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Quintilian, Institutes Of Oratory, 4.1.42

nan Some therefore divide the exordium into two parts, the introduction and the insinuation, making the former contain a direct appeal to the good-will and attention of the judge. But as this is impossible in scandalous cases, they would have the orator on such occasions insinuate himself little by little into the minds of his judges, especially when the features of the case which meet the eye are discreditable, or because the subject is disgraceful or such as to meet with popular disapproval, or again if the outward circumstances of the case are such as to handicap it or excite odium (as for instance when a patron appears against a client or a father against a son), or pity (as when our opponent is an old or blind man or a child).

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

2 results
1. Cicero, On Invention, 1.20, 1.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.20. Exordium est oratio animum auditoris idonee com- parans ad reliquam dictionem: quod eveniet, si eum benivolum, attentum, docilem confecerit. quare qui bene exordiri causam volet, eum necesse est genus suae causae diligenter ante cognoscere. Genera causarum quinque sunt: honestum, admirabile, humile, anceps, obscurum. honestum causae genus est, cui statim sine oratione nostra favet auditoris animus; admirabile, a quo est alienatus animus eorum, qui audituri sunt; humile, quod neglegitur ab auditore et non magno opere adtendendum videtur; anceps, in quo aut iudicatio dubia est aut causa et honestatis et turpitudinis parti- ceps, ut et benivolentiam pariat et offensionem; obscu- rum, in quo aut tardi auditores sunt aut difficilioribus ad cognoscendum negotiis causa est implicata. quare cum tam diversa sint genera causarum, exordiri quo- que dispari ratione in uno quoque genere necesse est. igitur exordium in duas partes dividitur, in principium et insinuationem. principium est oratio perspicue et protinus perficiens auditorem benivolum aut docilem aut attentum. insinuatio est oratio quadam dissimu- latione et circumitione obscure subiens auditoris animum. 1.22. Benivolentia quattuor ex locis comparatur: ab nostra, ab adversariorum, ab iudicum persona, a causa. ab nostra, si de nostris factis et officiis sine arrogantia dicemus; si crimina inlata et aliquas minus honestas suspiciones iniectas diluemus; si, quae incommoda acci- derint aut quae instent difficultates, proferemus; si prece et obsecratione humili ac supplici utemur. ab ad- versariorum autem, si eos aut in odium aut in invidiam aut in contemptionem adducemus. in odium ducentur, si quod eorum spurce, superbe, crudeliter, malitiose factum proferetur; in invidiam, si vis eorum, potentia, divitiae, cognatio pecuniae proferentur atque eorum usus arrogans et intolerabilis, ut his rebus magis vi- deantur quam causae suae confidere; in contemp- tionem adducentur, si eorum inertia, neglegentia, igna- via, desidiosum studium et luxuriosum otium profe- retur. ab auditorum persona benivolentia captabitur, si res ab iis fortiter, sapienter, mansuete gestae profe- rentur, ut ne qua assentatio nimia significetur, si de iis quam honesta existimatio quantaque eorum iudicii et auctoritatis exspectatio sit ostendetur; ab rebus, si nostram causam laudando extollemus, adversariorum causam per contemptionem deprimemus.
2. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 4.1.5, 4.1.8-4.1.11, 4.1.14, 4.1.40, 4.1.44, 4.1.46, 4.1.49 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.1.5.  The sole purpose of the exordium is to prepare our audience in such a way that they will be disposed to lend a ready ear to the rest of our speech. The majority of authors agree that this is best effected in three ways, by making the audience well-disposed, attentive and ready to receive instruction. I need hardly say that these aims have to be kept in view throughout the whole speech, but they are especially necessary at the commencement, when we gain admission to the mind of the judge in order to penetrate still further. 4.1.8.  But just as the authority of the speaker carries greatest weight, if his undertaking of the case is free from all suspicion of meanness, personal spite or ambition, so also we shall derive some silent support from representing that we are weak, unprepared, and no match for the powerful talents arrayed against us, a frequent trick in the exordia of Messala. 4.1.9.  For men have a natural prejudice in favour of those who are struggling against difficulties, and a scrupulous judge is always specially ready to listen to an advocate whom he does not suspect to have designs on his integrity. Hence arose the tendency of ancient orators to pretend to conceal their eloquence, a practice exceedingly unlike the ostentation of our own times. 4.1.10.  