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 5.3.6-5.3.7 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

5.3.6. nay, since you do not care to obey me, I shall follow with you and suffer whatever I must. For I consider that you are to me both fatherland and friends and allies; with you I think I shall be honoured wherever I may be, bereft of you I do not think I shall be able either to aid a friend or to ward off a foe. Be sure, therefore, that wherever you go, I shall go also. 5.3.6. The share which belonged to Artemis of the Ephesians he left behind, at the time when he was returning from Asia with Agesilaus to take part in the campaign against Boeotia, In 394 B.C., ending in the hard-fought battle of Coronea, at which Xenophon was present. cp. Xen. Hell. 4.2.1-8, Xen. Hell. 4.3.1-21 . in charge of Megabyzus, the sacristan of Artemis, for the reason that his own journey seemed likely to be a dangerous one; and his instructions were that in case he should escape with his life, the money was to be returned to him, but in case any ill should befall him, Megabyzus was to cause to be made and dedicated to Artemis whatever offering he thought would please the goddess. 5.3.7. Such were his words. And the soldiers—not only his own men, but the rest also—when they heard that he said he would not go on to the King’s capital, commended him; and more than two thousand of the troops under Xenias and Pasion took their arms and their baggage train and encamped with Clearchus. 5.3.7. In the time of Xenophon’s exile Which was probably due to his taking part in the expedition of Cyrus . cp. Xen. Anab. 3.1.5 . and while he was living at Scillus, near Olympia, where he had been established as a colonist by the Lacedaemonians, Megabyzus came to Olympia to attend the games and returned to him his deposit. Upon receiving it Xenophon bought a plot of ground for the goddess in a place which Apollo’s oracle appointed.
2. Strabo, Geography, 14.1.23 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

14.1.23. After the completion of the temple of Artemis, which, he says, was the work of Cheirocrates (the same man who built Alexandreia and the same man who proposed to Alexander to fashion Mt. Athos into his likeness, representing him as pouring a libation from a kind of ewer into a broad bowl, and to make two cities, one on the right of the mountain and the other on the left, and a river flowing from one to the other) — after the completion of the temple, he says, the great number of dedications in general were secured by means of the high honor they paid their artists, but the whole of the altar was filled, one might say, with the works of Praxiteles. They showed me also some of the works of Thrason, who made the chapel of Hecate, the waxen image of Penelope, and the old woman Eurycleia. They had eunuchs as priests, whom they called Megabyzi. And they were always in quest of persons from other places who were worthy of this preferment, and they held them in great honor. And it was obligatory for maidens to serve as colleagues with them in their priestly office. But though at the present some of their usages are being preserved, yet others are not; but the sanctuary remains a place of refuge, the same as in earlier times, although the limits of the refuge have often been changed; for example, when Alexander extended them for a stadium, and when Mithridates shot an arrow from the corner of the roof and thought it went a little farther than a stadium, and when Antony doubled this distance and included within the refuge a part of the city. But this extension of the refuge proved harmful, and put the city in the power of criminals; and it was therefore nullified by Augustus Caesar.
3. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 35.93, 35.132 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 1.11.1-1.11.2, 2.5.10, 5.9.14, 5.12.19, 8.3.6, 11.3.137-11.3.149, 11.3.160-11.3.161 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11.1.  The comic actor will also claim a certain amount of our attention, but only in so far as our future orator must be a master of the art of delivery. For I do not of course wish the boy, whom we are training to this end, to talk with the shrillness of a woman or in the tremulous accents of old age. 1.11.2.  Nor for that matter must he ape the vices of the drunkard, or copy the cringing manners of a slave, or learn to express the emotions of love, avarice or fear. Such accomplishments are not necessary to an orator and corrupt the mind, especially while it is still pliable and unformed. 2.5.10.  It will even at times be of value to read speeches which are corrupt and faulty in style, but still meet with general admiration thanks to the perversity of modern tastes, and to point out how many expressions in them are inappropriate, obscure, high-flown, grovelling, mean, extravagant or effeminate, although they are not merely praised by the majority of critics, but, worse still, praised just because they are bad. 5.9.14.  However, I fear that this line of reasoning will carry us too far. For if it is an indication of adultery that a woman bathes with men, the fact that she revels with young men or even an intimate friendship will also be indications of the same offence. Again depilation, a voluptuous gait, or womanish attire may be regarded as indications of effeminacy and unmanliness by anyone who thinks that such symptoms are the result of an immoral character, just as blood is the result of a wound: for anything, that springs from the matter under investigation and comes to our notice, may properly be called an indication. 5.12.19.  But I take Nature for my guide and regard any man whatsoever as fairer to view than a eunuch, nor can I believe that Providence is ever so indifferent to what itself has created as to allow weakness to be an excellence, nor again can I think that the knife can render beautiful that which, if produced in the natural course of birth, would be regarded as a monster. A false resemblance to the female sex may in itself delight lust, if it will, but depravity of morals will never acquire such ascendancy as to succeed in giving real value to that to which it has succeeded in giving a high price. 8.3.6.  Cicero was right when, in one of his letters to Brutus, he wrote, "Eloquence which evokes no admiration is, in my opinion, unworthy of the name." Aristotle likewise thinks that the excitement of admiration should be one of our first aims. But such ornament must, as I have already said, be bold, manly and chaste, free from all artificial dyes, and must glow with health and vigour. 11.3.137.  With regard to dress, there is no special garb peculiar to the orator, but his dress comes more under the public eye than that of other men. It should, therefore, be distinguished and manly, as, indeed, it ought to be with all men of position. For excessive care with regard to the cut of the toga, the style of the shoes, or the arrangement of the hair, is just as reprehensible as excessive carelessness. There are also details of dress which are altered to some extent by successive changes in fashion. The ancients, for example, wore no folds, and their successors wore them very short. 11.3.138.  Consequently it follows that in view of the fact that their arms were, like those of the Greeks, covered by the garment, they must have employed a different form of gesture in the exordium from that which is now in use. However, I am speaking of our own day. The speaker who has not the right to wear the broad stripe, will wear his girdle in such a way that the front edges of the tunic fall a little below his knees, while the edges in rear reach to the middle of his hams. For only women draw them lower and only centurions higher. 11.3.139.  If we wear the purple stripe, it requires but little care to see that it falls becomingly; negligence in this respect sometimes excites criticism. Among those who wear the broad stripe, it is the fashion to let it hang somewhat lower than in garments that are retained by the girdle. The toga itself should, in my opinion, be round, and cut to fit, otherwise there are a number of ways in which it may be unshapely. Its front edge should by preference reach to the middle of the shin, while the back should be higher in proportion as the girdle is higher behind than in front. 11.3.140.  The fold is most becoming, if it fall to a point a little above the lower edge of the tunic, and should certainly never fall below it. The other fold which passes obliquely like a belt under the right shoulder and over the left, should neither be too tight nor too loose. The portion of the toga which is last to be arranged should fall rather low, since it will sit better thus and be kept in its place. A portion of the tunic also should be drawn back in order that it may not fall over the arm when we are pleading, and the fold should be thrown over the shoulder, while it will not be unbecoming if the edge be turned back. 11.3.141.  