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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



10009
Quintilian, Institutes Of Oratory, 4.1.70


nan Still such artifices, although they may be employed at times to good effect, are not to be indulged in indiscriminately, but only when there is strong reason for breaking the rule. The same remark applies to simile (which must however be brief), metaphor and all the tropes, all of which are forbidden by our cautious and pedantic teachers of rhetoric, but which we shall none the less occasionally employ, unless indeed we are to disapprove of the magnificent example of irony in the pro Ligario to which I have already referred a few pages back.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

3 results
1. Cicero, Pro Ligario, 38 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

2. Ovid, Fasti, 4.117 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

4.117. Besides, though she’s powerful everywhere, her temple
3. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 4.1.73-4.1.79, 5.13.20, 5.13.31, 11.1.78-11.1.80, 12.2.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1.73.  On the other hand it is at times possible to give the force of an exordium to other portions of the speech. For instance we may ask the judges in the course of our statement of the facts or of our arguments to give us their best attention and good-will, a proceeding which Prodicus recommended as a means of wakening them when they begin to nod. A good example is the following: 4.1.74.  "Gaius Varenus, he who was killed by the slaves of Ancharius — I beg you, gentlemen, to give me your best attention at this point." Further if the case involves a number of different matters, each section must be prefaced with a short introduction, such as "Listen now to what follows," or "I now pass to my next point. 4.1.75.  Even in the proof there are many passages which perform the same function as an exordium, such as the passage in the pro Cluentio where Cicero introduces an attack on the censors and in the pro Murena when he apologises to Servius. But the practice is too common to need illustration. 4.1.76.  However on all occasions when we have employed the exordium, whether we intend to pass to the statement of facts or direct to the proof, our intention should be mentioned at the conclusion of the introduction, with the result that the transition to what follows will be smooth and easy. 4.1.77.  There is indeed a pedantic and childish affectation in vogue in the schools of marking the transition by some epigram and seeking to win applause by this feat of legerdemain. Ovid is given to this form of affectation in his Metamorphoses, but there is some excuse for him owing to the fact that he is compelled to weld together subjects of the most diverse nature so as to form a continuous whole. 4.1.78.  But why necessity is there for an orator to gloss over his transitions or to attempt to deceive the judge, who requires on the contrary to be warned to give his attention to the sequence of the various portions of the speech? For instance the first part of our statement of the facts will be wasted, if the judge does not realise that we have reached that stage. 4.1.79.  Therefore, although we should not be too abrupt in passing to our statement of facts, it is best to do nothing to conceal our transition. Indeed, if the statement of fact on which we are about to embark is somewhat long and complicated, we shall do well to prepare the judge for it, as Cicero often does, most notably in the following passage: "The introduction to my exposition of this point will be rather longer than usual, but I beg you, gentlemen, not to take it ill. For if you get a firm grasp of the beginning, you will find it much easier to follow what comes last." This is practically all that I can find to say on the subject of the exordium. 5.13.20.  Such questions have to be considered, not merely in connection with the statement of the charges or the reasons alleged, but with reference to the nature of the case in its entirety. For instance, the question of cruelty is considered with regard to the charge of high treason brought against Rabirius by Labienus; of inhumanity in the case of Tubero who accused Ligarius when he was an exile and attempted to prevent Caesar from pardoning him; of arrogance as in the case of the charge brought against Oppius on the strength of a letter of Cotta. 5.13.31.  Tubero similarly accuses Ligarius of having been in Africa, and complains that Ligarius refused to allow him to land in Africa. At times, however, some ill-advised statement by our opponent will give us an opportunity of demolishing his arguments. This is specially likely to occur with speakers who have a passion for producing impressive thoughts: for the temptation to air their eloquence is such that they take no heed of what they have said already, being absorbed by the topic immediately before them to the detriment of the interests of the case as a whole. 11.1.78.  And even if we have to plead a case afresh before different judges, as may occur in a second trial of claim to freedom or in cases in the centumviral courts, which are divided between two different panels, it will be most seemly, if we have lost our case before the first panel, to say nothing against the judges who tired the case on that occasion. But this is a subject with which I dealt at some length in the passage where I discussed proofs. It may happen that we have to censure actions in others, of which we have been guilty ourselves, as, for example, when Tubero charges Ligarius with having been in Africa. 11.1.79.  Again, there have been cases where persons condemned for bribery have indicted others for the same offence with a view to recovering their lost position: for this the schools provide a parallel in the theme where a luxurious youth accuses his father of the same offence. I do not see how this can be done with decorum only we succeed in discovering some difference between the two cases, such as character, age, motives, circumstances of time and place or intention. 11.1.80.  Tubero, for example, alleges that he was a young man at the time and went thither in the company of his father, who had been sent by the senate not to take part in the war, but to purchase corn, and further that he left the party as soon as he could, whereas Ligarius clung to the party and gave his support, not to Gnaeus Pompeius, who was engaged with Caesar in a struggle for the supreme power, though both wished to preserve the state, but to Juba and the Africans who were the sworn enemies of Rome. 12.2.25.  Some authorities hold that the Academy will be the most useful school, on the ground that its habit of disputing on both sides of a question approaches most nearly to the actual practice of the courts. And by way of proof they add the fact that this school has produced speakers highly renowned for their eloquence. The Peripatetics also make it their boast that they have a form of study which is near akin to oratory. For it was with them in the main that originated the practice of declaiming on general questions by way of exercise. The Stoics, though driven to admit that, generally speaking, their teachers have been deficient both in fullness and charm of eloquence, still contend that no men can prove more acutely or draw conclusions with greater subtlety than themselves.


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
atticus (titus pomponius atticus), and the revision of ciceros speeches Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 45
augustus, divinity of Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117
cicero, exordia Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 230
cicero, his oratory as art of illusion Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 230
cicero, his practice of self-correction Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 45
cicero, pro ligario Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 230
cicero, pro scauro Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 230
cicero, revision of his speeches Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 45
cicero Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117
dracontius, divinity of mortal rulers, attitude towards Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117
dracontius, panegyricist Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117
dracontius Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117
emendatio, and publication Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 45
eugenius of toledo Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117
exordium Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 230
gunthamund, vandal king, augustus, comparison to Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117
gunthamund, vandal king, royal titulature of Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117
julius caesar, apotheosis Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117
ligarius, q. Pausch and Pieper, The Scholia on Cicero’s Speeches: Contexts and Perspectives (2023) 257
ovid, divinity of augustus, treatment of Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117
ovid, panegyric Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117
publication, and textual revision Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 45
quintilian, on the exordium Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 230
quintilian Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117
quintilian (m. fabius quintilianus) Pausch and Pieper, The Scholia on Cicero’s Speeches: Contexts and Perspectives (2023) 257
revision, of ciceros pro ligario Bua, Roman Political Culture: Seven Studies of the Senate and City Councils of Italy from the First to the Sixth Century AD (2019) 45
seneca (l. annaeus seneca, the elder) Pausch and Pieper, The Scholia on Cicero’s Speeches: Contexts and Perspectives (2023) 257
tubero, q. aelius Pausch and Pieper, The Scholia on Cicero’s Speeches: Contexts and Perspectives (2023) 257
venus' Fielding, Transformations of Ovid in Late Antiquity (2017) 117