It is also important to avoid giving the impression that we are abusive, maligt, proud or slanderous toward any individual or body of men, especially such as cannot be hurt without exciting the disapproval of the judges. 4.1.11.  As to the judge, it would be folly for me to warn speakers not to say or even hint anything against him, but for the fact that such things do occur. Our opponent's advocate will sometimes provide us with material for our exordium: we may speak of him in honorific terms, pretending to fear his eloquence and influence with a view to rendering them suspect to the judge, or occasionally, though very seldom, we may abuse him, as Asinius did in his speech on behalf of the heirs of Urbinia, where he includes among the proofs of the weakness of the plaintiff's case the fact that he has secured Labienus as his advocate. 4.1.14.  For pity alone may move even a strict judge. These points, however, should only be lightly touched upon in the exordium, not run to death. As regards our opponent he is generally attacked on similar lines, but with the method reversed. For power is generally attended by envy, abject meanness by contempt, guilt and baseness by hatred, three emotions which are powerful factors to alienate the good-will of the judges. 4.1.40.  The majority of writers consider that there are five kinds of causes, the honourable, the mean, the doubtful or ambiguous, the extraordinary and the obscure, or as they are called in Greek, ἔνδοξον, ἄδοξον, ἀμφίδοξον, παράδοξον and δυσπαρακολούθητον. To these some would add a sixth, the scandalous, which some again include under the heading of the mean, others under the extraordinary. 4.1.44.  The line to be adopted will therefore depend on the individual nature of each case. As a general principle, however, I should advise the avoidance of points which tell against us and concentrate on those which are likely to be of service. If the case itself is weak, we may derive help from the character of our client; if his character is doubtful, we may find salvation in the nature of the case. If both are hopeless, we must look out for something that will damage our opponent. For though it is desirable to secure as much positive good-will as possible, the next best thing is to incur the minimum of actual dislike. 4.1.46.  At times, like Cicero in his defence of Rabirius Postumus, he will pretend that he himself is strongly moved, in order to win the ear of the judge and to give the impression of one who is absolutely convinced of the truth of his cause, that so his statements may find all the readier credence whether he defends or denies the actions attributed to his client. Consequently it is of the first importance, wherever the alternative is open to us, to consider whether we are to adopt the character of a party to the suit or of an advocate. In the schools, of course, we have a free choice in the matter, but it is only on rare occasions that a man is capable of pleading his own case in the actual courts. 4.1.49.  Again an opportune display of wit will often restore their flagging spirits and we may alleviate their boredom by the introduction of entertaining matter derived from any source that may be available. It will also be found advantageous to anticipate the objections that may be raised by our opponent, as Cicero does when he says "I know that some persons are surprised that one, who for such a number of years has defended so many and attacked none, should have come forward as the accuser of Verres," he then goes on to show that the accusation which he has undertaken is really a defence of the allies, an artifice known as πρόληψις or anticipation.

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
cicero,exordia Bua (2019) 227
cicero,his oratory as art of illusion Bua (2019) 227
cicero,pro rabirio postumo Bua (2019) 227
defensibility of cause,genus admirabile / turpe Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
defensibility of cause,genus anceps Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
defensibility of cause,genus honestum Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
defensibility of cause,genus humile Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
defensibility of cause,genus obscurum Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
defensibility of cause Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
exordium,primary exordium Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
exordium,purpose Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
exordium,subtypes Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
exordium Bua (2019) 227; Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
favor Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
goodwill Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
principium Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195
quintilian,on the exordium Bua (2019) 227
rhetorical handbooks' Martin and Whitlark (2018) 195