On the other hand, we should not cover the shoulder and the whole of the throat, otherwise our dress will be unduly narrowed and will lose the impressive effect produced by breadth at the chest. The left arm should only be raised so far as to form a right angle at the elbow, while the edge of the toga should fall in equal lengths on either side. 11.3.142.  The hand should not be overloaded with rings, which should under no circumstances encroach upon the middle joint of the finger. The most becoming attitude for the hand is produced by raising the thumb and slightly curving the fingers, only it is occupied with holding manuscript. But we should not go out of our way to carry the latter, for it suggests an acknowledgment that we do not trust our memory, and is a hindrance to a number of gestures. 11.3.143.  The ancients used to let the toga fall to the heels, as the Greeks are in the habit of doing with the cloak: Plotius and Nigidius both recommend this in the books which they wrote about gesture as practised in their own day. I am consequently all the more surprised at the view expressed by so learned a man as Plinius Secundus, especially since it occurs in a book which carries minute research almost to excess: for he asserts that Cicero was in the habit of wearing his toga in such a fashion to conceal his varicose veins, despite the fact that this fashion is to be seen in the statues of persons who lived after Cicero's day. 11.3.144.  As regards the short cloak, bandages used to protect the legs, mufflers and coverings for the ears, nothing short of ill-health can excuse their use. But such attention to our dress is only possible at the beginning of a speech, since, as the pleading develops, in fact, almost from the beginning of the statement of facts, the fold will slip down from the shoulder quite naturally and as it were of its own accord, while when we come to arguments and commonplaces, it will be found convenient to throw back the toga from the left shoulder, and even to throw down the fold if it should stick. 11.3.145.  The left hand may be employed to pluck the toga from the throat and the upper portion of the chest, for by now the whole body will be hot. And just as at this point the voice becomes more vehement and more varied in its utterance, so the clothing begins to assume something of a combative pose. 11.3.146.  Consequently, although to wrap the toga round the left hand or to pull it about us as a girdle would be almost a symptom of madness, while to throw back the fold from its bottom over the right shoulder would be a foppish and effeminate gesture, and there are yet worse effects than these, there is, at any rate, no reason why we should not place the looser portions of the fold under the left arm, since it gives an air of vigour and freedom not ill-suited to the warmth and energy of our action. 11.3.147.  When, however, our speech draws near its close, more especially if fortune shows herself kind, practically everything is becoming; we may stream with sweat, show signs of fatigue, and let our dress fall in careless disorder and the toga slip loose from us on every side. 11.3.148.  This fact makes me all the more surprised that Pliny should think it worth while to enjoin the orator to dry his brow with a handkerchief in such a way as not to disorder the hair, although a little later he most properly, and with a certain gravity and sternness of language, forbids us to rearrange it. For my own part, I feel that the dishevelled locks make an additional appeal to the emotions, and that neglect of such precautions creates a pleasing impression. 11.3.149.  On the other hand, if the toga falls down at the beginning of our speech, or when we have only proceeded but a little way, the failure to replace it is a sign of indifference, or sloth, or sheer ignorance of the way in which clothes should be worn. The above are the chief adornments and faults of delivery. But there are a number of further considerations which the orator must bear in mind. 11.3.160.  For it is a mistake to look at the ceiling, to rub the face and give it a flush of impudence, to crane it boldly forward, to frown in order to secure a fierce expression, or brush back the hair from the forehead against its natural direction in order to produce a terrifying effect by making it stand on end. Again, there are other unseemly tricks, such as that so dear to the Greeks of twitching our fingers and lips as though studying what to say, clearing the throat with a loud noise, thrusting out one foot to a considerable distance, grasping a portion of the toga in the left hand, standing with feet wide apart, holding ourselves stiffly, leaning backwards, stooping, or hunching our shoulders toward the back of the head, as wrestlers do when about to engage. 11.3.161.  A gentle delivery is most often best suited to the exordium. For there is nothing better calculated than modesty to win the good-will of the judge, although there are exceptions to the rule, since, as I have already pointed out, all exordia are not delivered in the same manner. But, generally speaking, a quiet voice, a modest gesture, a toga sitting well upon the shoulder, and a gentle motion of the sides to right and left, accompanied by a corresponding movement of the eyes, will all be found to produce a becoming effect.
5. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 1.11.1-1.11.2, 5.9.14, 5.12.19, 11.3.138-11.3.139 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.11.1.  The comic actor will also claim a certain amount of our attention, but only in so far as our future orator must be a master of the art of delivery. For I do not of course wish the boy, whom we are training to this end, to talk with the shrillness of a woman or in the tremulous accents of old age. 1.11.2.  Nor for that matter must he ape the vices of the drunkard, or copy the cringing manners of a slave, or learn to express the emotions of love, avarice or fear. Such accomplishments are not necessary to an orator and corrupt the mind, especially while it is still pliable and unformed. 5.9.14.  However, I fear that this line of reasoning will carry us too far. For if it is an indication of adultery that a woman bathes with men, the fact that she revels with young men or even an intimate friendship will also be indications of the same offence. Again depilation, a voluptuous gait, or womanish attire may be regarded as indications of effeminacy and unmanliness by anyone who thinks that such symptoms are the result of an immoral character, just as blood is the result of a wound: for anything, that springs from the matter under investigation and comes to our notice, may properly be called an indication. 5.12.19.  But I take Nature for my guide and regard any man whatsoever as fairer to view than a eunuch, nor can I believe that Providence is ever so indifferent to what itself has created as to allow weakness to be an excellence, nor again can I think that the knife can render beautiful that which, if produced in the natural course of birth, would be regarded as a monster. A false resemblance to the female sex may in itself delight lust, if it will, but depravity of morals will never acquire such ascendancy as to succeed in giving real value to that to which it has succeeded in giving a high price. 11.3.138.  Consequently it follows that in view of the fact that their arms were, like those of the Greeks, covered by the garment, they must have employed a different form of gesture in the exordium from that which is now in use. However, I am speaking of our own day. The speaker who has not the right to wear the broad stripe, will wear his girdle in such a way that the front edges of the tunic fall a little below his knees, while the edges in rear reach to the middle of his hams. For only women draw them lower and only centurions higher. 11.3.139.  If we wear the purple stripe, it requires but little care to see that it falls becomingly; negligence in this respect sometimes excites criticism. Among those who wear the broad stripe, it is the fashion to let it hang somewhat lower than in garments that are retained by the girdle. The toga itself should, in my opinion, be round, and cut to fit, otherwise there are a number of ways in which it may be unshapely. Its front edge should by preference reach to the middle of the shin, while the back should be higher in proportion as the girdle is higher behind than in front.
6. Epigraphy, Ik Pessinous, 7



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aioiorix Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
antidotos Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
apelles Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
aphrodite Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
apuleius Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
artemis, a. ephesia Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
artemis, of ephesus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
atargatis, name Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
attis, in phrygia Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
attis, myth and ritual Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
attis Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
bagabuxêa Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
benveniste, emile Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
burkert, walter Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
carchemish Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
class status Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
cosmetics Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
curling iron Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
depilation Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
deportment Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, elite Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, female Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, imperial Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, masculine Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, military Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, mourning Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, orators Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, ordinary Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, philosophers Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
dress, triumphal Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
effeminacy Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
ephesus and ephesians Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
etruscan Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
eunuchs Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249; Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
fashion Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
fleischer, robert Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
gallus, king Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
gender Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
hairstyles, masculine Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
hairstyles Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
identity Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
jewellery Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
kubaba Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
kybebe/le Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
law courts Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
marriage customs, of lydians Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
masculinity Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
megabyxos castration, name Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 355
megabyxos castration, spelling Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 355
megabyxos castration Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
megabyzus Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
morality Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
mourning Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
neo-hittite, art Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
north africa, roman Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
parrhasios Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
pearls Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
persia and persians, and eunuchs Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
persia and persians, customs of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
persia and persians, language of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
pessinous Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
philosophers Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
picard, charles Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
pliny, the elder Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
portraits, principate Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
quintilian Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
rome and romans, imperial period of Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
self-fashioning Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
silk Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
slaves Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
smith, james o. Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
strabo Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
timotheus' Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East (2008) 287
toga Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
tunic, mens Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
tunic Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
weaving Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
widows Edmondson, Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture (2008) 249
xenophon of athens, on persians Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159
yariris Munn, The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion (2006) 159